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QUEEN MARY, UNIVERSITY OF LONDON

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4RS4L Supervisor: Dr. Khalid Rajab Secondary Supervisor: Nanda Khaorapapong

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Table of Contents
Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 2 Pulse Rate............................................................................................................................................ 3 Wireless Sensor Networks .................................................................................................................. 8 Networking Protocols and Standards ........................................................................................... 10 Microcontrollers ............................................................................................................................... 11 Method/Approach ................................................................................................................................ 11 Design of Heartbeat Sensor .............................................................................................................. 12 Establishing Wireless Communication .............................................................................................. 13 Design an output Circuit ................................................................................................................... 13 Progress................................................................................................................................................. 14 Discussion.............................................................................................................................................. 15 Time Plan............................................................................................................................................... 15 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................. 15 Risk Assessment .................................................................................................................................... 17 References ............................................................................................................................................ 18 Appendices............................................................................................................................................ 19

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The implementation of this project would allow for a deeper understanding of a variety of concepts across a variety of different backgrounds and combining these principles in order to demonstrate how they can interact with one another. the intended outcome will be the flashing of an LED bulb. The end device will make use of a microcontroller to provide some kind of tangible output which will be produced based on an individual’s pulse rate. designing an end device and establishing wireless communication between the two devices. The system will make use of the Zigbee protocol which is a set of specifications established for wireless networking over a small distance consuming low power and are designed for devices that use low data rates. This will be used a foundation upon which to build the output. Due to ability of being deployed easily. As a starting point. the use of wireless networks are increasing as minimises the risk that can be caused by wired networks – its counterpart. The project will involve three main tasks which include building the heartbeat sensor with a minimised design. It is important that the sensor does not cause any disturbance to the user. 2|Page . The design is required to consist of minimum hardware required in order to allow it to be used on wider scope of applications whilst remaining portable and applicable in terms of how the sensor will be placed on the person. The intended outcome of the project is to make wireless heart beat sensor that will be used to determine the functionality of another circuit in order to remotely monitor the pulse rate of another person in order to identify this measurement by producing a certain sensation.Introduction Wireless Sensor Networks are wireless networks which involve the use of sensors to collect or monitor data about the surrounding environment and transfer this information wirelessly throughout a network in order to be processed further. The aim of this project is to create a heartbeat sensor will be wirelessly connected to an output device and control it remotely.

The oxygenated blood then enters the left ventricle through a pulmonary vein and is then circulated throughout the body once again via the arteries. The veins carry carbon dioxide which is created as a result of the metabolism of oxygen by the cells. Oxygenated blood leaves the heart from the left ventricle of the heart and propagates through to the arteries and eventually travels through the veins in order to enter the heart through the right atrium. This quantity is determined by the surrounding environment at which an individual is placed. Pulse Rate The pulse rate of a person is the measurement of the individual’s heartbeat and the rate at which it beats per minute. This contraction results in allowing the blood to flow through to the ventricles.Background The Human Heart The human heart is responsible for pumping blood through the rest of the body in order to transfer necessary substances and oxygen to surrounding cells to allow them to carry out their usual functions as well as transfer metabolic waste away from the body. Upon reaching the right atrium. The process is initiated by the sinoatrial node which acts as a natural pacemaker by sending an electrical impulse at rhythmic intervals causing both the right and left atrium to contract and thus releases their respective ventricular valves. The term heartbeat describes a two-pump action process that takes place and allows for the actual circulation of the blood. This measurement is crucial for applications where the health condition of a person needs to be monitored closely. The rate at which the heart beats is established as a direct function of the oxygen requirements of the human body. resting and sleeping Help determine the underlying cause of symptoms Monitoring the flow of blood through blood vessels. the blood is pumped by the heart through to the lungs which is used to emit carbon dioxide from the bloodstream and then oxygenate the bloodstream so that is prepared to be transferred to the rest of the body. Factors that affect the pulse include:  Intensity of any physical activity that the individual performs 3|Page . The main application for monitoring the pulse rate is for medical applications as it allows doctors and nurses to see:      How well a person’s heart is functioning Monitoring fitness levels of an individual Checking how the heart responds to different physical activities such as running. The blood that flows through the arteries is oxygenated through the act of respiration and is responsible for delivering vital supplements to all cells existing within the body. the atrioventricular node sends an electrical impulse that causes the ventricles to contract and closes the ventricular valves and causes the pulmonary and aortic valves contributing to the secondary pumping action that takes place. Once the ventricles are full.

4|Page . [1][2][3] Figure 1 Pulse rate from wrist Figure 2: Pule rate from neck [4][5] The measurements of the pulse rate locations are not strictly limited to the wrist and neck and can be taken at any place at where an artery is in close proximity to both a bone and the surface of the skin. This method also requires manual counting of each heartbeat over a specified range of time and then scaling the obtained quantity by an appropriate factor in order to find the pulse rate within a timeframe of seconds. Measurements can be taken manually by placing 2 fingers along an artery which is located in close proximity to the skin and counting the pulse for ten seconds and multiplying this value by six in order to retrieve the pulse rate across the scale of a minute.     Stress Climate Illnesses Emotional Stress Medication/Drug abuse Methods of Measurement Traditional Methods Currently. the pulse rate is measured in a variety of ways. The pumping action performed by the heart results in pulsating action from the artery due to changes of density of blood flowing through that specific artery. Common locations at which this pulse is taken is on the wrist or on the neck. Stethoscopes are medical instruments that are used to acoustically measure the heartbeat by transmitting the sound from a chest piece and then transmitting that sound along a pipe through to the listener’s ears.

As the pulse occurs. Normally. this data is displayed on an LCD Display. The resulting electrical signal generated from a human pulse takes the form of a rhythmic signal which consists of both a DC component and an AC component. The DC component of the signal tends to vary gradually over time and is usually dependant on the surface at which the emitter detector pair is 5|Page . The amount o0f light that passes through the finger and passed on to the detector is dependent on the density of blood flowing through the artery. This is achieved using either a transmissive formation where the part of the body to be monitored is placed in between a light source and a light detector. This works based on the light density that shines through the finger as a pulse causes variations in blood density within the finger. The AC component of the signal highlights the areas of interest as it represents the variations of volumetric density of blood within an artery. Any variations of the AC voltage are seen to coincide with heart beat.Photoplethysmography Another method of taking the pulse rate involves the use of a device with which a finger is placed between a light source and components that functions based on light such as a light dependant resistor or an infrared phototransistor. A secondary formation exists where the source of light and detector co-exist sided by side in a single plane and the test surface is placed above this plane. Figure 4: Transmissive Sensor Figure 5: Reflective Sensor The amount of light detected by the receiving element in turn forwards an electrical signal on to a circuit that uses allows for the signal to be processed and taken further. This results in slight volumetric changes within the artery. This works as the changes in density of the blood within an artery causes the amount of the light reflected back on to the detector alters. [6] Figure 3 Infrared Pulse Sensor This technique is non-invasive and is normally implemented using optoelectronics. the output from the detector used changes which are then recorded for further processing.

The wave is one that is periodic and demonstrates a pulse count of twelve over ten seconds where ten samples were recorded per second.placed. Figure (?) above illustrates a typical PPG waveform taking into account only the AC component of the signal and shows its variations with respect to time. however a DC components causes an offset with the value at which the AC component averages over. A true AC signal tends to average over zero. The highlighted pulse indicates a typical PPG pulse and consists of four main features:     A swift rise in amplitude A systolic peak A diastolic peak A time interval 6|Page .

This activity is measured though the use of specific electrodes placed on the surface of the body and is identifiable by a wave pattern known as a PQRST wave. This in turn spreads electrical currents throughout the body. This effectively allows a person to become a part of a circuit and fill the missing link.Electrocardiogram A more precise method of measuring the pulse rate is by using an Electrocardiogram (ECG) system which involves the use of electrodes placed at different positions on the body. Depolarisation occurs as the negative charge within each muscle cell tends towards zero and then activates the mechanisms required in order for the heart to contract. A normal heartbeat produces an output voltage wave which will steadily progress showing small variations in voltage between the electrodes. The measurement is then amplified so that the data obtained can be more feasible for processing. [7][8] Figure 4 Patient under ECG Examination The device used for monitoring a person’s heart activity works by detecting and amplifying minute electrical changes on the skin that result directly from the depolarisation of the heart. 7|Page . The wave usually indicates the rhythm of the heart and produces a graph showing variations of time and voltage. The ECG measures the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time by detecting electrical variations that are caused by each pulse.

Wireless Sensor Networks Wireless sensor networks are networks within which multiple devices can communicate over the air within a localised area. 8|Page . Atrial rate can be calculated by determining the time interval between P waves. During normal atrial depolarization. the main electrical vector is directed from the SA node towards the AV node. This turns into the P wave on the ECG. This is followed by a small period of zero voltage which indicates the time taken for the impulse to travel within the AV node.A typical PQRS waveform exhibits the following features:  P wave – This occurs as the heart depolarises with an electrical impulse that spreads from the Sinoatrial node throughout the atria.1 seconds (80-100 ms) in duration. and is usually 0. The P wave represents the wave of depolarization that spreads from the SA node throughout the atria. Click here to see how atrial rate is calculated. and spreads from the right atrium to the left atrium. Such networks are currently one of the most developing and commercialised areas within the field of engineering and allows for many improvements to technologies that are currently existing as well as introducing new technologies. The brief isoelectric (zero voltage) period after the P wave represents the time in which the impulse is traveling within the AV node (where the conduction velocity is greatly retarded) and the bundle of His.08 to 0.

Monitoring is used to record and observe data about a certain property of a system which is then used for further processing or stored as a record. The properties are used to identify the capabilities that the node exhibits.    9|Page . temperature. Introduction of large scale networks where the elimination of wires decrease the cost of implementation significantly. Control of a system can be achieved by the use of actuators which are mechanical devices used for the purpose of either activating a certain feature or deactivating the feature. the following elements are required:  Wireless Transceiver – A wireless transceiver is device that can either be used for the purpose of transmitting and receiving data wirelessly via an antenna located on the transceivers.The main application of wireless sensor networks is to remotely monitor and control an operation or system. As a result of monitoring. light intensity and a variety of others. Data can be collected through using a variety of sensors which are used to monitor the surrounding environment. The opportunities in which wireless sensor networks can be made applicable include:     Monitoring and controlling of unattended areas which having access to may be dangerous or disruptive to the operations taking place. the following considerations will need to be considered:      Keeping power consumption rates minimised. In order for a wireless sensor network to exist. Allowing for low data rates Making a network that is scalable Using low cost devices that are portable and keeping hardware minimal Network is easier to extend and becomes more flexible. Memory and microcontroller – These are used to prepare data for the purpose of transmission or process data that has been received into a format which is appropriate for a particular application. Reliability of rerouting data in case of node failure or high traffic conditions Mobility of devices can be adapted to a system which involves repetitive movements over a small locality as the need for wires are eliminated Whilst designing or implementing a wireless sensor network. Networking and application software – this consists of the networking protocols that will be used and the properties of the node itself. Wireless networks also offer greater flexibility and offer a more reliable implementation of a network. the data collected can be used to control a system by modifying its properties as response to the current situation. The data collected could be sound. The range of transmission and power consumption of the device will need to be looked at in order to decide whether or not it is feasible for an application. Power Supply – The power supply is used to power the device node and allow it to operate as required. The use of wireless sensor networks are increasing rapidly and are replacing wired networks as it offers a more effective method of monitoring data and controlling as the cost for hardware is reduced and made minimal due to the use of wires being eliminated.

humidity.4 Zigbee IEEE 802. Application specific hardware   [9][10][11][12] Networking Protocols and Standards One important factor due for consideration when implementing a wireless network is the protocol that will be used to implement the network. Standard protocols allow for communications to become more practical allowing for systems which implement data communications to be customised and made more application specific.11. light intensity. TCP/IP. Wireless sensor networks typically make use of the following standards:   IEEE 802. Reliability and security Ease of upgrading the standard and developing new standards using existing standards as a foundation.4 The IEEE standard 802. The standard focuses on providing low-cost and low-speed communication amongst devices. IEEE 8022. The Medium access control layer deals with the structuring of data frames and validating data that has been received and assigning unique addresses to each device. The standard defines both the Physical and the Medium access control layer of the OSI layer model.The following elements are not necessarily required.15. the Zigbee Alliance developed a standard which provides a full specification of a protocol suite that ensures for higher levels of communication within wireless sensor networks known as 10 | P a g e .15. pressure. Typical measurements include sound.4 was approved by The Institute of Electronics and electrical engineers in 2003 as the requirements for wireless sensor networks were becoming more realisable.15. Actuators – A mechanically operated device which can be used to trigger an event such as the switching on of the circuit. The physical layer is responsible for enabling or disabling a transceiver. The benefits of using standards allow for:     Technologies to compatible and interoperable with each other Openness which exists from the ability of different technologies to be interoperable allowing for ease of network expansion Safety. Examples of standards that have been implemented in order to allow communication to take place include Ethernet. Zigbee In 2004. can be used depending on the required application  Sensor – A device which is used to measure a physical quantity from the surrounding environment. GSM. however. The protocol is usually presented with a description that defines the syntax. semantics and synchronization that take place during communication. temperature. A protocol is a system in which the rules concerning the exchange of messages between computing systems are defined. frequency channel selection and error detection.

As Zigbee is a fully developed protocol. They consume low power and are of low cost and are typically small. microcontrollers are embedded into other devices to help control the device and are designed to perform the same functions repeatedly.15.4 as a foundation allowing for the higher layers of the protocol which allow for interaction within the entire network with regards the application level. They are normally used in systems where operations are to take place repeatedly and are typically embedded into almost any device which is automated. it allows for a wider variety of network topologies to exist and also offers important attributes of communication including:    Routing Ad-Hoc Network Creation Self-Healing Mesh [14][15] Microcontrollers Microcontrollers are computers located on a single integrated circuit chip which a designed for application specific purposes. The following identifies the main stages of the project: 11 | P a g e .Zigbee. The stages can be used to identify the main milestones for the project as a whole. A microcontroller typically consists of the following core components that are considered to be the fundamental building blocks:         Memory Unit Central Processing Unit Bus Input/output Unit Serial Communication Timers Analog To Digital Converters Program [16] Method/Approach The method with which the wireless network heartbeat sensor will be implemented will be within three main stages. The standard was developed using the IEEE 802. Examples of such devices that use a microcontroller include:      Calculator Washing Machine In-Car Electronics Televisions Elevators Generically.

The ECG circuit would consist of two electrodes being placed on either side of the heart and the output voltage of the circuit then being monitored to observe the variations in voltage which will be generated as a result of a heartbeat. Figure 5 ECG Elcectrode Circuit The alternative design would consist of infrared light source and infrared phototransistor that be placed on either side of a fingertip. Both circuits would then be calibrated and tested to see which one would give more reliable results and then a decision would be made as to which one would be used in the final design. 12 | P a g e . thus reflected that a heartbeat has taken place. The device which makes use of light density through the blood pressure fluctuations in the finger would also be built as both were effectively simple to build and also required low cost. The changes in density of the blood will vary the intensity of the light being transmitted through the finger causing slight variations in output voltage.Design of Heartbeat Sensor This stage involves designing the heartbeat sensor that will be used as part of the Wireless sensor network. it was decided that a basic form of an electrocardiogram would be built. From the methods mentioned earlier in the pulse rate section.

the control of the LED will require the use of a microcontroller.Figure 6 Infrared Phototransistor Circuit Establishing Wireless Communication Based on work on previous projects and the due to the usage of Zigbee on a wide scale of wireless sensor networks. If the blinking of an LED takes place successfully then the circuit will be expanded into something of a wider scope which will required the advanced use of microcontroller in comparison to the simple blinking of an LED. it was decided that Zigbee would be the communication standard that is to be implemented as a part of this project. The microcontroller to be used will be the Atmel328 which is a high performance 8-bit AVR RISC-based microcontroller. The main steps of establishing the wireless network will be:     Configuring the radios to ensure that communication can take place Running some initial tests through the serial port of a computer in order to ensure basic communication can take place The data received from the sensor will then be monitored on a computer in order to ensure that wireless data transmission can take place successfully Connecting the receiver radio to the output circuit so that the output can be controlled The radios that will be used for communication are the Xbee Series 2 radios as they have been successfully used before for similar purpose and choosing something else would not be feasible due to time constraints. The reason for 13 | P a g e . Design an output Circuit Initially it is intended that a LED will be controlled as a result of the pulse rate. This would be done by ordering two transceivers that implement Zigbee.

9 volt power supply Operating LED Infrared Transmitter and Detector Amplifier 14 | P a g e . have still not arrived. As a result. The required components have been ordered. Progress The first milestone has almost been achieved as both circuits were built and a decision was made to proceed with the Infrared pulse sensor due to it providing more reliable results. The Arduino board will also be considered for designing an output circuit in order to achieve a more complex functionality of the device. Another issue is that the housing within which the sensor and emitter resides will need to be made more secures and slightly bigger in size in order to accommodate fingers of different sizes. the voltage has now been amplified and requires tuning as different fingers of different sizes will cause different results making it difficult to distinguish independent pulses. Upon completion of the proposed design. The current technique that will be used to identify the heartbeat will be a threshold voltage that will identify the heartbeat if the voltage exceeds this point.this choice is due to previous experience with Atmel328 with Arduino as interface. the output voltage did not seem to show any significant result as the change in the output seemed too small to notice. however.

Time Plan The following Gantt chart details the future direction of the project. Figure 8 Gantt Chart Conclusion After performing a careful analysis of the different methods that can be used to achieve the same goals. the work on wireless communication can begin. the desired position has not been reached due to efforts being concentrated on building the sensor. research on how the Atmel328 microcontroller will be used is currently underway and tutorials are currently being studied on how to use it. work on the output circuit will begin and the approach may change by completing the output circuit and connecting it directly with the sensor in order to achieve the same functionality. research is currently in progress on the microcontroller to be used and also some more thought has been added to the output circuit. it seems that most of the time so far has been focused on getting the sensors to operate as desired and that the remaining milestones have not yet been taken in to account. In the meanwhile. The first milestone has nearly been achieved. it was decided that the system will be implemented using an Infrared Phototransistor and 15 | P a g e . Once the components arrive.Figure 7 Infrared Pulse sensor Discussion By observation. The remaining milestones are currently in it’s early stages as the radios that have been ordered have not yet arrived putting the wireless communication stage on hold until it does. sufficient and steady progress has been made. Once this has been completed. the radios take longer to arrive. that parts would have been expected arrive and work on wireless communication will be underway by splitting to output circuit from the sensor and making an indirect link through the use of radios. Due to the late start of the project and taking into account other commitments such as work and courseworks from other modules. the best course of action will be to improve the sensor circuit with regards to the housing and the tuning that takes place on the circuit. However. Whilst building and testing the circuit. Over the Christmas vacation. If in any case.

The output circuit has not yet been finalised and will need to experience some progress over the coming weeks due to it being extremely simple at this moment in time. The project so far has seen steady progress and will need to remain this way in order to be successful. 16 | P a g e . It was also decided the XBee radios would be used for wireless communication and that Zigbee would be implemented due to it wide usage in the area of wireless sensor networks.Infrared LED combination as this circuit was more reliable from the two that had been built.

e. Medium Order spare components 17 | P a g e .Risk Assessment Description of Risk Lack of resources Description of Impact Delay in project Likelihood Rating Medium Impact Rating High Components arriving late Delay in Medium proceeding with certain aspects of project. Wireless Communication High Extenuating Circumstances Not be able keep up with scales there causing delays in project Low Medium Poor time management Incomplete project Low-Medium High Not meeting supervisor on regular basis Component failure May end up Medium using time inefficiently by doing unnecessary things Device/prototype Medium failing to work. further delay in implementation Medium Preventative Actions Collect information in good time and contact supervisor in good time Order products in good time and keep track of ordered components. contact supervisor if necessary Contact supervisor and course organiser as early as possible in order to be accommodated properly. i. Make a realistic time plan and follow it accordingly. Regularly meet supervisor to discuss progress made.

wikipedia. Date Retreived: 03 December 2011 Web Page: http://www.howstuffworks.webmd.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEEE_802. Date Retreived : 01 December 2011 Web Page: http://en. Federico Parigi.webmd. Date Retreived: 05 December 2011 Web Page: http://wsnl. “A personal Sensor and database system for healthcare and monitoring applications”. “How Microcontrollers Work”.15. Mohammad Ali Ahmadi. Electrocardiograph.org/wiki/Electrocardiograph 8.com/microcontroller1. Date Retreived: 05 December 2011 Web Page: http://en.com/v21/?q=node/21 7. Engin Sicimogullari. Taking a Pulse(Heart Rate) Slide 2. Heart rate measurement system: 02 December 2011 Web Page: http://embedtroniks.html 12. Date Retrieved: 05 December 2011 14.stanford. Arduino and Processing. Measurment .jpg 9.4. Page 25-26 Ebook ISBN:978-0-596-80776-4 13. Date Retrieved: 05 December 2011 10. Date Retreived:05 Decemeber 2011 Web Page:http://electronics. Date Retreived: 01 December 2011 Web page: http://www.com/heart/taking-a-pulse-heart-rate 6.com/heart-disease/pulse-measurement 3. Wireless Sensor Networks.com/heart/taking-a-pulse-heart-rate 5. Date Retreived:01 December2011 Web Page: http://www.org/wiki/ZigBee 16. Date Retreived:01 December2011 Web Page: http://www. Heart Rate.References 1. Pulse Measurment.edu/tutorial. Wireless Sensor Networks.Marshall Brain.webmd. Pages 26 -31.4 15.wikipedia.webmd. Zigbee.umm. Vinoth Kulveerasingam. Building Wireless Sensor Networks with Zigbee.edu/graphics/images/en/1135. Date Retreived: 05 Decemeber 2011 Web Page: http://en.wikipedia. Arsal Javid. Xbee.15. Taking a Pulse(Heart Rate) Slide 1. Electrocardiofram in practice. December 2010. Date Retreived: 02 December 2011 Web Page: http://en. and Muhammad Zaid Bin Siddiq.org/wiki/Heart_rate#Measurement 2.org/wiki/Wireless_sensor_network 11. IEEE 802. Pulse Measurment. Rob Faludi.wikipedia.com/heart-disease/pulse-measurement?page=2 4. Date Retreived: 01 December 2011 Web page: http://www.htm 18 | P a g e . Web Page: http://en.

Establishing a wireless connection using Zigbee and using this connection to transmit data. Selecting an output which will be provided as a function of the input (human pulse).Appendices Project Notes (Meeting 1) Points Discussed: The aim is to build a wireless heart rate monitor that will provide some form of tangible output based on the pulse rate. IR Sensor Circuit 19 | P a g e . The milestones of the project include: ● ● ● Design and testing on both IR Circuit and ECG Circuit and comparing accuracy to decide which one is to be implemented in the final system.

ECG Circuit Plans for Next Week(03/11/2011 to 10/11/2011) : ● ● Build ECG and IR circuits on breadboard and compare their accuracy. Decide on which circuit will be used in implementation. 20 | P a g e .

00 Plans for Next Week(10/11/2011 to 17/11/2011) : ● Continue work on the ECG and IR circuits on breadboard and compare their accuracy.coolcomponents.99 ● ● ● ATMega 328 MCU with Arduino Uno Bootloader http://www.co.co.php?products_id=243 Price: £17.uk/catalog/product_info.82 ATMega 328 MCU http://www.php?products_id=272 Price:£2. so we could decide on which one to implement further.uk/catalog/product_info.coolcomponents.php?products_id=6924 Price:£5.co.coolcomponents. 21 | P a g e .uk/catalog/product_info.99 2 x XBee Explorer USB http://www.Project Notes 2 (03/11/2011 to 10/11/2011) Points Discussed: We aimed to have both circuits built and tested by the next meeting.php?products_id=364 Price: £19. The main aims for the next meeting were to have: ● ● Built and tested both the ECG circuit and IR Circuit Compiled a list of components need for the project List of Components required: ● 2 x XBee 2mW Module with Chip Antenna (Series ZB) http://www.co.coolcomponents.uk/catalog/product_info.

Project Notes3 (10/11/2011 to 17/11/2011) Points Discussed: We aimed to have both circuits built and tested by this meeting. Project Notes 4(17/11/2011 to 25/11/2011) Points Discussed: The output of the IR Sensor circuit was compared with a readymade one and it was decided that the circuit will have to be modified by using an amplifier and potentiometer. so we could decide on which one to implement further. The main aims for the next meeting were to have:    Research on using matching IR and Phototransistor pair Start Research on ATMEL328 Microcontroller Try to provide more reliable output of the sensor circuit that represents the pulse. 22 | P a g e . Plans for Next Week(25/11/2011 to 2/12/2011) :    Redesign the circuit in order to adapt to the new components (Amplifier and Potentiometer) Redesign the housing of the sensors and make sensor’s position more stable Explore different methods of how to pass this output on the wireless transceiver. By looking at the circuits. The main aims for the next meeting were to have: ● ● ● Built and tested both the ECG circuit and IR Circuit Order Required components Focus more on the IR Circuit as this circuit seem to be more reliable in providing results Plans for Next Week(17/11/2011 to 25/11/2011) :    Research on using matching IR and Phototransistor pair Start Research on ATMEL328 Microcontroller Try to provide more reliable output of the sensor circuit that represents the pulse. the IR circuit was providing results that were much more meaningful then the ECG.