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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 22, NO. 2, JUNE 2007

**An Electronic Load Controller for the Self-Excited Induction Generator
**

Juan M. Ramirez, Member, IEEE, and Emmanuel Torres M, Student Member, IEEE

Abstract—This letter is aimed at designing an electronic load controller (ELC) for a self-excited induction generator (SEIG) on a stand alone application. With constant input power and ﬁxed value of capacitance, the induced voltage varies with the applied load. This paper proposes an ELC scheme whose control strategy is simple and reliable. Antiparallel insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) switches are used to control the dump load connection and disconnection. The proposed ELC has been tested under several critical situations, providing an excellent voltage and frequency regulation. Index Terms—AC motors, control equipment, electric machines, induction generators, insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs).

I. INTRODUCTION

Fig. 1.

Model of the SEIG: d-axis. There is a similar model for the q -axis.

T

HE INCREASING rate of the depletion of conventional energy sources has given rise to an increased emphasis on renewable energy sources such as wind, mini/microhydro, etc. In renewable energy applications of low and medium power (up to 100 kW), the induction generator offers several advantages. In low power rating applications, uncontrolled turbines are preferred, as they maintain the input hydropower constant; thus, requiring the generator output power to be held constant while varying consumer loads. A dump load in shunt with the consumer load is necessary to keep the electrical load constant at the generator terminals; thus, the self-excited induction generator (SEIG) can operate with constant input power. In this letter, a novel electronic load controller for SEIG is proposed. II. SELF-EXCITED INDUCTION GENERATOR MODELING

The capacitor value is selected from the no-load condition (switch s is open in Fig. 1), and the self-excitation currents are obtained as in [1], from which the stator current becomes iqs = As6 + Bs5 + Ds4 U (s) + Es3 + F s2 + Gs + H (1)

where s is the Laplace operator, U (s) denotes the numerator that is independent on the capacitor’s initial condition and on the machine parameters. When the denominator of (1) is set to zero As6 + Bs5 + Ds4 + Es3 + F s2 + Gs + H = 0. (2)

The used SEIG in d-q coordinates is represented in Fig. 1 [1]. The induction machine employed as SEIG in this letter, is a three-phase squirrel cage rotor with the speciﬁcations—2 kW, 120/208 V, 15.2/8.8 A, 60 Hz, and 4 poles—and the main parameters—rs = 0.6 Ω, rr = 1.06 Ω, Lls = Llr = 6.4 mH, LM = 51.3 mH. When the induction machine is used as SEIG the magnetizing saturation is the main factor in the voltage build up and stabilization dynamics. Here, the saturation is estimated by driving the induction machine at synchronous speed, and taking measurements when the applied voltage is varied from 0% to 120% of the rated voltage at rated frequency. The corresponding adjusted polynomial is included into the model of the SEIG to take into account the saturation.

If any of the roots has a positive real part then there will be selfexcitation [2]. This way, it is possible to compute the minimum speed and capacitance for self-excitation for the no-load case. When the SEIG is loaded (switch s is closed), a similar analysis to compute the roots with positive real part is accomplished. Once the suitable capacitance and speed values for selfexcitation are selected, the roots with positive real part can be used to calculate the LM value which gives a root having a zero real part (steady-state condition). The computed LM value and the relation between the magnetizing inductance LM and phase voltage Vph are used to compute the terminal voltage, and the imaginary part of the root gives the frequency of selfexcitation [2]. III. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION The block diagram of the proposed SEIG-electronic load controller (ELC) for load voltage regulation is illustrated in Fig. 2. The SEIG-ELC is constituted by an induction machine driven by a prime motor, a three-phase capacitor bank, and an electronic load controller [1]–[3]. The proposed ELC is a chopper circuit per-phase (Sa, Sb, and Sc switches) in series with the dump load, and it becomes simpler than that in [3], Fig. 3. Rd represents the dump load.

Manuscript received November 7, 2006; revised October 30, 2006. This letter was supported by Consejo National De Ciencia Y Technologia (CONACYT) under Grant 43478. Paper no. PESL-00089-2006. The authors are with Cinvestav, Guadalajara, Mexico (e-mail: jramirez@gdl. cinvestav.mx; etorres@gdl.cinvestav.mx). Digital Object Identiﬁer 10.1109/TEC.2006.895392

0885-8969/$25.00 © 2007 IEEE

the IGBT is open and when St = 1. phase c.RAMIREZ AND TORRES M: AN ELECTRONIC LOAD CONTROLLER FOR THE SELF-EXCITED INDUCTION GENERATOR 547 Fig. The . m The induced voltage vt and the load current im L are measured. The apparent resistance value that ELC must provide to the system is calculated by e Rd = e RL e RL RL switching logic is deﬁned as follows: If i0 > ip . which is compared with a triangular carrier signal ip to obtain the insulated-gate bipolar transistor’s (IGBT’s) gate signals. respectively. Using vt L . When St = 0. Schematic block diagram of the proposed SEIG-ELC. Sb . 4 shows the operation of the This current ie d is fed into a proportional controller whose output is the modulating signal i0 . Fig. the instantaneous load resistance is estimated as m vt e RL = Vtm im L (3) Fig. m the control does not take any action. where the superscripts m and e denote the measured and estimated variables. Dynamic response for unbalanced conditions. Switch conﬁguration per phase. the St = 1 else when i0 < ip . EXAMPLE As the control strategy is per phase. If vt = vref . 3. the St = 0 (6) −1 . the IGBT is closed. the control m and im system performs the following actions. m is compared with the reference voltage vref . The frequency of ip is 500 Hz. Fig. 2. 4. or Sc . IV. Such strategy takes the induced voltage to the reference value to keep it constant under any load condition. Rd (5) where St represents the state of Sa . (4) The current through the ELC is computed using (5) ie d = Vref e . Voltage and frequency remain constant and the system operates satisfactorily. the proposed ELC can operate under unbalanced conditions without caring for the unbalanced degree. If vt = vref .

“Selection of capacitors for the self regulated short and shunt self excited induction generators. pp. vol. Energy Convers. pp. JUNE 2007 SEIG-ELC under unbalanced conditions (the load is modiﬁed in phase c. 22. Seyoum. . The IGBT’s gate signal frequency is always able to maintain voltage within the desired value with a minimum variation despite the load being connected or disconnected. 936–944. “The dynamic characteristics of an isolated self-excited induction generator driven by a wind turbine.-Gener.. Ind. Distrib. 2. Proc. S. 4. S. NO. no. pp. Rahman. Murthy. 1. and S. 1. Singh. and M. V.” Inst. The ELC keeps voltage constant under any unbalanced condition. P. and an excellent option to be employed in microhydro applications. 151. B. The proposed scheme can regulate the output voltage from no-load to full-load under balanced or unbalanced operation conditions. 51–60. 1995. no. vol. Jha. Singh. “Analysis and implementation of an electronic load controller for a self-excited induction generator. Mar./Aug. Eng. Transm. 10–17. VOL. 2004. Gupta.. 39. Murthy. Electr. Jan. C. and S. S. It is reliable. simple. 10. REFERENCES [1] D. Jul. [2] L. CONCLUSION The proposed ELC exhibits high performance and low cost.” IEEE Trans.. F. Shridhar. B. vol. 2003. A harmonic distortion analy- sis indicates better performance than similar schemes reported in literature.” IEEE Trans. Grantham. C. Appl. no. Singh. S. [3] B.548 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION.

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