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^be ©pen Court

©evoteo to tbe Science ot "Religion, tbe "Religion ot Science, ano tbe Extension of tbe "Religious parliament foea
Founded by Edward



(No. 6)







The Goddess Nut.

Readings from the Upanishads.

Paul W. Cotton


The Upanishads.

Paul Carus
Baron von der Pfordten


Beethoven's Ninth Symphony.

Men Are

Created Equal.

C. P.




Sketches in Comparative Animal and


Psychology (Illustrated).

Ernst Mach
The Soldier-Women of Mexico

Vincent Starrett


The Egyptian Mother Goddess



©pen Court

publish* ng


Per copy, 10 cents (sixpence).
Yearly, $1.00 (in the U.P.U., Ss. 6d.).

Entered as Second-Class Matter March 26, 1897, at the Post Office at Chicago, III., under Act of March Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Company, 1918



P. $1. 10 cents (sixpence). Huizinga 340 (Illustrated). 1918 NO. All Men Are Created Equal. at the Post Office at Chicago. v. 111. 363 Vincent Starrett 376 The Egyptian Mother Goddess 383 TLbe ©pen Court publishing Company CHICAGO Per copy. 6d.. 3. Devoteo to tbe Science of Helicon. under Act of March Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Company. Some Sketches in Comparative Animal and Human Psychology Ernst Mach The Soldier-Women of Mexico Miscellaneous. Paul W. 328 332 Beethoven's Ninth Symphony. 6) JUNE. Ss. 745 CONTENTS: PAGE Frontispiece. 1918 1879 . C.).00 (in the U. Paul Carus Baron von der Pfordten A. The Goddess Nut. P. XXXII (No. 1897. Entered as Second-Class Matter March 26.Xlbe ©pen Court A MONTHLY MAGAZINE Founded by Edward C. tbe IReliaion of Science. Readings from the Upanishads. Cotton 321 The Upanishads. ano tbe Extension of tbe IReliaious parliament foea Hegeler VOL.U.. (Illustrated). Yearly.

Marie H. Prince Chandradat Chudhadharn. writes beat Buddhist Scriptures ever published "As regards the contents of the book. Pocket Edition. This edition is PAUL CARUS Cloth.THE GOSPEL OF BUDDHA By DR. a photographic reproduction of the edition de luxe which was printed in Leipsic in 1913 and ready for shipment in time to be caught by the embargo Great Britain put on all articles exported from Germany. the King of Siam. the receipt of your letter and the book. This opinion is endorsed by I have read on Buddhism. and as far as I could see. Cinnamon Gardens. When the book was first published His Majesty." The book has been introduced of Ceylon. Ceylon. and he expresses his sincerest thanks for the very hard and difficult task of compilation you have considerately undertaken in the interest of our religion. Principal of the Musaeus School and Orphanage for Buddhist Girls. follows "It is as a reader in private Buddhist schools Mrs. official deleBuddhism to the Chicago Parliament of Religions. writes as the best it work I who read here.50 Illustrated. $1. propose to make it a text-book of study for my girls. ered a contraband of war yet the publishers were forced to hold back many hundred orders for the book on account of orders in council of Great Britain. and these were used to make the photographic reproduction of this latest While the Buddhist Bible could not in any way be considedition. Higgins. I avail myself of this favorable opportunity to wish the book every success. the King of Siam. The Gospel of Buddha. it is one of the Those who wish to know the life of Buddha and the spirit of his Dharma may be recommended to read this work which is so ably edited that it comprises almost all knowledge of Buddhism itself. flexible leather.00. with thanks." gate of Siamese His Royal Highness. Luckily two copies of the above edition escaped. $1. which he esteems very much." all THE OPEN COURT PUBLISHING COMPANY 122 8. to acknowledge. sent the following communication through his private secretary "Dear Sir: I am commanded many by His Most Gracious Majesty. MICHIGAN AVENUE ILLINOIS CHICAGO .


„ 'o oo o o o°c o ° o c < O^0 0o oo °°„o° o° p .

But who are in a hurry. Let the earnest seeker who has opened these pages plod on who runs shall not read. the twi- GOETHE. evening light. and the Extension of the Religious Parliament Idea. and there is a vast growth of matted underbrush whose inextricable confusion clogs the footsteps of the soul. in the world. 745 Copyright by The Open Court Publishing Company. is mind wanders through the magnificent There a gigantic. "Truth is the solemn vow of the good. all else when it was already When it it. world poor." with similar feelings that the modern ruins of ancient speculation. 1918 NO. There are yet souls who insist on seeing Rome in who patiently across the dreary sands of vanished rite and ceremony. . COTTON." writes from Rome: "In we came upon one looks at the Coliseum. XXXII (No. PAUL W. on in this that he the Upanishads are not for those a day. It were well for them to keep clear of the Upanishads. is a grandeur about the Upanishads that not surpassed and but rarely equalled by any other book primeval forest of thought. 1918 READINGS FROM THE UPANISHADS. They were not born to follow the star and they will never find the babe in the manger. They are There are trees in this forest that tower into the heavens. We have lost the key to so much of all it. The : edifice is so in vast that one cannot hold the image of in one's soul memory we think smaller.The Open Court A Devoted MONTHLY MAGAZINE to the Science of Religion. seems it it little." —Sanatsugatiya. time-starved vainly endeavor to pinch the pyramids between the leaves of their Baedeker. in the "Italian Journey. 6) JUNE. we impatient ones all are only too ready to clap the label of absurdity on that who we cannot understand. trees whose roots clutch the center of the earth. the Religion of Science. VOL. and then return It is to again to find it every time greater than before.

that is why they have withstood The Hindu sages that uttered the tides of time for 3000 years. and sometimes its weight of pregnant utterance becomes too heavy for the medium of language and withdraws into the dim distance like scornful thunder lost in limitless skies." What has happened it ? The soul feels a deep sense of peace and security steal over slowly but inevitably. all sweet odors and speaks and this. And because . I shall obtain him (that Self)." and rumors of war are very far away. whose thoughts are true. He also is my self within the heart." of the Self they are speaking. greater than the earth. This vision is aloof from the world of phenomena only because it is verily the Immortal. and there. "He is my self within the heart. smaller than a corn of barley. who never who never surprised. thus said Sandilya. greater than the sky. When I shall have departed from hence. he. thus he said. who embraces all is desires. That is why the Upanishads still appeal. yet eternal fulfilment. all desires. greater than all these worlds. who never speaks. He who has this faith has no doubt. all "He from whom all works. and tastes proceed he who embraces all this. my self within the heart. from whom all works. sang. tastes proceed. everyis thing shines after him It is by his light all this lightened. Man has forgotten much that they taught. "The sun does not shine these lightnings. knows itself with a divine instinct to be All wars "beneath the shadow of a great rock in a weary land. like the light of day enterIt ing a darkened room. whose nature is like ether (omnipresent and indivisible). the Thing-in-Itself. and is never surprised. is that Brahman(n). greater than heaven. whose body is spirit. he cannot forget his vision of eternity. them had a spiritual penetration that burned like a mountain of Here is that "white radiance of eternity" of which Shelley fire. By and by there is a flash of green. all sweet odors. smaller than a corn of rice. wells of living water lie Many ahead of him. nor the moon and the stars. . whose form is light. smaller than a canary seed or the kernel of a canary seed. smaller than a mustard seed. These words are the key to the Upanishads.322 THE OPEN COURT. yea. the oasis appears and a voice speaks to him out of the sky :— "The intelligent. nor When he shines. that Self of which man is the temporary representative. much : less this fire.

Every religion or philosophy is an attempt. utterly alien to strives The nearest approach to them is Job. reduced to nihilism and despair. It is his lack of knowledge of God that drives Job to distraction. It is salvation. there is no other . From this root also has risen our science and philosophy and the "X" . Such the doc- from is this great root that Buddhism sprang. drawn aside. as it God the Upanishads view is were. 323 they held the truth these unfathomable winds of thought have risen out of the inaccessible realms of the Himalayas and passed over the world. You will find eternity in the Bible but it is an eternity con- ceived and complicated by considerations foreign to the thought of the Upanishads. science has but confirmed them. is He generally spoken of in the third person and rendered chiefly by wondrous negatives. A Hindu Job would have consoled himself with some such thought as this "I know that great person of sunlike luster A man who path to go. The Great Mystery is still as beauteous and mysterious as ever and this book tery. but the seraph nevertheless remains a seraph. knowledge. he has words with the Eternal and after futile ! arguments comes to know his own nothingness. like Job. from a distance. Despite their intimate revelations of the Creator. There is throughout the Old Testament a distorted sense of personal relationship to the Deity which attains its full perversion in the Psalms. There the veil is an indefinable haze of wonder over these pages which simplicity serves only to enhance. The Upanishads contain the most beautiful presentation of God ever achieved by humanity. is You are led within the shrine. Science has not passed beyond these thoughts. ful. more or less successto fathom the godhead." knows him It is truly passes over death beyond the darkness. He cannot be dazed and deluded by appearances since his knowledge of the Self saves him. not faith. is eloquent with the burden of the Great Mys- The scientific truth followed the intellectual intuition. that saves. It is because man has ventured to speak of that of which he has no sensorial cognizance that the world is so great and so wonderful. and how Hindu philosophy are the conceptions of Job Job with God. is So knowlis edge came into being and knowledge trine of the Upanishads.READINGS FROM THE UPANISHADS. The best of Buddhism to be found in the Upanishads. In the Upanishads man is never.

their eyes to the bitterness of life and the first little in "Man is sacrifice. no comfort in truth will never appreciate the wonder and beauty of life." "What do you "These seeds. Sir. Sir. The sublime this ception which is so insisted on here: that beneath fabric of appearance to we call the all world stand the pillars of eternity." "Fetch "It is a fruit of the Nyagrodha tree. To these sages the world is ever a new world and their wisdom comes forth with the delight and naivete of the child. the father is asked How can this universe which has the form and name of earth. The far-sighted seers of the Upanishads dared to assert at a time when science was unknown the eternal unity of God and nature. The doctrine of the real and the ideal has never been more con- clearly stated or more satisfactorily adjusted. the certain proof of which is the greatest achievement of modern thought. in revealed in these old treatises. It is enough that man can see and Truth is the sovereign balm. The prayers of the Upanishads are beyond good and evil." "Break it. almost "Break one of them. Sir." see there?" infinitesimal. In that fine dialogue in the Khandogya Upanishad between Uddalaka and his son Svetaketu." broken. be produced from the Sat (the Self) which is subtile. and he who can find understand." they say. etc. The Upanishads are the first and most profound poetic exposition of the monistic doctrine. — this is the Leitmotif of great thinkers from Plato to Carlyle and seems have been from early times one of the ruling ideas of mankind. This is the special happiness of early civilizations.324 that hovers ever THE OPEN beyond them is COURT.. On the shores of the infinite they have built their altars and there they chant forever the endless peace of the Unconscious. and has neither form : nor name ? He replies me from thence "Here is one. Their in a veil spirit is the spirit of praise is and their truth is wrapped on sunlit of poetic beauty that like the changing light seas." . so far as man may speak of the Unknowable." "It is broken. They do not shut struggle of existence." But there them about the suffering of mankind The miracle of life has for them swallowed up all sorrow. "The is twenty-four years are the morning libation.

unchanging among things. thy whole body shall be full of light. of repentance contrition. and thou. If the individual let would feel rock-bottom beneath his feet him take to heart this admonition of the Katha Upanishad "The wise who knows as the Self as bodiless within the bodies." What relation of could be more simple. demanded a heart hungry for knowledge and ears that do really hear the truth. as great and omnipresent. the whole nature becomes purified.READINGS FROM THE UPAXISHADS. matter. art it. O Svetaketu. this great Nyagrodha is my its son. Sir. more true? is In such flashes of miraculous insight the eternal made is manifest. of life : commensurate with the hugeness is part of the World-Soul and that this Soul lives and speaks in him that his strength lies in the fact of his being one with nature and not above and apart from her." Here lies the typical line of demarcation between the Christian and Hindu been purified. of that very essence. "When "The the intellectual aliment has Jesus meant body is in the eye if therefore thine eye be single." to that sentence in the Svetasvatara Upanishad "That which is beyond this world is without form and without suffering. "Believe it." the same thing when he said : light of the : philosophy. you. the direct a part." it all not see there. Somehow the confident assertions of Paul with his glorification of a personal immortality pale before this superb doctrine of a cosmic identity. man it to the universe of which he Here and All that is not a question of sin and atonement. more deep. the True. in It that exists has self. That which It is is the subtile essence." The father said: "My son." But it is a far cry from those words in John: "In my I go to prepare a place for father's house are many mansions. the Self. Do we that the life of the individual need more than the present world war to convince us is of comparative insignificance com- pared with the mysterious movements of race which animate mankind ? The individual is but a spoke in the wheel that is ever rolling toward an unimaginable goal and it is only in man and the spirit of man that he lives eternally. that subtile essence which you do tree exists. 325 "What do you see there?" "Not anything. is Emotionalism is is severely absent . Beside such a conception the eternity of personality seems a trivial this alone is For that a man should know he . does never . the intellect rules.

but men are lost only to find themselves in him. "There is one eternal thinker thinking nonthere is eternal thoughts. art without beginning. God is indeed great.' 326 grieve. the seasons. Yes. the seas. Or if he will have it from his Bible he can turn to the words of the Founder of Christendom who eight centuries later enunciated the same truth "This is eternal life that they might know thee." In his creation they find him everywhere and in the spirit of the Orient they cry exotically "Thou art the dark-blue bee. And at times a breath comes from them cold and unreachable as the peaks of the Himalayas and eternal and pure as their snows. They were written by men who were already masters of themselves. beyond love and beyond hate. they do not understand for this one does not nor is that one killed. The Upanishads present no system of ethics. could only be felt "smaller than the kernel of a canary seed" but also "greater than all these worlds. thou art the thunder-cloud. eyes. never far away from this atmosphere. Such are the greatest religious and philosophic thoughts of the greatest race of history." All is eternal life. but he is great precisely because he He is is non-human and passionless. a remarkable sign of man's intellectual preeminence that in so early a stage of his cultural development he should have seen so clearly and so far." THE OPEN COURT. killed. which There is a certain reserve in their lofty eloquence. . as sparks and return to him again. The It is halo of the infinite is. are a calm intellectual presentment of truth. "If the killer thinks that he is kills. because thou art infinite." : : in. a diffidence in the face of a great subject by the finest of minds. the only true God. They do not plead or inveigh they ." Men come from the fire. thou all Thou from whom worlds are born. In their treatment of holy things they lack the intrusive familiarity of Mohammed. forth from him as bubbles from the sea. thou art the green parrot with red. the tender sentiment of Jesus. . These sages already realize the eternal dissatisfaction of men." The forms may fade and crumble but no cessation or diminution. they have no ten Commandments to offer. if the killed thinks that he kill.

?' O Yagnavalkya. and man is after Like a child building a house of cards.' he said. The enlightened souls of the western world can regard only with the deepest reverence and admiration the supreme wisdom that could write "There is no image of Him whose name is Great Glory. moves about.READINGS FROM THE UPANISHADS. The light of the Orient has dawned upon many minds. what is the light of man "Yagnavalkya replied: 'Fire indeed is his light. for. O King. moves about. If Whatever he reaches he wishes to go beyond. having . into chaos and destruction with a it sort of fiendish As lectual." In the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad King Ganaka. what is then the light of man?' "Yagnavalkya replied: 'The moon indeed is his light. 327 "Man to is the sea rising beyond the whole world. care vast edifices of civilization and then with his mailed hurls them once more delight. yesterday and to-day. O Yagnavalkya.' 'When the sun has set. does his work.' " "Ganaka Vaideha said: 'So indeed it is. all the securer because their thought rests firmly upon the axis of the macrocosm and not the microcosm. man sits. O Yagnavalkya. And all shall man then ever attain We speak of progress but the world rolls round and round like a wheel. he would wish to go beyond. questioned him thus : 'Yagnavalkya. meticulous fist much the same. does his work. 'what is the light of man?' "Yagnavalkya replied: 'The sun. If he should reach that heavenly world. and returns. and the moon has set. man sits. for. the river of time flows on becomes apparent that in the ultimate analysis progress proves to be wholly spiritual and intel- and the inner conviction of the sages of India grows more and more to be a world force for the propagation of truth. Schopenhauer found no study so beneficial and elevating as the Upanishads. being granted a boon by the Brahman Yagnavalkya. he reaches the sky he wishes go beyond.' "Ganaka Vaideha "Ganaka Vaideha said: 'So indeed said: it is. he rears through the ages with patient. having the moon alone for his light." These primitive images have of in them the largeness and scope ? Homer.' "Ganaka Vaideha said: 'When the sun has set. O Yagnavalkya. for having the sun alone for his light. and returns.

O Yagnavalkya. for the world of Brahman for all.' "Ganaka Vaideha said: 'So indeed it is. and the fire out. moves about. Cotton presents to us the sition of religious thought. when that bank has been crossed.' "Ganaka Vaideha Let us answer said: 'Who is that Self?'" him out of the Khandogya Upanishad: "That Self be confounded. moves about.328 fire THE OPEN alone for his light. having the Self alone as his light. if blind. and the. and the sound hushed. Upanishads form perhaps the most classical book of reand no one who has not studied their problem can really claim to have understood the central propoMr. does work. moves about. COURT. O Yagnavalkya. man sits. Therefore. so that these worlds may not Day and . and returns. returns. comes day indeed. does his work. and the moon has set. O Yagnavalkya. his man sits. a boundary. having sound alone for his light. All evil-doers turn back from it. Chris- . and the fire is gone out. what is then the light of man?' "Yagnavalkya said 'The Self indeed is his light for. does his work. . and : . ceases to be blind if wounded. O King. night beafflicted. ." is lighted up once the chief Note: (The quotations in Upanishads by Prof. ceases to be Therefore. death and grief neither good nor evil deeds. THE a man who grasps their underlying idea for the first time. BY THE EDITOR. nor old age. a sound raised.When the sun has set. man sits. issued by the Oxford Press. Max this article are from the translation of Miiller. for the world of Brahman is free from all evil.' "Ganaka Yaideha said: '. is a bank. yet one goes toward it. Paul W.moon has set. ceases to be wounded if afflicted. beauty of the Upanishads with an enthusiasm that naturally seizes ligious literature in the world. when and returns.' "Ganaka Vaideha said 'When the sun has set. is when one cannot see even one's own hand. what then is the light of man?' "Yagnavalkya replied 'Sound indeed is his |ight for. night do not pass that bank. "Therefore he who has crossed that bank. : : .) THE UPANISHADS.