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Rediscovery of Aristotle.

Until 1100: Logica vetus. Aristotle, Categoriae (Boëthius). Aristotle, De interpretatione (Boëthius). Porphyrios, Isagoge. c.1120: Rediscovery of Boëthius’ translations of Aristotle, Prior Analytics. Aristotle, Topica. Aristotle, Sophistici Elenchi . c.1150: James of Venice translates Aristotle, Posterior Analytics. Aristotle, De anima. Aristotle, Metaphysica. Logica Nova. Bernard G. Dod, Aristoteles Latinus, in: N. Kretzmann, A. Kenny, J. Pinborg (eds.), The Cambridge History of Later Medieval Philosophy, Cambridge 1982, p. 45-79

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The historical situation around 1200.
Resources. Rediscovery of Aristotle leads to a lot of new material. Institutions. The centres of learning (Paris, Oxford, ...) institutionalise learning in the Universities. Consolidation of the XIIIth century. Embedding of Aristotelian teaching into the Christian philosophy.
(Saint) Albert the Great Albertus Magnus (c.1200-1280) Doctor Universalis. Founder of the studium generale in Cologne (1248). Predecessor of modern concept of sciences: The aim of natural science is not simply to accept the statements of others, but to investigate the causes that are at work in nature.

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The historical situation around 1200.
Resources. Rediscovery of Aristotle leads to a lot of new material. Institutions. The centres of learning (Paris, Oxford, ...) institutionalise learning in the Universities. Consolidation of the XIIIth century. Embedding of Aristotelian teaching into the Christian philosophy.

(Saint) Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) Student of Albert the Great. Doctor Angelicus.

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The birth of the university (1).
Pre-universities. Law School of Bologna since the early XIth century (“Bononia docet” ). Cloister schools and cathedral schools in Paris (e.g., the cathedral school of Notre Dame). Problems. Non-citizen students and scholars in the cities. High prestige of the education requires canonical procedures. Intellectual atmosphere is hard to control for the church.

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universitas legistarum ultramontanorum. Paris (c.The birth of the university (2). collegium doctorum. Facultas Artium. Bologna (c. Facultas Medicinae. Non-Bolognese students form interest groups. universitas artistarum et medicorum. the so-called nationes or universitates. Facultas Theologiae. Parisian educational institutions plan a more systematic way of teaching organisation. universitas legistarum citramontanorum. 5/3 . forming a universitas.1200).1200). Core Logic – 2005/06-1ab – p. Facultas Iurisprudentiae.

Elects rector. elected by the magistri. offering accommodation for poor students (and sometimes professors). Core Logic – 2005/06-1ab – p. Each universitas elects their own rector (a student). dominated by the magistri of the Facultas Artium. normally a professor. No university-wide structure. financial officer). No colleges. Colleges. Dean. 6/3 . The Paris model (modus Parisiensis).The birth of the university (3) The Bologna model (modus Bononiensis). quaestor. Each faculty has their own administration (decanus. Concilium generale.

Lisbon (c. Valladolid (c.1200). Core Logic – 2005/06-1ab – p.1290). Angers (c. Bologna (c. Cahors (1332). Lucca (1369).1300). Florence (1349).1250). Ferrara (1391). Avignon (1303). 1600: 110. Huesca (1354). Siena (1357). Pécs (1367). Prague (1348). Sevilla (1254). Piacenza (1248). 7/3 . Orange (1365).Early universities. Papal Rome (c. Orléans (c. Paris (c.1200) Oxford (1212) Salamanca (1218) Montpellier (1220) Naples (1224) Cambridge (1225) Toulouse (1229). City of Rome (1303). Pavia (1361). Vienna (1365). Buda (1395). 1400: 30. Perugia (1308). Treviso (1318). Perpignan (1350). Pisa (1343). Arezzo (1355).1245). Cracow (1364). Grenoble (1339). 1500: 60. Lerida (c. 1700: 150.1290). Heidelberg (1385). Cologne (1388).1235). Erfurt (1379).

Summa logicae. Quintilianus. Rhetoric. Ars maior. Priscianus. Logica vetus et nova. Logic / Dialectic. Aelius Donatus.Teaching in the Trivium. Institutiones grammaticae. Ars minor. Core Logic – 2005/06-1ab – p. Petrus Hispanus. Cicero. Institutio oratoria. William of Ockham. Grammar. Summulae logicales. 8/3 .

To become magister. After two to three years. Nullus sit scholaris Parisius qui certum magistrum non habet. the inceptio.The academic career. The magister guides the student socially and academically to the baccalaureate. Core Logic – 2005/06-1ab – p. the scholar starts an teaching assistantship with his magister. Schola / Familia Scholarum. he becomes “licentiate” after a private rigorosum. headed by a magister. in combination with a public disputation. there is another public ceremonial exam. After that. 9/3 .

Scholasticism. based on authorities: philological and logical analysis of original texts. metaphysics and semantics). Reasoning and analysis (involving logic. disputationes. 10/3 . The XIIIth century: the Golden Age of Scholasticism. Core Logic – 2005/06-1ab – p. Forms: quaestiones.

except. insolubilia: fallacies and paradoxes. or. Core Logic – 2005/06-1ab – p. obligationes: a game-theoretic approach to logic. some. 11/3 . not. if.Logica nova. every. only. “Terminist logic”: proprietates terminorum. syncategoremata: and.

Metalogicon (1159). 12/3 .1115-1180). Core Logic – 2005/06-1ab – p. John of Salisbury (c.Logic in the XIIth/XIIIth century.

Core Logic – 2005/06-1ab – p. teacher of Petrus Hispanus. Petrus Hispanus. William of Shyreswood (1190-1249). Introductiones in Logicam. (c. Metalogicon (1159). Robert Grosseteste (1168-1253). later Pope John XXI. 12/3 . Discussions of propositional logic and the Square of Oppositions. Summulae Logicales.1115-1180). John of Salisbury (c.1205-1277).Logic in the XIIth/XIIIth century..

Metalogicon (1159).1215-1279).Logic in the XIIth/XIIIth century. Roger Bacon (1214-1292).1115-1180). Introductiones in Logicam. Summulae Logicales.. teacher of Petrus Hispanus. Proofs of syllogistic conversion rules as syllogisms with two terms. Robert Grosseteste (1168-1253). Discussions of propositional logic and the Square of Oppositions. (c. Core Logic – 2005/06-1ab – p.1205-1277). later Pope John XXI. John of Salisbury (c. Petrus Hispanus. 12/3 . William of Shyreswood (1190-1249). Robert Kilwardby (c.

Core Logic – 2005/06-1ab – p.1235-c.1315).Logic in the XIIIth/XIVth century. Raimundus Lullus (Raymond Lull) (c. 13/3 .

Doctor Subtilis. Raimundus Lullus (Raymond Lull) (c.1235-c.Logic in the XIIIth/XIVth century. Core Logic – 2005/06-1ab – p. Johannes Duns Scotus (1266-1308).1315). 13/3 .

Core Logic – 2005/06-1ab – p.1315). Doctor Subtilis.1295-1349). opinatum. Raimundus Lullus (Raymond Lull) (c. dilectum. The pseudo-Scot.1235-c. William Ockham (c. Johannes Duns Scotus (1266-1308). 13/3 . New modalities: dubium. Entia non sunt multiplicanda praeter necessitatem.Logic in the XIIIth/XIVth century. volitum. scitum.

c. Parvipontani (Adam of Balsham).1205-1277): Summulae Logicales (c. William of Shyreswood (Shireswood/Sherwood. Tractatus Anagnini (1200-1220). 14/3 . XIIth century. 1190-1249): Introductiones in Logicam (c. Core Logic – 2005/06-1ab – p.1230-1240).Via moderna (1). Petit Pont in Paris. Golden Age of Terminist Logic: 1175-1250.. Fallacie Parvipontane. Petrus Hispanus (Pope John XXI. Ars Meliduna (1170-1180). Quaestiones Victorinae (school of William of Champeaux. 1100-1150).1230-1240).

Main representative. Oxford School. Main representative. Boëthius of Dacia (d.Via moderna (2). “speculative grammar” based on modi. William of Shyreswood.1290) Pierre d’Auvergne (d. Modists (XIIIth and XIVth century).1330) Johannes Aurifaber (c. Petrus Hispanus. 15/3 . Paris School.1330) Core Logic – 2005/06-1ab – p. Influenced by the Parvipontani.1304) Thomas of Erfurt (c.1303) Martin of Dacia (d.

Walter Burley (c. Via Moderna. The Terminists. Thomistic realism. Semantical analysis. Via Antiqua. 16/3 . William Ockham (c. John Wyclif (c.1330-1384). The Modists. logica vetus (in particular. the Categoriae).Via moderna (3). Core Logic – 2005/06-1ab – p. Nominalism.1295-1349). logica nova.1275-1344).

John Wyclif (c.1295-1349). Via Antiqua. logica vetus (in particular. Girolamo Savonarola (1452-1498). The Terminists. Nominalism. 16/3 . Thomistic realism. Via Moderna. Walter Burley (c.Via moderna (3). logica nova. William Ockham (c.1275-1344). Core Logic – 2005/06-1ab – p.1330-1384). Semantical analysis. the Categoriae). The Modists.

1330-1384).Via moderna (3). Core Logic – 2005/06-1ab – p. Via Moderna. Philosophy sharply divided into via antiqua and via moderna. Girolamo Savonarola (1452-1498). John Wyclif (c. Via Antiqua. logica vetus (in particular. Nominalism. The Modists. the Categoriae). Thomistic realism.1275-1344). William Ockham (c. Semantical analysis. 16/3 . XIVth and XVth century. logica nova. Walter Burley (c.1295-1349). The Terminists.

Moving from analysis of meaning in words (what does homo mean?) to analysis of meaning of terms in phrases (what part of the meaning of homo is responsible for the fact that “omnis homo mortalis est ” is true?). Syllogistics doesn’t analyse the truth-status of categorial propositions any further. 17/3 . Grammar investigated the meaning of single words (outside of the context of propositions). 1967). Origins in the school of Chartres (c. Core Logic – 2005/06-1ab – p. Linguistic analysis (predication vs non-predication) at the basis of the theory of categories.1030): ‘contextual approach’ (de Rijk.Termistic logic (1).

the meaning of homo is slightly different. What do qualifi ers do with meanings? If I go from “omnis homo est philosophus” to “paene omnis homo est philosophus”. In each of the cases. and “homo est disyllabum”. how does the explanation for the meaning change? Core Logic – 2005/06-1ab – p. Compare “homo est animal”. Subtle questions. 18/3 .Termistic logic (2). “homo est species”.

vel. Other meaningful terms are syncategoremata. Socrates currit. uterque.. ut. Grammarians’ defi nition. A term is a categorema if it can be the subject or the predicate of a proposition. Logicians’ defi nition. An incomplete list of about fi fty words that are discussed as syncategorematic. Important syncategoremata: et. omnis. Core Logic – 2005/06-1ab – p. Socrates non currit.Among them are words like omnis.Syncategoremata. cum.. Example 1. 19/3 . Example 2.

Aristoteles philosophus est. Aristoteles praeter Socrates philosophus est. Instantiation: Aristoteles homo est. Under what conditions is omnis homo philosophus est true? If philosophus supposits for every instance of homo (suppositio mobilis). Situation 1. Core Logic – 2005/06-1ab – p. Situation 2. 20/3 . An analysis of the meaning of terms in propositions: Suppositio as a theory of reference.Suppositio (1). Under what conditions is omnis homo praeter Socratem philosophus est true? If philosophus supposits for every instance of homo except for Socrates. (suppositio immobilis). Instantiation: Aristoteles homo est.

Homo est disyllabum. ‘Human’ is bisyllabic. 21/3 . Homo est philosophus. Latin doesn’t have an indefinite article.An aside. (Some man is a philosopher.) Aliquis homo est philosophus. Core Logic – 2005/06-1ab – p. The medievals didn’t use quotation marks. A man is a philosopher.

22/3 . (suppositio materialis). aliquis disyllabum est homo. Aristoteles disyllabum est. aliquis homo est disyllabum. homo est disyllabum. (But here. Flawed instantiation: Aristoteles homo est. Situation 3. homo is a singular term standing for ‘homo’). Bisyllabic is a man. Under what conditions is homo est disyllabum true? If disyllabum supposits for every instance of homo. disyllabum est homo. (simple conversion) Core Logic – 2005/06-1ab – p. Consequences for logic: Whether conversion rules can be applied depends on the type of supposition in the proposition.Suppositio (2).

Types of suppositio (Spade 1982): suppositio impropria. · suppositio immobilis. · suppositio determinata.Suppositio (3). preprint http://www. suppositio personalis. suppositio simplex. suppositio discreta. suppositio materialis. Thoughts.pvspade. Words and Things: An Introduction to Late Mediaeval Logic and Semantic Theory. · suppositio confusa tantum. 23/3 .com/Logic/ Core Logic – 2005/06-1ab – p. suppositio propria. suppositio formalis. · suppositio mobilis. Paul Vincent Spade.

If there was a point in the past when academicus supposited for Aristoteles. In general: the predicate determines the type of suppositio and whether ampliatio has to be used in order to determine the truth conditions.Suppositio (4). But if academicus supposits for Aristoteles. What makes Aristoteles academicus erat true? Attempt 1. 24/3 . posset supponere pro non-enti. Attempt 2 (modern reading). ut hoc homo cucurrit verum est pro Caesare (William of Shyreswood. Core Logic – 2005/06-1ab – p. Introductiones). then Aristoteles academicus est is true. If academicus supposits for Aristoteles. Medieval theory: ampliation and restriction: si terminus communis verbo de praeterito supponeret.

Since I have broken. Core Logic – 2005/06-1ab – p. Argument. Fact. I have left Rome. An oathkeeper is a person who keeps the oath. I shall never leave Rome. secundum quid. Aristotelian discussions of fallacies. I am an oathbreaker and an oathkeeper. Boëthius’ translation of the Sophistici Elenchi is rediscovered. Around 1120. The Oathbreaker: Oath. Since I have left Rome. I am an oathbreaker and an oathkeeper at the same time.Fallacies: secundum quid et simpliciter. I broke my oath. I shall become an oathbreaker. I have kept my oath. An oathbreaker is a person who breaks at least one oath. 25/3 . secundum quid et simpliciter simpliciter.

there are fi ve solutions to this paradox: secundum quid et simpliciter. 26/3 . ϕ : ϕ is false. Distinction between the exercised act and the signifi ed act. The most famous insoluble: the Liar.Insolubles (1). transcasus. This sentence is false. restrictio. cassatio. Core Logic – 2005/06-1ab – p. In the early literature on insolubles.

27/3 . 180b2-3). secundum quid et simpliciter.Insolubles (2). Mentioned by Aristotle (Sophistici Elenchi. Core Logic – 2005/06-1ab – p.

secundum quid et simpliciter. Derives from the Stoic metaptosis: differing truth-values over time. If I didn’t say anything before that. then the sentence is just false. Unclear. 27/3 . When I say “I am speaking a falsehood” I am referring to what I said immediately preceding to that sentence.Insolubles (2). Solution. Core Logic – 2005/06-1ab – p. transcasus.

The exercised act of the liar is “speaking the truth”. The signified act of the liar is “speaking a falsehood”. Questiones. 27/3 . Distinction between the exercised act and the signifi ed act. Johannes Duns Scotus. Core Logic – 2005/06-1ab – p. so it is false. transcasus. Solution.Insolubles (2). Solution. The Liar sentence is false. Unclear. secundum quid et simpliciter. The liar expresses something which is not the truth.

Distinction between the exercised act and the signifi ed act. The restringentes do not allow assignment of truth-values to sentences with self-reference. but also the following insoluble: ϕ : ψ is false. secundum quid et simpliciter. The Liar sentence is false. Solution. The Liar sentence is false.Insolubles (2). Solution. restrictio. ψ : ϕ is false (linked liars) Core Logic – 2005/06-1ab – p. Unclear. Not only the Liar. Solution. transcasus. 27/3 .

. Unclear. The restringentes do not allow assignment of truth-values to sentences with self-reference. Solution. secundum quid et simpliciter.. Distinction between the exercised act and the signifi ed act. The Liar sentence is false. restrictio. ψ : ϕ is false .” Core Logic – 2005/06-1ab – p. Solution. 27/3 . but also the following insoluble: ϕ : ψ is false.Insolubles (2). and . Solution... The Liar sentence is false. transcasus. Not only the Liar. “This sentence has five words.

Solution. Core Logic – 2005/06-1ab – p. Unclear. 27/3 . The Liar sentence is false.Insolubles (2). Solution. Solution. The Liar sentence is false. Distinction between the exercised act and the signifi ed act. Solution. The Liar sentence does not have a truth value. you are saying nothing. secundum quid et simpliciter. restrictio. cassatio. If you are uttering an insoluble. Therefore an insoluble has the same truth value as the empty utterance: none. transcasus.

Distinction between the exercised act and the signifi ed act. restrictio. 27/3 . cassatio. Core Logic – 2005/06-1ab – p. Solution. Solution.Insolubles (2). The Liar sentence is false. Solution. The Liar sentence does not have a truth value. The Liar sentence is false. transcasus. Unclear. Solution. secundum quid et simpliciter. The Liar sentence does not have a truth value. Solution.

The most productive era in the theory of insolubles was from 1320 to 1350. John Wyclif (c.Insolubles (3).1330-1384). 1350-1420). Roger Swyneshed (mid XIVth century). William Heytesbury (c. Core Logic – 2005/06-1ab – p. Peter of Ailly (Petrus de Alliaco. 28/3 .1310-1372).1295-1349). Thomas Bradwardine (c.

Insolubilia: 1321-1324. A sentence is false if and only if there is something that it signifi es which is false (aliter quam est ).1295-1349). 29/3 . ϕ : ϕ is false signifies p p p wp ϕ is false p ppp NNN N signifies NN NN' ϕ is true Core Logic – 2005/06-1ab – p. Thomas Bradwardine (c. Every sentence signifi es that it is true.Bradwardine. A sentence is true if and only if everything that it signifi es is true (sicut est ). Adverbial Theory of propositional signification (Spade). The Liar sentence signifi es that it is false.

A sentence is true if and only if it signifi es sicut est and if it not self-falsifying. Core Logic – 2005/06-1ab – p.Swyneshed. Consequence of Swyneshed’s definition of truth. too. ψ : ϕ is not false. The Liar is self-falsifying. ϕ : ϕ is false. Self-falsifying sentences are always false. 30/3 . Roger Swyneshed (mid XIVth century). But ϕ and ψ are contradictories. so it is false. ϕ is false as it is self-falsifying. But then ψ is false.

1335. 31/3 . William Heytesbury (c. Core Logic – 2005/06-1ab – p. For example.Heytesbury. There is no way to analyze ϕ further before we know which one this is. Therefore. there is no paradox. Regulae solvendi sophismata. If we give that up. The source of the paradox according to Heytesbury: The Liar “ϕ : ϕ is false” is only paradoxical since we want to retain the usual theory of signifi cation for it. anyone who utters ϕ must have some other hidden signifi cation in mind. ϕ could signify “Socrates currit ” which is free of paradoxes. But ϕ cannot be evaluated according to the usual theory of signifi cation.1310-1372).