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Chapter 1 Introduction 1.

1 Background
Product placement is increasing into movies, TV programs, and computer games. The marketers and movie producers now frequently use placement as the promotion medium for products or brands. They communicate the product properties to targeted customers by the way of involving the actors or actress with marketing use of the product or with mention of the brand to eliminate the audiences’ resistance and also enhance consumer preference for the product or brand.

1.2 Conceptual Underpinnings of the Study
Our study is focus on what product placement strategies should be employed by marketers and used in different media. general definition of product placement for

different media such as movie, television program, maga!ines, radio, and etc... , that product placement is a paid product message aimed at influencing audience by the planned into different media. "n the literature most of the research focused on categori!ation or characteristics of different placement or their impact in consumers’ brand memory. #upta and $ord %&''() propose that any of those modes can be distinguished. "n the scene or where the product is made highly visible by si!e or power and the position on screen.
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*abin and +ater %&'',) found evidence of product recognition in film whereas the research of #upta and $ord %&''() is more fine-tuned. they found a higher recall of the product after distinguished product placement than after subtle product placement. +hartier %/000) brand recognition is significantly including the distinguishing of the placement but it has a negative effect on recall. 1ussell %/00/) has investigated the role of modality %visual and auditory) and plot connection has the same in relation to the effectiveness of product placement. The research results indicate that the audio placing strategy relevant research is the less. Visual and the audio-visual placing strategy will be a trend in the future. Prominent placement is more effective to participants than subtle placement. The implement way in integrated has already growing rapidly than the "mplicit PP$ way. s the new types of media, video game, "nternet, music video may play a dominant role in the future, the concerning research should be continue.

1.3 Research Purpose and Question
The product placement is originally a marketing strategy that markets a movie only. 2owadays, it is a new marketing strategy that many television and radio media, industry, and ventures will adopt. also, it gradually becomes a controversial issue in Taiwan’s society.

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3ince the product placement has already become a popular issue which in the public relation environment, it is necessary to e4plore. This study is focus on how to utili!e the different placing strategy and media to make ma4imum benefits to marketers. "n light of aforementioned ob5ectives, three ma5or research questions to be addressed in this article are provided as follows6 &. 7hich mode of media is the highest used in research of product placement8 /. 7hich placing strategy used in product placement is the most effective8 9. 7hich degree on product placement has more effective to product placement8 7hich way of implement has more effective to product placement8

Chapter !o "I #R$ U# R#%I#&

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*alasubramanian %&'':) defined product placement as a . 3teort!’s %&'(=) definitions only considered visual stimuli and neglected the paid : .the inclusion of commercial products or services in any form in television of film productions in return for some sort of payment from the advertiser<. There have been few studies focused on categori!ation or characteristics of different product placement. in addition.1 Product Place'ent Product placement can also be called brand placement. the research of *aker and +rawford %&''>. p. &'':). p./) has also shown that .2. general definition of product placement for the content of movie or television program is a paid product message aimed at influencing movie or television audience by the planned into a movie or television program %*alasubramanian. Product placement can also be called .paid product message aimed at influencing movie %or television) audience via the planned and unobtrusive entry of a branded product into a movie %or television program)<. and also increase the willingness for the consumer to purchase the products. signage. ?owever. @arrh %&''() considered that some studies didn’t mention some parts. television show. influence the consumer’s attitude positively toward the product.the inclusion of a brand name product package. or other trademark merchandise within a motion pictures.//). "n order to increase brand awareness. or music video< %3teort! &'(=.

2. etc. video games. also. it can help consumer to recogni!ed brand and +orporate "dentity 3ystem involved to the story.2 (odes of Product Place'ent There have been many researchers found different aspect of product placement. brand placement cannot always be considered . udio Only. s it’s discussed below. product placement is a way that through the advertisers by paid or sponsored product to the media makers. *oth *alasubramanian %&'':) and *aker and +rawford %&''>) definitions have found that the form of placement media but limit the media involved to motion pictures and television shows. also. with these ways. *roadway shows. and even novels. The final ob5ect is to establish consumers’ cognition and attitude. "n order to switch the mode of product placement which have involved Visual Only. To sum up. @arrh%&'':) considered that the brand placement is better defined as the paid inclusion of branded products or brand identities. within mass media programming. movies and novels. music videos. 1ussell %/00/) has investigated the modality %visual and auditory) and the connection > . through audio andAor visual means. including television shows. Thus. broadcasts. product placement have many forms which involved video games. the brand can be e4posure by naturally and unobtrusively ways to the consumer.unobtrusive<. Therefore. to impel their purchase behavior. udio with Visual.nature of product placement.

The research results show that brand recognition improves when modality and plot connection are differently. "n addition to the definition of the product placement that mentioned in the study.of plot has the same relation to the effectiveness of product placement. . #upta and $ord %&''() also distinguished the product placement into two modes by the strategic purpose. BC)6 The authors in the program report the product. Product placement can be classified by the form of e4pression or the strategies. logo. The two modes are as follows6 . logo. #upta and $ord %&''() had distinguished the product placement into three modes by following the placing strategy of product placement. udio Placement %聽覺置入. V"3)6 There is only the appearance of the product. +ombined udio-Visual Placement %視覺與聽覺混和置入. brand name. or the other visual elements that can be identified to a brand. Visual Placement %視覺置入. brand name. service. V)6 3howing a brand and at the same time mentioning the brand name or conveying a brandrelevant message in audio form. /. we will also take a deep research into the way of product placement and the applied cases. service. 9. They based on the degree of product placement and how obvious it is. The three modes are as follows6 &. or they e4press the relevant information of brand with any kinds of audio form. *esides.

the brand name will be conveyed with a conversation or in a non-single sentence way. there is only a small range of the brand-relevant message appear in the screen.&. in the audio form. /. we can combine them into si4 specific modes as follows6 Dodes of Product Placement ppearance Visual Placement Cegree of Obvious Prominent Placement Prominent Visual Placement udio Placement Prominent udio Placement udio-Visual Placement Prominent udio-Visual Placement = . Prominent Product Placement %明顯的置入方式)6 "t means that in the visual form. however. 3ubtle Product Placement %隱微的置入方式)6 it means that in the visual form. the authors in the program report the brand name repeatedly or in a single sentence. there are obvious arrangements which include a big si!e or a big range appearance of the brand-relevant message. and in the audio form. ccording to the three modes and the two degree.

9. 3creen Placement %螢幕畫面置入) means the product and its logo are purely visible. according to the strategies how the product placement be implemented. Plot placement %戲劇情節置入). This type of placement is particular characteristic for the Eames *ond movies. 1ussell %&''() used three dimensions to describe the way of product placement6 &. "t is a way to set the product into the TV shows and become part of it. then combine the visual and audio placement. 3crip placement %旁白A演員台詞的置入) is a way to convey the purely audio. Verbal placement when the actors or a voice-over pronounces the relevant message. Then. in order to promote the reality of the TV shows. d’ sous and 3’equin %&''') classified product placement into two types6 implicit PP$ and integrated e4plicit PP$6 ( . /. perhaps 5ust the brand name.Product Placement 3ubtle Placement 3ubtle Visual Placement 3ubtle udio Placement 3ubtle udio-Visual Placement 1eference comes from6 #upta and $ord %&''() Doreover.

"mplicit PP$%含蓄式置入) and "ntegrated e4plicit PP$% !情"的#顯置入). 3creen Placement%螢幕畫面置入). udio Only % BC). 3crip Placement%旁白A演員台詞的置入). and Plot Placement%戲劇情節置入). For instance. and udio with Visual % V). Prominent Placement %明顯的置入方式) and 3ubtle Placement %隱微的置入方 式). ' . they can be briefly classified into two ways. PP$ is integrated e4plicit when the brand or the firm is formally e4pressed within the program6 it plays an active role. /. in a qui! the questions asked to the participants concern the sponsor’s products. Product placement can lead consumers to have positive emotion and approval on product. For instance. s the theory above. the firm or the product is present within the program without being formally e4pressed6 it’s a passive role. "mplicit PP$. "ntegrated e4plicit PP$. One is based on the perception of placement %e4pressive form)6 &. /. "t can be obviously known that the different modes of product placement both affect consumers’ purchase interest and the marketing effect. n implicit PP$ is the brand. Visual Only %V"3). nd the other one is based on the strategic purpose %also the prominent degree of product placement)6 &. in a qui! the participants and the host wear clothes with the sponsor’s logo. /.&.

ttention  " . the "C theory will be taken at the basic theory."nterest  C H Cesire  . %Fill.ction The first stage describe that advertising grab the audiences’ attention primarily. "n this research. Gach part will be reached in rotation before the consumer takes every step of purchasing the product. Gdward 3trong %&'/>) developed the "C model. make the audiences interested to the idea of the product or service. nd it’s widely adopted marketing theory model called "C . third. &0 . /00/). breaks down the sequence of events to6  . then it can be successful in attract to its audience.3 $I)$ Darketing is a kind of process that includes a number of different ob5ectives. the potential customer will desirable to the product or service.2. /00/). 3econdly. The final stage that 3trong %&'/>) indicated that getting the consumer to take action because of their desire for the product %Fill.

human being naturally can accept the narrative narration easier than the other kind of narration. That means. it can be known that storytelling marketing is a marketing strategy combining the brand story and the product image. the storytelling marketing strategy has already been a necessary marketing strategy.* Storytelling approach to 'arketing Gveryone likes to listen to stories.). The kind of marketing strategy can arouse consumers’ imagination and interesting to the product and brand.2. Da4well and Cickman %/00=) indicate that . ccording to ?aung%/00."nterest< and .Cesire< elements in the "C mode. he defines the storytelling marketing as a marketing communication which is carrying out through the way of storytelling.the secret of selling is what it has always been a good story<. && . it means there must have stories sell then a product can be sold. *esides. this kind of storytelling approach to marketing can convey the product value fast and accurate. Therefore. story can be quickly conveying values through the story teller in a simple form. Through the connective relation between stories and marketing. Eust like the .

Deta-analysis is also called 3ystematic 1eview.". meta-analysis can be used to identify this common influence. Detaanalysis is the statistical technique for combining data from previous studies.-. wide variety of questions can be investigated by using meta.analysis. 7hen the treatment effect %or effect si!e) is consistent from one study to the ne4t.). This study uses the meta-analysis methodology to assess the effect of different media in product placement. 7hen the influence varies from one study to &/ .Chapter hree (# +.

Vo!. *(+ta. 'o(rna! of Cons(%er Researc#. Viewer’s Recognition of Brands !aced "it#in a $i!%. The focus was on scholarly articles employing quantitative approaches to e4amine the effective on product placement in different media.A. 29. C. 25 &ss(e1. meta-analysis may be used to identify the reason for the variation.o)ies/ t#e 0ffect of ro%inence and .T. (2332). Vo!. B. L (2336). 'o(rna! of C(rrent &ss(es and Researc# in Ad)ertising. and Carder.A. To e4amine current trends of data analysis procedures employed by product placement in different media.the following studies. S. (1996). erc1. total of 9> articles were included in the final data analysis ma5or category being analy!ed include6 • • • Television Movie Magazine &9 . and .ode on A(dience Reca!!..oda!it1 and !ot Connection Congr(ence on Brand .R. Lord (199-). rod(ct !ace%ent in . &nternationa! 'o(rna! of Ad)ertising. L. 6ece%ber. &n)estigating t#e 0ffecti)eness of rod(ct +!ace%ent in Te!e)ision S#ows/ T#e Ro!e of .e%or1 and Attit(de. this study made e4tensive search for relevant research articles from the following four academic researches6 Babina. R(sse!!. . Are rod(ct !ace%ent 0ffecti)e4 &nternationa! 'o(rna! of Ad)ertising.

'o(rna! of C(rrent &ss(es and &: .A. Viewer’s Recognition of Brands !aced "it#in a $i!%.ode on A(dience Reca!!.R. B. (1996). rod(ct !ace%ent in . *(+ta. and Carder. this study made e4tensive search for relevant research articles from the following four academic databases6 Babina. L. &nternationa! 'o(rna! of Ad)ertising. and .T.o)ies/ t#e 0ffect of ro%inence and . Lord (199-). S. .• • • Video game Internet Others Chapter /our )ata $nalysis To e4amine current trends of data analysis procedures employed by product placement in different media..

total of 9> articles were included in the final data analysis ma5or category being analy!ed include6 • • • • • • Television Dovie Daga!ine Video game "nternet Others a0le 1 (a1or Statistical (edia Used in Product Place'ent 22333423356 ypes of (edia /re7uency of different 'edia used 0y years otal echni7ues used &> . 29. Vo!.e%or1 and Attit(de. R(sse!!. erc1. Are rod(ct !ace%ent 0ffecti)e4 &nternationa! 'o(rna! of Ad)ertising. (2332). C. 25 &ss(e1. The focus was on scholarly articles employing quantitative approaches to e4amine the effective on product placement in different media. L (2336).oda!it1 and !ot Connection Congr(ence on Brand . 'o(rna! of Cons(%er Researc#.Researc# in Ad)ertising.A. Vo!. 6ece%ber. &n)estigating t#e 0ffecti)eness of rod(ct +!ace%ent in Te!e)ision S#ows/ T#e Ro!e of .

. the total media used e4ceeded the total number of articles reviewed. o N &. it is counted as one media. Major Statistical Media Used in Product Placement (2000-2009) 5 4 3 2 1 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 #ears $e"evision Movie %adio Magazine Video game Internet Others s " ! i t r a . of articles 233 3 1 233 1 1 0 233 2 * & 233 3 2 / 233 * 2 & 233 8 2 & 233 9 : 9 233 : 3 & 233 . 3ome articles used more than one media. descriptive statistics is counted if it is used for ma5or data analysis. * / 233 5 5 : J 9> K Television Dovie 1adio Daga!ine Video game "nternet Others 0 &> :9K & 0 0 0 / 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 & 0 & 0 0 0 / & = & /0K 9K 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 & 0 0 0 0 & 0 0 0 & 0 & & 9 9K 'K 0 0 & 0 0 0 & 0 0 & 9 'K 0 & 0 0 0 & & & & 0 > &:K L"f the same media used more than once in an article.IearsA 2o.

others<.Others 14& Internet 9& $e"evision 42& $e"evision Video game 9& Magazine 3& %adio 3& Movie 20& Movie %adio Magazine Video game Internet Others The classified types of media were presented in Table &. . the overall percentages of studies on television is :9K %&> articles). video game 'K %9 articles). 2otes that articles that were classified as multi. mong those classified in . for each year and overall. The study of television tools as assessments reached the peak in /00'. "t has become less common after /00>. maga!ine9K %& articles). with an overall percentage of :9K %&> articles). movie/0K %= articles). respectively. articles %&=K) were found investigating the use of multi-media in improving the media area. "nternet 'K % 9 articles). 1esearch studies that e4amined the use of multimedia were the predominant type in articles published in /00:.media. three articles reviewed in this study &= . 3ince then these approaches have become more popular. with an overall percentage of /0K %= articles).. radio 9K %& articles). Video game essay entered the research community in /00. showing the number of articles in each category and the total percentage of the articles they represented.

of articles 233 3 2 233 1 1 233 2 * 233 3 2 233 * 2 233 8 3 233 9 9 233 : * 233 . a0le 2 (a1or Statistical Placing Strategy Used in Product Place'ent 223334 23356 ypes of (odes Dodes of Product Placement ppearance otal echni7ues used IearsA 2o.investigated %*alasubramanian. MPawardhan. /00. 8 233 5 5 J 9> K &( . @arrh.).

&' . and udio-Visual 3trategy :9K %&> articles). Visual 3trategy :'K %&= articles). 3ince then these approaches have become more popular. 2ote that articles that were classified as different modes. the placing strategy in product placement were coded.K %/ articles).others<. mong those classified in . showing the number of articles in each category and the total percentage of the articles they represented.udio Visual udio-Visual Others 0 0 0 0 & 0 & 0 0 0 / . the overall percentages of studies on udio 3trategy using rate is . & article %9K) was found investigating the way of placing strategy in product placement. for each year and overall.K 0 / & : 0 0 / & 0 0 0 : & 9 & / 9 9 > &= &> :'K :9K 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 & & 9K Others 3& '(dio 6& '(dio '(dio)Vis(a" 43& Vis(a" 48& Vis(a" '(dio)Vis(a" Others "n Table /.

a0le 3 (a1or Statistical Pro'inent )egree on Product Place'ent 223334 23356 ypes of (odes Dodes of Product Placement ppearance otal echni7ues used /0 .

rominent 71& *(+t"e . for each year and overall.rominent "n Table 9. some articles focused on more than one of the categories of modes whiles others do /& . s noted in the statisticalAmathematical analyses. showing the number of article in each category and the total percentage of the article they represent. of articles 233 3 3 233 1 1 233 2 * 233 3 2 233 * 1 233 8 1 233 9 8 233 : 3 233 .IearsA 2o. 9 233 5 5 J 9> K 3ubtle Prominent 0 & / 0 & 0 / & / & &0 /'K 9 0 / / / & / / : = /> =/K *(+t"e 29& . the prominent degree on product placement are presented.

not discuss some of the categories at all. a0le * (a1or Statistical &ays of I'ple'ent in Product Place'ent 223334 23356 ypes of (odes (odes of Product Place'ent $ppearance otal echni7ues used // . The most commonly studied modes of product placement appearance are prominent mode %.K) and subtle mode %/'K)..

.. 9 / 233 5 5 & J 9> K "mplicit PP$ %含蓄式) "ntegrated e4plicit PP$ %#顯式) 0 &0 /'K 9 0 / / / & / / : = /9 =/K Im-"i!it . The classified types of modes were presented in Table :.IearsA 2o.. Integrated e/-"i!it .. for each year and overall.. among those classified in ... showing the number of articles in each category and the total percentage of the articles they represented..K) were found investigating the way of implement. 2ote that articles that were classified as different modes.K %/9 articles). the overall percentages of studies on implicit is /'K %&0 articles). / articles %. integrated e4plicit. of articles 233 3 3 233 1 1 & 233 2 * / 233 3 2 0 233 * 1 & 233 8 1 0 233 9 8 / 233 : 3 & 233 . 3ince then these approaches have become more popular. 29& Integrated e/-"i!it . 71& Im-"i!it . /9 ..others<.

1 Conclusions This study identified and tabulated research methods and data analysis procedures /: . this study draws the following conclusion6 8.Chapter /i<e Conclusion and Suggestion ccording to the results in chapter :.

the other as follow6 movie/0K. Dulti-media of radio and maga!ine are less investigated modes may either with ma5or degree /> .media. for each year and overall. These data indicate that research in product placement increase rapidly over the past ten years. future study may switch to those less investigated modes. "nternet 'K. Those highly favored television are areas already investigated. placing strategy. therefore. "n the ma5or statistical Dedia used in product placement %/000-/00') presents as a myriad of media. &. maga!ine9K. respectively. video game 'K. the overall percentages of studies on television is the highest :9K. it also identified the types of media. "n addition. radio 9K. types of media used in product placement were presented annually so that their trends and practices can be assessed. research designs. 2otes that articles that were classified as multi. 3ince we have mentioned above then these approaches have become more popular. showing the number of articles in each category and the total percentage of the articles they represented. and the ways of implement were applied. 3ince television has been research for a period of time. Percentages of frequently used statistical techniques.from studies in different media of product placement over the past &0 years. prominent degree on product placement.

They need to be verified by further studies. /. the concerning research should be continue. and audiovisual placing strategy in product placement. "nternet. showing that the decline of audio placing strategy and also correlates with the low percentage of radio relevant research in table&. it is evident that research on audio placing strategy is lowest. /.. The vast dominance of descriptive statistics used in research on placing strategy in product placement is the visual placing strategy. "n terms of table /. and it was sustained and continued. video game. nd the researches investigated on audio-visual placing strategy were only ne4t to the visual placing strategy. "t shows that the relevant research reach the peak on /00'. literature were coded and tabulated to audio. ccording to the research topic from the literature collected randomly in this study. s the new types of media. but also increased by years. and the second one is the audio-visual placing strategy. nd this kind of researches were not only appears on an average level over the past ten years. From the statistical analysis in table /. visual. "t only investigated on /00: and /00. the visual placing strategy was investigated in a large number from /00/. . which were >.of importance or not important at all. music video may play a dominant role in the future.

/= . there will be some marketer set a place in supermarkets or shopping malls. ccordingly. when it has more information with brand placed and noticeable figures that reinforce strong possibility to attract viewers. there was a research mentioned about the placing strategy on olfaction.*esides. The results of the analysis to the degree of product placement indicate that prominent placement is more effective to viewers than subtle placement and in agreement with #upta and $ord %&''() that prominence can draw viewer more attention. The same placing strategy can also be implemented in department store. The smell can attract people to eat the food and interest their purchase desire. the finding supports that prominent placements would be more effective than subtle placement used by media. prominent placement leads better awareness of placement and more positive affective reaction than subtle placement. they cook their food product and provide costumers eat for free. +ounter sells in perfume counter will distribute the Perfume Testing Paper so that customers can smell the perfume before they buy the product. Prominent placement provides more information about product brand in media. For e4ample. 9. The table shows only one research investigated this kind of placing strategy in /00'. "n table 9.

researcher found out that it was hard to find the thesis before /00>. according to the result of the research .2 Research "i'itations The research has a number of unavoidable limitations and it is important to address them. then /( . but the implicit should have more opportunities to be developing. This research basic is from d’ sous and 3’equin%&''') classified product placement into two types6 implicit PP$ and integrated e4plicit PP$. From the thesis. researcher had collected the thesis of the past ten years that have related to the product placement. 7hat deserves to be noticed is that the marketers had already known the benefit of integrated e4plicit. it’s showing that the implement in integrated e4plicit growing rapidly. "ntegrated e4plicit PP$ is the most effects. %GN6 cocktail in the famous drama se4 and the city) On the contrary. The implement way in integrated have already got =/K. two of these is to evaluate the way of product placement.:. This table has the same strategic in ways of implement and degree. the implement in "mplicit PP$ in the research from the past ten years. The method of this research is based on meta-analysis. its cease to moving. 8. and from the table.

therefore. s the result. On the other side. the conclusion may not have well balanced. internet.3 /uture Research Suggestion "n the future. 8. it is showing that the movie and television has taken the biggest percentage than the other media. the concerning research should be continue. They need to be verified by further studies. the data also indicates there were in lack of relevant researches on olfaction placing strategy %$覺置入%&). ?owever. the researcher suggested the other researchers can do the different effect in different media research. 1esearchers think it may bring a new benefit in audio media. maybe the other researchers can found an effect placing strategy only in visual or audio. the statistic data in this study proves that those highly favored placing strategy such as visual and audiovisual are areas already investigated. Then. "t is recommended that future study can discussed and investigated more deeply in these area such as multi-media of radio and maga!ine. /' . video game. there are still some directions can be discussed more deeply6 From this study. music video may play a dominant role in the future. s the new types of media.researcher almost based the information after /00>. future study may switch to the less investigated placing strategy-audio. that are less investigated modes may either with ma5or degree of importance or not important at all.

Practicality6 a. cademia6 dvance the understanding of the definition and application of multimedia in product placement and marketing strategy. 3. Journal of Advertising. %/00. $er!an . /9 %:). *hatnagar...-&0(. and +onsumer +haracteristics on Placement Gfficacy. '. b. &&>-&:&. 3uggestions for those marketers which want to adapt different media placing strategy as one of advertising methods. @. 9.. Dedia. *alasubramanian. 90 . 3iva @. ?. The "mpact of Dessage. %&'':). udience 1esponse to Product Placement6 n "ntegrative Framework and Future 1esearch genda. . contribution of new directions for future research. a. . @arrh. 'o(rna! of Ad)ertising. 9>%9). /. M Dalkoc.>.). 3.: Research Contri0ution 2general conclusion6 This study has its contributed in these two dimensions6 &. *eyond dvertising and Publicity6 ?ybrid Dessages and Public Policy "ssues. 2amita. /. M P. *alasubramanian. References &. E.. %/00:). :.

PM#. Vol. ' 1eid. Celorme. +hristian 3chemer. +owley. 7hen Product Placement #oes 7rong6 The Gffects of Program $iking and Placement Prominence. 9& . /> "ssue &0. 9=%&). E.Passing the +ourvoisier< lways Pay Off8 Positive and 2egative Gvaluative +onditioning Gffects of *rand Placements in Dusic Videos. +. ('-'(. 2. C. :( "ssue /0. /(. /&p. 7erner 7irth. (. Doviegoers’ G4periences and "nterpretations of *rands in Films 1evisited. ?. D. %&'''). +onstantine von ?offman %>A&:A/00=). Brandwee8. &-90. Bnilever Tuning Out 2etwork Product Placements.. p&0-&0. (%/). %/00(). 'o(rna! of Ad)ertising.. G. G. +heong. %/00(). 'o(rna! of Ad)ertising. and 3amuel Te4tor %Oct/00(). "nvestigating the Gffectiveness of Product Placements in Television 3hows6 The 1ole of Dodality and Plot +onnection +ongruence on *rand Demory and ttitude.>. : bw. 9A:p. =&'>. p'/9-':9.ar8eting.. EOrg Datthes. . +onsumers’ 1eliance on Product "nformation and 1ecommendations Found in B#+. &0. Russell %/00/). s1c#o!og1 7 . Vol. M Dorrison. '. . 90. Eo(rna! of &nteracti)e Ad)ertising.-9&(. Coes . =. /' %9). Journal of Consumer Research. Cristel A. M *arron. & chart. $.

= charts. //%/). @. #upta. study of Factors ffecting +onsumer Gvaluations and Demory of Product Placements in Dovies.p. d’ stous. 3tudy of Factors ffecting +onsumer Gvaluctions and Domory of Product Plcaments in Dovies. and na +olovic %/00'). Vol. &. Demory and Perception of *rand Dentions and Placement of *rands. &/. p(0=-(:/.&&. M $ord. "ssue :. & diagram.. //p. &>. lain. Pola *. 9. F. Gva van 1ei5mersdal and Peter 2ei5ens %/00'). *. lain. %/000). M +hartier. vol. /9-/=. &nternationa! 'o(rna! of Ad)ertising.&-=(/. Gdith 3mit. *. p=. French and merican +onsumers ttitude Towards this Gmerging "nternational Promotional Dedium. 'o(rna! of . 9&-:0. P. @. & diagram. and 3on5a #rabner @rauter %/000). &=. P. M $ord./'. 99-:0.:&.. Product Placement in Dovies6 The Gffect 9/ . //%/). /( "ssue >. Product Placement in Dovies6 The Gffect of Prominence and Dode on udience 1ecall. #upta. d’ stous. M +hartier.. &nternationa! 'o(rna! of Ad)ertising. %/000). 'o(rna! of C(rrnrt &ss(es and Researc# in Ad)ertising. 9 charts. #upta. Gric Celattre. &9. 'o(rna! of C(rrent &ss(e and Researc# in Ad)ertising. Product Placements in Dovies6 +ross +ulture nalysis of ustrian. /( "ssue >. %&''(). 1. Vol. #ould 3tephen E. 1. &:. P. %&''(). /0%&). 'o(rna! of C(rrent &ss(es and Researc# in Ad)ertising.ar8eting. F. TodayPs Practice of *rand Placement and the "ndustry *ehind it.

and Gthic. 'o(rna! of Ad)ertising. C. Dichael .. 'o(rna! of Co%%(nication. M Gdwards 3. :('->0:. p:. D. . G4plicit and "mplicit Demory. &'. &(. 7iles and nna Canielova %Eul/00'). $a Ferle +.. Product Palcement6 ?ow *rands ppear on Television. M ?udson. $ow "nvolvement 3trategies for Processing dvertisement. #ardner. 9>%:). M 1usso.'-:('. 1oskos-Gwoldsen %3ep/00=). *est *usiness *ooks. %&'(>). *randed Gntertainment6 2ew dvertising Technique or Product Placement in Cisguise8 'o(rna! of . /&p. .). /0%&). $. The Gffectiveness of *rand Placements in the Dovies6 $evels of Placements. Doonhee Iang M Cavid 1. ?udson. The 7orth of Product 99 . Observation6 dvertising +lutter in +onsumer Daga!ines.anage%ent. #alician. Vol. and *rand-+hoice *ehavior. ?andbook of Product Placement in the Dass Dedia. 'o(rna! of Ad)ertising. 'o(rna! of C(rrent &ss(es and Researc# in Ad)ertising. & chart. http://www. />.of Prominence and Dode on udience 1ecall. ?a. =. 2ew 3trategies in Darketing Theory. //%>A.. 3. P. $. E.).).. /:.htm /9. Trends.. %/00.. G. D.). %&''. %/00. //. /0. >= "ssue 9. ndrew. D.-(9.ar8eting . 'o(rna! of Ad)ertising Researc#. :-&/. 9. Practice.>-(. &:.imsai. %/00>). /&. :=->'.net/Movies/WarGames.

ar8eting. 'o(rna! of Ad)ertising. 'o(rna! of . /=. &nternationa! 'o(rna! of 0!ectronic Co%%erce. /&%9). 90. ..%/00/). The Gffect of On-$ine +onsumer 1eviews on +onsumer Purchasing "ntention6 The Doderating 1ole of "nvolvement. & graph. /. $ee. Vol. 1usswll. 90. =9-'(. . :> %&).Placement in 3uccessful Films6 n Gvent 3tudy nalysis. +ristel . Park. Pamela Diles ?omer %Fall/00').. D... / graphs. 1ecall of *rand Placements in +omputerAVideo #ames. Product placement at Sourcewatch. Danagerial "nvestigation into the Product Placement "ndustry.. M and ?an. 'o(rna! of Ad)ertising Researc#. 9/.-9&(. 'o(rna! of Cons(%er Researc#. and Dichael *elch %/00>). ". 'o(rna! of Ad)ertising. (0-'/. p/&-9&. "nvestigating the Gffectiveness of Product Placement in Television 3hows6 The 1ole of Dodality and Plot +onnection +ongruence on *rand Demory and ttitude.org. = charts. /'. &/>-&:(. /(. 9&. 1. C. 9: . p::-. 2elson. / charts. & diagram. 1ussell. :/%/). D. %/00=).9. Product Placements6 The "mpact of Placement Type and 1epetition on ttitude.&&%:). E. /0p. 2orris +. 9=:. +onte4t Gffects on 1ecall and 1ecognition of Daga!ine dvertisements. Vol. M +olman. %&''9). %/00/). =9 "ssue :. /'. +. &&p. 9( "ssue 9. 'o(rna! of Ad)ertising Researc#. G.

alasu!ramanian. 'o(rna! of Ad)ertising. and Products6 *alance Dodel of 3itcom Product Placement Gffects. and $ydia 7indisch %/00'). *urnkrant %&''&). &nternationa! 'o(rna! of Ad)ertising. 9 charts.99.p. Thomas Dackay. 9> %9).). and *arbara 3tern %/00. "ames Karrh and #emant Patwardhan %/00. =-&(. Siva K. +onsumers. &&>&:&. 9> %&). Dichael Gwing.Processing View of the 1ole of Pictures in Print dvertisements. 'o(rna! of Ad)ertising. /( "ssue 9. 1ussell. n "magery. The Gffect of Product Placement in +omputer #ames on *rand ttitude and 1ecall. 9.//. Bnnave. udience 1esponse to Product Placements6 n "ntegrative Framework and Future 1esearch genda. p:/9-:9(. ?. Vol. Fiona 2ewton.. 9>.ar8eting Researc# . +ristel .).-/9&. 'o(rna! of . 9:. 9> . &. +haracters. 1ao and 1obert G.

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