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# MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Page 1 of 33 Homework 1 Due: 11:59pm on Sunday, September 12, 2010 Note: You will receive

7 9/16/2010

MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Page 3 of 33 Hint A.1 Determining positive values from a graph Hint not displayed Enter all of the correct letters in alphabetical order. For instance, if you thi nk that the correct choices are B and F, you would enter BF. ANSWER: ABCDEF Correct The difference between positive and negative is important in many situations, fo r instance on your bank statement. In physics it makes a big difference in many scenarios. Positive position means to the right or above some reference point; n egative position means to the left or below the reference point. Positive veloci ty means moving to the right, whereas negative velocity means moving to the left . The graph is often more convenient than a table of numbers or an equation, bec ause you can immediately see where the graph takes positive values and where it takes negative values. With an equation or a table of numbers, this would take s ome algebra or guess work. Since the value of the graph at a point is indicated by its height above the horizontal axis, the maximum value of the graph is the h ighest point on the graph. Similarly, the minimum value of the graph is the lowe st point, which may be below the horizontal axis. Part B At which point does the graph have its maximum value? Enter the correct letter. ANSWER: E Correct Rate of change and slope Another type of information that can be gleaned from a graph is the rate of change of the values. Just as you care whether your bank ac count has a positive or negative value (i.e., if you have money or owe the bank money) you may also be interested in the rate of change of your bank account. If the rate of change is positive, then you are gaining money. If the rate of chan ge is negative, then you are losing money. The rate of change of a graph is give n by the slope of the graph. If the graph is a line, then the slope is just the slope that you are accustomed to for lines (i.e., the change in the vertical pos ition divided by the change in the horizontal position). There are a few importa nt things to remember about slope. If the line tilts upward as you follow it to the right (like this: ) then the graph has a positive slope. We would say that t he graph is increasing. Similarly, if it tilts downward as you follow it to the right (like this: graph is decreasing. The steeper the tilt, the larger the rate of change. Part C Look at the graph from the introduction. The three points C, D, and F are all on straight segments. Rank them from greatest rate of change to least rate of change. Hint C.1 Slope at point D Hint not displayed ANSWER: ) th en the slope is negative and we say that the http://session.masteringphysics.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=142576 7 9/16/2010

Since velocity is the rate of change of position. It will help you out in situations that a re hard to figure out by simple examination. Points B and C are also special. In physics. Part D At which point is the graph increasing at the greatest rate? For now. though points near the corner should have w ell-defined rates of change. ign ore point E. if you compare this figure to the previ ous one.1 Drawing the tangent Hi nt not displayed Enter the correct letter. the graph is neither incre asing nor decreasing at points B and C. then the area below the axis is subtracted from the area above th e axis. ANSWER: D Correct You were told to ignore point E for this part. Part E At which point(s) is the graph decreasing? Enter all of the correct letters in alphabetical order. the area un der the velocity graph between two times gives the total change in position betw een those two times. which is neither negative nor positive. you'll see that equal areas were added above and below the horizontal a xis. time. the same graph is shown. In the following two parts. Hint D. The light blue region in the figure shows the area under the graph between tw o points. instead of passing through two nearby poin ts. This should be easy to see at C. Therefore. Therefore. its slope is the same as the slope of the curve at that point. In the following two parts. This is because the rate of chang e is not well defined at sharp corners. even though you see more shading in the second figure. if you thi nk that the correct choices are B and F. The tangent is a line tha t just touches the curve. you will be able to rely on your intuitive sense of "Is the graph growing hi gher or lower at this point?" but it's good to keep in mind this more precise de finition in terms of the tangent line. You won't ever be asked for the rate of change of a graph at a sharp corner. the line has to align itself so that its rate of change is the same as the r ate of change of the graph at that point. conside r again the graph shown in the introduction to the problem. For instance.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Page 4 of 33 View Correct For more complex curves. In gener al. However. We will discuss it after this part. because the slope at those points is zero. ANSWER: FGH Correct Area under a graph The other piece of information important to physics that can be found from a graph is the area under the graph between two points on the grap h. you might have a graph of the velocity of som e object vs. you would enter BF. In this figure . since the graph is act ually a horizontal line in the area near C. If you carefully work out the tangen t at point B using the method described in the hint for this part. An important point is that if the graph dips beneath the ho rizontal axis. the "area under the graph" in the two figures is the same. you will have to draw the tangent line at a point to de termine the rate of change of the graph at that point. Part F You wish to find the area under the graph between the origin and some poi . but now the area is between tw o more widely separated points. Since a horizontal tangent has a s lope of zero. co nsider again the graph shown in the introduction to the problem. The area under a graph is important if you have graphed the rate of ch ange in some quantity. To do this. you will see that the tangent is horizontal there as well. once you've drawn the tange nt line.

nt on the graph.masteringphysics. Which point will yield the greatest area? http://session.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=142576 7 9/16/2010 .

then you can write .3 Correct http://session.masteringphysics. The area is zero. which is useful for modeling the motion of everything from pendulums to ocean tides. the argu ment at the sine function. The figure shows . we will look . and decreasing the magnitudes if Give the minimum value followed by the maximum value. Multiplying this function by a number .MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Page 5 of 33 Enter the correct letter.1 How to approach the probl em Hint not displayed Enter the two letters in alphabetical order. For instance. changes the minimum and maximum values. ANSWER: -3. Which two points are you looking at? Hint G. If this is a simple how these quantities appear in the graph of graphing the sine function. The function oscillates between a minimum value of and a maximum value of . increasing the magnitudes if Part A Give the minimum and maximum values of the function . If you take a picture of the string at a specific time. ANSWER: G Correct Part G You are looking at the area under the graph between two points. where is the ampli tude of the wave and is the angular frequency. then you get a graph of shape sinusoidal wave (such as the standing wave harmonics found in musical instruments). Consi der a wave moving on a string. if you think that the correct choice is B and F. you would enter BF. In this problem. ANSWER: FH Correct The Mathematics of Waves Learning Goal: To qualitatively understand the formula for sine functions.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=142576 7 9/16/2010 . separated by a comma. Note that when you are is in radians.

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2 What numeric quantities do you need to estimate? Check all that apply.masteringphysics.Hint A.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=142576 7 9/16/2010 . ANSWER: the mass of an average person the height of an average person the amount of space the average person needs to work efficiently the the area that an aver age person takes up while standing the volume of an average person Correct http://session.

Archimedes jumped out of his bath tub and ran across town naked screaming "Eureka!" after he solved an especially difficult problem. and so on.Part D Legend has it that. In the mor e than two thousand years since his discovery. about how many molecules from that famous bathtub of Archimedes are t here in that can? Hint D.1 How to approach the problem Hint not displayed Hint D . many centuries ago.3 What to estimate Hint not displ ayed http://session. wh en you drink a glass of water. It follows the water cycle.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=142576 7 9/16/2010 . which inc ludes rain. Though you may not have thought of things this way before.2 Avogadro's number Hint not displayed Hint D. When you buy a ca n of soda. the water that you are drinking contains some wat er molecules that were in Archimedes' bathwater that day. evaporation. flowing of rivers into the ocean. because water doesn't get created or destroyed on a large scale. the water molecules from Archimed es' bathwater have been through this cycle enough times that they are probably a bout evenly distributed throughout all the water on the earth.masteringphysics.

you would write .ANSWER: 8.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=142576 7 9/16/2010 . If you were to complete the conversion and find the equivalent density in http://session.33 = 1000 Correct of 8.masteringphysics.33 .

masteringphysics. correct answer displayed EXECUTE the solution as follows Part B Calculate the magnitude of the force exerted by the third person.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=142576 7 9/16/2010 . Each unit on the graph is 100 ANSWER: View All attempts used.starting from the origin of the axes provided. http://session.

and . use the formula . separated by a comma. with the +x axis as east a nd the +y axis as north. to three significant figures. However. using the conventional choice of coordinates.2 Determine the vector components of the force exe rted by the second person It is important to use the correct angle and trigonometric function when calcula ting the component of a vector. Calculations using the angle measured from the +x axis will also give the correct sign (positive or negative) for the components. west of north. counterclockwise.1 How to approach the problem .200 Answer Requested Express the magnitude of ANSWER: in newtons to three significant figures. Consider the f orce vector = 400 . If the direction of the vector (with magnitude ) is described by the angle that it makes with the +x axis. You should use geometry to calculate an angle from the +x axis before using the above formulas. correct answer displayed . Express your answer to three 296 All attempts used. Express the x and y components of ANSWER: in newtons. and to find the negative of the x component of . Calculate the x and y components of the force . = -346. ANSWER: = that makes. = 781 Correct Part C Determine the direction in which the third person is pulling. . with the +x axis.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Page 12 of 33 Hint B. Once you know . add the y components of and to fin d the The total force on the post is zero: This can be written as Add the x components of negative of the y component of from the introduction. Hint B. then its components a re . Express the angle in degrees significant figures. the angle given in this problem is not measured from the +x axis. Similarly. .

and came up with a set of different values. not as correctly as y ou. south of east. ANSWER: http://session. You can check you r answer by comparing it to the diagram in Part A above.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=142576 7 9/16/2010 .masteringphysics. Drag the appropriate values to their respective bins. . Pretend that you do not know the . to three significant figures: = 781 S ome other students calculated actual value of . and by considering the vector addition diagram in Part A. decide which of the following values could possibly be correct. both magnitude and direction. and which are definitely incorrect. you have been able to determine an un known force.EVALUATE your answer Part D By adding vectors using components.

along the x and y axes of the coordinate system. with the components separated by a comma. accele ration. though mathematically correct. The components of a vector depend on the coordi nate system's orientation.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Page 13 of 33 View Correct Vector Components--Review Learning Goal: To introduce you to vectors and the use of sine and cosine for a triangle when resolving components. is measured to the Express and in terms of the length of the vector and the angle .com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=142576 7 9/16/2010 . you will fail to recoginze that . electrical circuits with oscillating currents. mathematics. respectively. They are used to discuss multivariab le calculus. leads to equations that must be simplified usin g trig identities Part B http://session. or . These must be used to reduce all trig functions present in your equations to either step flawlessly. . and . and your equations will not simplify so that you can progress further toward a s olution. and they have ma ny other applications. ANSWER: . stress and strain in structures and materials. Vectors are an important part of the languag e of science. you can determine the components of any vector with these expressi ons. Therefore. and flows of atmospheres and fluids. and angular momentum are all vector quantities. it is best to express all components in terms of either or . The figure shows the components of . Part A The figure shows the standard way of measuring the angle. and determine the signs of the trig functions by knowing in which quadrant the vector lies. velocity. Resolving a vector into components is a precursor to comp uting things with or about a vector quantity. will have the appropriate signs and values. the key being the angle between the vector and the co ordinate axes. and counterclockwise is positive. often designated . Because position. vector from the x axis. and engineering. momentum. = Correct In principle.masteringphysics. Unless yo u perform this followup in radians) and and lies in one of the other quadrants o f the plane. force. resolvi ng vectors into components is the most important skill required in a mechanics c ourse. with between 0 and 90 degrees (or 0 and in radians). If will be an angle larger than 90 degrees (or Unfortunately this way of re presenting such as and .

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2 Finding the trigonometric functions Hint not displayed Indicate the number of the figure with the correct orientation. The signs depend on which quadrant the vector lies in. the components must have the form and the other with or . ANSWER: 1 2 3 4 Correct http://session." and the y axis.masteringphysics. and the side opposite is yellow. you must figure out which angle is and then properly reorient the definitional tria ngle.1 Recommended procedure for resolving a vector into components Hint not displayed Hint B. Furthermore. To assign the sine and cosine correctly for vectors at arbitrary angles.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=142576 7 9/16/2010 . As an example. most vectors will not lie in the first quadra nt. . consider the vector where you know the angle between shown in the diagram labeled "tilted axes. Which of the various ways of orienting the definitional triangle must be used to resolve into components in the tilted coordinate system shown? (In the figures. the side adjacent to is red. the hypotenuse is orange. and there will be one component with In real problems the optimal coordinate system is often rotated so that the x ax is is not horizontal.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Page 14 of 33 When you resolve a vector into components.) Hint B.

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1 Draw the vectors and . ANSWER: View All attempts used.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=142576 7 9/16/2010 .2 Adding vectors graphically To add two vectors. The location of the vec tor is not important. ANSWER: Answer not displayed http://session.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Page 19 of 33 Hint B. The locations of the v ectors are not important.masteringphysics. The length and orientation of the vectors will be graded. slide one vector (without rotating it) until its tip coincid es with the tail of the second vector. Find and . correct answer displayed Part C Draw the vector Hint C. The sum of the two vectors is the vector that goes from the tail of the first vector to the tip of the second: The length and orientation of the vector will be graded.

the clothing maker accepts (much to everyone's surpise) the initial price of 400 . documents.. dif ferent systems of units are used in different parts of the world. Part A If the clothing maker bought 500 Hint A. slide one vector (without rotating it) until its tip coincid es with the tail of the second vector. Ignorant of the local custom of offering strangers o utrageous prices and then negotiating down. Here is a simple example. ANSWER: View Correct Converting between Different Units Unit conversion problems can seem tedious and unnecessary at times. unit conversions a re often necessary.1 of this fabric. The location of the vec tor is not important. so when dealin g with international transactions.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Page 20 of 33 Hint C." decides to travel to the small island and buy the cloth himself. A clothing maker from New York.2 Adding vectors graphically To add two vectors. Seeing how popular the small quantity that they export has been. The inhabitants of a small island begin exporting beautiful cloth made from a rare plant that grows only on their island. The price of this cloth in New Yo rk is 120 . How to approach the problem Hint not displayed http://session. they st eadily raise their prices. thinking that he can save money by "cutting out the middleman. etc.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=142576 7 9/16/2010 . The sum of the two vectors is the vector that goes from the tail of the first vector to the tip of the second: The length and orientation of the vector will be graded. However.masteringphysics. software. how much money did he lose? Use and .

Cost = Answer not displayed Hint A.3 Find the area of a dollar bill http://session.2 Find the area of the United States Hint not displayed Hint A.ANSWER: and .com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=142576 7 9/16/2010 .masteringphysics.

10 Correct = Part B Find the magnitude of ANSWER: . 0.0×106 per inhabitant Correct Finding the Cross Product The figure shows two vectors and separated by an angle .masteringphysics.0×1014 dollars Correct Part B What would be the cost to each person in the United States? Hint B. . and .com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=142576 7 9/16/2010 .4 Find the area of the United States in square centime ters Hint not displayed Express your answer to one significant figure.1 Popu lation of the United States Hint not displayed Express your answer to one significant figure. ANSWER: 9.0 . = 0. You are given that . ANSWER: 3.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Page 22 of 33 Hint not displayed Hint A.707 Correct http://session. separated by commas. 10 Correct = Part C Find the sine of the angle between ANSWER: and . Part A Express ANSWER: as an ordered triplet of values.

as shown in the figure . Which of the foll owing choices demonstrates correct rounding? Check all that apply.0 . the position of the airplane relative to the origin is magnitude of 360 and is located at exactly 40 .masteringphysics. Tracking a Plane A radar station. until it has is 880 ). The position vector has a above the horizon. Part A Define the displacement of the airplane while the radar was tracking it: Hint A.3 . The airplane is tracked for another 123 the origin is (the magnitude of in the vertical east-west plane for 5.67263. The contact poi nts are shown in the passed directly over the station and reached point B. the mass of a proton is .67262. ANSWER: Correct All these options are correct. ANSWER: Correct The number is incorrect because when we round to four significant figures we get 1. Part B To eight significant figures.672.2 Finding the com ponents of Hint not displayed Hint A.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=142576 7 9/16/2010 . Similarly. Which of the follo wing choices demonstrates correct rounding? Check all that apply. At first observat ion (point A). located at the origin of xz plane. The position of point B re lative to diagram. What are the components of ? http://session. eve n though the numerical value is the same. where the x axis represents the ground and the positive z dir ection is upward. det ects an airplane coming straight at the station from the east.673. Avogadro's constant is .1 How to approach the problem Hint not displayed Hint A. they represent different levels of precision.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Page 24 of 33 Significant Figures Part A To seven significant figures. is incorrect because when we round to six signific ant figures we get 1. not 1. not 1.

The following vectors are at the angles listed and are shown on the graph below.1 Ad ding vectors graphically Hint not displayed Rank from largest to smallest. ANSWER: View All attempts used. separating the x and z components with a comma. Hint B. All angle measures fall between 0 and 360 . http://session. Vectors parallel to the positive x axis hav e an angle of 0 . overlap them. with the x axis as 0 . -1100. Part A Rank the vector combinations on the basis of their magnitude.26 Correct = Vector Addition Ranking Task Six vectors ( through ) have the magnitudes and directions indicated in the figu re. to two significant figures.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Page 25 of 33 Finding the components of Hint not displayed Express ANSWER: in meters as an ordered pair.1 The angle of a vector Angle of a vector is to be measured counterclockwise from the x axi s.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=142576 7 9/16/2010 . To rank items as equivalent. Hint A. correct answer displayed Part B Rank the vector combinations on the basis of their angle.masteringphysics. measured counte rclockwise from the positive x axis.

= Part B What is the angle Hint B. To rank items as equivalent.masteringphysics.33 Correct Part C ANSWER: 30 Correct = Part D http://session.MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Page 26 of 33 Notice that the magnitude of the vector is irrelevant when determining its angle Rank from largest to smallest. ANSWER: View Answer Requested Vector Dot Product Let vectors Calculate the following: Part A Hint A.1 between and ? Remember the definition of dot products Hint not displayed ANSWER: = 2. . and . overlap them.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=142576 7 9/16/2010 .1 Remember the dot product eq uation Hint not displayed ANSWER: -10 Correct .

1 are parallel. What is the angle between perpendicula r vectors? Hint not displayed ANSWER: = Correct Part H If and Hint H.masteringphysics.2 Remember the definition of dot products Hint not displayed Express your answer in terms of ANSWER: = Correct Part G If and Hint G. http://session.1 Dot product operator Hin t not displayed ANSWER: Correct and are different vectors with lengths and respectively. Find the following: Part F Hint F.1 are perpendicular.com/myct/assignmentPrintView?assignmentID=142576 7 9/16/2010 .MasteringPhysics: Assignment Print View Page 27 of 33 ANSWER: = 30 Correct Part E Which of the following can be computed? Hint E. What is the angle between parallel vectors? Hint not displayed Express your answer in terms of and .1 What is the angle between a vector and itself? Hint not displaye d Hint F.