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1.1. Background and rationale The use of English has been gradually increasing in Vietnam. Also, it has a stable ground in the Vietnamese education system. English is introduced to the educational curriculum from primary education (optional) to tertiary education (compulsory). Like many other universities, teachers and students at V ! "ere affected by the traditional philosophy of teaching and learning. They "ere sub#ect to many influences of !onfucianism as "ell as by $rench and %oviet education that focused on academic study of grammar and in&depth kno"ledge of literary te'ts. As a result, many students lack the ability to communicate in oral English after graduation from the university. This fact gives rise to the need of a more effective method that creates opportunities for the learners, the sub#ect and the centre of the teaching and learning process to bring full play their intelligence and creativeness. (ver the past fe" years, the application of the !ommunicative Language Teaching method has been "idely adopted. This marked the beginning of a ma#or change in the language teaching and learning at V !. And students) speaking skill as "ell as communicative ability has been improved remarkably. V ! $aculty of English has been ne"ly established for t"o years. Almost all of the teachers "ere trained about !LT approach at the niversity and they fully understood the important role of speaking ability among students. Therefore, they made all their effort to apply many kinds of activities in speaking lesson to encourage students to engage in speaking activities in classroom. As a teacher of the $aculty of English at Vietnam niversity of !ommerce, from her o"n

observations and e'perience, the present researcher has noticed that there are many speaking activities in the speaking lesson of *st + year students, but group "ork + key features of learner + centered orientation + have received more emphasis. The researcher as "ell as other teachers at the niversity "as "ell a"are of the importance of using group "ork to energi,e the speaking lesson of the first&year students. -evertheless, both teachers and students have faced a lot of challenges in implementing and managing group "ork during speaking lessons. $or


instance, the organi,ation of group "ork is noisy, teachers sometimes lose control of the class or students tend to s"itch to use their mother tongue "hen not under the teacher)s eyes and so on. .oreover, the teachers) procedure in organi,ing group "ork in speaking lesson "as not very effective. The above mentioned situation has urged the researcher to conduct a study to investigate teachers) group "ork organi,ation procedure, teachers) strategies to foster students) English use and teachers) and students) difficulties / implementing group "ork, the researcher of this study has decided to carry out a research into “How group work is used in speaking lesson of the 1st-year major students of English at Vietnam University of Commerce ! This study is intended to make a modest contribution to an increased understanding of using group "ork in the speaking lesson at V !. 1.2. Ai ! o" t#e !tud$ The purpose of this study is to e'plore the reality of the use of group "ork in the speaking lesson of *st& year English ma#or students of English at V ! "here the researcher is serving. .ore specifically, this study attempts to clarify the procedures of organi,ing group "ork activity in the speaking lesson of *st&year ma#or students and to identify strategies used by teachers to stimulate students) use of English in group "ork and the factors bringing about difficulties for the teachers and students in their application of group "ork. Another aim is to find out teachers) solutions to the difficulties. (ne additional aim is to compare teachers) practice "ith students) e'pectation. 0asing on the findings, the research further seeks to suggest practical recommendations for the possibility of group "ork in the speaking lesson of *st&year ma#or students at V !. 1.%. T#e re!earc# &ue!tion! 1n order to achieve the set goals, the research seeks to ans"er the follo"ing research 2uestions3 1! "hat procedures do teachers follow in organi#ing group work during speaking lessons for the 1st year major students at University of Commerce$


%! "hat strategies do teachers use to stimulate and foster English language use &y the 1 st year major students at University of Commerce in group work$ '! "hat hinders teachers at (aculty of English of the University of Commerce in implementing group work$ )! "hat hinders the 1st-year major students at University of Commerce in participating in group work$ 1.'. (co)e o" t#e !tud$ Though group "ork is applied in any of the four macro&skills, the present researcher has chosen to focus on speaking skill for the fact that mastering speaking is so central to language learning that "hen "e refer to speaking a language, "e often mean kno"ing a language (4arimmkhanlui, 5667). Among four language skills, namely listening, speaking, reading and "riting, group "ork is used the most fre2uently in the speaking lesson. Therefore, this research tends to investigate the use of group "ork activity in the speaking lesson. Also, due to the time constraints, this study only involves a small number of V ! teachers and English& ma#or students in their first academic year. 1.*. Bene"it! o" t#e re!earc# The research is hoped to be valuable to both teachers and students of $aculty of English at V !. $irstly, this study has been able to contribute to teachers) kno"ledge of !LT approach in general and group "ork activity in particular. %econdly, from the findings of this study, teachers of English at V! can be provided "ith important kno"ledge and information "hich may be very valuable for their future lesson planning. ltimately, the teachers) transformation in group "ork implementation "ill be beneficial to the students. 1.+. Organi,ation o" t#e !tud$ There are five chapters to the thesis. !hapter (ne presents some background to the research 2uestions pursued in the study. 1n chapter T"o, the literature on !ommunicative language teaching approach, the relation bet"een !LT and teaching speaking and group "ork in


teaching speaking are revie"ed. !hapter Three describes the methodology used in the research study. The findings of the procedures in organi,ing group "ork, strategies to foster and stimulate English language use in group "ork, difficulties teachers e'perienced "hen implementing group "ork and difficulties students e'perienced "hen "orking in group suggested by the participants of the study are reported and discussed in chapter $our. Then, !hapter $ive voices some suggestions for improving effectiveness of group "ork in speaking lesson and proposes areas for further research in the future. $inally, chapter %i' discusses conclusions that can be dra"n from the study.

IE/ This study investigates the process of group "ork implementation in speaking lesson. 1t aims at finding out ho" group "ork is organi. This chapter revie"s the literature on some concepts. 1t also aims to find out the strategies that teachers use to motivate and foster students) use of English in group "ork.1.1. The study also aims to find out the difficulties that teachers and students encounter "hile implementing group "ork. Co unicati0e -anguage Teac#ing 1C-T2 2. (o e conce)t! o" C-T The arrival of !ommunicative Language Teaching "as in the late *876s and its origins "ere found in the changes in the 0ritish language teaching tradition. 2. characteristics as "ell as teacher)s roles in communicative language teaching. *8:5). 9ymes)s theory of communicative competence "as a definition of "hat a speaker needs to kno" in order to be communicatively competent in a speech community. 1n 9ymes)s vie". And definitions.ed in speaking lesson of *st year students at niversity of !ommerce. a person "ho ac2uires communicative competence ac2uires both kno"ledge and ability for language use "ith respect to3 & & "hether (and to "hat degree) something is formally possible "hether (and to "hat degree) something is feasible in virtue of the means of implementation available .1. and the implementation of group "ork in speaking lesson are mentioned at the end of the chapter. the relation bet"een !LT and teaching speaking skill is also addressed in this chapter. !ommunicative Language Teaching (!LT) marks the beginning of a ma#or innovation "ithin language teaching for its "idely accepted principles. 1n addition.5 CHAPTER 2: -ITERATURE RE. !LT is no" regarded as an approach "hich aims to make communicative competence the goal of language teaching and to develop procedures for the teaching of four language skills that ackno"ledge the interdependence of language and communication (9ymes. benefits of group "ork.

odgers (*8<73*7*). if precisely understood.ichards and . 2.1. at the level of language theory. %tudents learn not only single grammatical rules but kno" ho" to use these rules effectively and appropriately in communication. !LT has a rich theoretical base and some of the characteristics of the communicative vie" of language are3 & & & & Language is a system for the e'pression of meaning The primarily function of language is to allo" interaction and communication The structure of language reflects its functional and communicative uses The primary units of language are not merely its grammatical and structural features. and Thomson (*887) as follo"s3 & A focus on communicative function & A focus on meaningful tasks rather on language per se . . Li (*88<37:8) revie"s !LT characteristics based on the "ork of other researchers such as Larsen&$reeman (*8<7). the importance of communicative language teaching is to provide students "ith as many opportunities as possible to use their communicative purpose.odgers (*8<7). successful) in relation to a conte't in "hich it is used and evaluated "hether (and to "hat degree) something is in fact done.ichards and . but categories of functional and communicative meaning as e'emplified in discourse. and "hat its doing entails According to . !ommunicative language teaching makes use of real&life situations that necessitate interaction and communication. Therefore. C#aracteri!tic! o" C-T 1t is no doubt that the characteristics of !LT. actually performed.2. -o"adays. language is seen as a dynamic resource for the creation of meaning. may help teachers translate the theory of !LT into classroom reality and make their classroom =communicative>. happy.6 & & "hether (and to "hat degree) something is appropriate (ade2uate.

7 & Efforts to make tasks and language relevant to a target group of learners through an analysis of genuine.2. %peaking skill plays a significant role in teaching and learning a foreign language. from&life materials & The use of group activities & The attempt to create a secure. raising general learner motivation and making the English language classroom a nice and dynamic place to be. Additionally. Teac#ing !)eaking !kill in C-T 2. realistic situations & The use of authentic. 1t not only helps students kno" ho" to read. in the speaking class.1. 2.any students e2uate being able to speak a language to kno"ing the language. T$)e! o" cla!!roo !)eaking )er"or ance 0ro"n (*88?35:*&5:?) proposes si' categories applied to the kinds of oral production that students are e'pected to carry out in the classroom3 & Imitative: takes a very limited portion of classroom speaking time "hen learners are practicing an intonation contour or trying to pinpoint a certain vo"el sound. According to -unan (*88*). . 2. Teac#ing !)eaking !kill. non&threatening atmosphere !ommunication competence is the goal of !LT. . Therefore.2. they vie" learning the language as learning ho" to speak the language. etc. to "rite and to listen but also kno" ho" to communicate "ith English speaking people.2. success is measured in terms of the ability to carry out a conversation in the target language. speaking can be a lot of fun.2. if the right activities are taught in the right "ay. therefore a focus on communicative function may be considered to be the most typical characteristics of !LT. 1t is undeniable that the speaking ability is a good source of motivation for most students.

etc. !onversations. & Interpersonal (dialogue): carries out more for the purpose of maintaining social relationships than for the transmission of facts and information. for instance. 9ere the register is more formal and deliberative.2. & Responsive: is short replies to teachers or student initiated 2uestions or comments. ()eaking acti0itie! . engage learners in communication and re2uire the use of such communicative processes as information sharing. & Extensive (monologue): students at intermediate or advanced levels are called on to give e'tended monologues in the form of oral reports.8 & Intensive: includes any speaking performance that is designed to practice some phonological or grammatical aspect of language. and interaction. The teachers should consider these points "hen teaching speaking skill. %uch conversations could readily be part of group "ork activity. negotiation of meaning. collo2uial language.odgers (*8<73*7@) discuss that the range of e'ercise types and activities "ith a communicative approach is unlimited.any researchers discuss classroom activities and a lot of activities are designed based on the theory and characteristics of !LT. 1n their vie".%. 2. classroom activities should be designed . . provided that such e'ercises and activities enable learners to attain the communicative ob#ectives of the curriculum. and slang. emotionally changed language. summaries. These conversations are a little trickier for learners because they can involve some or all the follo"ing factors3 a casual register.ichards and . These above si' categories of 0ro"n are highly valuable in offering a guide in "orking out the types of classroom speaking performance. may have more of a negotiative nature to them than merely responsive speech. These replies are usually sufficient and do not e'tend into dialogues. & Transactional (dialogue): is carried out for the purpose of conveying or e'changing specific information. or perhaps short speeches.

1. 1n addition.%. 1t is obvious that group "ork is a co&operative activity. $rom the theory on speaking activities above. 2. 3rou) 4ork in !)eaking le!!on 2. Aroup "ork offers many chances for co&operation. teachers should kno" ho" to adopt appropriate speaking activities "hich can help learners develop speaking skill. Bene"it! o" grou) 4ork 1t is clear that putting students into small groups in the classroom "ill open up for them possibilities of interaction "hich are not usually available in a "hole&class approach. they have chances for greater independence as they take some of their o"n learning decisions "ithout the teacher controlling every move. through "hich students share responsibilities. They learn to negotiate.2. group "ork is an essential activity because the kind of interactions produced in group activities has been sho"n to be 2uantitatively as "ell as 2ualitatively different form that "hich goes on in the teacher&dominated lessons.9 to focus on completing tasks that are mediated through language or involve negotiation of information and information sharing. give their o"n learning decisions and learn from each other. students have many chances to interact "ith each other. all the groups "ork at the same time.> According to . 2. learn to listen . And they can "ork "ithout the pressure of the "hole class listening to "hat they are doing.ichards (*8<C3*<8).%. during "hich students share aims and responsibilities.%. Aroup "ork is one of the main "ays that the teacher can help students practice "hat they have learnt. find "ays to achieve communicative ob#ectives. De"inition o" grou) 4ork There are some definitions discussing about group "ork3 Boff (*8<<3*C:) defines group "ork as a process that =the teacher divides the class into small groups to "ork together (usually four or five students in each group).

2. They feel more e2ual to participate in group "ork and free to e'periment and use the language. 2. The teacher lecture. conducts drills and spend a little time for "hole& class discussions in "hich each student might have a fe" seconds of class period to talk.3.3. a small group of peers provides a relatively intimate setting and a more supportive environment in "hich they "ill find it much easier to share their points of vie" in a natural "ay. 2. -evertheless. (0ro"n. the teacher tends to be the only person "ho initiates language in an artificial setting and the "hole&class becomes a =group interlocutor>.2. e'plain grammar points. students have more chances to speak English in the classroom. . Thanks to group "ork.3. it is difficult for them to =hide> in a small group. group "ork allo"s students to make their o"n decisions in the group "ithout being told "hat to do by the teacher. 1t is a nightmare for many students. 0ut "hen they participate in group "ork "hich places responsibility for action and progress upon each of the members of the group e2ually.10 different opinions.2. Their mind becomes completely empty and even they cannot say a "ord. 1n other "ords.1. Group wor o!!ers a positive a!!ective climate The second important benefit offered by group "ork is to make learners feel secure "hen speaking on public. Group wor promotes learners" responsi#ilit$ and autonom$ The "hole&class activities often give students a lot of time to rela' even in a small class of fifteen to t"enty students. 1n addition.2.3. According to 0ro"n (566*). Dith traditional methods. there are four typical benefits of group "ork3 2. student)s opportunities for language practice as "ell as interaction are increased.566*). especially the shy ones "hen being called to speak in front of the class and the teacher. Group wor generates interactive language The teacher talk is really dominant for a long time in so&called traditional language classes.

The follo"ing are practical steps suggested by him to take to carry out successful group "ork in the classroom. motivation. personality. if group "ork is not carefully planned.%.%. Dhen organi.ed by 0ro"n (566*) as follo"s3 2. aptitude. t"enty 2uestions are easy adapted to a small group.1. $or e'ample. another kind of individual difference among students are their age. interests and language learning e'perience "hich can also be solved by group "ork. se'. The person "ho is =it> rotates around the group and points are scored.1. "ith each member of the group taking turns asking 2uestions.3. monitored thoroughly and follo"ed up on in some "ays. Game.e and capitali. 0ut small groups can help students "ith varying abilities to accomplish individual goals. 2. 1n addition to variability in specific language abilities.1.3. "ell e'ecuted.11 the class. .2. Group wor is a step toward individuali&ing instruction Each student in a classroom has different language needs and ability. 2.%.%. the teachers have some difficulties in managing the class "ith students at different levels of language. T#e i )le entation o" grou) 4ork in t#e cla!!roo According to 0ro"n (566*). attitude. Typical group tasks are defined and briefly characteri.e upon these differences by careful selection of small groups and by administering different tasks to different groups. the teacher can recogni. Therefore.%. (ne member secretly decides that he or she is some famous personE the rest of the group has to find out "ho. Auessing games are common language classroom activities. it can go "rong.e a techni2ue into units that can be score in some "ay. "ithin t"enty yesF no 2uestions. A game could be any activities that formali. T#e !election o" a))ro)riate grou) tec#ni&ue! The first step in promoting successful group "ork is to select an appropriate task.3.

3.1. "ith a pre&planned story line and script.3.3. certain pro#ects can be re"arding indeed. various small groups could each be doing different things3 Aroup A creates an environmental bulletin board for the rest of the schoolE group 0 develops fact sheetsE group ! make a three dimensional displayE group B puts out a ne"sletter for the rest of the schoolE group E develop a skit. (imulations usually involve a more comple' structure and often larger groups (of t"o or t"enty) "here the entire group is "orking through an imaginary situation as a social unit. the teacher choose a topic on environment. "ith each person assigned to represent a particular political point of vie".ainly for young learners "ho can greatly benefit from hands&on approaches to language. *ro+ects .3. A group role&play might involve a discussion of a political issue.1.12 2.1. 2. 0ut they are time consuming and rarely can form part of a typical school curriculum. the ob#ect of "hich is to solve some specific problem.3. intervie"s are useful at all level of proficiency.1.. 2.3.%. but also suitable for group "ork. )rama Brama is a more formali.3.3. . $or e'ample.ation of some event. "riting the script and rehearsing the scene as a group.3. and so on.ed form of role&play and simulation. Interview A popular activity for pair "ork. 2. %ometimes small groups may prepare their o"n short dramati..2. Role'pla$ and simulations Role'pla$ minimally involves giving a role to one or more members of a group and assigning an ob#ective or purpose that participants must accomplish.

*ro#lem solving and decision ma ing Groblem&solving is also popular in speaking lesson of ma#or students. 1nformation&gap activities include a tremendous variety of techni2ues in "hich the ob#ectives is to convey or to re2uest information. or 2uite comple' (such as solving a mystery in a =crime story> or dealing "ith a political or moral dilemma).3.3. Becision&making techni2ues are simply one kind of problem&solving "here the ultimate goal is for students to make a decision.3.3.1.rainstorming 0rainstorming is often put to e'cellent use in preparing students to discuss a comple' issue. 2pinion exc3ange (pinion e'change is a difficult techni2ue for students to deal "ith at the beginning levels of proficiency.1.0. 1t is a techni2ue "hose purpose is to initiate some sort of thinking process. and bus schedules). but by the intermediate level.3. %ometimes. Groblem& solving group techni2ues focus on the group)s solution of a specified problem. 2. 2. certain techni2ues can effectively include the e'change of various opinions. opinions are appropriateE sometimes they are not. free&association listing of concepts or ideas or facts or feelings relevant to some topic or conte't. The information that students must seek can range from very simple to comple'. . In!ormation gap This techni2ue is one of the easiest and most interesting forms of communicative activity in the speaking lesson.1.3. plane.-. The problem might be relatively simple (such as giving directions on a map)./.1.13 2. moderately comple' (such as "orking out an itinerary from train.1. 2. The t"o main characteristics of information&gap techni2ues are their primary attention to information and not to language forms and the necessity of communicative interaction in order to reach the ob#ective. 0rainstorming involves students in a rapid&fire.3.3. .

14 1n opinion e'changes. but the most salient one is an inade2uate introduction and lead&in to the task. not scorned. the teacher should tell them e'plicitly "hy the small group is important for accomplishing the task.%. the teacher must assure all students in the class that.3.3. At the same time. it is very useful to make sure students kno" "hat they are supposed to do.3. the introduction of the techni2ue may simply be a brief e'planation but it can decide the success of group "ork)s results. 0ut for a ne" and comple' task. and that if they are not "illing to speak up in front of the "hole class. The introduction should al"ays include a statement of the ultimate purpose so that students can apply all other directions to that ob#ective.2.%. Therefore. 6odeling t3e tec3ni4ue 1t may not necessary to model simple techni2ues or the techni2ues that students have done before.2. no" it is their chance to do so in the security of a small group.3. As "e said before.3. not ridiculed. after "e have selected an appropriate type of activity.2. our group "ork planning should include the follo"ing seven rules for implementing a group techni2ue3 2. 5usti!$ing t3e use o! small groups !or t3e tec3ni4ue. many students are reluctant to participate in group "ork.3. 2. all opinions are to be valued. "hile there may be disagreement on issues.2. the teacher should remind them that they "ill get an opportunity to practice certain language forms or functions.2. . and respected.3. 2. they do not understand "hy group "ork is used for this task. 3rou) 4ork )lanning There are some reasons for the breakdo"n of group "ork. According to 0ro"n (566*). Introducing t3e tec3ni4ue According to 0ro"n (566*). 2.1. in cases of necessity.

% T#e teac#er5! role in grou) 4ork After completing the first t"o steps. 2.2.. 2. the teacher should not do the follo"ing3 & & & & Bon)t sit at your desk and grade papers Bon)t leave the room and take a break Bon)t spend an undue amount of time "ith one group at the e'pense of others Bon)t correct students) errors unless asked to do so . assignment of roles to students (if necessary). it is very important to circulate even the teacher has nothing to say to a group. 73ec ing !or clari!ication 0efore students start moving into their groups. the teacher should check "hether students all understand their assignment by asking some of them to restate the purpose of this activity. the teacher can listen to students and get a sense of the groups) progress and of individuals) language production. a time frame (time needed to complete the task).%..%.2. 1f "e "ant to ensure participation and control.3. 2. the teacher plays the role of facilitator and resource.%. They include3 a restatement of the purpose. 566*) According to 0ro"n (566*). )ividing t3e class into groups There are many "ays to divide the class into groups.3. teacher should give them specific instructions on "hat they are to do. Giving explicit detailed instructions Dhen students have understood the purpose of the task and ho" their discussion might proceed. rules they are to follo".3. "e can pre&assign groups in order to account for one or t"o of the follo"ing3 proficiency levelsE age or gender differencesE personality typesE cognitive preferencesE interestsE prior learning e'perienceE target language goals. (0ro"n. The teacher should be "illing to be a helper or a guide "ho al"ays lets students kno" she "ill be available for help and can make some suggestions to keep them on task. Dhen the time for group discussion is going to be over.-.3.

The effectiveness of group "ork in language teaching and learning "as investigated by some post& graduate students at 9anoi -ational niversity and other researchers. De6rie"ing Bebriefing is the "ay that the teacher and students sit together to give comments on the task they have done.'. as "ell as participant to help students learn better. the success of group "ork activity depends much on ho" "ell tasks are designed and ho" "ell the teacher prepares students for the tasks. Het. the teacher should "ork as an organi. for instance. student&initiated interactions increased and contributions by students "ho "ere shy increased. A number of studies have found that group "ork helps develop students) speaking ability and increase the effectiveness of a speaking lesson. 0ac (566@) reports that the use of group "ork had good effect on students) participation.16 & Bon)t assume a dominating or disruptive role "hile monitoring groups 2.'.'. Pre0iou! re!earc# into grou) 4ork 2. (bviously. especially. Therefore. Through group "ork. Buring the application of group "ork in speaking lesson. 9uong (5667) found that "hen applying group "ork activities in speaking lesson. Bonough (566?) also reports clear positive effects that small group activities had on . 2. it is essentially prepare "hat students need. 1t is an e'cellent time to encourage some "hole&class feedback "hich provides motivation for further group "ork and is useful for the teacher)s ne't group "ork assignment. ma#ority of the students are interested in discussion. the teacher also need to a"are of some dra"backs that may arise in the process.%. A )roduct a))roac# The use of group "ork in speaking lesson is not a totally ne" area to researchers. group "ork is one of the techni2ues that is no" popularly applied to language teaching and learning. students have opportunities to help each other as "ell as e'change e'perience to find a good "ay to improve on their o"n communication problems. 1n conclusion. to speaking skill learning for its many advantages.1.%.

%he found out fre2uent use of group "ork by teachers.e that they could "ork independently of the teachers and they could learn from other students and helped each other. $irstly. . and !astanos (*8:7E cited in Long and Gorter. but also used a "ider range of speech acts in the small group "ork conte't. (9uong. 566@). nderstanding of the group "ork organi. A )roce!! a))roac# There have no" been a fe" researches on the process of implementing group "ork in speaking lessons (Buong. Thirdly.cBonough. 5667). most of these studies have not made clear "hat process teachers and learners "ent through "hen implementing group "ork. group "ork helped to increase students) participation in communicative activities in large classes. 1n term of pair and group "ork management.ed the opportunities for students to communicate and e'change the information "ith each other.'. (. according to Buong (5667). the teachers here often use three main stages3 setting up (organi.ob Datkins. *8<@) found out that students not only talked more. %econdly. Adams. 5667E . The findings of these studies contribute significantly to the literature because they suggested the conditions in "hich group "ork can be most beneficial to learners. 5667E 9uong. Buong (566@) investigated the current situations of teaching and learning English through pair and group "ork of the first&year students at 9anoi (pen niversity + $aculty of Tourism. The studies mentioned above have firmly asserted the important roles of group "ork activities in improving learners) speaking skill.2. 566@). 1n addition. 2.cLean. learner&learner interaction through group "ork activities "as useful for practicing oral communication the pairs and groupF giving . all suggested that the use of group "ork in language teaching and learning brought about a great deal of benefits. 9o"ever. 566?).ing processes "ould enable teachers to better facilitate learners in group "ork activities. group "ork created a good atmosphere in the speaking class and it also helped to build rapport among class members. $ourthly. Although they e'plored different aspects of group "ork. group "ork ma'imi. (0ac. Long.17 improvement of production of the target forms. group "ork helped students to reali.

9uong (5667) also took process of implementing pairs and group "ork in English speaking lesson into account. the researcher "ants to investigate the use of group "ork in teaching speaking of English ma#or students "ith a focus on the process of group "ork organi.%.18 instructions). these studies have focused on the process of group "ork implementation in speaking lesson of non&ma#or English students.'. all of the studies mentioned above only considered the use of group "ork in language teaching of English non&ma#or students. group "ork and shed the light on the areas that previous researches has not considered ade2uately. 9o"ever. 1t also aims to find . 1t aims to e'amine the procedures in organi. Additionally. the current body of research mainly focuses on the product of group "ork implementation. Re!earc# &ue!tion! The present study is inspired by !LT theory and past research paradigm on group "ork use in speaking lesson. 2.ob Datkins (566@) suggested that the effectiveness of group "ork depends on the types of motivation the teacher use in the class and the "ay they design group "ork activity. A research into this area for English ma#ors is necessary in order to find out a better description and provide a deep understanding of group "ork implementation process in different teaching and learning conte'ts. These studies have touched upon a domain "hich has been much concerned lately3 the implementation process of group "ork. .ation in hope of finding information "hich is necessary for teachers and students to improve their practice. 2. (u ar$ 1n summary.'. monitoring (listening to the pairsF groups during the activity and guiding F giving supportF making notes) and "inding do"n (bring the activity to a close and providing feedback). The results did sho" that the success of communicative pairs and group "ork activities is often determined by the "ork the teacher does before the students begins the activities itself.'.

Dhat hinders the *st year students at "orkI niversity of !ommerce in conducting group niversity of !ommerce in . Dhat procedures do teachers follo" in organi.19 out any strategies that teachers use to encourage students to increase the English language use "hen carrying out a speaking task in groups. the study aims to ans"er the follo"ing research 2uestions3 *. Dhat hinders teachers at $aculty of English of the implementing group "orkI ?.ing group "ork during speaking lessons for the *st year students at niversity of !ommerceI 5. Dhat strategies do teachers use to stimulate and foster English language use by the * st year students at niversity of !ommerce in group "orkI C. And difficulties that both teachers and students face in implementing group "ork "ere also addressed in this study. %pecifically.

it "as called the English Bivision "hich trained only English non& ma#or students for other faculties of the niversity. The students of English ma#or classes use a curriculum "hich lays great emphasis on four skills including listening. All students of the former are re2uired to complete si' semesters of English as part of their general education re2uirements. The details are going to be presented as follo"s. The ne't part concerns the research methods used in the study. There are about @6 students in each class of "hich :@J comes from the countryside. 1n the first three semesters. The second part looks at the sample and sampling procedure. "hich accounts for : credits. 9o"ever. . The first part is the description of the research conte't. The current teaching material for speaking skill in 7 classes of the first&year English ma#or students is =%peaking 1> collected by the t"o teachers "ho deliver speaking lessons and it is covered "ithin one semester "ith C credits. They follo" a curriculum "hich focuses mainly on developing reading and "riting skills.1. There are no" t"o main streams at V !3 English non&ma#or classes and English ma#or classes. . The data collection procedure is follo"ed and the data analysis is in the last part. speaking. %. 1n the past.20 CHAPTER %: 7ETHODO-O38 This chapter gives a thorough description of ho" the research "as carried out. The total time allocation and the training curriculum for these t"o streams are obviously different. students finish the Aeneral English program. reading and "riting and other sub#ects related to English theoretical linguistics. The $aculty of English at niversity of !ommerce "as ne"ly established t"o years ago "ith more than ?@6 English ma#or students.esearch materials are addressed in the forth part. The remaining semesters are reserved for the E%G program "ith a total number of 7 credits. their English speaking ability is 2uite good and homogeneous. Re!earc# conte9t The study "as conducted at Vietnam niversity of !ommerce.

the strategies they used to promote students) use of English language in group "ork and the difficulties they coped "ith. All the si' teachers "ere invited to take part in follo"&up intervie"s to find out more in&depth information about the stages or procedures they used in implementing group "ork. .oreover. -evertheless. To increase the reliability and validity of the research study and a random sampling procedure "as applied. the results of a recent study carried out by the present researcher sho" the English ma#or students have a lot of difficulties in learning the four language skills. most of the students have a strong sense of deriving or clear purposes for studying English since it is their main and speciali.ost of them had been learning English for at least C years. Their levels of English proficiency differ. . They all had some e'perience in group "ork. They come from various parts of the country. ranging from pre&intermediate. All of the teachers have e'perience "ith group "ork activity "hen they "ere students. 9ence. *6 freshmen (@ males and @ females) "ere then chosen . Three teachers are post&graduates. They "ere selected as a convenient sample. The student participants) ages ranged from *: to 5* years old. one is pursuing the post&graduate degree and t"o are graduates. $ive female teachers and one male teacher of the Linguistic Gractice Bivision of the $aculty of English at V ! "ere selected to take part in the study.otivation in these classes is generally high.ed sub#ect "hich helps much in their future #ob. T"o teachers have more than five years e'perience in teaching and the other four have teaching e'perience ranging from * to @ years. The teacher participants) age ranged from 5C to C< years old. of "hich speaking seems to be the most difficult. The group of sub#ects for the student 2uestionnaire included <8 female and ** male freshmen from 7 classes. the number of teachers "ho teach English speaking skill for the first&year students is 7.21 %. The number of the first&year English ma#or students is estimated at more than C66. (a )le and !a )ling )rocedure At the moment. it is very important that the staff at the $aculty of English of V ! find out effective "ays and strategies to help these students overcome all of their difficulties in speaking classes.2. . intermediate to advanced level.

:ue!tionnaire! . especially. 566@). not under pressure of bias. %. %urvey 2uestionnaire is one of the most effective instruments for collecting data in social science. (Adams.'. this study "as done in the light of both 2ualitative and 2uantitative research in "hich the data is collected by means of 2uestionnaires.22 randomly from the 2uestionnaire sample as intervie"ees to gain information about their e'pected procedure in organi. The purpose of using 2uestionnaire. classroom observations and intervie"s of both teachers and students. in studies on English as %econd Language (E%L) (Adams. classroom observations and intervie"s as research materials to collect data in this study is to triangulate the data and to overcome the limitations or dra"backs of other methods because one can "ell support another "hich helps strengthen the research findings. it is increasingly common for researchers to report the study on both 2uantitative and 2ualitative findings. %. researchers can capture a "holistic picture of the natural group "ork as "ell as their difficulties "hen "orking in group "ork. Advantages of using 2uestionnaires that Aillham (5666) highlights are3 less pressure on respondents. Re!earc# aterial! %. intervie"s can allo" researchers to investigate cognitive processes such as a"areness or constructs such as perceptions or attitudes that are not directly observable. And classroom observations are often used to supplement data obtained from intervie"s and 2uestionnaires. in consideration of the research)s purposes. Thus. They aged from *< to 56 years old and had been studying English for at least three years. Like 2uestionnaire.ackey.'.1. $u#ii and . and analysis of ans"ers is straightfor"ard. 566@). $u#ii and .% Re!earc# et#od! -o"adays. !lassroom observation is a useful "ay to investigate e'ternal factors in L5 learning. Through classroom observations.

Data collection )rocedure 1n the first phase. 2uestionnaires "ere administered to *66 V ! English ma#or freshmen at the end of the first semester of the academic year 566<. the intervie" 2uestions "ere piloted "ith one teacher and three students to identify the potential problems. adapted from . or opinions.2. "ritten in English consisting of *6 2uestions "as delivered to 7 teachers "ho "ere teaching English speaking skill for the * st& year students at V !.23 The study employs t"o 2uestionnaires. Inter0ie4! Another research tool employed in this study "as semi&structured intervie"ing schedules. The 2uestionnaire for teachers.ed.'.ing group "ork in speaking lesson and difficulties they cope "ith. %.ueller (*88:). After the data collected "ere analy. feelings. These 2uestions "ere open enough to allo" the intervie"ees to comfortably e'press their thoughts.*. *6 random informants "ere contacted for semi&structured intervie"s "ith the researcher in locations "here they felt at . in the second phase. The survey 2uestionnaire administered to *66 students including < 2uestions "ith an aim to get information about students) opinion on and students) desires in leaning speaking skill through group "ork and difficulties students have e'perienced "hen "orking in group. %. The participants "ere asked to complete the 2uestionnaire at home and returned their responses three days later so that they "ould have as much time as they needed. The 2uestionnaire "as used to e'plore information about their attitudes to"ards group "ork use and their procedures in organi. one for teachers and the other for group "ork during speaking lesson as "ell as the difficulties they have e'perienced "hen applying group "ork in speaking class. The follo"&up intervie"s "ith teachers and students "ere carried out (7 items for the teachers and 7 items for students) to get more information about the procedures used in organi. 0efore officially carrying out the intervie"s.

in order to capture the comple'ities of the respondent)s individual perceptions and e' group "ork in the speaking lesson and the students) desires "hen "orking in group "as addressed.24 ease and at a time they suggested. 0eside survey 2uestionnaires and intervie"s. %.a#or findings "ill be presented and discussed in chapter four. "e used descriptive statistics to 2uantify the data in form of charts and figures. the ten intervie"s "ere conducted in Vietnamese. to read hisF her lesson plan. Each observation consisted of t"o steps3 before the lesson and during the lesson. 1n the during&the&lesson step. classroom observations "ere also carried out to collect more information about the e'act procedures occurring in the real classes as "ell as difficulties the teachers coped "ith in practice. Buring the intervie". As for 2uantitative analysis. the students "ere e'plained clearly. 1n addition. the research methods. the researcher met the teacher to kno" herF his aims in teaching the lesson.+. the researcher observed and took note the students) activities and participation "hen "orking in group and the teachers) steps of group "ork implementation during speaking lesson. . The length of each intervie" "as from *6 to *@ minutes. The intervie"s "ere all tape&recorded to free the intervie"er to participate naturally in the discussion and to allo" the content to be revie"ed carefully. the chapter has described in details the research conte't. a comparison bet"een the teachers) present procedures used in organi. e'plicitly and unambiguously about the nature of the study. . sample and sampling procedure. the researcher modified the 2uestions and procedures according to the sub#ects) responses. And at last. 1n before&the&lessons step. 1n short. The 2ualitative data "ere revie"ed carefully and repeatedly to identify patterns and information that helps to e'plain the 2uantitative findings. the research materials and data collection procedures used in this study. Data anal$!i! The data of the study "as analysed both 2uantitatively and 2ualitatively. At the beginning of each intervie".

25 CHAPTER ': . 1t is found from the teacher 2uestionnaire that all of the teachers often used the same si' steps in organi. 3rou) 4ork organi.ation )rocedure group "ork in their speaking lesson. go around monitoring studentsE performance and giving support and provide feedback in organi. 1t sho"s an attempt to ans"er the four research 2uestions posed at the beginning of the study. 1t seems that half of the teachers forgot to give complements "hen students did "ell in group "ork to encourage them. T3e organi&ation procedure o! group wor t3at teac3ers o!ten used in spea ing lesson 150% 100% 50% 0% stepsteachersfollowed in organizinggroup work 8igure 1: (teps teac3ers !ollowed in organi&ing group wor The data in $igure * sho"s clearly that. @6J of the teachers praise and encourage group "ork as these might be the basic steps needed for it.7J.e groups of students. '. state the ob#ectives of the activity. give clear instructions. 1n the intervie". And providing the language students need to do the task accounted for only *7. The teachers only provide students "ith the language in case they do not kno".INDIN3( AND DI(CU((ION This chapter is consisted of t"o sections of findings and discussion.1. almost all of the teachers thought that providing the language students need to do the task is not very necessary. *66 J of the teachers chose the same 7 steps3 select the task carefully. . students can manage themselves "ith the needed ne" "ords for the task first.1. organi.1.

the teachers all agreed that intervie"ing. They sa" the effectiveness of games and role&play and simulations in engaging students in group "ork but they "ere afraid of making noise. Brama seems to be the most difficult activities to apply for group "ork because it is time&consuming and needs a lot of efforts from students. the given data in figure 5 implies that the most fre2uently&used activities among teachers (*66J) in the speaking lesson "ere intervie"ing. 150% 100% 50% 0% Same E Mixed E Same ifferent Same ifferent sit tin! next Same ifferent Same a!e proficiency proficiency personality personalit y learnin! learnin! to eac" int erests interest s experience experience ot "er ifferent a!e Same sex ifferent sexes #t "ers waysteachers often used to group students 8igure 3: :a$s teac3ers o!ten used to group students As can be seen in $igure C. Therefore. Aames and . the "ays of grouping students varied from options to options.ole&play and simulations "ere follo"ed by @6J and 86J respectively. problem solving and decision&making and discussing activities are useful for group "ork. some of them ignored these activities.26 150% 100% 50% 0% Activitiesteachersoften selected for group work 8igure 2: 9ctivities teac3ers o!ten selected !or group wor As for the kinds of activities used for group "ork. And most of .C J. All of the teachers (*66J) tended to group students sitting ne't to or near each other. problem solving and decision&making and discussing. 0oth pro#ects and opinion e'change received the same percentage of CC. And drama activity had the least choice of *7. %ome teachers also paid attention to the use of information gap or pro#ects or opinion e'change if they had much time. %i'ty si' percent "as the choice for information gap activity.7J. !oncerning the kinds of activities.

CC. 0.CJ of the teachers adopted other "ay of grouping students "hich "ere to let students group themselves. Therefore.CJ) often grouped students of the same se' "hile *7. -one of the teachers mentioned grouping students of the same or different personality type. As for grouping students.. (thers.e group "ork activity. . they only provided the language if necessary. <C.7J grouped students of different se'es.C J favored students of different or mi'ed proficiency "hile *7. interests. !oncerning students) English proficiency. 1t is the fact that almost all of the English ma#ors (8@J) are female so that grouping students of the same se' "as also popular choice. The teachers might think that students) ages. "hich could give students "ith lo" English proficiency chance to learn from the better ones. they did not have "ide vocabulary.7 J favored students of the same proficiency. The data from observations and intervie"s indicates that the teachers used the same or different procedures in organi.and B) stated that they really "anted to apply games activity for group "ork. . . And some teachers tended to group students of different or mi'ed proficiency. mean"hile. they did not pay attention to them as the "ays of grouping students. G. All of the teachers agreed that there "ere si' necessary and important steps to organi.27 the teachers (<C. all of the teachers (L. %ome of them suggested that it "as essential to provide students "ith the needed language to do the task because their students "ere at the first year. e'plained that the teachers should let students manage themselves. but they still often used other kinds . prior learning e'perience and personality type "ere not of great difference. T"o teachers chose other "ays to group students for its convenience. of the same interests and of the same or different ages.7J decided to group students of different interests. of the same or different prior learning e' group "ork "ith their o"n e'planation. Aender "as also a factor that teachers considered as it helps to boost group dynamics.egarding the above mentioned activities. all of the teachers supposed that the "ay "hich "as the most convenient for both teachers and students "as to group students sitting ne't to or near each other. %ome students "ere also certain that giving students compliments "hen they did "ell in group "as very important as it encouraged students to do better ne't time. (nly *7.

*n fact+ * want to create a funny and interesting atmosphere for students &y using games activity when they learn speaking skill+ * want my students to feel free to speak and speak English in a natural way &ut * rarely used it &ecause * did not want to &e complained a&out making noise in the lesson &y other teachers! . They let students group themselves %.28 of activities such as intervie"ing. and it "as also not time&consuming. go around monitoring students performance and giving support. 0. Therefore.-. All the intervie"ees (L. /y students have to learn English all day and night so * like to help them learn practice speaking English through some kinds of games which make them rela0ed and funny! However+ * can not! . All of the teachers also e'plained that it "as really difficult and took time to understand each student)s interests. G.1. personality. 150% 100% 50% 0% 8igure %: (teps students expected teac3ers to !ollow in organi&ing group wor The data in $igure ? sho"ed clearly that *66J of the students thought teachers should follo" 7 steps in managing group "ork3 select the task carefully. prior learning e'perience and ages. and problem solving and decision&making because they "ere afraid of making noise. discussing. give clear instructions. . 1t "as easy to ask students sitting ne't to each other to turn back and form a group.2.1. organi. The second "ay that ma#ority of the teachers used "as grouping students of different English proficiency because students "ith lo" English proficiency could benefit a lot from students of higher one.and B) said that they grouped students sitting ne't to or near each other regularly for its convenience. Eighty percent of students find . state the ob#ectives of the activities. T"o teachers chose other "ays to group students.. it is not easy for them to group students by these "ays.e groups of students. . and provide feedback. (tudents" expected group wor organi&ation procedure.

smile and to be open to them "hen they speak or ask 2uestions. !. go around monitoring students) performance and giving support. -. The data from 2uestionnaire. This can make them more confident and motivate them to speak a lot in the group. $rom the researcher)s observations. . the students sometimes had to interrupt their teachers to ask for ne" " group "ork3 select the task carefully. give clear instructions. .29 =providing the language students need to do the task> an essential thing that teachers should do.ore than half of the students (@CJ) preferred the teacher to praise and encourage them "hen they "ere "ell&done in group "ork. organi. And @ among *6 intervie"ees (9.ore than half of the students preferred their teachers to give complements. the information collected from observations and intervie"s implied that all of the students hoped their teachers to use 7 steps in organi. said3 * often feel very nervous when * speak in the group or in front of all my classmates and my teacher for &eing afraid of making mistakes and of teacher4s negative comments! 5ne day+ the teacher praised and encouraged me to speak with a nice smile and give me complements+ * feel very pleased! (or the ne0t speaking lesson+ * feel really confident to speak out in the group! .C. !& one of the intervie"ees & for e'ample. and provide feedback. Almost all of students thought providing ne" "ords or e'pressions related to the task should also be done by the teachers. state the ob#ectives of the activities. *f my teachers do not provide new voca&ulary or &rainstorm the topic+ * will not know where to start! * am mostly in silence to listen to my friends and * sometimes speak if possi&le! .e groups of students. 2he language needed for the task in speaking lesson is necessary for me! * am now the first-year student so that * can not collect enough new words for myself to work in group! * need the help of the teachers &efore starting any speaking tasks! . . A and A) said that about <6J of the students in their classes come from the countryside and remote areas and they had a lot of difficulties "ith ne" "ords and language use.

All of the students did not care about ages.: :a$s students wanted teac3ers to put t3em in group As can be seen in $igure @. And around <6J of the students "anted their teachers to let students group themselves. Dorking "ith partners of the same interests "as the choice of @6J of the sample students. As regards students) proficiency.any students might be la.30 100% 50% 0% S ame E Mixed E S ame ifferent proficiency proficiency personality personality S ame ifferent sittin! nex t to learnin! learnin! eac" ot"er experience experience S ame interests ifferent interest S ame a!e ifferent a!es S ame sex ifferent sexes #t"ers 8igure . rather than "orking "ith others "hom they find unpleasant. prior learning e'perience and ages.y and not "ant to move for group organi. The data from 2uestionnaire as "ell as the observations and intervie"s also revealed that most of the students "anted to be grouped "ith student of different or mi'ed proficiency and students of different se'es. $or the former. "hich helps them a lot in their studying. personality types and prior learning e'perience "ith the e'planation that these factors did not cause them big problems "hen they "orked in group. . %urprisingly and interestingly. but it seems to be impossible as the fact that 8@J of English ma#or students are female (or girls). And ninety percent "anted to be grouped "ith students sitting ne't to or near them. The latter meant that the gender "as an important factor to the students. students) different opinions "ere given on the types of partners they "anted to "ork "ith.ation so that many of them (86J) chose to be grouped "ith partners sitting ne't to or near them. five student intervie"ees e'plained that this "ay of grouping often "orked effectively since they could choose to "ork "ith their friends. <6J of the students favored partners of different se'es. . they e'plained that they "ished to "ork "ith students of better proficiency. 86J of the students responded that they preferred to "ork "ith students of mi'ed proficiency "hile only *6J ans"ered they "ould prefer students of the same proficiency. -one of the students (6J) chose to be grouped according to the personality. Around <6 students "ished their teachers to let them group themselves.

3. intervie"ing. %tudents sometimes "anted to e'change opinion on some speaking topics. and almost of them did not like drama and pro#ect activities as they are actually difficult and need much efforts to do. ans)er st-dents. information gap.1. A variety of reasons "ere given to e'plain students) high appreciation for teachers) selection of games. group "ork in $igure :. (pinion e'change "as the choice of 76J of the students.31 150% 100% 50% 0% $ames % ole&play 'nter(ie)in!'nformation !ap rama *ro+ects *ro. ans)er 8igure /: 7omparison #etween teac3ers" steps in group wor organi&ation and students" expectation !omparing the data from the teachers) ans"er and students) ans"er about the steps in organi. problem solving and discussing for group "ork. %. discussing. especially games and intervie"ing. "e can see that all of the teachers and students (*66J) shared the same vie" on si' steps in organi. All of the students (*66J) chose role&playing. 7omparison #etween teac3ers" group wor organi&ation procedure and students" expectation 150% 100% 50% 0% teac"ers. role&playing. and they are also not too difficult and time& consuming for them to prepare and make presentation. intervie"ing and problem solving to be their favorite activities. they e'plained that these activities often create e'citing atmosphere. $irst and group "ork in speaking lesson3 select the task .lem sol(in! isc-ssin! #pinion exc"an!e 8igure -: 9ctivities students wis3ed teac3ers to select !or group wor %tudents) preferences for kind of activities for group "ork "ere indicated in $igure 7. And Brama and pro#ects received only *6J and 56J of the students respectively. information gap.

This revealed that all the teachers and students favored these activities and these activities brought about effectiveness for their speaking lesson through group "ork. go around monitoring studentsE performance and giving support and provide feedback.e the vital role of this step "hen organi. ans)er st-dents. As can be seen. 150% 100% 50% 0% teac"ers. .ean"hile. for the fourth step + provide the language students need to do the task + there "ere a big difference. They suggested that they "anted to let their students manage the language themselves. there "ere different opinions bet"een the teachers and students on the activities adopted for group " group "ork. ans)er 8igure 0: 7omparison #etween teac3ers" c3osen group wor activities and students" expectation The data in $igure < sho"s the comparison of teachers) ans"er and students) ans"er about the activities selected for group "ork. 9o"ever. 1t is obvious that the students and teachers did not share the same vie" on games. information gap and opinion e'change . *66J of the teachers and students chose three same kinds of activities such as intervie"ing. Around half of the teachers and students (@6J and @CJ respectively) agreed that it "as important to praise and encourage students "hen students "orked effectively in group. problem solving and discussing. These numbers implies that both teachers and students have good understanding of necessary stages in implementing group "ork activity. almost all of the teachers did not reali. Eighty percent (<6J) "as the choice of students "hile only 56J of the teachers selected this step.e groups of students.ole&play and simulations "as also the favorite activity of both students and teachers. give clear instructions. . This meant that most of the students thought it "as crucial to be given the language needed to do the task because ne" "ords and e'pressions could help them do the speaking task "ith ease during group "ork. *66J "as the choice of the students and 86J "as for the teachers.32 carefully. state the ob#ectives of the activity. they #ust provided in case the students had difficulties "ith it. organi.

$rom that. ans)er students in groups is also an important factor to teaching speaking skill through group "ork. The first "ay =group students of different English proficiency levels> "as the choice of about <@J of the teachers and students. They used these activities occasionally "hen they had much time and high motivation in learning speaking. The second one =group students sitting ne't to or near each other> accounted for . The number of students) choices "as nearly t"ofold in comparison "ith teachers). *66J and group "ork in speaking lesson so as to understand more about their desires in learning speaking through group "ork. teachers are more favored "ith the last t"o activities&drama and pro#ects&than students. ans)er 120% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 8igure 1: 7omparison #etween teac3ers" grouping strategies and students" expectation (rgani. The data in $igure 8 sho"s clearly that both students and teachers nearly shared the same opinions on t"o "ays of grouping. And pro#ects activity "as selected by CC. teachers can change their selection of activities for group "ork to make the speaking lesson much more efficient. The percentage for these activities "as *66J and @6J. /eac"ers. *7. and 76J and CC. This implies that teachers need to "ork closely to students "hen organi.CJ of the teachers and 56J of the students. These numbers indicated that drama and pro#ects "ere not both students) and teachers) favorite activities.CJ respectively.7J of the teachers adopted games activity and students) choice "as *6J.7J. -evertheless.33 activities. The comparison of teachers) and students) ans"er about "ays of grouping students is illustrated in $igure 8.

@6J of the students "anted to be grouped "ith the partners of the same interest but there is only 56J of the teachers chose to do it. The teachers can e'plain the ob#ective reason "hy they often grouped students of the same se' to students and ask students to suggest strategies of learning speaking skills through group "ork. 9alf of the teachers (@6J) recommended that it might be better if "e let students suggest strategies that they "ould be "illing to follo" to increase the use of oral English in group "ork. These numbers indicate that the teacher needs to find opportunities to discuss "ith students about learning strategies in an open and friendly "ay. *66J of the teachers "anted to raise students) a"areness of the importance of using English.CJ of the teacher often grouped students of the same se' "hile only 56J of the students chose it and for the latter. And t"o last strategies. a)areness S ts s-!!est strate!ies S ts self&report on 02 -se E sta. Almost all of them (86J) thought it "as necessary to increase the amount of English use re2uired by teachers and to establish a "arning signal to remind students "hen they unconsciously s"itch from English to Vietnamese (L5 to L*). '. 9o"ever. :<J of the students "anted their teachers to let them group themselves sometimes "hile CC.lis" a )arnin! s i!nal 8igure 1. 150% 100% 50% 0% 'ncrease 02 -se re1i-red .34 *66J of the teachers and 86J of the students.lis" contracts )it" S ts E sta.y /s %aise S ts.CJ teachers did it. This "ill be beneficial to teachers "hen organi. $or the former. almost all of the teachers and students had different vie" on the "ay of grouping students of the same or different se'es. <C. asking students to self&report on the percentage of L5 they use in group . 1n addition.: teac3ers" strategies to !oster and stimulate students" Englis3 language use in group wor As can be seen from the chart group "ork activity. Teac#er!5 !trategie! to "o!ter and !ti ulate !tudent!5 Engli!# language u!e in grou) 4ork.2. group students of different se'es "as the choice of <6J of the students but only of *6J of the teachers.

all of the teachers said that in order to increase the amount of English language use among students in group "ork is a problem to teachers "ho teach speaking skill. All of the students (*66J) "anted . 1n the intervie". Therefore. They have tried to make all efforts to encourage students to use English "hen organi. 1f students themselves have a full a"areness of using English. The findings indicate that the most regular strategy to foster students) English use "as to highlight the importance of using English to students. at first. they "ill use it more often and more effectively because they have motivation and they "ill try their best to practice speaking English. students often strictly follo"ed teachers) rules about using English but after only some minutes they s"itched from using L5 to L* consciously or group "ork. the students valued the strategies "hich should be used by teachers in the almost similar same "ay as the teachers. it is necessary for teachers to find out some effective strategies to help students be more a"are the importance of speaking English and they "ill themselves use it in group "ork voluntarily "ithout teachers) reminds and supervise. Asking students to self report on the percentage of L5 they use in group "ork and establishing contracts "ith students in "hich they indicate ho" much English they are "illing to use are the t"o strategies that almost all of the teachers found impossible to do.35 "ork and establishing contracts "ith students in "hich they indicate ho" much English they are "illing to use accounted for *6J of the teachers. 1n addition. almost all of the teachers also understand that their students can use more English in group "ork "hen they re2uired their students to increase the amount of English use day by day or "hen they reminded students not to use their mother tongue in group "ork. 150% 100% 50% 0% Increase L2 use requred by Ts Raise Sts' awareness Sts suggest strategies Sts self-report on L2 use Establish contracts with Sts Establish a warning signal Others 8igure 11: (trategies students expected teac3ers to use to !oster and stimulate t3eir Englis3 use in group wor As apparent from the above $igure. 0ut the teachers found that.

only *@J of the students choose these ans"ers. all of the teachers (*66J) considered students use too much Vietnamese during group "ork and students make so much noise.ore than <6J of the students thought that the teachers should re2uire them to increase the use of English and let them decide to choose the strategies they "ant. Therefore.3.36 their teachers to raise their a"areness of the importance of English use and give them the "arning signal to remind them to use English "hen they s"itched to use Vietnamese in group "ork unconsciously. '. They liked their teachers to remind them regularly about using English in group "ork. "hich sometimes make . 0ut. %. (ne of the intervie"ees gave reasons for e'planation3 “*t is difficult for us to self-report or indicate how much English we can use in group work &ecause the amount of English use depends on the difficulty level of the topic and students in the classes are too large so teachers could not have enough time to work with individual student! . . Di""icultie! teac#er! e9)erienced 4#en organi.%. they sometimes could not find the e2uivalent structures bet"een English and Vietnamese so they s"itched to use Vietnamese instead of English.1. )i!!iculties teac3ers encountered w3en organi&ing group wor grou) 4ork in !)eaking le!!on. %tudents seemed to share the same vie" "ith their teachers on t"o strategies3 ask students to self&report on the percentage of English they use in group "ork and establish a "arning signal to remind them to come back their mother tongue. they e'plained that they have good a"areness of using English because they are English ma#or students and they al"ays tried to speak English in discussion through group "ork as much as they can. 120200% 100200% 80200% 60200% 40200% 20200% 0200% 8igure 12: di!!iculties teac3ers encountered w3en implementing group wor As sho"n in this chart. Dhen being intervie"ed.

le *-nis" la4y sts 5s3 adminis trator to $ ro-p st-dents cle(erly facilitate classroom condition $i(e strict r-les Moti(ate sts to participate $ i(e sts c"ance to present E co-ra!e !ood E proficiency sts "elp t"e lo)ers 8igure 13: Teac3ers" solutions to t3e di!!iculties All of the teachers said that they al"ays managed to overcome the difficulties to make the organi. half of the teachers (@6J) alleged =it takes time and be chaotic to organi. to give strict rules about making noise in the class and to motivate students to participate in group "ork activities.y students at the same time. The other hindrance "hich "as perceived by *7.2. And no" their students can have opportunity to use visual aids such as pro#ector to make their talk or presentation more interesting and more authentic. competitive members are not "illing to share information "ith others.e group "ork> "as the hindrance of group "ork application. 1n respect of another difficulties caused by the students.3. A ma#ority of teachers (<C.7J of the teachers "as lo" student English proficiency. Teac3ers" solutions to overcome t3eir di!!iculties 150% 100% 50% 0% Ma3e spea3in! tas3s s-ita. three teachers (@6J) said that they asked the administrator to facilitate classroom conditions "henever they have meeting "ith the university administrator.ation of group "ork in speaking lesson more successful and efficient. The first and foremost solutions all of the teachers (*66J) did are to make the tasks suitable to the students.CJ claimed that their lack of academic training in group "ork management and teaching e'perience caused the difficulties to their application of group "ork in speaking class. Dith regard to the difficulty of lacking material and teaching aid development. %.37 them lose control of the classes and lack of money for material and teaching aid development to be the biggest problem.CJ) suggested that they often encouraged students "ith good English proficiency to help the lo"er&level one in the group and punished the la. 1n term of . A great ma#ority of the teacher (<C. 2uicker thinkers tend to over"helm the slo"er ones and talkative students often dominate the process. !oncerning the constraints caused by the teachers themselves. CC.CJ) complained the difficulties of immovable seating arrangement.

This factor accounted for <@J. -evertheless. They supposed that these solutions "ere actually useful "hen they carried out group "ork activity in teaching speaking skills. This is not hard to understand because Vietnamese students are strongly affected by !onfucianism that focuses on academic study of grammar and in&depth kno"ledge. passi(e learnin! styles 0ac3 of mat erials and learnin! aids #t "ers 8igure 1%: di!!iculties students experienced w3en wor ing in groups An interesting fact dra"n from $igure *C "as that almost all of the students (86J) agreed that the factors causing the difficulties "ere due to their passive learning style. lo) proficiency Sts. CC.8.CJ of the teachers said that they often used a variety of "ays to group students and they tried to give all the students e2ual chance to present the ideas. T"o intervie"ees confessed that3 * often come to class e0pecting my teachers to e0plain the whole lesson and wish the teacher would not ask me to do any thing! . The sub#ect added that "hen they "ere at high school. The lo"est percentage "as given to the factor of the teachers) lo" proficiency and e'perience (?6J).6. Dhen being asked in the intervie". they did not do group "ork activities so that an'iety and unfamiliarity "ith group "ork in the speaking class seemed to be the big problems. '. The ob#ective factor like classroom conditions. 3ctually+ * am afraid of &eing called to answer the teachers4 7uestion or to present in front of my friends! *n my class+ the num&er of students who are active in participating in group discussion is small! "hen working in group * want to &e sit in silence and listen to my friends! .'. !oncerning the factors that caused the difficulties. lo) En!lis" proficiency St s.38 grouping students. this percentage deserved being taken into consideration. some students reported that the teachers) e'perience in conducting group "ork . Di""icultie! !tudent! e9)erienced 4#en 4orking in grou)! 100% 50% 0% /s. <@J of the students supposed that they "ere because of their lo" English proficiency. te'tbook or learning aid and so on "ere also mentioned as one factor that affect the success of group "ork in the speaking lesson.

2uestionnaires.39 is a matter of bigger concern. the students and teachers share the same opinion on the "ays of grouping. . it investigated difficulties teachers and students e'perienced "hen implementing group "ork. it aimed to clarify the procedures used in organi. 1t is also interesting that games and role&play are favorite activities to all students mean"hile they "ere selected by only half of the teachers. increasing the amount of English use re2uired by the teacher and reminding students to s"itch back to English "hen they speak Vietnamese consciously and unconsciously are t"o strategies "hich almost all of the students and teachers highly appreciated. the teachers need to keep mastering their English proficiency and methodology to meet the students) re2uirements. both teachers and students thought it "as necessary to raise students) a"areness of the importance of English use. three factors =students use too much Vietnamese>.ing group "ork in speaking lesson of *st&year English ma#or students by the teachers of English at V !. 9o"ever. their lo" English proficiency and classroom conditions and learning aid. Thus. 1n addition. =students make too much noise> and =there is a lack of money for material and teaching aid development> "ere considered to be the biggest problems to all the teachers. intervie"s and observations. %econdly. $inally. (u ar$ o" t#e )a)er This study set three&fold purposes3 $irstly.egarding the difficulties. almost of them chose to group students sitting ne't to or near each other and students of mi'ed proficiency. Thus. CHAPTER *: CONC-U(ION *. And they all follo"ed the same basic steps in organi. their biggest difficulties "ere due to their passive learning group "ork activity. And for students. . it is found that all the teachers fre2uently used group "ork in their speaking lesson because they understood the importance of group "ork in teaching speaking skill. 1n this study.1. intervie"s and observations "ere used as research instruments. $rom their responses to the 2uestionnaires. As for strategies used to foster English use in group "ork. it aimed to identify teachers) strategies to foster and stimulate students) English language use in group "ork. the population of this research study "as teachers and English&ma#or students at V !.

c) Raise students" awareness o! t3e importance o! Englis3 use As students) English use in speaking lesson comes from student)s self&consciousness. teachers might group students basing on some criteria such as same common group "ork activity. it is clear that the application of group "ork in speaking lesson "as not totally efficient partly because of the teachers.2. Bepending on the difficulty of the assigned tasks. their position in classroom. not .oreover. Teachers play a very important role in organi. *. A number of recommendations for teachers "ill be discussed belo"3 a) Emplo$ a variet$ o! criteria to group students. 566*). Teachers should be fle'ible to decide "hat strategies they follo". teachers can select appropriate activities for their students. Therefore. same or mi'ed level of proficiency. a number of suggestions "ere given to teachers and students of English $aculty at V !. or random grouping (0ro"n. #) )esign and select appropriate activities A variation of activities that are suitable for students) life and interest can motivate students "ork in group in an effective "ay. The first step to do this is to raise student)s a"areness of the importance of English use for their o"n learning. Reco endation! "or teac#er! $rom the findings.40 0ased on the findings of the study. . They should be advised that they are the ones "ho are responsible for their success and failure. teachers should find out more about their students) interest in order to kno" "hat their favorite activities are. teacher can only encourage them to use English rather than to force them to. they should spend a lot of time before lessons to prepare material and select suitable tasks and activities for mi'&ability students. $rom that.

*. The number of teacher and student participants in the study "as not big enough for broad generali. Then they "ill be "illing to speak English as much as possible for their o"n sake. The first limitation has to do "ith the e'tent to "hich the findings can be generali. Therefore. he is able to adapt it to his personal needs.'. -i itation! o" t#e !tud$ There are t"o limitations that need to be ackno"ledged and addressed regarding the present study. they should be a"are of their active role in the process of learning by choosing good learning strategies. 1n addition. for instance3 start and stop "ork right after the teachers) commandE be 2uick "hen moving to another activityE be self disciplineE and listen carefully teachers) instructions. Though all the teachers "ere invited. *.41 the teachers or someone else. Dhen he is in a learning situation that he find difficult or their strengths.%. And they must understand ho" to improve their learning by emphasi. students should actively involve in the language learning process. An effective group "ork needs good cooperation bet"een the teacher and students. Reco endation! "or !tudent! a) 7ooperate wit3 t3eir teac3ers As students in a learner&centered class are the ones "ho are responsible for their success or failure in their learning. Teachers should also train the students to obey some rules in group "ork. #) Train t3emselves to #e e!!ective students Each student should find a style of learning that suit himFher.ation. and more importantly. d) Train students group wor s ills. the teacher should train and instruct their students some skills to "ork in groups.ed beyond the samples studied. And only *66 * st year . there "ere only 7 teachers teaching speaking skill for the first year English ma#ors. cooperating "ith their teachers to gain success.

. 9o"ever. are therefore.esearchers contemplating future studies in this area may "ish to e'plore the use of group "ork activity in other language skills. . reading and listening. 1n conclusion. strategies to involve student in group "ork activity and so on. The second limitation concerns the scope that this study could cover. reading and "riting "ere not e'plored. All comments. due to the limitation of time and e'perience. Bue to the time constraints. learner&learner interaction during small group activity. *. $uture researchers can further e'plore the untouched issues such as interaction process in group "ork.42 English ma#ors "ere selected as sample "hile there "ere no students came from the second or the third year. shortcomings are unavoidable. greatly appreciated. namely "riting. by using a combination of methods. this study has been able to contribute to our kno"ledge of !LT approach in general and group "ork activity in particular in "ays that "ill benefit not only teachers but students of English as "ell. many untouched issues on group "ork and the use of group "ork activity in other language skills such as listening.*. (ugge!tion! "or "urt#er !tudie! As group "ork is a very common activity of !LT approach so that it "as applied "idely in many kinds of language classes.