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SUMMER TRAINING REPORT

ITI Ltd., Mankapur Unit


Gonda (U.P.) - 271308
(From: - 16.06.2008 to 14.07.2008)

Under the able guidance of:-

Mr. S.S Bisht

Manager (HREDC)

ITI Ltd., Mankapur

Submitted by:-

Saurabh Chatterjee

Electrical and Electronics Engineering

B.Tech, 2nd Year

United College of Engineering and Research, Naini,


Allahabad

VSTR No.-439
CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that Mr. Saurabh Chatterjee, a student of


Electrical and Electronics Engineering, pursuing B.Tech at
United College of Engineering and Research, has
successfully completed his summer training at ITI Ltd.
Mankapur, Gonda during the period of 16-06-2008 to 14-07-
2008.

It’s further certified that during the summer training period the
candidate attended the lectures and plant visits regularly and
punctually.

S.S Bisht
Manager (HREDC)
ITI Ltd., Mankapur
Gonda (U.P.)
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This project is an outcome of efforts of many apart the faculty.


So, it becomes important that their support be acknowledged
here. This training wouldn’t have been successful without their
supportive efforts.

First of all I would like to present my sincere gratitude and


appreciation to Mr. S.S Bisht, Manager (HREDC) to allow me
undertake the industrial training at ITI Ltd., Mankapur, one of
the largest public sector undertakings in the field of Electronics
industries in India.

He played an important role in preparing me for the industrial


culture and making me aware of actual working conditions in
the organization.

I would like to devote my special thanks to Mr. KULDEEP


SHARMA for teaching GSM and Dr. B.P. Giri for SIX SIGMA
in a very easy and interesting manner.

I would like to extend my sincere gratitude towards all the


faculty members of HRED centre ITI Ltd., Mankapur and all
the employees of ITI Ltd. Mankapur, who devoted their
valuable time to render me information about the complexities
of industries and technical know-how.

The factory has a beautiful and well organized work


environment which made a great pleasure and an easy task to
learn and understand the principles and theories.

Saurabh Chatterjee

B.Tech, EN (2nd Year)

UCER, Naini
Allahabad (U.P.)

PREFACE
INDEX

 Acknowledgement
 Preface
 Overview of ITI Ltd., Mankapur

 Lectures: -
→ ISO Standards
→ Six Sigma
→ Global System for Mobile(GSM)
→ Base Transciever System(BTS)
→ Enterprise Resource Planning(ERP)
→ Networking

 Plant Visit: -
→ Circuit Division
 PCB Plant
 Hybrid Plant
→ Component Division
→ Switching Exchange Plant(SEA)
→ Quality Control
→ Quality Assurance
Overview of ITI Ltd.
I.T.I. Ltd. was the first public sector undertaking of the free
INDIA. It was established in year 1948. The first manufacturing
unit was established at the Bangalore complex in Karnataka
under the name of Indian Telephone Industry Limited (I.T.I.). As
time progressed the full name of I.T.I. become a misnomer as
the industry began to manufacture several other electronic
hardware than those required in the field of telephony. Now this
public sector enterprise is only known as ITI Ltd.

The different units of ITI Ltd. Are situated at:-

 Bangalore (Karnataka):- Major products are “ESSCON


PROJECT” for Defence purpose, MSC Products, CDMA
(Handsets).

 Palghat:- Major products are Scratching cards, GSM,


MSE.

 Naini (Allahabad, U.P.):- Major product is Latest


Transmission equipment (ADSL).

 Raibareily (U.P.):- Major products are BTS and Power


plant.

 Mankapur (U.P.):- Major products are GSM, BTS, C-Dot


and Landline communication.

 Srinagar (J&K):- Presently shut down.


Overview of ITI Ltd. Mankapur Unit

The ITI Ltd. Mankapur was established in the year 1982.The


construction work started on 31st May 1983 and by April 1985
the production has also started. The first complete electronic
exchange was provided to INDIA by ITI Ltd. Mankapur Unit and
hence Mankapur was given the unique distinction of “Digital
City of INDIA” at that time. The land area covered by I.T.I.
Ltd. is 352 acres. The factory covered area is 77,500 m2, while
the air- conditioned space within the factory is 44,300 m2. The
township under ITI Ltd. Mankapur consist of 3,000 residences,
three Intermediate schools, two cultural clubs, and one
recreation centre (Auditorium), post-office, banks, shopping
complex, and state of the art sports facilities .

Mission

 The mission of the Industry is to be the leader in the


domestic market and be an important player in the global
market for voice data and Image communication by
providing total solutions to customers.

 To build core competencies to enter in new business


areas.

Main divisions of ITI Ltd. Mankapur are: -

1. Components Division:- Here different circuit


components are manufactured or stored if purchased from
other sources.
2. Circuit Division:- Here circuits are developed on the
base material. It consists of Printed Circuit Board Plant
(PCB) & Hybrid Circuits Plant (Hybrid).

3. SEA (Switching Exchange Assembly) Plant:- Here


different circuit components are assembled on the PCB. It
also includes the SMD(Surface Mounting Devices)
Line which is used to manufacture new technology boards
using the SMT(Surface Mounting Technology).

4. Central Services Division:- It controls the AC facilities,


water supply, electricity supplies etc. used in the factory
and colony.

Policy Of Diversification:- Under this policy ITI also produces


non telecom products like NCM (note counting machine),
FNDM (Fake Note Detection Machine, Inverters etc.

Main products of ITI Ltd. Mankapur are:-

 E10B Exchanges:- Electronic Digital (10-digit) basic


exchange which works at a temperature of 18-22°
C.

 CSN-MA Exchange:- Numeric Satellite control


media analog exchange which works at a
temperature of 18°-22° C.

 CSN-MM Exchange:- Multimedia exchange to meet


the demand of Internet and ISDN facilities.
 C-DOT Exchange:- Control department of
Telematics exchange was designed by Mr. Shyam
Petroda of Gujarat (The scientific advisor in the
ministry of Mrs. Indira Gandhi) to suit the Indian
climatic conditions. The exchange works satisfactorily
up to 35C.

 GSM:- Global System for Mobile communication.

 BTS:- Base transceivers station, is now


manufactured in ITI Ltd. Mankapur.
ISO

ISO (International Organization for Standardization) is the


world's largest developer and publisher of International
Standards.

ISO is a network of the national standards institutes of 157


countries, one member per country, with a Central Secretariat
in Geneva, Switzerland, that coordinates the system.

ISO is a non-governmental organization that forms a bridge


between the public and private sectors. On the one hand, many
of its member institutes are part of the governmental structure
of their countries, or are mandated by their government. On
the other hand, other members have their roots uniquely in the
private sector, having been set up by national partnerships of
industry associations.

Therefore, ISO enables a consensus to be reached on solutions


that meet both the requirements of business and the broader
needs of society.

ISO 9000

ISO 9000 is a family of standards for quality management


systems. ISO 9000 is maintained by ISO, the International
Organization for Standardization and is administered by
accreditation and certification bodies. Some of the
requirements in ISO 9001 (which is one of the standards in the
ISO 9000 family) include

-A set of procedures that cover all key processes in the


business
monitoring processes to ensure they are effective.

- Keeping adequate records.

-Checking output for defects, with appropriate and corrective


action where necessary.

- Regularly reviewing individual processes and the quality


system itself for effectiveness.

-Facilitating continual improvement

Discover ISO (ISO's name)

Because "International Organization for Standardization"


would have different acronyms in different languages ("IOS" in
English, "OIN" in French for Organisation Internationale de
normalisation, its founders decided to give it also a short, all-
purpose name. They chose "ISO", derived from the Greek isos,
meaning "equal". Whatever the country, whatever the
language, the short form of the organization's name is always
ISO.

How ISO decides to develop a standard

ISO launches the development of new standards in response to


sectors and stakeholders that express a clearly established
need for them.

An industry sector or other stakeholder group typically


communicates its requirement for a standard to one of ISO's
national members. The latter then proposes the new work item
to the relevant ISO technical committee developing standards
in that area. New work items may also be proposed by
organizations in liaison (see below) with such committees.
When work items do not relate to existing committees,
proposals may also be made by ISO members to set up new
technical committees to cover new fields of activity.
To be accepted for development, a proposed work item must
receive the majority support of the participating members of
the ISO technical committee which, amongst other criteria,
verifies the "global relevance" of the proposed item – this
means that it indeed responds to an international need and will
eventually be suitable for implementation on as broad a basis
as possible worldwide.

Overview of standards and certification

Why standards & certification

Academic degrees are recognized because they come from a


recognized institution that is usually accredited .They attest
that the individual holding a diploma has knowledge of the
subject matter. They don’t necessarily speak to competency of
third party assessment.

Certificates- Certificates are the smallest building block. A


certificate of accomplishment means that one has successfully
completed a specific course or program. A certificate may be
awarded based on seat time (the person sat through so many
hours of training) or assessment.

Certification- ISO does not itself certify organizations. Many


countries have formed accreditation bodies to authorize
certification bodies, which audit organizations applying for ISO
9001 compliance certification. Although commonly referred to
as ISO 9000:2000 certifications, the actual standard to which
an organization's quality management can be certified is ISO
9001:2000. Both the accreditation bodies and the certification
bodies charge fees for their services. The various accreditation
bodies have mutual agreements with each other to ensure that
certificates issued by one of the Accredited Certification Bodies
(CB) are accepted world-wide.

The applying organization is assessed based on an extensive


sample of its sites, functions, products, services and processes;
a list of problems ("action requests" or "non-compliances") is
made known to the management. If there are no major
problems on this list, the certification body will issue an ISO
9001 certificate for each geographical site it has visited, once it
receives a satisfactory improvement plan from the
management showing how any problems will be resolved.

An ISO certificate is not a once-and-for-all award, but must be


renewed at regular intervals recommended by the certification
body, usually around three years. In contrast to the Capability
Maturity Model there are no grades of competence within ISO
9001.

What “International Standardization” means?

When the large majority of products or services in a particular


business or industry sector conform to international standards,
a state of industry-wide standardization can be said to exist.
This is achieved through consensus agreement between
national delegations representing all the economic
stakeholders concerned –suppliers, users, government
regulators and other interest groups, such as consumers. They
agree on specifications and criteria to be applied consistently in
the classification of materials, in the manufactures and supply
of products, in testing and analysis, in terminology and in the
provision of services. In this way International standards
provide a reference framework, or a common
technological language, between suppliers and their
customers-which facilitates trade and the transfer of
technology.

What is accreditation?

In simple terms, accreditation is like certification of the


certification body. `Accreditation’ should not be used as an
interchangeable alternative for certification or registration. BIS
Quality Management Systems Certification activity has been
accredited by Raad voor Accreditatie (RvA) of Netherlands, to
carry out IS/ISO 9001:2000 certification in 23 business sectors.

What is quality?

Quality is an “Ability of a set of inherent characteristics of a


product, system, or process to fulfill requirements of customers
and other interested parties.”

A Quality Management System (QMS)- is a System to


establish a quality policy and quality objectives and to direct
and control the organization to achieve those objectives

Quality Assurance-is a part of Quality Management focused


on providing confidence that quality requirements are fulfilled.

What if standards do not exist?

If there were no standards, we would soon notice. Standards


make an enormous contribution to most aspects of our lives-
although very often, that contribution is invisible. It is when
there is an absence of standards that there importance is
brought home. For examples, as purchasers or users of
products, we soon notice when they turn out to be of poor
quality, do not fit, are incompatible with equipment us already
have, are unreliable or dangerous. When product meets our
expectation, we tend to take this for granted. We are usually
unaware of the role played by standards in raising levels of
quality, safety reliability, efficiency and interchange ability as
well as in providing such benefits at an economical cost.
ISO Standards Compendium

ISO 9000- Quality Management

ISO 9000:2000- Quality Management Systems-Fundamentals


and vocabulary

ISO 9001:2000- Quality Management Systems-Requirements

ISO 9004:2000- Quality Management Systems-Guidelines and


performance improvements

ISO 10006:2003- Quality Management- Guidelines for quality


management in Projects

ISO 10007:2003- Quality Management Systems-Guidelines for


configuration management

ISO 10012:2003- Measurement management system-


Requirements for measurement process And measuring
equipment.

ISO/TR 10013:2001- Guidelines for quality management


System documentation

ISO/TR 10014:1998- Guidelines for managing the economics


of quality

ISO 10015:1999- Quality Management- Guidelines for training

ISO/TR 10017:2003- Guidelines on statistical techniques for


ISO 9001:2000

ISO/TR 19011:2002- Guidelines for quality and/or


environmental management system auditing.

What is ISO 14000?


I.S.O. 14000 provides an internationally recognized set of
standards for incorporating environmental management
into every aspect of a company’s business.

ISO 14001:1996-Environmental Management System-


Specification with guidance for use

ISO 14001-2004-Environmental Management System-


Requirements with guidance for use

ISO 14004:2004-Environmental Management System-


General guidelines on principles, system and support
techniques

ISO 14015:2001-Environmental Management –Environmental


assessment of sites and organization (EASO)

ISO 14031:1999-Environmental Management –Environmental


performance evaluation-guidelines

ISO/TR 14032:1999-Environmental Management-Examples


of environmental performance evaluation (EPE)

ISO 14040:1997-Environmental Management –Life Cycle


assessment-principles and framework

ISO 14041:1998-Environmental Management - Life Cycle


assessment-Goal and scope definition and inventory analysis

ISO 14042:2000-Environmental Management- Life Cycle


assessment-Life cycle impact assessment

ISO 14043:2000-Environmental Management- Life Cycle


assessment-Life cycle interpretation

Advantages:

It is widely acknowledged that proper quality management


improves business, often having a positive effect on
investment, market share, sales growth, sales margins,
competitive advantage, and avoidance of litigation.[4][5] The
quality principles in ISO 9000:2000 are also sound, according
to Wade,[6] and Barnes, [5] who says "ISO 9000 guidelines
provide a comprehensive model for quality management
systems that can make any company competitive." Barnes
also cites a survey by Lloyd's Register Quality Assurance
which indicated that ISO 9000 increased net profit, and
another by Deloitte-Touche which reported that the costs of
registration were recovered in three years. According to the
Providence Business News [7], implementing ISO often gives
the following advantages:

A) Create a more efficient, effective operation

B) Increase customer satisfaction and retention

C) Reduce audits

D) Enhance marketing

E) Improve employee motivation, awareness, and morale

F) Promote international trade

G) Increases profit

I) Reduce waste and increases productivity


SIX SIGMA

The concept of SIX SIGMA was put forward by “MICKEL


HARRY” who was an engineer with Motorola in 1985. He
introduced six sigma to his company which was facing the
downfall and after following six sigma principles, the company
got the regular boost in their bottom line.

According to John Maxwell,

“Leadership determines the direction of company,


organization determines the potential of company, and
personnel determine the success of the company”.

SIX SIGMA can be more precisely defined as-

“A methodology to manage process variations that


causes defects, defined as unacceptable deviation from
the mean or target; and to systematically work towards
managing variation to eliminate those defects”.

It can also be termed as measure of quality that strives for near


perfection. It is disciplined data driven approach and
methodology for eliminating defects in any process from
manufacturing to transactional, transactional to product and
from product to service.

Starting with manufacturing, today SIX SIGMA is used across a


wide range of industries like banking, telecommunication,
insurance, marketing, construction, healthcare and software.

IMPLANTATION METHODOLOGIES

Six Sigma has two key methodologies:-

(1) DMAIC
(2) DMADV

DMAIC (Define Measure Analysis Improve Control)

It is used to improve an existing business process.

Basic methodology consists of the following five phases:

DEFINE- Formally define the process improvement goals that


are consistent with customer demands and enterprise strategy.

MEASURE-To define baseline measurements on current


process for future comparison, map and measure process in
question and collect required process data.

ANALYZE- To verify relationship and causality of factors.


What is the relationship? Are there other factors that have
not been considered?
IMROVE- Optimize the process based upon the analysis
using techniques like design of Experiments.

CONTOL- Setup pilot runs to establish process capability,


transition to production and thereafter continuously measure
the process and institute control mechanisms to ensure that
variances are corrected before they result in defects.

DMADV (Define Measure Analysis Design Verify)

It is used to create new product designs or process designs


in such a way that it results in a more predictable, mature
and defect free performance.

Basic methodology consists of the following five phases:

DEFINE- Formally define the goals of the design activity that


are consistent with customer demands and enterprise
strategy.

MEASURE- Identify CTQs, product capabilities, production


process capability, risk assessment, etc.

ANALYZE- Develop and design alternatives, create high-


level design and evaluate design capability to select the best
design.

DESIGN- Develop detail designs, optimize design, and plan


for design verification. This phase may require simulations.
VERIFY- Design, setup pilot runs, implement production
process and handover to process owners.

FEATURES OF SIX SIGMA:-


 It can measure how good our product, services & processes really are.
 It helps in establishing a gauge pace in race for total customer
satisfaction.
 It describes quantitatively how a process is performing.
 By SIX–SIGMA, a process must not produce 3.4 defects per million
opportunities.
 It can measure any defect which helps in eliminating them.
 It denotes statistically how a given process deviates from perfection.
 It helps an organization in increased market share, customer satisfaction,
cost reduction and dramatic boost to bottom line.

SIX SIGMA PHILOSOPHY

Customer needs products/services on time, with zero


defects, at lower cost. So improvement means we must be
able to predict & prevent, not detect & react.

By combining the mean & standard deviation, the sigma of a


process can be calculated. Thus sigma of a process tells us
how capable it is. Once basic competencies & deficiencies
are known, corrective actions can be taken.

Corrective action leads to reduction of defects, cycle time &


cost. The reduction of defect cycle time & cost leads to
improved customer satisfaction. As satisfaction improve,
likelihood of doing better business increases. As business
increases we grow & prosper.

COMPARISION OF VARIOUS VALUED SIGMAS


SIGMA PPM YIELD

1.0 690000 30.90%


1.11 650000 35.0%
1.90 344000 65.6%
2.0 308537 69.2%
2.9 80800 91.92%
3.0 66800 93.31%
3.9 8190 99.18%
4.0 6210 99.38%
4.9 330 99.967%
5.0 233 99.977%
5.81 8 99.9992%
5.92 5 99.9995%
6 3.4 99.9997%

Below Four Sigma loss is around (10-15)% and it is useless to


do a process below Four Sigma.

COMPARISION BETWEEN SIX SIGMA AND CLASSICAL

ISSUE CLASSICAL SIX SIGMA


Management Cost & time Quality & time

Manufacturing Trial & error Robust design

Tolerance Worst case Root sum of


samples
Problem Fixing
Preventing
Problem solving Expert based System based

Analysis Experience Data

Focus Product Process

Behaviour Reactive Proactive

Reasoning Experience based Statistically based

Outlook Short term Long term

Aim Company Customer

Organization Authority Learning

Training Luxury Necessity

Chain Of Command Hierarchy Empowered teams

People(employee) Cost Asset

Control Centralized Localized

Improvement Automation Optimization

GSM

G.S.M. is the short form for Global Services for Mobile


communication. Analog cellular system is known as 1st
generation digital system. Digital system are second generation
system. The digital transmission over air interface has a
number of advantages over analog transmission.

Some of them are:-

● Better speech quality.

● Speech privacy and security (improve through encryption)

● High spectral efficiency (traffic density per MHZ bandwidth


due to excessive frequency reuse).
● Better resistance to interference (because frequency
Hopping)

● Data service and ISDN capability.

● Effective use of battery power by RF power control.

G.S.M was though first developed in Europe but is now


used everywhere in the world.

Some Version of G.S.M:-

GSM 900 (STANDARD):- This is a standard for digital voice


transmission in the 900MHZ band. This is so-called primary
band includes two Sub – band of 25MHZ.

GSM 1800:- Because of growing no. of subscriber a further set


of frequency 75MHZ in the 1800 band were allocated for digital
mobile services in Europe.

This was three times the bandwidth allocated for G.S.M.-900.


G.S.M.-900 components can be used in G.S.M.-1800. Only the
mobile station & the radio base transceiver station, themselves
need a different specification.

COMPARISON BETWEEN GSM 900 AND GSM 1800

GSM 900 GSM 1800

UPLINK BAND 890-915 MHz 1710-1785 MHz

DOWNLINK BAND 935-960 MHz 1805-1880 MHz

CHANNEL SPACING 200 KHz 200 KHz

TOTAL # CHANNELS 124 374

DUPLEX SPACING 45 MHz 95 MHz


#TIME SLOTS 8 8

Limitation of Fixed Line Telephone:-

 No mobility
 Delay in new connection
 Prone to failure
 No security
 Very less Value Added Services

To overcome these difficulties worldwide communication


organization has establish committee to study about wireless
telephony. Those groups of members were named as CEPT
(Conference of European Post & Telegraph).

PSTN: PSTN Call Setup

Xchg. A Xchg. B

Subscriber X Subscriber Y

Call Through

EVOLUTION OF G.S.M. STANDARDS:-


●1980’s:- During this period, Advance Mobile phone services
(AMPS) was there in America.

●EARLY 1980’s:- European nations were developing cellular


solutions but no common standard was available.

●1982:- CEPT (Conference of European Posts and Telegraph)


formed a study group called the Group for Special Mobile
(G.S.M.)

To honour the group the technology is named as GSM.

OBJECTIVES OF GSM:-

● Good speech quality

● Low terminal and service cost

● Support for international roaming

● Ability to support handheld terminals

● Support for range of new services and facilities

● Spectral Efficiency

● ISDN compatibility

1989:- GSM responsibility was transferred to ETSI (European


Telecom Standards Institute).

1990:- Phase-1 of G.S.M. specification was published during


this period.

MID-1991:- Commercial services were started and the GSM


facility was launched in four countries:-

i. France
ii. Italy
iii. U.K.
iv.Germany

1997:- Commercial Services became available in 110 Countries


SERVICES PROVIDED BY G.S.M:-

Tele-Service: - Telephony.

Data Service: -

- Circuit Switched Data up to 9600 bps (9.6kbps).

- G3 Facsimile-Of third generation.

- S.M.S.

Supplementary Services:-

– Call forwarding, when subscriber is unavailable.


– Call barring for outgoing or incoming calls.
– Call identification.
– Call waiting.
– Multiparty Conversion.

RANGE OF ONE CHANNEL:-

Let’s take the case of G.S.M. Band frequency.

890 to 915 MHZ - Uplink Frequency

935 to 960 MHZ - Downlink Frequency

Each Uplink band & Download band is of 25 MHZ duration. Now


25 MHZ is divided in 125 Parts. Each part is called Channels.

1 Channel=1 ARFCN=25 MHZ 125=200KHZ

So, 1Channel=200 KHZ.

Hence each channel becomes 200 KHZ .Each person is


allocated for 1 Channel. Hence in one band of frequency 125
Persons can talk at a time.

TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access):-


After FDMA it was later found that division of frequency itself
was not sufficient to meet the capacity of requirement. So
frequency channels are again divided into time domain called
time slots.

This means that multiple users will use the same channel
frequency but not at the same instance.

Each user will be given a time slot of fixed time period. Hence
more users can use the same channel of FDMA by time division
multiplexing. This method of increasing the capacity is called
Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA).

How & How much Capacity Can Be Extended By


Introducing TDMA:-

After FDMA each channel is of 200 KHZ.

Now, 200 KHZ is again divided into same slots.

125 Channels=125*8=1000 time slots.

But out of 125,124 channels are used for speech transmission.


One channel in each frame is left for providing gap to next
frame.

This one channel is used as a guard to avoid overlapping


between two frames.

Hence from 125 channels including TDMA no. of time slots used
for traffic=124*8=992.

Hence 992 persons can talk from one frame. In this way it
increases the capacity of traffic.

CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access):-


This is used in WLL where as in G.S.M. FDMA and TDMA both
are used at a time.

In this method complete frequency band is divided in 64 codes-


channels. Each code channel can be used by different users.
The entire user will communicate at the same time and
transmit & receive related to its code.

A spread spectrum technology is used in which the radio


signals associated with a call is spread across a single board
frequency spectrum(1.25 MHZ).The CDMA frequency access
method allow the services provider to reuse the same
frequency in adjacent cells. This is because a code is assigned
to each frequency in the spectrum to decipher the signal,
therefore signals in the same frequency but with different code
appear as noise to the other end.

Reuse of same frequency allows CDMA to have more capacity


compared to TDMA & FDMA.CDMA system has the ability to
communicate with more than one cell at a time during call. This
is known as hand off &provides uninterrupted call while mobile
station moves between cells.

GSM:- In G.S.M. System, TDMA in a combination with FDMA is


used. The usage of each radio channel is portioned into
multiple (8) time slots and each user is assigned a specific
frequency/time slot combination.

TYPES OF COMMUNICATION SYSTEM:-

SIMPLEX: - The direction of transmission is in one direction


only, meaning that user terminal is either transmission or
receiver . For example Pager ,radio, T.V.services etc.

HALF-DUPLEX: - If the direction of transmission is alternate in


both direction.
Let’s take two station A&B ,when A behaves like transmission
then B behaves like receiver & vice-versa. For example –Walky
Talky.

DUPLEX:- If direction of transmission is simultaneous in both


direction ,but the station will behave like transmitter and
receiver at a time. E.g. –Cordless telephone, Mobile, microwave
radio etc.

In case of simplex or half duplex method, same


frequency is used for both the station, whereas in duplex
system of communication separate frequency is used for both
stations.

MULTIPLE ACCESS TECHNIQUES:- In cellular cordless


terminology the three main types of multiple access techniques
used to divide the radio frequency spectrum of the cell site
radios and mobile stations are:-

FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access):-

Channelization: - To increase capacity of traffic, the time


slots are divided into sub parts. These divisions are called
channels.

There are three channelization methods which are used in this


FDMA, TDMA and CDMA.

During FDMA, frequency division multiplexing is used. Each part


of frequency is channels. Each call is carried on a separate
frequency channels. Each channel is called ARFCN (Absolute
Radio Frequency Channel No.)

For analog system FDMA in combination with FDD is used. The


spectrum is divided into no. of channels and then Freq.
Modulation (FM) is used for speech channels and Freq. Shift
Keying (FSK) is used for signalling channels.
CORDLESS TELEPHONY

H
BS Xchg. A Xchg. B
S

Subscriber Y

Subscriber X

Call Through

INTRODUCTION TO CELLULAR COMMUNICATION:-

In a wireless communication to access the subscriber two R.F.


channels are needed per active cell. But in a city if there is
large no. of subscriber it needs large no. of channels to
accommodate them.

But there is limitation of availability of spectrum. To overcome


this limitation total area of city will be divided into zones, called
CELLS.

Each CELL has base station Transceivers (BTS).

The location of site will be on following factor:-

1. Coverage of prime locations.


2. Cost factor.
3. Availability of power, security and open space.
4. Nearby installation of other B.T.S.
5. Terrain condition.
CELL STRUCTURE:- Each cell is hexagonal in shape. Each cell
may be of different shape and size. In highly dense area, the
size of cell will be small and in lesser dense area cell size will be
larger. Size of cell on highways and on main roads, cell size is
optimized to cover larger length along the road. This can be
made possible by using highly directive antenna.

GSM NETWORK ELEMENTS

HLR

VLR

AUC
MSC
M BT BC ST
EIR
S S F F

SMSSC

BC

VMSC
OMC

GSM NETWORK ELEMENTS:- The meanings of various


components of G.S.M. as used in public land Mobile Network
(PLMN) are:-

MS - Mobile Station

BSS - Base Station Subsystem

NSS - Network Station Subsystem

B.T.S. - Base Transceivers Station


B.S.C. - Base Station Controller

B.C. - Billing Centre

M.S.C.-Mobile Switching Centre

H.L.R. - Home Location Register

V.L.R. - Visiting Location Register

A.U.C. - Authentication Centre

EIR- Equipment Identity Register

OMC- Operation and Maintenance Centre

SMSC- Short Message Service Centre

VMSC- Voice Mail Services Centre

STF- Speech Transcoder Frame

THE LINK:- Between mobile station & B.T.S is an air link.


Between B.T.S. and BCF an Abis link is present whereas, the
STF is connected to MSC by an ‘A’ link.

Mobile Station (MS):- The Mobile Station(MS) represent the


terminal equipment as use by subscriber supported by G.S.M.
wireless system .

It consists of two parts:-

● SIM (Subscriber Identity Module)

● Mobile Equipment

Functions of MS:-

 Radio Transmission Termination.


 Radio Channel Management
 Speech Encoding / Decoding.
 Radio Link Error Protection.
 Flow Control of Data.
 Mobility Management and Rate adaptation Of
User Data to Radio link.
 Performance Measurement of Radio Link

BSS:- The B.T.S., BCF and STF together from the BSS via Air
link connection is mode between the BSS & the mobile station.

B.T.S.:- The BTS by means of an antenna receives the signals


as sent by the Mobile station. Several types of an antenna
configuration are there depending on need. In the BTS an MRIF
(Mini Rack Interface) is present. The MRIF then passes on the
signal to the BCF through Abis link .In an Abis link speech and
signal travel at a rate of 16Kbps.

● BTS has a set of transceivers to communicate with mobile in


its area.

● One BTS cover one or more than one Cell.

● Capacity of Cell depends upon the no. of transceivers in a


cell.

● BTS is connected to BSC through Abis link of 2Mbps.

● BTS transmits and receives voice at 13Kbps on Um i.e. Air


interface.

● BTS commands Mobile set to set Transmission Power, Timing


advance and Handover

BCF:- The BCF takes part in signalling part of data. It has two
types of services COWS & CEWS are meant for common
channel signaling to other parts like STF etc. CEWS do
signalling related to the BCF. The signals coming at 16Kbps
where speech is not touched in the BCF.

STF:- The BCF is then connected to the STF by an M link. In


this, signal travel at a rate of 64Kbps. This receives speech at
16Kbps & signals at 64 Kbps. It takes care of the speech part. It
contains certain STU cards which connected to the MSC by A
link.

MSC:- MSC means Mobile Switching Centre. It provides


switching of Cell like PSTN exchange and is the heart of GSM
network. Switching means connecting, maintaining & release of
mobile to mobile, mobile to PSTN &PSTN to mobile Cells.
It has data base of all subscribers and stored in HLR, VLR etc.

Database includes identity of subscriber MSC is weighted by no.


of subscribers. For example, MSC of 1 lakh subscriber means
that MSC can provide connection to 1 lakh and beyond which it
need another MSC.

The MSC perform the switching function for all mobile station
located in its geography area covered by its BSS. Function of
MSC is:-

● Call handling that copy with mobile nature of subscriber

● Management of required logical radio link channel during


calls

● Management of MSC-BSS signalling protocol

● Handling location Register, ensures inter working between


mobile, mobile- station & VLR

● Control of inter BSS and inter MSC handovers

● Standard functions of local exchanges

● Exchange of signalling information with other systems

● Acts as gateway to interrogate HLR

AUC:-

● Contain subscriber authentication data called subscriber


keys.

● Generates security related parameter needed to authorize


services.
● Generates unique data pattern called chipper key to encrypt
user data and speech.

HLR:-

● MSC store all the data base of subscriber in HLR.

● MSC communicates with HLR to get database of subscriber


on call.

● Contains administrative information of each subscriber


registered in the corresponding GSM network.

● Location of the mobile is typically in the form of the signaling


address of the VLR associated with the MS.

● Important data fields are:-

* MSISDN

* Present VLR

* IMSI (International Mobile Subscriber Identity)

VLR:- Contains temporary database of subscriber. Temporary


database means mobile status (like ON/OFF), Location of
mobile, that is in which cell is the mobile so that incoming call
can be directed to that cell.

Again in Roaming case i.e. if any subscriber is coming from


some other MSC area, then it is known to as visitor for that
MSC.

When that visitor subscriber switches on its mobile then first


make request for call, then MSC confirms to HLR & HLR
confirms it from original HLR and stores the database to visitor
VLR.

EIR:- It is accessed during the equipment validation procedure


when a mobile station access. It contains identity of mobile
station equipment called IMEI.
The three lists corresponding to the status of the equipment
are:-

● White list (valid)

● Grey list (suspected)

● Black list (banned)

OTHER ELEMENTS:-

● BC:- To collect billing data for Public land Mobile


Network (PLMN).

● SC:- To provide special service to mobile subscriber


in the Public Land Mobile Network (PLMN).

BURST TYPES:-

● Normal Burst

- Carry Data

● F Burst
-Used in FCCH (Frequency Correction Channel)
● S Burst
- Used in SCH (Synchronization Channel)
●Access Burst
- Used in RACH (Random Access Channel)
●Dummy Burst

TRAFFIC CHANNEL:-

● TCH / F:-

- Traffic Channel Full Rate.

- @13 Kbps

● TCH / H

- Traffic Channel Half Rate.

- @6.5 Kbps

● EFR

- Enhanced Full Rate.

- @13 Kbps
BROADCAST CHANNEL DOWNLINK:-

● BCCH

-Broadcast Control Channel.

-Broadcasting Network / cell specific information.

● FCCH

-Frequency Correction Control Channel.

-Used by the mobiles for frequency correction.

● SCH

-Synchronization Channel.

-Synchronization of mobiles (TDMA, FN & BSIC).

● CBCH

-Cell Broadcast Control Channel.

COMMON CONTROL CHANNEL:-

● DOWNLINK

- PCH

* Paging Channel.

* For Alerting Channel.


-AGCH

*Access Grant Channel.

* For Granting Access to M

● UPLINK

-RACH

* Random Access Channel.

* Mobiles seeking attention of the BTS.

DEDICATED CONTROL CHANNEL:-

● Slow

-SACCH

* Slow Associated Control Channel (Duplex).

* Transmission of Signalling Data(Radio link


supervision, Measurement, Transmit Power Control, Timing
Advance).

● Fast

-SDCCH

* Stand Alone Dedicated Control Channel (Duplex).

* Signaling Channel used for service request.

-FACCH

* Fast Associated Control Channel.

* Stealing Flag & Preparation.

* Used during cell setup, Handover.

RADIO LINK ASPECTS:-


● ITU Allocation for GSM 900

-Band 890-915 MHZ for Uplink (MS to BSS).

-Band 935-960 MHZ for Downlink (BSS to MS).

● To maximize the capacity utilization.

-Access technique is FDMA /TDMA/FDD.

● 25MHZ bandwidth is divided into:-

-124 Carriers (ARFCN).

-Spaced 200 KHZ apart.

* TDMA superimposed on carrier frequency.

* Each Base Station is assigned multiple


frequencies.

FREQUENCY HOPPING:-

● OBJECTIVE:- Multiple-Path fading is dependent on carrier


frequency. Changing the carrier frequency slowly helps
alleviate the problem. Co-Channel interference is in effect
randomized.

● REALIZATION:- The ARFCN for the channel is change in


each successive frame, based on HOPPING Sequence. The
HOPPING Sequence changes for each TDMA Frame.

VOICE PROCESSING
SPEEC CHANN INTER- MODU
H EL LEAVIN CIPHERIN LATIO
Speech
CODIN CODIN G G N
G G

SPEECH CHANN DE- DE-


DECODI EL DE INTERL DE- MODU
Speech
NG -CODIN EAVIN CIPHERING LATIO
G G N

BTS (Base Transceiver System)

BTS (Base Transceiver Station):- BTS is the main part of the


mobile communication.bts consists of mainly three cards.
Whole system of BTS consists:

1. Fan unit (It have 9 fans)

2. Racks

3. FACB (Fan control Board)

BTS can be classified as:

A) According to power supply

1. DC power supply BTS-


2. AC power supply BTS-

B) According to sites it is of two type

1. INDOOR BTS

2. OUTDOOR BTS

OUTDOOR BTS MB02

The BTS A9100’s has


modular design which
allows following
configurations:

- Omni Configuration,

- Sectorized Configuration and

- Multi Band Architecture.

INDOOR BTS EVOLIUM A9100


BTS consists of mainly these cards:-

1. SUMA (Station unit module advance)

2. TEPA (Transmitter Equipment Power amplifier)

3. TERPA (Transceiver Equipment Power Amplifier )

4. TREPS (Transceiver Equipment Power supply )

5. RT (Transceivers)

6. ANC (Antenna Network Chamber)

TREPA, TREPS & TEPA are the types of RT card. One BTS rack
has three sectors named: ALFA, BETA and GAMA sectors.

One sector can contain one ANC card and maximum four RT
cards. In one BTS 12RTcards are connected. RT cards are
connected to the ANC cards and ANC connected to BSC and
then MSC.

BTS RACK
XIBM-EXTERNAL ALARM INPUT MULTISTANADARD

MSCA-MULTISTANDARD CONNECTION AREA

TRX- TRANSEIVER EQUIPMENT

ANC- ANTENNA NETWORK CHAMBER

SUMA-STATION UNIT MDULE ADVANCE

TEPA-TRANSMITTER EQUIPMENT POWER AMPLIFIER

TREDA-TRANSMITTER EQUIPMENT DIGITAL/ANALOG

TREA-TRANSEIVER EQUIPMENT AMPLIFIER

CONNECTION AREA-XIBM+MSCA+48V I/P & 6MCV

ONE TRE =1 TEPA+1 TREDA +1 TREA

SUMA CARDS (BRAIN OF THE BTS)


FUNCTIONS

1. Digital transmission
2. Timing and clock generation
3. Management of internal digital interface
4. Operation and maintenance function
5. Remote inventory
6. Control DC-DC converter & check in of battery

BTS tester checks these function. Functional components are


power QUICC (Quad Integrated Communication Controller), this
processor (like MPC860) SD RAM, FPGA (Field Programmable
Gate Array), PLL, USB & PLD.

SUMA CARDs are tested in two ways:

1. Calibration Test
2. ABIS Test

SMALL BOARDED TESTER:- It tests the FAN unit board

ANC Function- (This Card is not Manufactured Here) The


ANCON is responsible for maintaining the operations of the
ANC. Its principles are:-

1. Setting the LNA Game for the assigned for TREA receiver
2. LNA Alarm Supervision
3. Measuring Alarm VSWR
4. Selection of Antenna Sector
5. Reporting VSWR Alarm
6. RF cabling status Detection
7. Remote Power ON/OFF via the BCB Interface
8. Status Display via front panel LED’S
9. RI via the BCB Interface

Future Proof BTS.


- GPRS Ready
- EDGE Ready by “Add TRE” operation
- UMTS Ready- The MBI5 and MBO2 outdoor cabinet allow mixed
configurations GSM + UMTS.

ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning)

ERP system are software package soothing several module,


such as human resources, sales, finance and production,
marketing, advertising etc. providing cross organization
integration of data through embedded business processes.
These software packages can be customized to accommodate
the specific need of an organization.

It takes care of all activities in organization, including planning,


manufacturing, sales and marketing and many more. ERP could
gain much attention in a very short span of time &many
software applications sprang up to business managers to
implement ERP. Typically, an ERP, the expansive set of
activities supported by multi module application software helps
the business man manage important part of his business.
Evolution of ERP

• 1950s – Inventory control module.


• 1960s – material requirement planning (MRP1)
• 1970s - manufacturing resource planning (MRP2)
• 1990s - enterprise resource planning (ERP)
• 1994- Supply chain management
• Later - customer relation management (CRM)

ERP solves various problems faced in conventional methods


with the help of following techniques-

• Management information system (MIS)


• Integrated information system (IIS)
• Executive information system (EIS)
• Artificial intelligence (AI)
• Corporate information system (CIS)
• Knowledge management (KM)
• Enterprise wide system (EWS)
• Business intelligence system (BIS)
• Material resource planning (MRP)
• Manufacturing resource planning (MRP2)
• Money resource planning (MRP3)

FEATURES OF ERP

• ERP performs core business behavior& increases


customer services & there by augmenting the corporate
image.
• ERP fills the sequence break across the organization.
• ERP provide for compressive integration of system not
only transversely.
• ERP is a single elucidation for better project management.
• ERP not only addresses the current requirement of the
company but also provide the opportunity of persistently
improving &cleansing business processes.
• ERP provides business intelligence tool like decision
support system (DSS), executive information system
(EIS), reporting, data mining &early warning system
(ROBOT) for enabling people to make better decision &
accordingly improve their business processes.

SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT

SCM can be defined as the process of planning, implementing


and controlling & efficient & cost effective flow of raw
materials, in process inventory, finished good & related
information from point of origin to point of consumption for the
purpose of conforming to customer requirements. The 5 basic
components of SCM are as follows –

• Plan
• Source
• Make
• Deliver
• Return

SUPPLY CHAIN LOOP

The supply chain models for a particular manufacturing


enterprise reflect the company’s product & industry & its
position within the supply chain. Supply chain models range
from simple to complex.

SIMPLE MODEL
The simple manufacturing enterprise buys item from external
supplier& internally produces items for direct sale & shipment
to customers. The ERP sys must handle buy & make items at a
single site operations.

SUPPLIERS MANUFACTURER CUSTOMERS


Available ERPs In The World

• BAAN.
• J. D. Edward.
• SAP.
• Ramco
• QaD
• Oracle
• People soft
• BOI

BaaN

• Founded by Jan Baan in 1978 in the Netherlands.


• BaaN manufacturing control sys (BMCS) was the 1st
package developed by BaaN for MRP1, CRP& MRP2.
• The company BaaN has become one of the world’s biggest
software group &expects to remain on a fast track for the
foreseeable future.
• BaaN solutions are used to achieve streamline the
planning process by integrating diverse information,
insuring smooth planning. With the help of BaaN we get
better decision support.

SAP

• SAP is the world’s leading providers of collaboration e-


business solutions. SAP ranks the world ‘s 3rd independent
software provider
• It has been in the business of e-business for 35 years.
Founded in 1972 by 5 former IBM engineers.
• Through this people in business around the globe are
improving relationships with the customer& partners,
streamlining operations& achieving significant efficiencies
through there supply chain.
• Unique core processes like from aerospace to utilities, are
supported effectively by SAP’s 23 industries solution.
• Visibility through the business processes.
• Workflow management and event triggered processes.
• Empowered users.
• Informed management decisions.

WHY ITI HAS GONE FOR BaaN:

BaaN SAP
• Very strong for discrete • Very strong for process
manufacturing industries &finance
industries. company.
• Long relationship with • CMC was
CMC for hardware implementation partner
maintenance. of SAP.
• License fee is • License key is
comparatively cheap. comparatively large.
Plant View

• CIRCUIT DIVISION
✔ PCB PLANT
✔ HYBRID PLANT

• COMPONENT DIVISION

• SEA PLANT

• QUALITY CONTROL

• QUALITY ASSURANCE
CIRCUIT DIVISION

 PCB Plant
FLOWCHART FOR PREPRATION OF PCB

BASE MATERIAL

CUTTING

DRILLING

ELECTROLESS PLATING

PUMICING

LAMINATION

EXPOSURE

DEVELOPMENT

ELECTROPLATING

STRIPPING

ETCHING

Sn - Pb STRIPPING (SOLDER STRIPPING)

PISM (PHOTO IMAGE SOLDER MASK)

HAL (HOT AIR LEVELLING)

SCREEN MASKING/PRINTING

ROUTING

TESTING
QUALITY CONTROL

BASE MATERIALS:- PCB unit is meant for producing printed


circuit boards of various dimensions. The most common
dimension of which PCBs are generally made of:

• 240×400 Sq. mm.


• 280×400 Sq. mm.
• 300×400 Sq. mm.
• 300×500 Sq. mm.
• 300×600 Sq. mm.

The raw material used for the manufacturing of the PCB is


“COPPER CLAD EPOXY LAMINATE”.

The dimensions are:

• 920×1220 Sq. mm.


• 1220×1220 Sq. mm.

Their thickness generally comes in the multiple of


0.8mm.Copper clad of the thickness 17.5 or 35.0 or 70 microns
is laminated on the both sides of the glass epoxy.

CUTTING:- It is carried out by saw cutting machine. Cutting is


done by two types of blades. One is used for cutting copper
clad glass epoxy. This blade has diamond in its circumference
shape, which serves as the cutting edge & the blade is circular
in shape. Other blade used is for the entry sheet & the back up
sheet. The blade used for this purpose is carbide blade.

BAKING:- After cutting the base material to required sizes, in


order to make the surface coating of Cu even, to remove the
volatile impurities, vapours & moistures & moreover to make
the sheet plane, the raw sheet of glass epoxy with Cu clad
laminate is baked in oven at 3 different temperatures
depending upon thickness of raw material. The process
requirement time and temperatures are given below:

Type of Process Temperature Cycle Time

Curing of PCB base


140 12 hr.
material

Straightening of
140 12 hr.
wrapped material

Straightening of
140 12 hr.
wrapped circuit

For the purpose of straightening of warped material load is also


used along with temperature application. The heating is done in
oven named as “Kerry Oven”.

DRILLING:

After baking, the next step is drilling. The stacks of 3 raw


material sheets are made along with entry sheet & back up
sheet. The stack is centered & pinned here. The lot of three
stacks is thus held together by pinning. Pinning & stacking is
done by a manual machine. The cards (raw material) from this
goes to the drilling section. In the drilling section, drilling on the
boards are done in which further SMD (Surface Mounting
Device) is used for insertion of components. There are two
machines being used for drilling purpose. One machine requires
program to be located by magnetic tape on paper tape.
Another drilling machine has computer control & is called CNC.
This is a fully automated machine controlled by software as per
the requirement of circuit to be designed. This task is
performed by method department of PCB section. Maximum 15
boards can be drilled simultaneously. We can use any number
of spindles as per our requirement.

The computer is there to initialize the process. There are


various sizes of drill bits in CNC itself. The operating
temperature of machine is 200C to 250C.

DEBURRING:

After drilling holes, burrs left over the sheet & on the edges are
removed by deburring. Deburrring removes unwanted
materials & makes holes perfect. Also, the board surface gets
smoothened.

ELECTROLESS PLATING:

It is purely a chemical process which is done to make the epoxy


area between the two Cu clad plates conducting. A 2 micron Cu
layer is formed over the holes as a result of electroless plating.
In this process, the surface of Cu also gets evened. This is also
called alkaline plating & is done with the help of chemicals. As
no electrode is used for plating purpose, so called as
“electroless plating”.

PUMICING:

Gem stones are crushed to powdered form which is dissolved in


a container & sprayed over the Cu sheet to make it little rough
for better lamination & for removing any hand marks, grease or
dust which may have accumulated during the process.

LAMINATION:

The polymer film to be laminated is first mounted onto a roller


and after the blank board is inserted from below, the film gets
laminated on to the blank Cu sheet. The polymer film used is a
special kind of consisting of 3 layers. The lowest one is called
myler. One of the sheets inside has glue attached to it, which
holds the film to the Cu sheet. Lamination machine is used for
the purpose.

Steps involved in lamination:

• Clear rollers with isopropyl alcohol.


• Load dry films on rollers.
• Switch on the machine. Set temperature, air pressure &
speed parameters as per the required specifications.
• Feed the card from input end.
• Cut the dry film from leading edge at exit end.
• Check the deposited dry film. It should be smooth & free
from wrinkles & folds.
• Place the laminated board in stainless steel boards.

EXPOSURE:

The sheet prepared so far is now placed under circuit layer


(Diazo; Photo Tool) & UV rays are passed through it. The part
through which the UV rays pass becomes hard & the rest
remains soft (tracks).

DEVELOPMENT:

In this process, the unexposed sensitive photo resist is


removed & so we finally get the tracks printed on the Cu sheet.
In this process, the sheet is passed through 1% Na2CO3 solution
which removes the soft, unpolymerized layer. Then inspection
is carried out under 10× magnifying glass.

ELECTROPLATING:
After development, card is fed to electroplating apparatus. Sn-
Pb plating is done on the Cu plate. Here current is passed on
the plate, so is called as electroplating. The thickness of Sn-Pb
to be applied is 12.5 micron. On open tracks, Cu plating of
about 25 micron is done. Current is passed through a mixture
of Sn-fluberate, Pb-fluberate and fluberic acid. DYNATRON F is
the machine used for electroplating. In PTH (Plated Through
Holes) lane, deposition of Cu is done inside the hole to establish
the continuity between two surfaces.

Electroplating involves following processes:

• Cleaning chemical.
• Acid cleaning.
• Cleaning through water.
• Electro etch cleaning.

STRIPPING:

In this process, the electroplated sheet is passed through the


solution of NaOH which removes the hard layer or the
polymerized layer.

ETCHING:

After stripping the polymerized layer, the Cu becomes visible.


This Cu layer is then removed by etching. Etching is done using
Ammonical Cu solution.

SOLDER STRIPPING:

In this process, solder Sn-Pb layer is stripped off leaving circuit


pattern that is, Cu over epoxy layer. HNO3 is used for this
purpose.
PISM (Photo Image Solder Masking):

In this process, ink is put over the developed board like dying.
Board is inserted from bottom & ink is poured from top & with
the help of leveler, it is leveled properly. Then it is cured at a
temperature of 800C for 30 minutes to make ink adhere
properly to the board. After curing, a photo tool is placed over
the sheet & UV Rays are passed through it. The points where
holes are to be formed remains soft as light can’t pass through
it. After exposure, passing through Na2CO3 solution due to
which we get an impression of the holes on the board. Then,
again it is baked at temperature 1200C for 4 hrs.

HAL (Hot Air Levelling):

The board or the sheet till now produced consists of complete


ink & copper are to be soldered which is done using a solder.
Therefore a layer of solder is developed over these holes by
dipping the PCB in a bath of molten solder.

SRCEEN MASKING/PRINTING:

A polyester cloth of size 100×100 sq. cm is used. The ink is


coated on this screen to be called as skin mesh. Then screen
printing is done by special type of chemical fersol-29. The
screen developing & cleaning is done using water, which is
made to fall on the screen to remove excess ink.

ROUTING:

Here, unwanted portion of the plate is removed & only desired


circuit is left behind.

TESTING:
This is done to detect any anomaly. Error detected is shown by
printer & it can be rectified if within limits, otherwise discarded.
Visual inspection is done to check any discrepancy crack or any
connection fault. Bare board testing (BBT) is done for very
sophisticated result.

QUALITY CONTROL:

In the end, quality inspection of the PCB plate is done. Plate is


visually inspected to meet the desired specifications like
conduction area must be totally covered by solder resist,
overlapping of solder resist must be admissible, solder must
pass adhesive test etc.
Component Division

LAYOUT OF COMPONENT DIVISION

2 15
10 14
15
1
61716
7 18
138

3 9

11
12 14

KEYS:

 GATES
 CANTEEN
 OFFICES
 NCM & RELAY
 CM OFFICE(P.I.)
 MANUFACTURING OF NCM PARTS
 OFFICES
 STORE
 C&T
 SHOE RACK
 TOILET & WATER
 U.P.S. SYSTEM
 TOOL ROOM
 PAINTING
 PLATTING
 WELDING
 PUNCHING MACHINES
 DIFFERENT TYPES OF PUNCHING MACHINES

Component division is concerned with the mechanical work


being carried out in the industry. Here many piece parts and
shelves are made for exchange. The work assign to this division
is t manufacture and assemble different components that are
utilized in production of exchange.

ANUFACTURING UNIT:-

This section includes:

• Moulding
• Punching
• CNC
• Metal part

MOULDING:

In this shop various components of plastics are manufactured


that are used in manufacturing of racks of exchanges.
Component of NCM, antennal clamps and other miscellaneous
components are also made. Components used in NCM are cam,
damper cover, damper unit, gears, and several other big parts
that are not manufactured here. Other important parts are
charger case and carbon rings etc. for relay unit socket, pilling
support and other insulating parts are manufactured. For this
purpose a machine called AIMM (Automatic Injection Moulding
Machine) is used. The moulding has three main parts:

• Injection unit
• Mould unit
• Control unit

PUNCHING:

In punching shop, conductors are made. Raw materials are


copper, bronze, brass, stainless steel etc. There are several
steps to manufacture a product. these are as follows:

• Planning and control department decides the total


quantity of products and fixes quality at which it should be
manufactured.
• After this we decide that which raw material would be
used and then choose an appropriate tool for a particular
product.
• Then appropriate machine is selected.
• After manufacturing the product it is sent to quality
control for quality check.

Some machines used for punching:

• High speed automatic punching


• Sawing machine
• Buffering machine

CNC (COMPUTERIZED NUMERIC CONTROL):-

In this shop punching and bending of heavy components is


done by CNC punching and CNC bending machine.

 CNC PUNCHING MACHINE:


This machine equipped with 45 different types of
punching tools. A program is fed to the control panes of
machine used to monitor punching machine.

FEATURES:
 Capacity - 30 tones
 Table travel - 1270 mm (Y-axis) on change
 Carriage travel - 1830 mm(X-axis) adjusted X2
 Stroke/min - 350
 Maximum rate - 200
 Maximum sheet size - 1270 × 3660
 Relative humidity - 75%

 CNC BENDING MACHINE: This machine is used for


bending the surfaces. It works on the principle of
hieratic pressure i.e. pressure applied by machine is
due to the pressure of oil in tank. The dimension angle
of bending is feed through the control panel. This
machine can bend a no of surfaces at different angles in
a single cycle using different tool machine.

FEATURES:

Capacity - 400 tones



Table length - 4000mm

Ramp travel - 300 mm

Max sheet thickness - 10 mm

 operating temperature - 00C to 350C
Relative humidity - 75

ASSEMBLY UNIT:-

In this section following type of components are assembled:

• Connector Assembly
• Coil Winding and Transformer
• MDF (Main Distributed Frame)
• Relay Assembly

CONNECTOR ASSEMBLY:

Here 40 types of connectors are manufactured handing


different sizes, dimensions, number of pins etc. Assembly of
connector requires

• Plastic raw material(insulator)


• Metallic piece(conductive)

Plastic raw material is manufactured in moulding shop and


metallic pieces are manufactured in punching shop. Different
type of tools and machine used in this shop are:

• Hand press tool


• Combination separation tool
• Assembly machine
• Locking machine

COIL AND TRANSFORMER ASSEMBLY:

In this shop coil and different type of transformer used in


exchange are manufactured. Different types of transformer
prepared here are:

• Tube transformer
• Pulse transformer
• Power transformer
• Converter transformer
• Switching transformer

Various machines are used in this shop are:

• Coil and winding machine


• Auto shop machine
• Pneumatic assembly machine
• Tape ringing machine
• Automatic marking machine

After assembly the transformer is subjected to testing in order


to avoid any discrepancy. The following parameters on which a
transformer is tested are:

• Number of turns
• Resistance
• Inductance
• Transformer ratio
• Insulation strength
• Dielectric test
• Thermal test
• Short circuit in winding

Following types of testing machines are used:

• RLC TESTER: This tester is used to obtain the resistive,


inductive and impedance value of transformer.

• MDF TESTER: It is used to measure the number of turns


in a transformer.

TRANSFORMER FORMATION:

Switching transformer Power transformer Chokes/toroids

Polarization making Preparation Preparation

(optional)
Winding Winding Winding

Soldering Soldering Assembly


Assembly Marking Stripping
Testing Frazer winding Tinning

(optional)

Marking Varnish test Formation


Waxing Offer to QC Test
VP/C test Marking
Offer to QC Offer to QC

MAIN DISTRIBUTION FRAME (MDF):

Telephone subscribers are connected to MDF at exchange


through IPM for their telephone services IPM is used for
protection of line and exchange from high voltage.

Machines involved in this process are:

• Marking machine
• Ultrasonic welding machine

RELAY ASSEMBLY:

Relay is used in exchange for switching application. E10B


exchange required 19 types of relays but in this plant only two
types of relays are made there are:

• 2 BM (Break make)
• BM (Break make)

500KL exchange required about one million of these relays.2


BM is used for battery reversal purpose of home metering
where as 4BM is used as subscriber card (XEJ16, XEJS) for two
main functions:

• For sending ringing current to subscriber.


• For connection test circuit from line side or equipment
side.
4 BM used two sets of spring set assembly while 2 BM used
single set of spring set assembly besides that they have
different number of turns in the coil.

OPERATION OF RELAY:

Relay works on the principle of magnetic effect of current. It


works on 12V DC voltage. When 12V DC voltage is applied to
the relay via coil terminals a magnetic effect is produced in
core which resulting in attraction of armature to word the care.
This attraction is mechanically transmitter to have contacts
changing over from break set to make slot of spring sets.

CHARACTERISTIC 4 BM 2 BM
OF RELAYS
RATED SUPPLY 12V 12V

OPERATING <=50mA <=33mA


CURRENT

NOTE COUNTING MACHINE (NCM):

NCM (Note Counting Machine) is used for note counting. It has


many function of note counting. It works on 230V AC supply. It
works on suction bare. It has some important parts:

• SPINDLE MOTOR: Rotates spindle unit. It has speed 1450


rpm power rating 20W and current 0.5A.

• HOPPER MOTOR: Moves the hopper. It has gears. It has


speed of 1450 rpm but gears convert it into 56 to 60 rpm.
Its power rating is 20W and current 0.5A.

• SPINDLE ASSEMBLY: Spindle is a moving part of NCM. It


has five fingers which suck the note with the help of
vacuum.

• VACUUM PUMP MOTOR: It has two parts. One part sucks


the air and the other part blows the air on the spindle
finger. Its speed 2850 rpm power rating 0.25 HP and
current 1.8A.

• TRANSFORMER: It takes 230V AC and given 9V and 22V


AC output.

• DAMPER UNIT: Its main work is to move the hopper plate


smoothly.

• POWER SUPPLY: It takes supply from transformer 9V and


22V AC from transformer and gives 5V and 24V DC to
mother board.

• MOTHER BOARD: It has some IC relays connectors LEDs.


It has 5V DC supply for display unit keyboard IC, switches,
and relays. It has 24 V supply for batch solenoid and
stamp solenoid and 230V supply for spindle hopper and
vacuum pump motor.

• FILTER: It has three air filter and an EMI filter paper filter
(transparent) for suction. Oil filter for diaphragm
assembly.EMI filter is an electronic device which protects
from the disturbance in 230V AC supply.
• DIAPHRAGM ASSEMBLY: It works on suction system. It
has a diaphragm and sensor which moves up and down.
Sensor senses the counting and displays it with the help of
mother board.