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61.

Parts of the Body
ankle arm back beard belly bladder blood body bone brain breath calf cheek chest chin cold cough ear elbow eye eyebrow eyelid face fever enkel arm rug baard buik blaas bloed (n) lichaam (n) bot / been (n) hersenen (pl.) adem kuit wang borst kin verkoudheid hoest oor (n) elleboog oog (n) wenkbrauw ooglid (n) gezicht (n) koorts finger flesh foot forehead gum hair hand head headache health heart heel hip intestines jaw kidney knee leg lip liver lung moustache mouth muscle vinger vlees (n) voet voorhoofd (n) tandvlees (n) haar (n) hand hoofd (n) hoofdpijn gezondheid hart (n) hiel heup ingewanden (pl.) kaak nier knie been (n) lip lever long snor mond spier nail neck nerve pain nose palm rib shin shoulder skeleton skin skull sole spine stomach tear thigh throat thumb toe tongue tooth wound wrist nagel hals / nek zenuw pijn neus handpalm rib scheen schouder skelet / geraamte huid schedel voetzool ruggengraat maag traan dij keel duim teen tong tand wond pols

62. Relative Pronouns
Relative clauses begin with relative pronouns words that correspond to who, whom, that and which in !nglish. "hese may be omitted in !nglish# but must be included in $utch. "he relative pronoun is put into the correct gender depending on the noun it refers to. "he conjugated verb goes to the end of the sentence as well as with subordinate clauses. Die and dat are the relative pronouns in $utch% die refers to people# singular common nouns and all plural nouns# whereas dat refers to singular neuter nouns. Kent u de man die daar op de hoek staat? $o you know the man who is standing there on the corner& Dat is het boek dat ik las. "hat is the book 'that( ) read. ier is de jurk die ik gisteren gekocht heb. *ere is the dress 'which( ) bought yesterday.

Die is replaced by wie when the clause refers to people and is preceded by a preposition. )n addition# whoever is translated as wie. De jongen met wie ik praatte heet !iet. "he boy with whom ) spoke is called Peter. +o relative pronoun is used when the clause refers to things and is preceded by a preposition. )n this case# waar" and the preposition are used instead. )n some cases# waar" and a preposition can also replace the relative pronoun when referring to people. Dat zijn mensen waarop je rekenen kunt. "hey are people upon whom you can count. '"hey are people you can count on.( #at replaces dat when the pronoun refers to the words alles 'everything(# iets 'something(# niets 'nothing(% to the superlative form of an adjective used as a noun% to the whole preceding clause. )t is also used when there is no antecedent 'no preceding noun,pronoun to refer to.( Dat is alles wat ik heb. "hat is everything that ) have. $ij komt altijd te laat% wat mij ergert. -he always comes late# which annoys me.

6.. /ses of !r
1. Personal pronouns are used after prepositions when referring to people. *owever# when you need to refer to a thing# a compound using er" plus the preposition 'either written as one word# or separated by adverbial e0pression( is used. Daar 'that( and hier 'this( can also replace er when it is not written as one word. De kinderen spelen vaak ermee. "he children often play with it. De kinderen spelen er vaak mee. "he children often play with it. Di kinderen spelen daar/hier vaak mee. "he children often play with that,this. 2. !r is used when talking about a 1uantity or an amount. )t is translated as 2of it2 or 2of them#2 though these e0pressions are not always used in !nglish. &k heb er genoeg gehad. )3ve had enough 'of it.( oeveel poesjes heb je? &k heb er twee. *ow many kittens do you have& ) have two 'of them.( .. )n an unstressed position# er means there 'an adverb of place(. )t is replaced by daar in stressed positions 'such as the beginning of a sentence.( 4. !r can introduce sentences with an indefinite subject. )n this case# er functions as there as a subject# as in 2there is,are.2

64. 5nimals
animal ant badger bat beak bear bee beetle bird blackbird bull butterfly calf carp cat caterpillar chicken chimpan6ee claw cockroach cod cow crab crayfish crow deer dier (n) mier das vleermuis bek beer bij tor vogel merel stier vlinder kalf (n) karper kat / poes rups kip chimpansee klauw kakkerlak kabeljauw koe krab rivierkreeft kraai hert dog donkey duck eagle eel elephant feather fin fish flea fly fo0 frog fur gill giraffe goat goose gorilla grasshopper hare hen heron herring hoof horn hond ezel eend arend aal olifant veer vin vis vlo vlieg vos kikker vacht / pels kieuw giraffe geit gans gorilla sprinkhaan haas kip / hen reiger haring hoef hoorn horse insect kitten lamb lion lobster louse mackerel mole monkey mos1uito moth mouse octopus ostrich owl o0 oyster parrot partridge paw pig pigeon rabbit rat rooster paard (n) insekt katje / poesje (n) lam (n) leeuw kreeft luis makreel mol aap muskiet mot muis octopus struisvogel uil os oester papegaai patrijs poot varken duif konijn (n) rat haan salmon scale 'sea( gull seal shark sheep shrimp snail snake sparrow spider s1uirrel stork swallow tail tiger toad trout turkey wasp weasel whale wing wolf worm 6ebra zalm schub (zee)meeuw zeehond haai schaap (n) garnaal slak slang mus spin eekhoorn ooievaar zwaluw staart tijger pad forel kalkoen wesp wezel walvis vleugel wolf worm zebra

67. )nfinitive 8onstructions
-ome verbs re1uire a preposition before an infinitive in $utch# while others do not. "his is true in !nglish as well% e.g. ) want to leave vs. ) can read. 9erbs that do not re1uire te before an infinitive include: modal verbs% blijven% laten% zullen% zien (to see)% horen (to hear)% voelen (to feel)% komen% gaan% vinden (to find)% leren (to teach)% and helpen. &k kan komen. ) can come. et zal morgen regenen. )t will rain tomorrow. $ij gaat iedere dag zwemmen. -he goes swimming everyday.

"he preposition used in $utch is te# although the om... te construction can also be used. 9erbs that use only te before an infinitive include: zitten% staan% liggen% lopen (to walk)% beginnen% proberen (to tr')% durven (to dare)% hoeven (to need)% weten. 5nd after these prepositions# te is used before an infinitive: zonder (without)% in plaats van (instead of)% and door (b'.) ;hen using om...te# all adjectives# adverbs# objects# and e0pressions of time# manner and place are placed between om and te. <m... te is always used when the infinitive occurs at the beginning of the sentence# and when the infinitive refers to a preceding noun. ij stond op de bus te wachten. *e stood waiting for the bus. et begint te regenen. )t3s beginning to rain. &k zei het zonder te denken. ) said it without thinking. et is erg moeilijk om te doen. )t is very difficult to do. oeveel kost het om hier te parkeren? *ow much is it to park here& et is een interessant programma om naar te kijken. )t is an interesting program to watch. !nglish infinitives that follow an object are translated into clauses using conjunctions in $utch. $ij verwacht dat ik kom. -he is e0pecting me to come. '=iterally: -he e0pects that ) come.(

66. Past Perfect "ense
"he past perfect tense corresponds to the perfect tense# but the action occurred in the past before another action occurred in the past. )n !nglish# it translates to 2had2 instead of 2have2 before the past participle. "o form this tense# simply use the simple past of hebben or 6ijn 'whichever au0iliary the verb used in the present perfect tense( and the past participle. $ij had de boeken niet gevonden. -he had not found the books. (ullie hadden in !aris gestudeerd. >ou had studied in Paris.

6?. 8onditional
"he conditional mood e0presses doubt or uncertainty. )n !nglish# 2would @ infinitive2 is used for the present conditional and 2would have @ past participle2 is used for the past conditional. )n $utch# 6ou,6ouden @ infinitive is used for the present conditional# and 6ou,6ouden @ past participle @ infinitive of hebben or 6ijn is used for the past conditional. 'Aou and 6ouden are the singular and plural past tense forms of 6ullen.(

&k zou graag thuis blijven. ) would like to stay home. )ls ik jou was% zou ik dat huis niet kopen. )f ) were you# ) would not buy that house. &k zou graag thuis gebleven zijn. ) would have liked to stay home.

6B. $iminutives
$iminutives are forms of a word that show smallness or endearment and are much more common in $utch 'especially spoken $utch( than in !nglish. 5ll diminutives in $utch are formed by adding "je to the noun# and all are neuter nouns and form the plural by adding s. kindje little child neusje little nose schaapje little sheep +ouns endings in a vowel# y# w or j% nouns that contain a long vowel or diphthong followed by r# l# or n% and nouns ending in unstressed er# el# and en add "tje to form the diminutive. eitje little egg beentje little leg dekentje little blanket +ouns containing a short vowel followed by r# l# n# m# or ng add etje. balletje little ball stemmetje little voice +ouns ending in unstressed ing drop the final g and add kje. verrassinkje little surprise +ouns ending in m add pje 'unless m is preceded by short stressed vowel.( bezempje little broom

6C. Present Participle
"he present participle is made by adding "d 'or sometimes "de( to the infinitive of a $utch verb. Present participles are not used as fre1uently in $utch as in !nglish. "hey are used mainly when another action takes place within the specific period of time we are talking about. -o# every e0ample sentence is about two actions that take place at the same time.

zingen to sing $e liep zingend naar huis. -he walked home singing. lopen to walk Kun jij lopend lezen? 8an you read while walking& fluisteren to whisper ij zei fluisterend dat hij eerder weg wilde. *e said whispering that he wanted to leave earlier. Dost of the time an !nglish present participle is not translated by a $utch present participle. /sually# the $utch simple present tense is used instead. "he sentence below is an e0ample of this. $e leest een boek. -he is reading a book.

?E. Passive 9oice
;hen the subject of the sentence does something# the sentence is in the active voice. )f something happens to that person# we use the passive voice. Replacing the au0iliary verb hebben 'to have( by zijn 'to be( or worden 'to become# to be from this moment on(# very often results in the passive voice. "he verb vinden 'to find( is in the active voice: &k heb gevonden. ) have found. &k had gevonden. ) had found. 5nd in the passive voice: &k ben gevonden. ) am found &k ben gevonden. ) have been found. &k was gevonden. ) was found. &k was gevonden. ) had been found. &k word gevonden. ) am found 'right now(. -uppose that Peter finds you. &k ben door !eter gevonden. ) am found by Peter. &k was door !eter gevonden. ) was found by Peter. &k word door !eter gevonden. ) am found by Peter 'right now(. &k word door !eter gevonden. ) will be found by Peter. *&k word door !eter gevonden.* in the present perfect has about the same meaning as *!eter vindt mij.* in the simple present.