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Commands

Version 7.1

FEMAP Version 7.0 Commands Copyright © 1986-2000 by Structural Dynamics Research Corp. Proprietary Data. Unauthorized use, distribution, or duplication is prohibited. All Rights Reserved. Portions of this software and related documentation are derived from GHS3D software under license from INRIA, other portions are copyrighted by and are the property of Electronic Data Systems Corporation and Spatial Technology Inc. The FEMAP Documentation may not be copied, reproduced, disclosed, transferred, or reduced to any form, including electronic medium or machine-readable form, or transmitted or publicly performed by any means, electronic or otherwise, unless Structural Dynamics Research Corp (SDRC) consents in writing in advance.

Use of the software has been provided under a Software License Agreement.

Information described in this document is furnished for information only, is subject to change without notice, and should not be construed as a commitment by SDRC. SDRC assumes no responsibility or liability for any errors or inaccuracies that may appear in this document.

FEMAP is a registered trademark of Structural Dynamics Research Corp. Dual Engine Geometry Modeling and FEMAP Professional are trademarks of Structural Dynamics Research Corp.

Structural Dynamics Research Corp. P.O. Box 1172, Exton, PA 19341 Phone: FAX: E-mail: Web: (610) 458-3660 (610) 458-3665 info@femap.com http://www.femap.com

This manual and software product are both copyrighted and all rights are reserved by SDRC. The distribution and sale of this product are intended for the use of the original purchaser only and for use only on the computer system specified. The software product may be used only under the provisions of the license agreement included with the FEMAP package. Unless otherwise stated, you may only use this software on a single computer, by one person, at one time.

Trademark Information Throughout this manual, and the software, you will see references to other applications and trademarks which are the property of various companies.
m NASTRAN and Cosmic NASTRAN are registered trademarks of NASA. m IBM is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation. m MSC/, MSC/NASTRAN, MSC/pal, MSC/pal 2, and PATRAN are registered trademarks of The m m m m m m m m m m m
MacNeal-Schwendler Corporation. CDA/Sprint is a trademark of The CDA Group. UAI/NASTRAN is a product of Universal Analytics, Inc. CSA/NASTRAN is a product of Computerized Structural Research and Analysis Corp. ME/NASTRAN is a product of Macro Engineering, Inc. ABAQUS is a registered trademark of Hibbitt, Karlsson, and Sorenson, Inc. CAEFEM is a trademark of Concurrent Analysis Corp. SDRC, SDRC I-DEAS and I-DEAS are registered trademarks of Structural Dynamics Research Corporation. SSS/NASTRAN is a trademark of Schaeffer Software Systems, Inc. ANSYS is a registered trademark of ANSYS, Inc. STAAD and STARDYNE are products and trademarks of Research Engineers, Inc. COSMOS and COSMOS/M are registered trademarks of Structural Research and Analysis Corporation. WECAN is a registered trademark of Westinghouse, Inc., marketed by AEGIS Software Corp. ALGOR is a registered trademark of Algor Interactive Systems, Inc. CFDesign is a trademark of Blue Ridge Numerics, Inc. Pro/ENGINEER is a registered trademark of Parametric Technology Corporation GENESIS is a registered trademark of Vanderplaats, Miura and Associates, Inc. MTAB*Stress is a trademark of Structural Analysis, Inc. AutoCAD and DXF are registered trademarks of Autodesk, Inc. Solid Edge is a trademark of Intergraph Corporation. MicroStation is a registered trademark of Bentley Systems, Inc. SolidWorks is a trademark of SolidWorks Corporation.

m m m m m m m m m m m MARC is a trademark of MARC Analysis Research Corporation. m m m m

LS-DYNA is a trademark of Livermore Software Technology Corporation.
ACIS is a registered trademark of Spatial Technology, Inc. Parasolid and Unigraphics are registered trademarks of Electronic Data Systems Corporation. Windows, Windows NT,Windows 95, and Windows 98 are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. Portions of the software contained on your FEMAP CD are copyrighted by Microsoft Corporation.

Other brand or product names are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective holders. m Portions of this software are copyrighted by Spatial Technology, Inc., Electronic Data Systems,
Inc., INRIA, Cypress Software Inc., and Microsoft.

Manual Conventions
This manual uses different fonts to highlight specific features, to identify data that Windows will display, or input that you must type.

Enter, Alt

Shows one or more keys that you should press. In some cases, you will see combinations like Alt+Shift+Backspace. The plus signs show that you should press all keys simultaneously. Shows text that you should type. This is very similar to the keystrokes described above, but is typically used for strings of letters and/or numbers. The keystrokes typically refer to the more specialized, non-alphanumeric keys. Shows text that you will see displayed by FEMAP in a dialog box control, or in the menu. Used for headings or titles of sections of the manual. Larger characters of the same style (or italics) are also used depending upon the nature of the section being introduced. Used for all other normal manual text.

a:setup

OK, Cancel

heading

text

Throughout this manual, you will see references to Windows. Windows refers to Microsoft® Windows NT, Windows 95 or Windows 98. You will need one of these operating environment to run FEMAP for the PC. This manual assumes that you are familiar with the general use of the operating environment. If you are not, you can refer to the Windows User’s Guide for additional assistance. Similarly, throughout the manual all references to FEMAP, refer to the latest version of our software.

1Table of Contents
1 Introduction 2 File Manipulation
2.1 Opening a Model File . . 2.1.1 File New... . . 2.1.2 File Open... . . 2.2 Saving the Model File . . 2.2.1 File Save... . . 2.2.2 File Save As... . . 2.2.3 File Timed Save... . 2.3 Import/Export of Files. . 2.3.1 File Import Menu . 2.3.2 File Export Menu . 2.3.3 File Analyze... . . 2.4 File Notes... . . . . 2.5 Print, Copy, and Paste . . 2.5.1 File Page Setup.. . 2.5.2 File Print . . . 2.5.3 File Printer Setup... . 2.5.4 File Picture Menu . 2.5.5 File Messages Menu. 2.6 Macros, Settings, and Rebuild 2.6.1 File Program Menu . 2.6.2 File Rebuild... . . 2.6.3 File Preferences... . 2.7 File Recent Models - 1,2,3,4 2.8 File Exit... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-3 2-4 2-4 2-4 2-5 2-7 2-8 2-8 2-9 2-9 2-13 2-17 2-17 2-21 2-22 2-22 2-24 2-25 2-38 2-38 3-1 3-2 3-2 3-2 3-10 3-14 3-19 3-26 3-30 3-31 3-32 3-36 3-47 3-48 3-48 3-55

3 Geometry
3.1 Points . . . . . 3.1.1 Geometry Point... . 3.2 Curves . . . . . 3.2.1 Lines . . . . 3.2.2 Arcs . . . . 3.2.3 Circles . . . 3.2.4 Splines . . . 3.2.5 Curves from Surfaces 3.3 Surfaces . . . . 3.3.1 Sketch . . . 3.3.2 Boundary Surfaces... 3.3.3 Surfaces . . . 3.3.4 Midsurface . . 3.4 Solids/Volumes . . . 3.4.1 Volumes . . . 3.4.2 Solids . . .

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3.5 Copying Geometry . . . . . . . . 3.5.1 Geometry Copy Commands . . . . . 3.5.2 Geometry Radial Copy Commands . . . 3.5.3 Geometry Scale Menu . . . . . . 3.5.4 Geometry Rotate Menu . . . . . . 3.5.5 Geometry Reflect Menu. . . . . . 3.6 Modifying Geometry . . . . . . . 3.6.1 Curve Operations . . . . . . . 3.6.2 Moving Geometry . . . . . . . 3.6.3 Edit/Parameters . . . . . . . 3.6.4 Advanced Updates - Modify Update Others Menu 3.7 Deleting Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-69 3-69 3-70 3-71 3-72 3-72 3-73 3-73 3-80 3-88 3-89 3-90 . 4-1 . 4-1 . 4-4 . 4-4 . 4-5 4-12 4-22 4-38 4-38 4-38 4-49 4-58 4-64 4-66 4-66 4-69 4-70 4-71 4-71 4-75 4-75 4-76 4-76 4-76 4-77 4-77 4-79 4-80 4-90 4-94 4-104 . 5-1 . 5-1 5-19 5-42 5-42 5-49

4 Finite Element Modeling
4.1 Coordinate System Creation . . . . . . 4.1.1 Model Coord Sys... . . . . . . 4.2 Finite Element Entities . . . . . . . 4.2.1 Model Node... . . . . . . . 4.2.2 Model Element... . . . . . . . 4.2.3 Model Material . . . . . . . 4.2.4 Model Property... . . . . . . . 4.3 Loads And Constraints . . . . . . . 4.3.1 Create/Activate Load Set . . . . . 4.3.2 Finite Element Loads . . . . . . 4.3.3 Geometric Loads . . . . . . . 4.3.4 Load Analysis Options . . . . . . 4.3.5 Load Set Manipulation . . . . . . 4.3.6 Activate/Create Constraint Set . . . . 4.3.7 Finite Element (Nodal) Constraints . . . 4.3.8 Geometric Constraints . . . . . . 4.3.9 Constraint Set Manipulation . . . . . 4.4 Contact (Model Contact commands) . . . . 4.4.1 Defining a Contact Segment/Surface . . . 4.4.2 Defining a Contact Property . . . . . 4.4.3 Defining a Contact Pair . . . . . . 4.5 Optimization . . . . . . . . . 4.5.1 Goal . . . . . . . . . 4.5.2 Vary - Design Variables . . . . . 4.5.3 Limit - Design Constraints . . . . . 4.6 Functions (Model Function Command) . . . . 4.7 Modifying FEA Entities . . . . . . . 4.7.1 Moving FEA Entities . . . . . . 4.7.2 Edit/Parameters . . . . . . . 4.7.3 Advanced Updates (Modify Update Commands) . 4.8 Deleting FEA Entities . . . . . . .

5 Meshing
5.1 Meshing on Geometry . . 5.1.1 Mesh Mesh Control Menu 5.1.2 Mesh Geometry . . 5.2 Non-Geometry Meshing . . 5.2.1 Mesh Between... . . 5.2.2 Mesh Region... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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5.2.3 Mesh Connection . 5.2.4 Mesh Transition... . 5.3 Modifying a Mesh. . . 5.3.1 Mesh Remesh Menu . 5.3.2 Mesh Edge Members... 5.3.3 Mesh Smooth... . . 5.4 Copying a Mesh . . . 5.4.1 Mesh Copy Menu . 5.4.2 Mesh Radial Copy Menu 5.4.3 Mesh Scale Menu . 5.4.4 Mesh Rotate Menu . 5.4.5 Mesh Reflect Menu . 5.5 Extrude/Revolve . . . 5.5.1 Mesh Extrude Menu . 5.5.2 Mesh Revolve Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-51 5-53 5-55 5-55 5-62 5-64 5-66 5-66 5-69 5-70 5-71 5-72 5-73 5-73 5-82 6-1 6-1 6-5 6-10 6-33 6-46 6-47 6-47 6-47 6-48 6-49 6-64 6-65 7-1 7-1 7-2 7-7 7-13 7-16 7-21 7-31 7-31 7-32 7-35 7-37 7-44 7-44 7-45 7-45 7-46 7-47 7-47 7-47 7-47

6 Viewing Your Model
6.1 View Menu Commands . . . . 6.1.1 Redrawing Views . . . . 6.1.2 Manipulating Multiple Views . . 6.1.3 View Select and Options . . . 6.1.4 Modifying the View . . . . 6.1.5 View Pan. . . . . . . . 6.1.6 Deleting Views . . . . . 6.2 Groups and Layers . . . . . 6.2.1 Differences Between Groups and Layers 6.2.2 Layer Commands . . . . 6.2.3 Group Menu Commands . . . 6.2.4 Deleting Groups . . . . . 6.2.5 Renumbering Groups . . . .

7 Modeling Tools
7.1 Tools Menu . . . . . 7.1.1 Undo and Redo . . . 7.1.2 Tools Workplane. . . . . 7.1.3 Operational Tools . . 7.1.4 Entity Tools . . . 7.1.5 Measuring Tools . . 7.1.6 Checking Tools . . . 7.2 List Menu Commands . . . 7.2.1 List Tools Menu. . . 7.2.2 List Geometry Menu . . 7.2.3 List Surface... . . . 7.2.4 List Model Menu . . 7.2.5 List Output Menu . . 7.2.6 List Group. . . . . . 7.2.7 List View. . . . . . 7.2.8 List Model Info . . . 7.2.9 List Destination. . . . . 7.3 View Style (View Select command) 7.3.1 Features . . . . 7.3.2 Hidden Line Mode . . 7.3.3 Free Edge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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7.3.4 Free Face . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-48 . 8-1 . 8-1 . 8-2 . 8-2 . 8-3 . 8-3 . 8-4 . 8-4 8-20 8-23 8-24 8-24 8-25 8-25 8-27 8-27 8-27 8-27 8-27 8-28 8-32 8-32 8-34 8-34 8-34 8-34 8-35 8-35 8-35 8-36 8-36 8-36 8-36 8-38 8-39 8-40 8-40 8-42 8-45 8-57 8-58 8-58 8-60 8-61 8-62 8-64 8-67 8-67 8-67

8 Postprocessing
8.1 Procedure . . . . . . . . . 8.1.1 Reading Results . . . . . . 8.1.2 Selecting Views . . . . . . 8.1.3 Changing Options (View Options) . . 8.1.4 Manipulating/Listing Output . . . . 8.2 Types of Views - View Select... . . . . 8.2.1 Selecting Data for a Model Style . . . 8.2.2 Choosing Deformed and Contour Styles . 8.2.3 Choosing an XY Style . . . . . 8.3 View Options - Postprocessing. . . . . 8.3.1 Post Titles... . . . . . . . 8.3.2 Deformed Style . . . . . . 8.3.3 Vector Style . . . . . . . 8.3.4 Animated Style . . . . . . 8.3.5 Deformed Model.... . . . . . 8.3.6 Undeformed Model... . . . . . 8.3.7 Trace Style... . . . . . . . 8.3.8 Contour Type... . . . . . . 8.3.9 Contour/Criteria Style.... . . . . 8.3.10 Contour/Criteria Levels... . . . . 8.3.11 Contour/Criteria Legend... . . . . 8.3.12 Criteria Limits/Beam Diagrams . . . 8.3.13 Criteria - Elements that Pass/Fail... . . 8.3.14 IsoSurface... . . . . . . . 8.3.15 Contour Vector Style... . . . . 8.3.16 XY Titles... . . . . . . . 8.3.17 XY Legend... . . . . . . 8.3.18 XY Axes Style... . . . . . . 8.3.19 XY X Range/Grid... . . . . . 8.3.20 XY Y Range/Grid... . . . . . 8.3.21 XY Curve 1 thru XY Curve 9... . . . 8.4 Specialized Postprocessing . . . . . 8.4.1 View Advanced Post Animation.... . . 8.4.2 View Advanced Post Dynamic Cutting Plane... 8.4.3 View Advanced Post Dynamic IsoSurface... . 8.5 Output Manipulation. . . . . . . 8.5.1 Output Set/Vector . . . . . . 8.5.2 Active Vector Commands . . . . 8.5.3 Output Set/Vector Commands . . . 8.5.4 Complex Output Commands . . . . 8.6 Listing Output (List Output Menu) . . . . 8.6.1 List Output Query... . . . . . 8.6.2 List Output Compare... . . . . . 8.6.3 List Output Unformatted... . . . . 8.6.4 List Output Standard... . . . . . 8.6.5 List Output Use Format... . . . . 8.6.6 List Output Force Balance . . . . 8.6.7 List Output XY Plot... . . . . . 8.6.8 List Output Format... . . . . .

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8.7 Deleting Output (Delete Output Menu) 8.7.1 Delete Output Set... . . . 8.7.2 Delete Output Vector... . . 8.7.3 Delete Output Entry... . . 8.7.4 Delete Output Format... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-68 8-68 8-69 8-69 8-69 9-1 9-1 9-1 9-1 9-1 9-2 9-2 9-2 9-2 9-2 9-3 9-3 9-3 9-3

9 Help and Non-Menu
9.1 Help Menu Commands . . 9.1.1 Help Index . . . 9.1.2 Help Search... . . 9.1.3 Help Keyboard... . 9.1.4 Help Mouse... . . 9.1.5 Help Analysis... . . 9.1.6 Help Using Help... . 9.1.7 Help About... . . 9.2 Non-Menu Commands . . 9.2.1 Previous Menu . . 9.2.2 Previous Command.... 9.2.3 View Quick Options... 9.2.4 Top to Bottom.... . 9.2.5 Bottom to Top.... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Finite Element Modeling Regardless of the origin of your geometry. FEMAP Professional includes solid modeling directly in FEMAP with not one but two popular geometry engines (Parasolid and ACIS). FEMAP can even work with your existing analysis models. Geometry FEMAP can directly import geometry from your CAD or design system. productivity is dramatically improved compared to traditional approaches. to mapped meshing between keypoints. as well as applying loads and boundary conditions. FEMAP automatically provides the integration that is necessary to link all aspects of your analysis. These files can be read and then stitched together to form a solid. Once results are obtained in FEMAP. FEMAP can be used to create geometry. Appropriate materials and section properties can be created or assigned from FEMAP libraries. FEMAP can directly import a solid model from any ACIS-based or Parasolids-based modeling package. This typically requires using one command. FEMAP then provides powerful tools for meshing geometry. You may even convert these loads before translation to convince yourself that the loading conditions are appropriate for your model. or you can import CAD geometry. With easy access to CAD and office automation tool. simply use the FEMAP IGES or STEP reader.1Introduction FEMAP is a finite element modeling and postprocessing system that allows you to perform engineering analyses both quickly and confidently. FEMAP can then read the results from the solver program. . surfaces and solids. FEMAP provides the capability to develop sophisticated analyses of stress. You can apply loads/constraints directly on finite element entities (Nodes and Elements). You can build solid models in either engine. temperature. You can import and manipulate these models using the interfaces to any of the supported analysis programs. FEMAP will automatically convert geometric conditions to Nodal/Elemental values upon translation to your solver program. If your modeling package does not use either of these packages. you can create geometry directly in FEMAP using powerful wireframe and solid modeling tools. Meshes can be created by many methods ranging from manual creation. This is very convenient if you need to export geometry to CAD packages that are either ACIS or Parasolid based. and then export a model. and dynamic performance directly on the desktop. Many types of constraint and loading conditions can be applied to represent the design environment. or you can apply them to geometry. If you do not have CAD geometry. You may then use FEMAP to export an input file to over 20 finite element codes. to fully automatic meshing of curves. you can use FEMAP to create a complete finite element model. In fact. a wide variety of tools are available for visualizing and reporting on your results.

high quality printing and plotting of both graphics and text. You can easily export pictures to such popular programs as MS Word. It constantly examines input to prevent errors in the model. Documenting Results Documentation is also a very important factor with any analysis. word processors. and sum your loading conditions. You can dynamically rotate solid contoured models with one push of your Mouse button. You can even import a model from one analysis program and automatically convert it to the format for a different analysis program. saving you considerable time and money. FEMAP also supports VRML and JPEG format so anyone can easily view results with standard viewers. An On-Line Help system also provides the capability to review information on FEMAP commands without ever opening a manual. which provides even more capability for postprocessing. MS PowerPoint and Adobe Framemaker. FEMAP provides interface to over 20 popular programs to perform finite element analysis. databases. Postprocessing After your analysis. FEMAP also provides a comprehensive set of tools to evaluate your finite element model and identify errors that are often not obvious. estimate mass and inertia. These links enable you to create and publish a complete report or presentation. however. You need not worry about making a mistake because FEMAP contains a multi-level undo and redo capability. With support for AVI files. Contour Plots. you can even include an animation directly in your PowerPoint Presentation or Word Document. FEMAP obviously provides direct. Each of these methods can be used to identify and eliminate potential errors. FEMAP can check for coincident geometry. You can export to spreadsheets. and provides immediate visual feedback. all electronically. FEMAP provides both powerful visualization Tools that enable you to quickly interpret results. and numerical tools to search. you receive graphical verification of your progress. graphics or text must be incorporated into a larger report or presentation. For example. . Frequently. Creating illustrations for reports and presentations has never been this easy. report. and X-Y Plots are just some of the postprocessing tools available to the FEMAP user. Introduction Checking Your Model At every step of the modeling process. right on your desktop. Analyzing Your Model When your model is complete. desktop publishing software. evaluate your constraint conditions. and perform further calculations using these results. FEMAP supports OpenGL. find improper connections. Animations. paint and illustration programs. including dynamic visualization of contours through solid parts. FEMAP can export both graphics and text to non-engineering programs with a simple Windows Cut command. Section Cuts and IsoSurfaces can be viewed dynamically by simply moving your cursor. FEMAP also provides extensive tools for checking your model before you analyze it to give you the confidence that you have properly modeled your part. Deformation Plots.

. if you are Deleting Geometry. . Users Guide..e. This manual provides an excellent overview if you are not certain how to do something in FEMAP as well as information on getting started with FEMAP. you can use this manual to find its description. 2 1 . This document is especially useful to users who are upgrading from a previous version of the software.. The few exceptions to this are the List.. and Delete Menu commands. as well as the use of function keys in FEMAP.. the Tools and List menus are combined under the Checking Your Model chapter. If you are unclear about a certain command in FEMAP. and the View and Group menus are combined under the Viewing Your Model chapter.. Release Notes. (3) Users’ Guide. In general. which are explained under the Chapter which contains the type of entities (i. Examples. 1 7 5 2 ' 8 & 7 .... and (4) Command Reference. Command Reference. includes general information about FEMAP.. In addition. common dialog boxes in FEMAP. .. This manual also contains information on shortcut keys. Four manuals are provided with FEMAP: (1) Release Notes (2) Examples.Introduction  FEMAP Documentation In addition to the On-Line Help in FEMAP.. Included in this manual are descriptions of FEMAP’s Graphical User Interface. and a general overview of the finite element process. contains several examples of building a finite element model from start to finish. and there is a brief description of using some of the View commands to check your Model under the Checking Your Model chapter. the commands are separated into chapters which correspond to the Main FEMAP menu. contains explanations of every menu command in FEMAP.. ... . Most users find after just one or two example problems they can be quickly creating realistic models in FEMAP.. FEMAP also comes with a complete set of documentation. look under the Geometry chapter for Delete). while familiarizing them with the program. There is also a special Postprocessing chapter describing commands specifically used for postprocessing.. contains a brief overview of new features in the latest release of FEMAP. This manual provides the new user a quick tour of just some of the capabilities of FEMAP. including the command toolbars. Modify.

 Introduction .

. please check to confirm that the file has only one extension. The FEMAP model file is a binary database of everything contained in the FEMAP file. which opens a new FEMAP model file. and transfer both text and graphics to other Windows and analysis programs. Import/Export of Files 4. Refer to the File Save and File Save As commands for more information on how to save your current model. . but may cause difficulty on certain file systems. All new models are named “Untitled”. Last Four Model Files 8. empty model. The commands on the File menu work with new or existing FEMAP models.2File Manipulation This chapter describes the File Menu commands. They also produce printed or plotted hardcopy. Saving a Model File 3. Exit Each of these sections with their appropriate commands are discussed further below. Files with two extensions may have difficulty being opened due to the Windows file structures and default parameters. starts a new. Copy. This menu is separated into 8 sections. 2. and Paste 6. you may want to remove any spaces in the file name. Opening a Model File 2. you will receive a notification and will have the opportunity to save your changes. If you have made any modifications to your current model. 2.. which allows you to access an existing FEMAP model file. Also.1 Opening a Model File This section contains two commands. Macros.1 File New. Hint: If you are having a problem opening a file..1. and File Open. Print. Settings and Rebuild 7. Notes 5. The FEMAP Main Window title bar will change to show the model name. You can only have one model active for a given FEMAP session. Both commands are discussed further below.. . File New. Spaces are typically not a problem. They are: 1.

If not. Go to your scratch directory. You can also start FEMAP using the “?” command line option.MOD) file.. Note: FEMAP does not save solid geometric information to the scratch file. If you start FEMAP and specify a model filename on the command line. This will reconstruct the database from whatever information can be found. (for example. to a new name. Recovering Data from Scratch Files FEMAP does not typically work directly in your model (. if you have a power failure). you can usually recover the information from your scratch file. all changes are made in a scratch file. which will always have a . preferably with a .1. just go back to the original model. Your model is only updated when you choose one of the save commands. The file may be a bit corrupted so go immediately to the File Rebuild command and choose the Full Rebuild option. 2.. It is either defined by your TEMP environment variable or it is selected by your choices in the File Preferences command under Database Options. Instead. If you have updated your current model.2 File Open. File Manipulation When you start FEMAP without specifying a model filename on the command line or the “?” command line option. File Open uses the standard file access dialog box described in the FEMAP Users Guide to request the filename of the model you wish to use. This is just like using the File New command. You should therefore not accept the option of restarting from the existing scratch file if you have any solid geometry in your model. . Restarting a model after an abnormal exit will cause the existing solids to lose associativity with the rest of the model and possibly corrupt the model beyond repair.. it returns to the screen with the same graphics windows active (and in the same position) as when you saved the file.MOD extension. you begin with a new.SCR extension. Restart FEMAP and open that file as your model.. Shift+F4 . The title bar for the FEMAP Main Window shows the filename of your model. Rename the scratch file. The default filename extension is *. When you open a model. The scratch file is a duplicate copy of your model. This will display the standard file access dialog box just like File Open. empty model.MOD. You can then review the model to see if you have recovered any valuable information. accesses an existing FEMAP model. Please refer to File Save and File Save As for more information on how to save your current model. FEMAP will open that model just as if you opened the file using this command. If you have an abnormal termination of FEMAP. FEMAP will give you a chance to save your changes.

without prompting for a filename. If you want to write to a different file. If your current model is “Untitled”. writes a copy of your current model to the permanent file you specify. it is possible that your file is corrupt. FEMAP does not save solid geometry data to the scratch file. Since it was an abnormal termination however.2. File Save As.. or if you had previously saved the model. or you cannot save an “Untitled” model. Answer No only when you do not want to attempt to save this information. F4 . they may be lost. Your original model will not be updated until you “save” the data.. FEMAP will use that scratch file. and create a new scratch file which is a duplicate of the original model. You must specify a filename. When you then try to open this same model file. FEMAP does not delete this file. If you say Yes to this question. As mentioned above. the changes will still be in your scratch file. which saves the file under the existing name. File Save simply writes to the same model file . If you make a mistake. .Saving the Model File  Note: The scratch file is typically deleted when you exit normally from a FEMAP model file. and in a temporary disk file. if you accidentally turn your computer off. and Timed Save. for information on recovering data from scratch files).. They are File Save. all changes are retained in memory. FEMAP will ask if you want to start from the existing scratch file. you can simply use File Open. .2 Saving the Model File FEMAP also has three commands which allow you to save the FEMAP binary database (model file).1 File Save. this command asks for a filename by calling File Save As. which allows periodic saving of the model file automatically. When to Save When you work on a FEMAP model. to revert to your original model file. which allows you to change the model filename. which will allow you to recover any data that had not been saved before the abnormal termination. 2. / ( 6 ) 2. Your model will be named if you open an existing model file.. Any changes which were made to the file since the last Save command will be lost. or forget to save your changes. If so. FEMAP will delete the scratch file. On the other hand. You may want to perform a File Rebuild and then due a File Save As (see following section) to save it under a different file name. If you do experience an abnormal termination. but this requires extra work (Refer to the previous section. they can be recovered. This can be a mixed blessing. use File Save As. You will be right back to where you did your last save. therefore you should never restart from an existing scratch file when you have solid geometry in the model If you say No to this question. In most cases. This would enable you to keep both versions of the model file until you decide if the file resulting from the abnormal termination had been corrupted. Whenever you are working on a named model.

. To disable timed save.2. however the timer will continue to run. It usually does not take long to save the model.. and the benefits can be well worth the time.3 Import/Export of Files The next menu commands under the File command allow you to both import and export data... Unlike some other programs.. you must specify a filename before the model can be saved. you can use the File Timed Save option to save your model automatically. You may also import and export geometry.3 File Timed Save. 2. you will find that Timed Save will save your model after the next command that you access. You should only use this command when you want to save your model with a different filename. . you must turn it off with File Timed Save. just like the File Save As command. You also can request FEMAP to notify you prior to automatically saving your model. Alternatively. except that it always displays the standard file access dialog box to ask for the name of the file to write. instructs FEMAP to save your working model automatically either at a specified time interval or after a number of commands have been performed... you should save whenever you make a significant change to your model and you are certain the change is correct. . If you are not accessing any FEMAP commands. 2.. This follows the normal process. It allows you to turn timed save on or off and set the time between automatic saves. FEMAP does not interrupt your commands to save your model. File Save automatically calls File Save As if you are working on an “Untitled” model.2 File Save As. This means that FEMAP will never automatically save your model unless you are actively working on the model. you can skip a timed save by canceling FEMAP's notification. at a time interval that you specify. FEMAP waits until the end of your next command to save your model. In many cases. it will simply be saved to that filename.. 2. After the interval has expired.2. is identical to File Save. Timed Save will be inactive. as well as analyze your model if you have loaded one for . The default settings for this option can be set in File Preferences Database. If your model is named. Even if you cancel however. FEMAP works as a general pre and post-processor for finite element analysis. File Manipulation In general. If you choose this option. timed save is still active and will notify you again when the interval expires. If you are working with an 'Untitled' model.

*.X_T files 3. or simply drop down the “File Type” list.1. 7.*.. please see the Translator Reference Section in the FEMAP Users Guide.1 File Import Geometry. VDA Files . . and choose the appropriate format.*.PAR. or a FEMAP neutral file. and you are use the default “All Geometry” type. Unigraphics Models . Normally FEMAP will display all of the files that it knows how to read. which will result in errors. .STP files 5. IGES Files .*.PSM files In each of these cases. is the interface between FEMAP and other CAD programs. Parasolids Solid Model Files . you may rename it. *. When you select this command.File Import Menu  the many solver programs that can be automatically executed by FEMAP.1 File Import Menu The File Import commands enable you to import information from CAD packages as well as other FEA codes. the analysis model from other FEA codes. ACIS Solid Model Files . and look for the specific file format that you are attempting to read.*. There are many types of geometry files which FEMAP can import: 1. If you do not use the standard extensions for each of the formats. Depending upon the type of file you choose. then specify the filename.*. For more information on the options contained in the dialog boxes.*. you will see the standard Windows File Selection dialog box. Solid Edge Models . using the most common filename extensions for these formats.PRT files 12.*..IGS files 4.DLV files 9..EXP..PRT files 13.*. the results from FEA solver codes.3. / ( 6 ) . The commands under this area of the menu are explained more fully below. Stereolithography Files .SAT files 2. Pro/ENGINEER Models .*.MDL files 8.*. 2.DXF files. STEP Files .STL files 6. *.3. Wireframe Files . FEMAP may display information in the Messages and Lists Window and then prompt you with one or more additional dialog boxes where you can set various options. 2. I-DEAS Files . There are four commands based upon the type of information to import. simply select the file to import. FEMAP may choose the wrong format to read the file. You can import geometry from CAD packages. Each command is further explained below. CATIA Express Files .*.*.VDA files 10. CATIA Models . If your file uses a different extension.IDI files 11.

2 File Import Analysis Model Ctrl+Shift+T This command allows you to import an analysis model from many popular FEA codes. When you choose this command. This could mean that you have read the results into the wrong (or modified) model. Because the FEMAP Neutral file is compatible across all platforms. please see the Translator Reference Section in the FEMAP Users Guide. it is the recommended format for long term storage. please see the Translator Reference section in the FEMAP Users Guide.3. Simply select the appropriate Format and then input the filename. . you can save this file as a FEMAP *.3. File Manipulation Note: Many of the geometry interfaces are not available in all versions of FEMAP... If an interface is not available in your version. .mod file... For more information on the FEMAP Neutral File. For more information on the individual solver codes supported. Once the FEMAP neutral file is read.4 File Import FEMAP Neutral. 2. Note: You should always import Analysis Results into an existing model containing those Nodes and Elements. You may be asked other questions based upon the format you have chosen..3. . you will see the following dialog box: Simply select the appropriate code.. 2. FEMAP will provide a warning. and FEMAP will then prompt you for the name of the input file.1. Once you select this command. please see the Translator Reference Section in the FEMAP Users Guide.3 File Import Analysis Results. you will see an error message which informs you to contact us to purchase that interface. you will see the same dialog box as the File Import Analysis Model. 2. so you can then use FEMAP’s powerful postprocessing capability. FEMAP has support for over 20 finite element solvers..1. For a more detailed description of this list. allows you to read results from an analysis you have performed. translates a FEMAP neutral file into a binary FEMAP database file. If you read information for entities that do not exist in your model.1..

The stereolithography file is only applicable for a meshed model.. You can even save a Deformed.3.*.STP 4.*.. Modes. translates the FEMAP model file into an input file for the selected solver program.SAT files 2... For a more complete description of the options available for each analysis program.3. FEMAP will export a faceted representation of your model using the FEA mesh as the basis of this file.File Export Menu  2. Unlike File Import Analysis Model. Simply select the appropriate format. Each of these areas are described below. 2. Parasolid Solid Model Files ..IGS 5. allows you to store the FEMAP model file as a neutral file..3 File Export FEMAP Neutral. Contour plot in VRML format. FEMAP currently supports various types of geometry export. When you select this command.. 2.X_T files 3.. .. Ctrl+T . 1. IGES Files ..2 File Export Menu The File Export menu allows you to export geometry. .*. . ACIS Solid Model Files . you must also select the appropriate Analysis Type (Static.2. STEP Files . analysis model.2. please see the Translator Reference Section in the FEMAP Users Guide. please see the Translator Reference Section in the FEMAP Users Guide.. command provides export capability for FEMAP solid models.*.2. VRML. Similarly. etc. it is the recommended format for long term storage.*. Stereolithography Files .2 File Export Analysis Model.1 File Export Geometry. the IGES interface will allow you to export Parasolid geometry to an IGES file.3.).3. however. or a FEMAP neutral file.STL files 6. Because the FEMAP Neutral file is compatible across all platforms. VRML Files The first two solid model options are only available if you have created or imported a solid model of the particular type. allows easy viewing of Solid or Meshed models in many standard viewing programs. you will see the available analysis codes for export (see File Import Analysis Model for the dialog box containing this information). . / ( 6 ) 2. The final option.. The STEP interface will allow you to export a Parasolid entity to a STEP AP203 solid via a conversion from the Parasolid modeling kernel into the STEP standard. For more information on the FEMAP Neutral File.

When you select this command. 2. FEMAP will not perform any checks on this syntax. The analysis program and analysis type are determined by the setting that you chose in File Preferences Interfaces. The information included in the Notes area must have the appropriate syntax for the type of translation you are performing. .e.. You can change whether the Translation Text is included in an output file by selecting or deselecting the Include During Write Translation option. When these commands are selected. improper syntax could cause a fatal error in your analysis run. This command bypasses the File Export dialog box and immediately writes the model. Note: Be careful when using the Translation Text option. You may also provide information for Translation by selecting the Translation Text option. File Manipulation 2. . therefore.. provides a method of attaching notes to your model as well as translate lines to your model input file.. such as date.3. is a shortcut to write the current model for analysis. It will simply write the information as you input it. ..4 File Notes. creator etc.3 File Analyze.. the Model Notes and Text for Translation dialog box will appear. where FEMAP automatically writes its own date/time information) of your model. this command will also optionally begin the analysis.. This command is most often used to provide identifying characteristics to your model.. FEMAP will automatically write this information to the heading area (i. program. In the cases where FEMAP can run the analysis program..

and Paste The commands under this section of the menu involve exporting information to a printer. and it will usually be a very large size . You can specify any other font by selecting Other Font and then specifying the typeface and Point Size that you want to use.5 Print. which greatly simplifies the transfer of data from FEMAP to other Windows programs such as PowerPoint or Word. and Paste  2. Since the font is scalable. or other scalable fonts. 2. you will often see only one size in the “Point Size” list. These items will be used when printing/plotting either text or graphics using the File Print command. margins. Note: If you are using True Type. specifies headers. Each of the five commands available in this section are explained more fully below. The commands in this section involve different methods of transferring this data to programs such as Word. you can choose any size that you want. / ( 6 ) Page Header and Footer The Header and Footer text are printed. .5.1 File Page Setup. Copy.Print. in the top and bottom margin of every page. you just have to type it manually. Copy. position and other parameters.50 point or larger. .. footers. or to a Printer. Shift+F3 . FEMAP is a true Windows program. The figure below shows the dialog box that you will use to enter all of the Page Setup parameters.. This text uses the Default Fixed Pitch Font for the selected printer/plotter. or to documentation programs for reporting..

Plot and Metafile Style The three options in this group allow you to control some specific details regarding the appearance of a graphics plot. but characters are improperly printed. a single line border will be drawn around the image. Selecting a fixed pitch font will properly align all columns in the listing. Setting Swap Black and White will automatically reverse the black and white colors during your print. which will always be printed as shown on the screen. When Draw Border is active. resulting in the print style described. The bottom and right margins will be used to compute the line length and number of lines on the page. printing will start at the top-left margin. In FEMAP's default configuration. This option has no effect on other colors.What You See Is What You Get). Page Margins These margins identify the distance from the four edges of the page where you want printing to occur. When you print a window. For graphics printing. Simply change the Font both in this dialog box as well as under View Options. and Colors. Again. File Manipulation Other Printed Text FEMAP uses these options when you print listings (List Destination command). Often printers and plotters cannot print closer than some minimum distance from the edge of the paper. When you are printing listings. This . WYSIWYG . with white or colored images. you can select any other available font. graphic windows have black backgrounds.e. Label Parameters to a supported Font. you would normally see the same image on the paper (i. it is likely that your Windows Printer Driver does not support the selected Font.even though it does not match the image on the screen. FEMAP combines the margins with the options in Plot Position and Size to compute the actual size and position of the graphics image. or place an image in a Metafile using either the File Picture Save or File Picture Copy commands. They are never used for printing/plotting graphics. Setting a margin smaller than those minimums can result in FEMAP trying to print to an inaccessible region of the paper. Hint: FEMAP listings will not be as easy to read if you select a proportionally spaced font. Label. but you will not see the portion of the print that is in the inaccessible regions. this text uses the “Default Fixed Pitch Font”. Entities. In many cases. Just like headers and footers. This should not cause any unrecoverable problems. The location of this border is equivalent to the on-screen window border. FEMAP uses these options when you print a graphic image using File Print. you may want to retain the white background of the paper and print with black lines . Check your printer documentation for information on these minimum values. Hint: If the display looks fine on the screen.

You can combine Monochrome with the Swap Black and White to print all black lines on a white background. so you may be able to turn it off. you will be able to use Swap Black and White successfully when you print at printer resolution (uses a Metafile). Note: Swap Black and White relies on being able to change the color palette of bitmaps.  option also controls color swapping for Metafiles that you transfer to the Clipboard using File Picture Copy or save to disk using File Picture Save. like DeskJets. however have trouble printing multiple view layouts. This creates an image that can be overlaid on top of other text/graphics without erasing them. FEMAP will be unable to automatically swap the black and white colors. and rely on the other application to supply the background. Certain printers. any plot with filled areas is not usually a good candidate for Monochrome. Therefore. To overcome this problem you can change all your model colors to black and white so they can print well. you may want just the graphic image. For printing on white paper. you will still want to use Swap Black and White. if you are printing. In this case. . If you try. This limitation does not apply to Metafiles. / ( 6 ) . This includes boards/graphics modes which support 32000 colors or full 24-bit color. We therefore recommend leaving this option on (which should work for all printers).. While the Monochrome option can quickly make a print look much better. You must manually set up the screen (change background to white. which is black) will be converted to white when they are printed. For example. This is caused by the method Windows uses to shade colors on the monochrome printer. Windows does not support color palettes. colors will still be displayed on the screen. which rely heavily on color shading will not work well. but all colors (except color 0. Especially contour plots.File Page Setup. headers and footers if this option is off. nothing will be visible. Swap Black and White should always work successfully for any Windows mode that supports 256 or fewer colors. Since it sets all colors but background to a single color. or just turn on the Monochrome switch. entities to black). If you are printing to a black and white printer. Similarly. you should never use it if you are using a color other than color 0 for the background. Reset Clipping When this option is turned on. unless you are experiencing some incorrect clipping of graphics on printed images. but not when you print at screen resolution (uses a bitmap). it can result in a picture which is totally illegible. If you are using one of these graphics boards. Setting Transparent Background will simply skip plotting the background. like a laser printer. it must be used with caution. on devices which can display more than 256 colors. you may find that certain colors that are displayed on the screen do not show up very well (or at all) when you print them. FEMAP will reset the clipping region at the end of each drawing operation or window. This is not be required for most printers. Otherwise. you will get white lines on your white paper! Transparent Background is most often used when creating a Metafile to be transferred into another application. and only operates in WYSYWIG mode. Here.

the width of each line is multiplied by this factor to obtain a print with “fatter” lines. L/R Center or Right) control the position of the printed image within the margins. and could take a very long time to print. this type of line may appear very faint due to the small size of each pixel on these devices. Therefore if you specify 2. If you do not. the print may still be reduced from that size if you selected either Maintain Window Aspect Ratio or Integer Scaling. the pixels in the on-screen window are scaled by the largest integer (whole number) scale factor that fits inside the margins and size specifications. you should always specify this option for the best quality print. No matter which size option you pick. Setting this option usually results in a smaller printed image. File Manipulation Pen Width Factor This factor is used for Metafiles and plotting directly to a printer. FEMAP stretches the bitmap (by the fractional portion of the real scale factor) to fit the margins. For high resolution printers. When this option is on. like typesetters. Always make sure that you specify a size that is smaller than the margins that you choose. FEMAP can not print a Metafile to obtain “printer” resolution. Custom Size allows you to specify the Height and Width that you want. If you choose this option. Scaling occurs both horizontally and vertically.that is they are only one dot wide. If the option is off. Choosing this option will generally result in a smaller printed image. If you choose to fill the margins (and none . T/B Center or Bottom. The final option sets (Top. Integer Scaling is a further limitation to the mapping of the screen image to the printed page. and Left. The stretching operation results in distortions that degrade the appearance of the image. renders your image to that bitmap and prints it just like a screen resolution print. FEMAP instead creates an off-screen bitmap. it does provide substantially improved resolution as compared to choosing to print at screen resolution. Plot Position and Size These options control the shape. Choosing Fill Printer Margins simply calculates the printable area by subtracting the margins from the size of the paper. Be careful not to specify a number that is too large. It will take quite a large amount of memory. To provide printed output at higher than screen resolution. The factor that you specify in this option is simply multiplied by the screen resolution to compute the size of the off-screen bitmap. the scale factor used is a real number (whole + fractional number) that exactly fits the margin and size specifications. you get a print that is twice the screen resolution. with the specified height-to-width ratio that fits inside the margins and size options that you specify. When printing using bitmap formats however. Choosing Maintain Window Aspect Ratio will force the height-to-width ratio of a printed image to match the shape of the screen or window that you print. but one that more closely resembles what you see on the screen. Fill Printer Margins and Custom Size control the size of a printed graphic image. size and position of a graphics image that you print. By increasing the Pen Width Factor. In FEMAP graphics are normally drawn as “single-pixel-width” lines . While this is not “printer” resolution. This option has no effect on screen display Render Res Factor When you are printing graphics from Render mode. the resulting print will be the largest possible rectangle.

and returns you to the normal FEMAP defaults. The outer black border represents the paper on which you will print. which provide you with further control of printing parameters. Page Preview This section of the dialog box shows a symbolic graphical representation of your printed page. Whenever the image does not fill the margins however. It quickly lets you know if your page and printer setup options are correct. Page Setup and Printer Setup. They can also be set via the Page Setup command or button. You will see two command buttons. you will see an additional dialog box that asks you for the name of the file that you want to create. By combining these alignment options with the margins.2 File Print Printed Image Header F3 . Reset deletes the saved options. FEMAP fills the margins. For example. these options control the alignment. When you press the OK button. except that they save the Page Setup options. You do not need to waste a piece of paper. . or the time required to make a print. The Print dialog box allows you to choose what will be printed and in what format. It can be used to create files in a native printer format (for example. FEMAP calculates the size and orientation of . / ( 6 ) Margins Footer Paper Orientation and Size Print to File This button allows you to print directly to a file rather than to your printer.5. choosing Top and Left will result in an image that has its’ top and left borders aligned with the top and left margins. you can position an image anywhere on the page. 2. you must use Page Setup if you want to change fonts or other options. These buttons simply invoke the File Page Setup and File Printer Setup commands respectively.File Print  of the other options reduce the image size) your choice here will not matter. These buttons work just like the same buttons in the File Preferences command. In fact. so that they will be the defaults for all future models and sessions. Reset and Permanent Permanent allows you to save your Page Setup options. Header and Footer These options provide a quick way to set the headers and footers that will be placed at the top and bottom of the page. postscript).This command produces a printed or plotted hardcopy of your model.

choose the Layout option. You also may see shorter horizontal lines located inside the top and bottom margins. For even more printing flexibility. If the printed image is smaller than you expected. Individual windows are not shown. Selecting Active View will print a picture of your model as it currently appears in your graphics window. FEMAP will be able to print them. you can select the lines that will be printed. You can choose Screen Resolution to print a saved bitmap. If you do have multiple windows. This option is only available if you choose the Screen Resolution option. FEMAP may have automatically reduced the size due to your Page Setup choices. Right and Left) that represent relative margin positions. If you use standard Windows Metafiles. Layout is only available when you are printing at printer/plotter resolution with multiple active windows. Otherwise. is a filled rectangle. They contain additional information that allows FEMAP to properly choose font sizes and scale the picture. If you do not want to print all of the messages. Hint: FEMAP can only print a multi-window layout as it is arranged on the screen with the Layout or Desktop options. This includes all windows even non-FEMAP windows. Best results are usually obtained with Layout if you turn off the graphics window title bars. Refer to the “File Messages Menu” later in this chapter for instructions. Finally. They are only visible if the header and/or footer is not blank. and the shape of the active graphics window . These lines represent the locations where the page headers and footers (specified in Page Setup) will be printed. This rectangle represents the size and position of your printed image. but the font sizes will vary somewhat depending on the resolution of your printer and the resolution of the graphics adapter you used to create the Metafile. What to Print These options specify what will be printed or plotted. you will see gaps between the printed windows that represent the areas occupied by the title bars. FEMAP will print a saved Metafile or Placeable Metafile. and want to print them all as they are positioned on your screen. Choosing Desktop will print an image of your entire screen. the Resolution setting. Bottom. Inside this border you will see four lines (Top. For the best results. you should always save and print Placeable Metafiles. You can change these settings using Printer Setup. If you currently have multiple graphics windows open. If you choose Printer resolution. File Manipulation this boundary (and the paper) from your Windows printer configuration. the Page Preview diagram shows one overall rectangle that surrounds all of your windows. you can transfer FEMAP graphics to other Windows programs which will allow you to print other page layouts. When you are printing messages. In Layout mode. only the “top-most” (the one that you last selected) window will be printed. located inside the margin lines. Printing Messages The final print option allows you to print text/messages that are in the Messages and Lists Window. Maintain Window Aspect Ratio and Integer Scaling are especially important. The final graphics printing choice allows you to print a graphic image stored in a File.

This option is not available for some printers and for most plotters that cannot print a bitmap. because the position of the printed messages is just based on the margin settings. / ( 6 ) Note: FEMAP can only print a Bitmap in Render Mode. When you choose this option. you can set this feature permanently using the Setup option under Printer Setup. but it still may not be as clear and sharp as a Windows Metafile. you will receive a warning. Choose the Maximize button in the Window Title Bar to enlarge it to full-screen size prior to choosing File Print. For many printers. . Do not worry. you will get a better quality (higher resolution) print if you enlarge the window. For final. but can take significantly longer for complex images. print using Screen resolution. you will only get one copy of your print. Copies If your printer/plotter supports making multiple copies. However. Hint: You can also print messages by using the File Messages Copy command and copying them to another Windows application. The bitmap will be scaled and stretched. Then. high-quality output. m When you are printing the Active View using Screen resolution. You may want to switch out of Render Mode when you are printing. you will see the printed image disappear from the Page Preview area. to fill the desired margins and print size. They graphically show the results of your settings in the Page Preview diagram. or by setting the List Destination to your printer and then doing any of the list commands. Hint: Review the following items for some additional hints on printing: m Use the Page Setup and Printer Setup options on this dialog box instead of the commands on the File menu. always use Printer/Plotter resolution. FEMAP recomputes the image at the resolution of the printer. The resulting printed image is almost always of much higher quality. If you choose multiple copies.File Print  do not matter. and your printer does not support this option. m If you want a quick draft hardcopy. the resolution of the screen image determines the ultimate print quality. Resolution You have two choices for the print/plot resolution mode. When you choose Printer/Plotter resolution. . this is normal behavior. you can use this option to request the number of copies you need. as required. FEMAP performs operations to provide more detail than the standard Bitmap export. “Screen” resolution directs FEMAP to use the on-screen bitmap and copy it to paper.

or even a window with headers or footers. These drivers are frequently updated to correct errors and add new capabilities. One good approach is to change every other color so that it uses a cross-hatched color instead of a solid color. In particular. Windows writes temporary files to this disk as it is printing. m If you want to print a contour plot on a monochrome printer. File Manipulation m Printing high-resolution images (especially color images) takes a lot of memory and/or disk space. then press the Reset Gray button. If a new printer driver does not solve your problems. These files can often require several megabytes or more. If you are having any problems printing. and you have a fairly old version of Windows or an older printer driver.. you should check with either Microsoft or your printer manufacturer to see if there is a newer printer driver available. your prints should come out much cleaner. If you are having trouble distinguishing contour levels on the print. For example. such as a multi-window layout. . m You cannot print when the active window is animating. Press the Set Levels. With the grayscale palette loaded. m Some older Windows printer drivers have problems handling complex pictures (especially if you choose Printer resolution). you may be able to reduce the complexity of the picture by selecting a group or modifying your View Options. Choose OK twice. This option resets the clipping region in a way that is compatible with these printers. you can adjust the individual colors in the palette. you may want to adjust the contour palette before printing. if you are doing a contour plot. You will need to make sure that your TEMP environment variable specifies a disk with plenty of room if you are going to print large models. m Some printers (like DeskJet printers) have trouble clipping multiple regions. Then select the Postprocessing category and the Contour/Criteria Levels option. If you are experiencing this type of problem you can go to Page Setup and turn on the “Reset Clipping” option.. choose the View Options command. button. This will result in contours that alternate between solid and the various hatch patterns. reducing the number of contour levels can dramatically reduce the complexity of the image that you are printing. to accept the grayscale contour palette.

.5. / ( 6 ) 2. They are part of the printer driver that you loaded when you installed the printer for Windows.. portrait) or paper size. The next time you choose the Print or Printer Setup command it will recognize any Control Panel changes that you have made. To change the setup for the printer you have selected. but did not activate. FEMAP can only export a Bitmap when in Render Mode. You can even make changes while FEMAP is still running.3 File Printer Setup. 75.. and the documentation for your printer for further advice on setting options for particular printers. Note: Just like the File Print command. These let you establish options like the active printing mode (i. This command displays a list of the active printers. fonts. simply press Setup. you can also install or activate additional printers. When you change certain printer settings. portrait or landscape paper orientation.5. . You can also redisplay graphics files. 150 or 300 dots/inch).  2. Depending on the printer. . like the paper orientation (landscape vs. it is usually good to review the Page Setup options. directly sets and modifies printer-related options.4 File Picture Menu The commands on this submenu let you transfer a copy of your graphics to the Windows’ clipboard (and then to other applications) or to a file. This will give you the opportunity to make any changes to margins. The dialog boxes that you see when you choose Setup are not really part of FEMAP.File Printer Setup.. you will see one or more additional dialog boxes. . will not be shown. You also can modify all of the same settings using the Windows Control Panel. plot sizes or positions that are appropriate for your new printer settings. Using Control Panel. Refer to the Windows documentation.. colors and many more. You may want to change to standard mode to export a Windows Metafile..e. Printers that you installed. To choose a printer for use in FEMAP simply select it from the list..

Other applications require you to define a region or area where the graphics will be placed prior to pasting. or you can simply choose it from the menu.. The Paste command should immediately load the image into the other application.4. and Windows Metafile or Picture formats. in the File Page Setup command. the black and white colors can be swapped.1 File Picture Copy. FEMAP transfers the image in Palette.. Additional Page Setup options control the background and border for Metafiles... you will find a Paste command somewhere in the menu (often under Edit).2 File Picture Save. controls color swapping.5. you have great flexibility when you transfer the image to many other software packages. . transfers a copy of the image in the active graphics window to the Windows’ clipboard. but must be enabled using the File Preferences Views command.5. You should only do this after verifying the format is not useful in the software where you will paste the image. When you transfer a Metafile or device independent bitmap to the clipboard. If supported. transfers a copy of the image in the active graphics window to a file. transferring the Metafile/Picture format is usually your best choice since these images can be scaled and stretched and they retain the best quality image. Note: Remember that the clipboard only holds one image. The Swap Black and White Metafile option. For most Windows applications that accept graphics input from the clipboard. Ctrl+C .. 2. By default. By producing these formats. Ctrl+F3 . You cannot transfer animations to the Clipboard. File Manipulation 2. Refer to the documentation for the receiving application for more information. simply switch to the application that you want to receive the image. Pressing Ctrl+V (or Shift+Ins) will usually invoke that command. Transferring Graphics to Other Applications After you use File Picture Copy to load your graphics to the clipboard..4. You can disable one or more of the formats for all future transfers by using File Preferences Views command. This is useful for changing a picture with white lines on a black background into black lines on a white background.. The File Picture Copy command will be disabled if the current window is animating. Windows Device Independent Bitmaps (DIB) can also be transferred. The standard file access dialog box allows you to specify the name of the file to create. Windows Device Dependent Bitmap (DDB).. FEMAP will swap the colors. No additional input is required. so every time you choose this command you automatically overwrite the previous contents of the clipboard. The File Page Setup Monochrome option can also be used to convert to a monochrome image. These options have no effect on regular device dependent bitmaps which are copied to the clipboard. If this option is on. Some applications (like Windows Paint) sometimes require you to choose Paste twice.

Likewise. If you select Bitmap. When you choose this format.BMP. or AVI format. the default file extension is . you should always use the compressed format. FEMAP uses the . Check the documentation for your other applications. Both options save the picture as a Metafile. FEMAP will ask if you want to compress the bitmap. Bitmap Series 5. FEMAP will also convert all colors to a black and white image if the Monochrome option is on. If this option is on. For this reason. Metafile 3. The Metafile and Placeable Metafile options are not available in Render mode. the default file extension is . Just like for the File Picture Copy command. / ( 6 ) . JPEG All formats are not available for all types of pictures. Bitmap 2. Bitmap files contain only the array of pixels currently displayed in the window and are therefore equivalent to the size of the window. but are incompatible with some Windows programs. or try transferring a compressed bitmap to see if your other applications can support it. you should refer to the documentation for that application to find advice on choosing the best format for that application. Video for Windows . these files can be very large. If you select either Metafile or PlaceMF. the colors black and white can be swapped when you save a Metafile or device independent bitmap. Unlike standard bit- . and the file will be saved as a Windows Device Independent Bitmap. The single bitmap animation file format is very similar to the standard bitmap format. You can control color swapping with the Swap Black and White Metafile option in the File Page Setup command. The Metafile will redraw itself for the new shape. bitmap series. when you load a Metafile into another application. you can scale and stretch it. the size of your animating window and the number of colors supported by your graphics board. but will be incompatible with most (if not all) Windows applications other than FEMAP. to the normal fields in the file access dialog.WMF. there are five additional options that specify the picture format: 1. you will not be asked to choose compression.AVI 6. FEMAP will swap the colors.  In addition. If you plan to load your pictures into another Windows application. Compressed bitmaps usually take up significantly less disk space... If your active graphics window is animating.BMP default file extension for animation files just like for standard bitmaps. which is available for all views. Placeable Metafile 4. Metafiles contain commands that draw graphics into the current window. FEMAP will let you choose either a bitmap. Most often you will want to use the Placeable Metafile for more reliable transfer to other programs. Depending on the number of animation frames. If you only plan to replay your bitmaps using FEMAP. Metafile chooses the Windows Metafile format while PlaceMF chooses the Placeable Metafile Format that is used by many Windows’ applications.File Picture Save.

. The Bitmap Series and AVI files are only applicable for Animations.. you will not be able to successfully import the AVI files into other applications. File Manipulation maps or Metafiles. Unlike File Picture Save however. You can use the system menu. 2. FEMAP will create a new window to display the bitmap image. 2.3 File Picture Save Desktop. If you want to save an Animation to replay in FEMAP.. except that instead of simply saving the active graphics window. You can also simply save the picture as an AVI file. Just like File Picture Save. while the cursor is anywhere inside the “Replay window”. if you have 256 colors or less. AVI files can be imported directly into most Windows applications. . but does have a system menu. the initial size of the replay window will be the same size as the window that you saved. FEMAP also adds an Animation command to the system menu. If you resize the window. FEMAP has to do far more calculations for each animation frame and the animation will . Pressing the left mouse button. you will use the standard file access dialog box. FEMAP will save each frame in the Animation as a series of bitmaps. This command does not show the Metafile options.5. that is a series of static bitmaps . If that size is too large to fit on the screen. this command saves the entire screen to the file you specify. The replay window does not have a command menu. animations and placeable Metafiles. You can also stop and start replayed animations simply by clicking in the window.. This command is identical to the View Animation command in FEMAP. This command will automatically return the window to it’s default size and position. If Bitmap series is chosen...4.4. not a series of bitmaps. under the names *n. Metafile or animation. Hint: When saving an AVI file. This format can be used with other tools to create video (AVI) files.bmp. is the same as File Picture Save. You will find that animations work best if you leave the window at the original size. FEMAP adds an additional command.one per animation frame with sequentially numbered filenames. If you change the size.4 File Picture Replay. This format is strictly for programs which can play a series of bitmaps.. Alt+F3 . displays graphics that you have saved in files. or the window borders to move and resize the window. the Desktop can only be saved in Bitmap for JPEG format. to the system menu. Pressing the right mouse button will restart the animation. you should save the entire Animation as one bitmap. to select the graphics format and file that you want to display. As always. It is used to control the replayed animations. you must have a color resolution > 256 colors.. FEMAP will stretch a bitmap or scale a Metafile to fit in the new window. They are always saved just as they appear on the screen. FEMAP uses the standard file access dialog.5. where n ranges from 0 to n-1 frames. will stop the animation. Original Size. the size will be automatically reduced. For bitmaps. You can also save animations as a bitmap series. the various Page Setup options do not change animations.

5 File Messages Menu The commands on this submenu allow you to transfer text from the Messages and Lists window. Note: FEMAP will never close the replay window. You cannot copy text that has . Therefore.BMP . you will see a dialog box that asks you for the picture filename.5. you can continue to work in FEMAP and display many simultaneous pictures just by replaying different files. you can always use the Original Size command to restore the window. By leaving the window open. you can run that program yourself without running FEMAP. you can specify the full filename on the command line. your replay window or windows will disappear behind the maximized FEMAP window. so you can specify any name. you should always Close the window as soon as you are finished looking at it. You can copy the text to a file or to the Windows’ clipboard and then to other applications.WMF. This includes all lines of text that are visible in the window and the lines of text that can be retrieved by scrolling. You must be careful if you are running FEMAP or any other application maximized to the full screen. you must add the names of the appropriate directories to these commands. or to the Clipboard. Alternatively. At any time you want to view a picture. When you choose the next FEMAP command. or by choosing Close from the system menu. If they are not. You must already know the complete filename of the file that you want to view. for example: REPLAY PICTURE. Replaying Pictures Outside of FEMAP When you choose the File Picture Replay command. This is not the standard file access dialog box. It does not rely on the filename extension. You must also include the filename extension (. for example). these commands transfer all lines of text from the Messages and Lists Window to the selected file. by double clicking the system menu with your left mouse button. When you run REPLAY by itself. 2. By default. You must do that manually.BMP REPLAY automatically determines the type of file that you are specifying from the data in the file. / ( 6 ) You can also run REPLAY directly from DOS with: WIN REPLAY PICTURE. The only limitation is the amount of memory available for Windows. It is very easy to forget about these extra windows. and type it in the dialog box.BMP or . The commands shown above assume that both Windows and REPLAY are in directories along your PATH.EXE). and it does not list the available files. While they do no harm. If you do change the size. they are using system resources (especially if they are animating!) that may be better applied to FEMAP or some other ongoing process.File Messages Menu  slow down dramatically. FEMAP actually runs a separate Windows program (REPLAY.

5.1 File Messages Copy. you automatically overwrite the previous contents of the Clipboard. 2. The standard file access dialog box (as described in the FEMAP Users Guide) allows you to specify the name of the file to create. The default filename extension is *. . and (2) Scripts. Don’t worry if some lines appear to be missed as you drag the cursor. 2. If you select an existing file.6 Macros. transfers a copy of the selected (or all) lines of text from the Messages and Lists window to a file. copies the selected (or all) lines of text from the Messages and Lists window to the Windows Clipboard. You do not have to cancel your previous selection. Ctrl+Shift+C .5.5.. For information on the FEMAP scripting language.doc for PC platforms) installed where you installed the FEMAP executable... As you do this.. please review the api_ref document (MS Word document api_ref.. Simply clicking on a line with the left mouse button selects just that line.LST. . If you want to change your selection. You can set the number of lines saved in the buffer using File Preferences Database. 2. FEMAP will select all lines between the two points...2 File Messages Save. When you release the mouse button. File Manipulation scrolled out of FEMAP’s buffer. 2. See the Customization Chapter in the FEMAP Users Guide for more information on the details of creating program file. Clicking anywhere in the Messages and Lists window with the right mouse button cancels any lines that you have selected.1 File Program Menu The File Program Menu enables you to run or develop macros which will automatically create and/or manipulate FEMAP models. There are two basic types of macros: (1) Program Files. Every time you choose this command.6. Each of these menu commands are described further below.. you will be given an option to overwrite. Settings. No additional input is required. To select messages. point to the line that you want to select with the cursor. Press the Left mouse button and drag the cursor to the last (or first) line that you want to select.5. you must select the lines that FEMAP will copy prior to invoking these commands. Now release the button. Note: Remember that the Windows’ Clipboard only holds one image or one set of text. just repeat the process. as well as rebuilding your Model file and setting default parameters for your model files. Selecting Messages If you do not want all of the text. and Rebuild This section of the File menu pertains to running macro files to automatically create and manipulate FEMAP model files. the color of the selected lines will change. or append to. that file.

.File Program Run. Note: Do not press any keys on the keyboard while your program file is executing. automatically creates a program file which will recreate your current session.doc file contained in the FEMAP executable installation directory. it will be intermixed with the program file data and will cause unpredictable results.1 File Program Run.  Program files are scripts which can execute FEMAP commands to automatically create or modify your models.. they are not easily broken. If you press a key. Windows cannot tell the difference between keystrokes that come from your program file and keystrokes from the keyboard. however.. The only exceptions to this are when a program file stops to ask you for input.. Script files. All of the FEMAP commands that you .6.. Using File Preferences you can specify a program file that FEMAP will automatically execute every time you start a model. Note: Program files enable you to perform any command in FEMAP.1. the program file will be temporarily stopped. As a result. and you should complete the dialog box using either the keyboard or mouse.. In a program file.2 File Program Record. enable you to write scripts to manipulate the FEMAP database. / ( 6 ) 2.. but they actually work on a Windows-Key Stroke level. please see the Customization chapter of the FEMAP Users Guide and the api_ref.. 2.. When you select OK. Scripts use the FEMAP BASIC Scripting language to provide direct access to the FEMAP Database Engine through the BASIC Interpreter built into FEMAP... When you choose this command you will see the standard file access dialog box. The commands on this area of the menu allow you to automatically record and run program files. These commands are most useful for importing and exporting results information from FEMAP. replays keystrokes from a stored program file. where you can specify the name of the program file that you want to create.6. For more information on program files and the scripting language. they can be easily interrupted or broken.) to program files to further customize them. .. In these cases. . but only those commands contained in the scripting language are available. you can ask for input via the <USER> and #ASK( ) commands. This command runs a program file when you request it.1. a Visual Basic type programming language to perform direct manipulations on the FEMAP database. as well as creating and manipulating views for postprocessing. Because they work on a database level. . GOTO. FEMAP will immediately open the file and begin executing keystrokes. You can also add logic commands (IF. FEMAP uses the standard file access dialog box to determine which file you want to run.

and close the Editor Window. 2. Restrictions In general you can use any input method when recording a program file .6. To stop recording. File Manipulation execute after this command will be recorded in the program file. pan and zoom commands. When you select this option. all nodes and properties which are referenced by elements must exist. . simply save the File... there are several limitations when recording a program file: m You can not use the Toolbar. but those commands will not be recorded in the program file . While recording.. It verifies the completeness of the model that you read. . For more information on the FEMAP scripting language. FEMAP will automatically convert “mouse picks” to equivalent keyboard actions.. 2.. Once you make the changes. However.....5 File Program Run Script.be careful! m The View Align By Dynamic command can not be recorded in a program file... you can still use the toolbar. variables. choose the File Program Stop Recording command. 2. therefore FEMAP cannot convert your graphical selection of a toolbar action into an equivalent keystroke in the program file.2 File Rebuild. The quickest method simply checks whether all entities which are referenced by other entities exist.3 File Program Stop Recording.. is only available when you are recording a program file..1. verifies the integrity of your current model and can be used to reduce the size of a model where you have deleted entities. You will be asked to choose between two levels of rebuilding. The only input required for this command is the filename. 2.1. You will see a check mark beside this command in the menu whenever you are recording a file.6. You can now use File Program Run Script to run this script. This command provides a quick way to develop a basic program file.. see the File Program Menu section above. This level of rebuilding is called automatically every time you use one of the read translators to input a model. You can then select a File to Edit (or select New File) and use this editor to make the appropriate changes. or additional commands. You will receive messages informing you of any missing entities. .you are not restricted to just using the keyboard. the FEMAP BASIC Script Editor will appear. requires input of a FEMAP Script file.1.4 File Program Edit Script. You can then edit the file to add logic. . a new Window. For example. Use the other rotate.. . which will then be run by FEMAP. allows you to edit a FEMAP Script File. Toolbar buttons cannot be accessed from the keyboard.6..6. It stops recording and closes the program file. or just exit FEMAP.

but it is non-destructive so you can use it any time you have a question about the integrity of your model. . The space is still retained in the model file.ini file (used to set default parameters when entering FEMAP) and will be set to the options you chose when you start FEMAP. they will become a permanent part of your femap. Hint: Be careful when changing preferences labeled Startup Preferences. If you say No. the space that they occupied is marked as empty. as long as you plan to add to your model.. Rebuilding is not usually required..it will be reused. Instead of using Rebuild. the space will not be wasted . Whenever you delete entities from a FEMAP model. the changes will apply only to the current session. This command is partitioned into nine different dialog bases based upon the type of entity you want to modify..3 File Preferences.. set defaults. This level of rebuild will recover any data that is still present. If you do save them with Permanent. 2. ...  The more thorough level of rebuilding (“fully rebuild”) does everything that the quick method does and also reconstructs many internal database details. If you say Yes. or run out of disk space your model file may become corrupted. If you experience a power failure while a database is being written. Therefore. The new database will also be free of empty space. These preferences cannot be modified for the active session. When you create new entities.6. Each of these areas are discussed in more detail below. .File Preferences. FEMAP will ask you if you want to save these options as permanent. If you have a shortage of disk space. or if you have done a large amount of deleting. FEMAP will reuse this empty space before allocating any new space. and must be saved as Permanent to have any impact on the settings. the next time you enter FEMAP the options will be set as you selected them. you can also use the FEMAP Neutral File translator to export a neutral file and then and import it to a new FEMAP database. allows you to customize the operation of FEMAP. These options control how certain commands will operate. / ( 6 ) Note: If you make any modifications to these parameters. and define disks or files to be used. such as deleting sets of output data. you may want to choose the full rebuild option and allow it to compress your model. This will remove all of the empty space and reduce the size of your model file.

6. File Manipulation 2. you will see the Preferences dialog box. Even if you select this option. Increasing this number increases the length of time it takes for FEMAP to start. Since the scroll bar is not visible you can get more text and larger graphics windows in this configuration. and (2) Fonts and Colors. These options are partitioned into two major types: (1) Borders and Size. You must save this change with Permanent or it will have no affect. Create with Title Bar: This option allows you to create or remove the Title Bar for the Messages and Lists Window. FEMAP positions the message window completely inside the main window and the horizontal scroll bar is visible. FEMAP will simply output black status messages to the Window. but you must have disk space to store the data. You can always change the size from this default by stretching or maximizing the window. The change will only be implemented when you next re-enter FEMAP. Status Color: This option controls whether the Status Message Color is used. Window Lines: This sets the default height of the Messages and Listings Window in lines of text. You can choose any font or size that you like for text display. FEMAP positions the Messages and Listings Window so that the horizontal scroll bar is located below the main window. If you maximize the message window. When you turn the option off. no matter how you set this option. the Title Bar will not be displayed unless you double-click in the Messages and Lists Window. When you select the Messages and Lists Window option.1 Messages and Lists Preferences These options control text displayed in the Messages and Listings Window and the size of that window. the scroll bar is actually off the screen and invisible. This data is located on the Message File scratch disk. Max Text: With this option on. which is the same as Maximizing it. Font and Size: Chooses the font for display of text.3. In general you should always choose a fixed-pitch font. You can save up to 32767 lines. This option combines with the size of the font to determine the actual window size. Scroll Back Lines: This option controls the number of lines of text which are retained for scrolling back in the Messages and Lists Window. When FEMAP is maximized to full screen. If you turn this Off. If you choose a proportion- . the scroll bar is always visible.

use the Quick Options (View Options. When you start a new model. Render Each of these areas and the individual options are discussed below. Options These options control various operational features of FEMAP Views. you will see the Preferences dialog box for Views. or choose the Palette button to select the color from the standard color palette. Specifying a Default View The Default option lets you change the View that FEMAP uses when you start a new model. that View will be used as the default. The first view in the Library has an ID of 1. Startup View 2. . Remember to say Yes to the Permanent question to save the Preferences.View Preferences  ally spaced font. for best results. the background may be a different color “behind the text” than it is “to the right of the text”. When Default is set to 0 (zero). . / ( 6 ) Startup View The View Library contains Views that can be loaded into your model. If you want a different View. This file must exist if you are going to use the Load View or Save View buttons in View Quick Options.or you won’t be able to see the text. This dialog box is partitioned into five areas: 1. the second is 2. For these options. Furthermore.3. you should always pick a background color that results in filled areas and lines being the same color.6. If you do not. or when you create a new view. FEMAP uses its normal defaults. You can not select any cross-hatching or patterned lines. you must select solid colors. none of the FEMAP reports or listings will be properly aligned and they will be harder to read. Quick Options. or Ctrl+Q) dialog to store a View in the library.2 View Preferences When you select the Views option. You should also make sure that you do not choose a color for the background which matches any of the text colors . Clipboard Formats 3. Colors: These options let you choose the colors of text to be displayed. then set Default to the ID of that View as it is stored in the library. You can enter a numeric color value. and so on. 2. View and Dynamic Rotation 4.

even if the settings in the startup view call for it to be on. An aspect ratio of 2. If this option is on. FEMAP transfers the graphics displayed in the current graphics window to the Windows Clipboard in a variety of formats. Alternate Fill Mode: FEMAP fills polygons whenever you turn on element fill. FEMAP operates fully interactively in this mode.0 would cause a square to be displayed 2 times as high as it is wide. . which means you do not have to request a new display. the aspect ratio is normally set to 1. You can enable this format or disable the transfer of one or more of the other formats by changing these options. some graphics adapters and their drivers have trouble filling polygons with one method or the other. all geometry which is created or modified by a command will be drawn at the end of the command. and turn off the AutoAspect feature. Unfortunately. The Metafile format is entirely different. you will have to choose the View Redraw command to display the new or updated geometry. some of the more “advanced” Windows accelerator boards like the Number Nine. If that solves the problem. By default. It is a vector based format and can redraw the image at whatever scale and shape you specify. This is the format that is usually saved by Windows paint programs. The Bitmap (DIB) format contains additional information which makes it somewhat device independent. Both the Bitmap and Bitmap (DIB) formats transfer the pixels from the graphics window to the clipboard. do a hidden line plot. Clipboard Formats When you use the File Picture Copy command. Notably. It contains the Windows drawing commands that were used to create the image. a contour plot or a criteria plot. This format can give you the best images if the program to which you are transferring supports it. FEMAP will use the setting for the startup view to determine whether the workplane is visible in a new model. the Device Independent Bitmap format is not transferred. If this option is not checked. save this option as permanent when you exit Preferences so it will be used for all models. The geometry is not stretched either horizontally or vertically for display in that window. Aspect Ratio for New Views: When a new view is created.0. If you turn this option off. Windows provides two different techniques for drawing a filled polygon. FEMAP will automatically turn the workplane off. Turning off this option will also disable Group Automatic Add. Matrox and other S3-based boards will often forget to draw a polygon when using the standard filling method. You can use the View Options command to update the aspect ratio for any existing window. Changing this value only sets the default for new views. File Manipulation Autoplot Created/Modified Geometry: If this option is on. Workplane Never Visible in New View: This option allows you to turn the Workplane off when starting a new model. If you see missing spots/polygons when you draw a model (especially a contour plot) try switching the fill method. both of which should be equivalent for all cases in FEMAP.

View Preferences  View and Dynamic Rotation These options control the rotation of Views in your model when using the View Toolbar commands as well as when you access the View Rotate command. Turning this option off significantly reduces the amount of graphics information being processed and increases the speed of dynamic rotations on large models. This option defaults to on. You must save this preference and restart FEMAP for this option to take effect. This option defaults to off. Once the board has been installed and you do not wish to use Hardware Acceleration you can uncheck this option. Use Midside Nodes If this option is selected FEMAP will use the midside nodes when drawing rendered plots. Delta This is the default angle of rotation when you click in the scroll bars in the View Rotate command or when you use the Rotate buttons on the Toolbar. set this option to a different mode to remove the problem. This option defaults to on. Rotation Angles These options allow you to define three view orientations which can be accessed using the View Rotate command buttons. or from the View Align By Dynamic command. Dimetric and Trimetric. Place an ampersand (&) in front of the letter that you want to be able to access using the Alt+Letter keyboard combination. In addition to the rotation angles you can also set the button text. This option has no impact on Render mode dynamic rotation. This will be defaulted to on but will only work when a Hardware Acceleration board has been installed in your computer. . This increases the complexity of the graphics and decreases the speed of drawing the graphics window. refer to the View Align By Dynamic command. you can dynamically rotate a model during an active animation if you are in render mode. . For more information on setting this option. Rotate with Edges If this option is selected FEMAP will include the element edges during any dynamic rotations in the render mode. / ( 6 ) Render These options control how Render will be implemented and the level of functionality while in the Render mode. Rotate Animation When this option is checked. If you experience flashing when you perform a dynamic rotation. Hardware Accel (startup only) This option controls whether you use Hardware Acceleration while in the Render mode or if the rendering is to be done by software in Windows. Dynamic Chooses the method that will be used for displaying your model during the Dynamic Rotate/ Pan/Zoom command from the Toolbar. The default views are Isometric. It must be specified in degrees.

results in substantial increases in drawing performance. Menus 2. Graphical Selection 3. With these menus displayed. you will see the Preferences dialog box for Menus and Toolbars. This is especially useful when selecting commands from Toolbars. This dialog box is partitioned into three major categories: 1. Menus Autorepeat Create Commands: If this option is on. If you do not want menus to popup all of the time. turn this option off. Unfortunately. while the Show options are Startup Preferences which must be saved as Permanent to have an effect. but either crash or simply won’t draw properly when they are used.6. we have found a number of graphics cards drivers that claim to support vertex arrays. and on most graphics boards that support them. FEMAP will display a one line description of each menu entry as you select it. If you are having problems. restart and retry the operation.3 Menus and Toolbars When you choose this option. you should leave this option turned on. or they replace the title in the Title Bar at the top of the FEMAP Main Window if the Status Bar is deactivated. exit FEMAP. This allows you to continue creating entities without repeatedly choosing the same command. FEMAP will automatically redisplay the menu that contains the last command you selected. turn off this option. 2. Turning Autopopup on is the same as choosing Previous Menu after every command. all entity create commands will automatically repeat until you choose Cancel. you can pick other related commands without choosing the top level menus. Autopopup Previous Menu: If you choose this option. . File Manipulation Vertex Arrays Using vertex arrays allows FEMAP to reduce the amount of memory used to display OpenGL graphics. The descriptions are displayed in the Status Bar at the bottom of the FEMAP Main window. You can then use the “Previous Menu” and “Previous Command” commands whenever you need these functions.3. In general. Show (Startup Only) Any options in the first two sections can be changed for a given session. Menu Help: If this option is on. unless you are having trouble with FEMAP graphics in Render mode.

2.e. If this option is On.4 Shortcut Keys This option allows you to define letter keys in FEMAP as FEMAP commands. In general. Pick All Inside: This option controls selection of entities when screen area (using Box or Circle) picking is used to select entities whose position is defined by other multiple entities (i. only one Node must be in the selected region when this option is Off). FEMAP will display the dialog box above. a new description will be displayed for each menu entry that you select.e. for an Element. As long as you hold the button down. all entities which comprise the selected entity must be inside the selected area (i. This makes accurate selection much easier in complex models.e. you can learn about the FEMAP commands simply by pointing to a menu. Curves by their Points). When you select this option. You will also see the descriptions when you select menus with the keyboard. Elements by their Nodes. You may want to modify the location of the View (defaults to Top of Window) and Command (defaults to Right) Toolbars. You can therefore quickly customize FEMAP to use letter keystrokes as your most often used FEMAP commands. FEMAP dynamically highlights the entity that will be selected if you click the mouse button. or cancel the menus. all of its Nodes must be in the selected area for it to be picked). elements or other geometry. thereby enabling you to define up to 52 different commands on these . you will want to show all three of these options. You cannot modify the location of the Status Bar.Shortcut Keys  With this option enabled. pressing down the left mouse button and then drag the cursor through the menus. and the location of the Toolbars. . Different commands can be chosen for both capital and small letters. for an Element. This option allows you to define the alphabetic keys on your keyboard as FEMAP commands. only one entity must be selected (i. When you move the cursor through the graphics window to select nodes. Graphical Selection Track Mouse Picking: This option activates dynamic selection tracking. The window title will revert to the original text whenever you choose a command. If it is Off.3.6. / ( 6 ) Show (startup only) These commands control whether the Status Bar and command Toolbars are visible.

are only used at startup. Shortcut Keys are only available from the FEMAP menu level. This dialog box is partitioned into four areas 1. Database Options These options control how FEMAP interacts with the FEMAP model file (binary database). Timed Save 3. 2. You must therefore answer yes to the Permanent question when exiting Preferences to save any changes you make. File Manipulation keys. . pressing these keys will not have the desired effect.3. m You can quickly delete shortcut key assignments by double clicking in the Shortcut Key list. Scratch Disks 4. Database Options 2. The Add command allows you to define a key as a command. m If you have created your own Menu commands. All of these options.5 Database These options control certain database options. By defining shortcut keys for your most used commands. including memory management and location of scratch files. If you are already in another command or dialog box. Startup Program File Each area is discussed more fully below. you will see the Database and Startup Preferences dialog box. with the exception of those labeled immediate. you can save time moving through the FEMAP menu structure. In most cases it will simply result in typing the letter that you pressed. they can also be accessed in the same manner as any other Menu commands.6. m These Shortcut Keys are not eliminated by the Reset ALL option. When you select this option. or you may simply change them for the active session. Some hints are provided below for quickly changing the shortcut keys. m You can quickly assign commands to keys by clicking on the appropriate letter in the Shortcut Key list and then double-clicking in the Menu list. You may also save these values by saying Yes to Permanent when you exit Preferences. while Delete will remove the command definition from the chosen key.

The Cache Pages numbers indicates how many of these pages FEMAP will retain in memory simultaneously. . It is best to always leave this option on. All files are placed on the Undo Files scratch disk. In this state. Undo Levels: Controls how many commands (0-99) that you will be able to undo. The backup option is ignored whenever Use Model Scratch File is off. Cache Pages and Blocks/Page: These options control how FEMAP accesses your database file and handles internal caching of database information. With this option on.BAK (where modelname. Only one backup copy is saved. this minimizes the number of disk accesses. Since most commands access groups of entities. Please see the Getting Started Section (Memory Allocation) section in the FEMAP Users Guide for more information. The optimum setting of this number depends on the speed of your disk and controller. If this option is off. not just when you choose Save. rather than simply reading one block it reads a “page” consisting of a number of contiguous blocks. if you make a mistake. By default this option is disabled. It provides additional safeguards for your model.MOD is the name of your model). Delete Model Scratch File: When this option is on. A database block is 4096 bytes. If your model is even larger than that. You do not have to save them permanently. and no backup copies are saved. Setting this to a larger number gives you greater flexibility in being able to backup your commands. you can always restart your model and get back to the point of your last save. This option has no effect if the Use Model Scratch File option is not enabled. FEMAP is directly modifying your model and you may not be able to easily recover. When FEMAP starts with a new model. changes to the backup option are effective immediately. Unlike the other options in this dialog box. or exit FEMAP.Database  Backup before Save: When this option is on. The Max Cached Label sets the largest label that FEMAP will reserve memory for. Use Model Scratch File: If this option is on. it allocates the number of pages specified in Cache Pages. and speeds-up FEMAP. and your model has been saved previously. / ( 6 ) . FEMAP does not attempt to make a backup when you save. but can take a significant amount of disk space. so the . FEMAP will keep a backup copy of your model in the file modelname. The Blocks/Page number sets this “page” size. FEMAP works in a temporary copy of your model file and only copies your changes to your real model when you save your model. you directly update the model file during every command. FEMAP will automatically delete your scratch file whenever you begin a new model. Therefore.BAK file will be updated and overwritten every time you save. This option must be set to a ID higher than any entity in the model. When FEMAP needs to read from disk. any additional data will be written to disk (in the model scratch file).

. these can (and often times should) be complete pathnames.1 these must be a single character that selects the disk where the scratch files will be placed.. but all other files are deleted. or anything else that you can do in a program file (see Customization chapter of the FEMAP Users Guide). change the screen setup. Scratch Disks These options determine where temporary files will be placed. The Model Scratch file is only used if it is turned on. Mesh in Memory: This preference determines whether additional memory will be allocated by the FEMAP Boundary mesher. They can be large.. The only reason to turn this option off is if the available memory on the current machine is low enough that allocation of new memory is extremely limited. Timed Save File Manipulation On and Notify: The selected option specifies if FEMAP should Notify you when it hits a preset limit or if it should just automatically save the model. 95 and UNIX. If this option is selected. the FEMAP mesher can run significantly faster than if it is limited to the database memory. Startup Program File. FEMAP will allocate new memory to create the mesh. If you check the “Run Program for New Models only” button.. FEMAP will utilize the memory allocated in the database to perform the mesh. The size of the Undo files depends upon how many levels of undo you choose and the FEMAP commands that you execute. Interval and Commands: The Interval sets the time in minutes between automatic save’s while the number of Commands set the number of commands performed before FEMAP notifies you performs a automatic save.. when you exit FEMAP. Therefore. The model scratch file is not deleted (unless you request deletion using the “Delete Model Scratch File” option). If it is not selected. FEMAP will not run the program when you open an existing model (either at startup or with the File Open command). allows you to automate tasks that you want to occur every time you start FEMAP and every time you start a different model. In Windows 3. this option should almost always be turned on. For Windows NT. By allocating new memory. You can use this technique to load data into your models. . If you specify a program filename. The scratch file is a duplicate of your model file and therefore is the same size. FEMAP will run that program at startup and every time you start a new or existing model. The Message File contains the text which is displayed in the Messages and Listings Window.

This option controls the default geometry engine upon entering FEMAP.0254 in the database. . To obtain an even distribution of force across a parabolic element. If you have further questions on the distribution required for your solver program. You will typically want to use the default values above. When importing geometry.3. Each of these sections are described below. The factors for edges. FEMAP will automatically switch to the appropriate geometry engine. Geometry Engine FEMAP has the capability to perform solid modeling with either ACIS or Parasolids Solid Modeler. and Quad-Face can be set. This is a Startup Preference.0 on the desktop will be stored as 0. as well as use the Midside Node Adjustment. . / ( 6 ) Solid Geometry Scale Factor (startup only) The scale factor is used and applied to solid geometry only. or plan on exporting a solid model to another ACIS or Parasolids-based program.Geometry  2. The scaling will allow you to import and model parts that are outside of the Parasolid modeling limits. either engine can be used to develop a solid model for use in FEA. If you do not plan to export a solid model. Portion of Load on Midside Nodes This section sets the defaults for modification of the distribution of Nodal Loads (such as Force and Moment) on Parabolic elements. and represent the amount of the total load on the element which will be applied to the Midside Node.37 which will allow you to import a part using the default import scaling options of also 39. The default is 39. Tri-Face. You can specify the default geometry engine for solid modeling. therefore you must save the preference and exit FEMAP for it to take effect . The scaling is done internally in FEMAP so that a part of 1.6 Geometry The Geometry button allows access to the Geometry Preferences dialog box. most programs require a larger portion of the force be assigned to the midside nodes.37 and continue to work in inches without manually having to scale the part.6. please consult the reference documentation for your analysis program. as well as the Midside Node Load Adjustment. Choice of this option is only important if you have only purchased one of the geometric engines.

If this option is grayed. Configure for Thermal Analysis Only: This option will configure FEMAP in a thermal mode only.7 Interfaces This section controls defaults for interfaces to other programs. Many structural options will be hidden. the thermal mode is not available on your system. the Preferences dialog box will appear. Header information indicating the version of FEMAP used and the date the file was written will also not be written.3. and you will no longer have access to them. Skip Comments when Exporting: When this option is on FEMAP will not write any comments into the input file. You should set t his option to the translator that you use most often. Compute Principal Stress/Strain: When this option is on and you read analysis results. FEMAP will automatically compute Principal. This dialog box controls the defaults for the Analysis Interface and Analysis Type. FEMAP does not compute new values if results exist already. This is off by default since the direction cosine information can be quite large and most users do not use this information . Comments include FEMAP names and id’s for corresponding groups and sets. This mode is only recommended when performing modeling specific to thermal analysis and exporting to a thermal specific program (such as SINDA). Von Mises. and if all required XYZ components of Stress/Strain have been read. Set this to the type of analysis you perform most often. You may also want to turn this option off if your analysis program already computes these values. and the solid geometry scale factor. Max Shear and Mean Stresses and Strains if they have not been read. Turning this option off can result in substantial speed improvements during the final phases of reading results. Analysis Type: This option chooses the default type of analysis that will be performed. Previous versions of FEMAP would ask you if you wanted to read this data during the results import process. calculations for importing of results. When you select this option. You can turn this option off if you do not want to postprocess these output quantities. File Manipulation 2. especially in extremely large models.6. changing many dialog boxes. but the checking procedure for these vectors will take some time. Read DirCos for Solid Stress/Strain: This option can be set on when you wish to retrieve the direction cosines for Solid Stress/ Strain postprocessing information from your analysis program. Interface: This option simply chooses the default analysis program that FEMAP will display in the File Import/Export Analysis Model and File Import Analysis Results command.

3. This file must exist if you are going to use the FEMAP toolbox. but modifications are only suggested when accessing FEMAP information from a FEMAP neutral file since dedicated translators such as ABAQUS or LS-DYNA3D will not recognize these user materials.8 Colors. You can control the default colors for all entities. property. You must save these changes permanently if you want them to have any effect. This file must exist if you are going to choose the user-defined palette in the View Options command. allows you to access the Model Color Preferences dialog box.  Libraries This section allows you to define the default libraries as well as the default view.. .. The colors you choose will be used whenever you start a new model. however Save will create a new file if one does not currently exist. . The Material Type Definition file contains the dialog box titles as well as the record formats for Other Types of materials. The material. You can also choose the palette to use for these colors. function and report format libraries are files which contain data that can be accessed via the Save and Load buttons on the respective creation (or list) commands. FEMAP first searches your current directory and then along your path until it finds the file. Materials contained in the mat_scr... You must specify the name of an existing file if you plan to use the Load option. you do not have to specify a complete path as long as the file is in a directory which is along your DOS PATH.Colors. / ( 6 ) 2. . The toolbox library is the file that contains the commands and pictures for the toolbox. The contour library contains the user-defined contour palette colors.6.esp file installed with FEMAP are supported by the specific dedicated translators. Reset The Reset button on this dialog box changes all colors back to the FEMAP defaults. This file can be modified to include additional material types... For any of the libraries.

8 File Exit.6.3.4 The four most recently edited model files are listed on the File Menu to enable you to more rapidly select them.2. If you choose one of these files. the standard file access dialog box will be displayed so you can specify a filename for the model. but only after asking you if you would like to save the current model file.. 2. or by using the Close command on that menu. you will always be asked whether you want to save the model even though it might be empty. 2.. The only preferences which will not be changed are any Shortcut Keys you have defined.3. If your model is Untitled. . FEMAP will automatically open this model file.. You can also exit FEMAP by double-clicking the Main Window system menu. File Manipulation 2. Alt+F4 . You will be given a chance to save your current model if you have made any changes since your last save. You will be asked to confirm this command before FEMAP resets all options.1.. allows you to leave FEMAP.7 File Recent Models .9 Reset All This option permanently resets all changes that you have made back to the FEMAP default configuration. If you have just started a new Untitled model.

The commands for initial geometry creation are all contained under the Geometry menu. or copying commands. the geometry section of this manual is separated into six main sections. Curves 3. . Volumes/Solids 5. explains commands pertaining to manipulation of geometry. they are used for defining geometry. the first four sections deal with creating geometry from scratch. Instead. (2) Copying Geometry. Surfaces/Boundaries 4. Just as Elements reference Nodes. it is necessary to have robust tools for creating geometry. Deleting Geometry As mentioned above. Unlike Nodes however. they are not a finite element entity and are not translated to analysis programs. Creating new geometry from existing geometry. FEMAP has the capability to build geometry from simple points to complex 3-D solids. Each of these sections and their associated menu commands are explained in more detail below. 3. The final section. Curves reference Points.1 Points Points are used for constructing other geometry or finite element data. Points 2. Therefore. Copying Geometry 6. Modifying Geometry. the first category is separated into four sections. You may also apply loads and constraints to points and FEMAP will automatically apply them to Nodes attached to the Points. Points are similar to Nodes in that they are simply located at a specific location. and are found on the Modify menu. This section describes the commands available for these three categories of geometry commands. which are listed below. Commands that affect geometry can be separated into three major categories: (1) Creating Geometry. based upon the type of geometry you need to create. For ease of reference. Therefore. are also contained on the geometry menu. Modifying Geometry 7.3Geometry Geometry provides the framework for most finite element meshes. 1. and (3) Modifying Existing Geometry.

. simply uses the standard coordinate definition dialog boxes (described in the FEMAP Users Guide) to create points. the line that is created always lies in the workplane.1. This command creates a rectangle in the Workplane. . and they can also be generated from surfaces. Line 2. Before creating the line however. The second section consists of the command Rectangle.1 Geometry Curve-Line Project Points.. creates a line between two locations. From Surface 3.2 Curves Curves form the basis from which you can create surfaces. . . The coordinates are projected along a Workplane Projected Coordinates Original Coordinates .. and FEMAP will automatically convert them to Nodal/Elemental values on the attached FEA entities. based upon the type of curve or creation method. They are: 1. 3. Therefore. The bottom portion of the menu contains commands that are used to create lines in 3-D space. this command projects the coordinates that you specify onto the workplane. . Arc 3. Spline 5. Circle 4. They reference Points to define their location..1 Geometry Point. You can apply loads and constraints directly to curves. The Geometry Curve-Line menu is partitioned into 3-sections.1 Lines Lines are simply straight lines connecting two points.2. The top portion creates lines in the Workplane. It is separated from the commands above because it creates four-lines at once. These commands do not project the inputs onto the Workplane... 3. Geometry 3. Choosing the Parameters command button will display the Geometry Parameters dialog box where you can set the active Layer or Point Color. will be automatically projected onto the Workplane. which you specify. The Geometry Curve Menu section is separated into five major sections.2.1. Any locations which are specified in 3-D space. using the standard coordinate definition dialog boxes.

.2.. The line is oriented along the X axis of the workplane. ( 2 0 ( 7 5 < * Hint: Since control of the line length is somewhat difficult using this method. In the default XY view. centered around one location. creates a line.. 3. You can adjust this length by pressing the Parameter button on the standard coordinate dialog. along a vector which is perpendicular to the workplane. .e. . join or break commands.2. and entering a new value prior to defining the center location. with the original workplane orientation. The length of the horizontal line in either direction from the center is controlled by the Horizontal/Vertical Line length parameter.. except the line will lie along the workplane Y axis.2 Geometry Curve-Line Horizontal..Geometry Curve-Line Horizontal..3 Geometry Curve-Line Vertical. .1. this method is often used for creating initial construction geometry which you then plan to modify with trim. New lines will be created in the workplane.. before you reorient the workplane. the workplane X axis is horizontal on the screen. The name of this command comes from the fact that in the default XY view. If you want to create a line between coordinates in 3D space (i. Workplane Projected Coordinates Yw Xw Original Coordinates This command uses the standard coordinate definition dialog boxes to specify the coordinates of the required location. . works just like Model Line Horizontal. Hint: You can use this command to create a 2D projected image of 3D geometry.1. but positioning the line is very quick. 3.. use the Create Line Coordinates command. The projected location is used as the center of the line. not in the workplane). this will be vertical on your screen. Just setup the workplane so the workplane normal is along the direction that you want to project. The location is automatically projected onto the workplane.  vector which is perpendicular to the workplane.. and pick the endpoints of the existing lines (using Snap To Point).

the selected curve will first be projected into the workplane.2. the origin of the new line.2. you will see the standard coordinate definition dialog box. it will go through the projection of the original arc/circle center point. perpendicular to the original line. Geometry 3. The line to be created will start at the base location (projected onto the workplane). When you press OK. Rather. creates a line in the workplane that is perpendicular to another curve. The projection method will work fine for lines. The line that you chosen on this choose does not have to side lie in the workplane.. The Offset Distance Workplane measured in the required input for this workplane command is the original line and an offset disCoordinates Original Curve tance. . but if you choose an arc or circle that is not oriented parallel to the workplane.1.... asking for a location on the side of the original line where you want the offset curve to lie. The Offset distance is measured in the workplane. Note: If you choose a curve that does not lie in the current workplane. creates a line in the workplane which is parallel to another line.. If it does not.. typically the best way is simply to point at the . and will move in the direction of the location specified as the last input to this command. Three inputs are required for this method. You can change the length by pressing the Parameter button to change the length in the Geometry Parameters dialog box. then the perpendicular to the projection will be determined.5 Geometry Curve-Line Parallel.1. onto the workplane. it will be projected onto the workplane (along the workplane normal) and the new line will be parallel to the projection. will be oriented perpendicular to the selected curve.. . the resulting line will not be perpendicular to the projection. 3.4 Geometry Curve-Line Perpendicular. and a location to specify direction. Workplane Projected Base Coordinates Original Curve Original Coordinates The total length of the line to be created is based on the Horizontal/Vertical Line Length parameter. The origin projected along the workplane normal vector. the original curve. Although you can specify the coordinates in any manner..

you must specify the base coordinates of the line using the standard coordinate entry dialog boxes. creates a line in the workplane at a specified angle from the workplane X axis.1. Workplane Positive Angle ( 2 0 ( 7 5 < * Yw θ Projected Coordinates Original Coordinates Xw The total length of the line to be created is based on the Horizontal/Vertical Line Length parameter.2. Original Curve The length of the midline is determined by the relative positions of the lines you choose.Geometry Curve-Line Midline. they will be automatically projected along the workplane normal.You can change the length by pressing the Parameter button to change the length in the Geometry Parameters dialog box.1. If they do not lie in the workOriginal Curve plane. Initially. ...6 Geometry Curve-Line Midline.  appropriate side of the line. and click with the mouse... just their relationship to the original curve. .. Negative angles are measured toward the negative Workplane Y axis. To create a midline.. The resulting line will lie halfway between the respective endpoints of the two lines that you choose.. Positive angles are measured from the positive Workplane X axis toward the positive Workplane Y axis...7 Geometry Curve-Line At Angle. Finally you specify the angle from the Workplane X axis to the line. . along a vector which is normal to the workplane. The new line will be offset toward the side of the line that you specify. The length of the new line is identical to the length of the original line that you choose. The actual coordinates do not matter.2. The coordinates that you specify are projected onto the workplane. 3.. 3. creates a line in the workplane which is the centerline Workplane between two existing lines. simply choose two other lines.

you select a curve.. If the curve that you select is not a line however... you choose both the curve to measure from. and the angle from that curve. After selecting the curve.. Next. The location that you specify is again projected onto the workplane along the workplane normal vector. Use Point of Tangency on this side of Curve Selected Curve Projected End Point Coordinates All in Workplane .9 Geometry Curve-Line Point and Tangent. . except that instead of specifying the angle from the Workplane X axis. creates a line in the workplane through a point and tangent to a selected arc or circle.8 Geometry Curve-Line Angle to Curve. Workplane Positive Angle θ Projected Coordinates Original Curve Original Coordinates θ Projected Coordinates Tangent to Curve Original Curve 3. the base location will be projected (in the workplane) onto the curve and the base direction (zero angle) will be along the positive tangent to the curve. This defines the end of the line opposite the end that will be tangent to the curve. and specify the angle measured from the curve direction..1. Geometry 3. The first input for this command is the curve. You can choose any location for this command.. You . the first data required is the base location. specified with the standard coordinate entry dialog boxes.. Just like the At Angle command.2. It is not necessary for the base location to lie along the curve that you measure.1.2.. Here you must specify the location of the endpoint of the line. you will see the standard coordinate dialog box. is similar to the Geometry Curve-Line At Angle command.

this will not cause any problems.  can specify any location. Note: If you choose an arc or circle that does not lie in the workplane. The only restriction on the end point location is that it must lie outside of the arc/circle that you chose.. those coordinates will be projected along the workplane normal.10 Geometry Curve-Line Tangent. This time you must specify a location on the side closest to the tangent that you want to use. If the curve was parallel to the workplane. 3. to a location which is on the workplane..1. creates a line in the workplane which is tangent to two arcs or circles. Use this option carefully. Pick near here to create crossing tangent All in Workplane . You must simply choose a location which is closer to one tangent point than the other. you can still form a tangent to a portion of the arc that lies outside of the arc endpoints.Geometry Curve-Line Tangent. the resulting tangent will be calculated based on a circle with a projected radius. but neither curve can lie completely inside the other. you must still choose the “near” location for an arc. you must choose the two curves that you want to use: You can choose any arcs or circles. There is no need for precise coordinates in this dialog. No tangent can be formed which passes through an interior point to the curve. If it did. FEMAP will project the keypoints of that curve onto the workplane. the standard coordinate dialog is displayed again.. if the curve normal is not parallel to the workplane normal. a location on the appropriate side of the circle. That is. FEMAP ignores the endpoints. FEMAP will ask for a location using the standard coordinate ( 2 0 ( 7 5 < * Pick near here to create tangent as shown Selected “To Curve” Selected “From Curve“ or. . but if you specify a location that is not on the workplane. First.. Since there are two tangents that can be formed through any exterior point.2. even though there may only be one tangent possible that falls within the endpoints.. For this command FEMAP considers arcs to be the same as circles. no tangents could be computed. Typically.. just as if the arc were a full circle. Finally. and use the arc/circle defined by those projected locations to calculate the tangent. For this reason. When you have selected the curves. this allows you to choose the one that you want. however.

.. Coordinates The only input required are the coordinates of two diagonally opposite corners of the rectOriginal Corner Locations angle.. along the workplane normal. The sides of the rectangle are always oriented along the workplane X and Y axes. it will appear in your graphics windows.2. FEMAP takes the locations that you specify and projects them. Geometry dialog boxes. Then. creates a series of connected line segments between locations specified in three-dimensional space. another line will be created after each additional location that you specify. coordinates that you pick graphically will still always be located in the workplane. These lines will connect the previous location to the one that you just specified. The first line will be created after you specify the second endpoint. The location is not used to compute the tangent. The specified locations are not projected onto the workplane. but is used to select which tangency points will be used.one above. by changing the orientation of the workplane.12 Geometry Curve-Line Continuous. to equivalent locations which lie on the workplane. as shown above. . It is just used to select from the four choices.1. one below and two “crossing” tangents. however..1. . 3. Typically. you can use this command to create rectangles in various orientations. when you select two circles. You will specify these locations using the stan- Workplane Projected Coordinates Yw Xw dard coordinate definition dialog boxes.2.. Therefore. . The standard coordinate definition dialog boxes are used to specify the line segment endpoints. This is usually the best command to use whenever you must create a bound- ary. .. automatically creates four lines in the workplane that Projected form a rectangle. there could be four possible tangents . The rectangle is formed from these projected locations. Endpoint Locations Optionally create line to close . since it requires very little input. This location does not have to be specified precisely. 3. As each line is created.11 Geometry Curve-Line Rectangle. You must choose a location near the endpoint on the first curve (the From Curve) of the tangent that you want to create.

You may only choose lines for this command. but the lines are not connected at their endpoints. Unlike the other line creation commands. creates a line offset. except that it requires two endpoints for each line that is created. This command is very similar to the Geometry Curve-Line Continuous command. You first select the line from which you want to offset. this command can only be used when you already have Point entities that you want to connect.15 Geometry Curve-Line Offset. use the Geometry Curve-Line Coordinates command instead of this command..Geometry Curve-Line Points..2. If you press Cancel after having created two or more lines. . you will be asked whether you want to close the lines.. 3. a final line will be created joining the last location that you specified to the first location . .1. or choose them with your mouse. Hint: If the lines that you need to create are not coincident at their endpoints. . but the points must already exist. press Cancel. you can enter the Point IDs. to stop creating lines.  You can continue to specify coordinates and create lines for as long as you like. creates a single line in three dimensional space between two coordinate locations that you specify using the standard coordinate definition dialog box. 3.... There is no limit on the number of lines you can create in a single command.1.14 Geometry Curve-Line Coordinates. You should use this command when you have a series of lines to create. ... F9 ( 2 0 ( 7 5 < * . Point Point 3.13 Geometry Curve-Line Points. Offset along this vector Original Curve .. To request the points that you want to connect. If you choose Yes.thus creating a closed polygon.1....2. When you are done. it does not lie in the workplane.2. The primary use for this command is to connect endpoints of other curves. Since the new line simply connects these existing points. in three dimensional space from another line. creates a single line between two existing points. unless both points you select happen to be located in the workplane.

bisect. This command gives you access to the many special vector definition methods (along axis.) when creating lines. Even if you just use the basic vector definition methods. The commands at the top of the menu (above the separator line) all create arcs which lie in the current workplane.1. You do not have to specify the base of the vector at either endpoint. The other commands can create arcs anywhere. 3. you will see the standard vector definition dialog box. All of the methods can be used to create equivalent arcs. including in the workplane. .2. creates an arc in the workplane by specifying the location of the center and two endpoints of the arc. The vector components are simply used to offset the endpoints of the original line. you have the benefit of seeing the line/vector dynamically drawn with the cursor before you choose the endpoints.2 Arcs You may also define circular arcs with FEMAP by using the commands under the Geometry Curve-Arc menu.. 3. This submenu is broken into two sections.. The endpoint does not have to lie on the perimeter. components. The standard coordinate definition dialog boxes are used to define all three locations.16 Geometry Curve-Line Vectored... and are then used to define the arc... End point Yw Center of Arc radius Start point Xw All in Workplane The locations that you specify are first projected onto the workplane along the workplane normal. . creates a three dimensional line using the standard vector definition dialog boxes. .. 3.1 Geometry Curve-Arc Center-Start-End. .2. use the Geometry Copy Curve command instead. including curves that are not lines. nor at any other specific location. As shown above. like “locate”. The length of the vector that you specify will be the offset distance. but the arc will terminate along the line that goes from the center to the endpoint. Hint: If you need to offset multiple curves along the same vector. The line that is created will go from the base to the tip of the vector that you specify. when you choose the base and tip of the line graphically.2. The vector that you specify will be used to compute the offset location of the new line. normal. . Geometry When you have selected the existing curve.2. The various commands are merely for convenience in specifying the input.. the center location and start point are used to define the radius of the arc. .

2. . creates an arc in the workplane by specifying two endpoints and the desired radius.2...  The arc will always be created in a counter-clockEnd point wise direction in the workplane..2 Geometry Curve-Arc Radius-Start-End. but they will be projected onto the workplane.. As shown in the fig. along the workplane normal. To use this command you must first specify the starting and ending locations of the arc using the standard coordinate entry dialog boxes. you will be asked for the radius. A negative radius will choose the complimentary or major arc (always greater than 180 degrees). . creates an arc in the workplane by specifying two endpoints and the included angle of the arc that connects them. All in Workplane Start point End point Positive Radius Yw End point Negative Radius Start point ( 2 0 ( 7 5 < * Xw Positive Radius Start point Negative Radius End point End point Start point 3. just swapping the start and endpoints produces the same results. You can specify any three-dimensional locations.. in the direction from the workplane X axis Center of Arc All in Workplane toward the workplane Y axis. the resulting arc will always have an included angle less than 180 degrees. Reversing the direction of the workplane normal has the same effect as swapping the endpoints..Geometry Curve-Arc Radius-Start-End.2.... This command works just like the Geometry Curve-Arc RadiusStart-End command except that you specify the included angle instead of the radius. 3. as shown in the figure.Yw ure below. The following figure shows several possibilities:. the arc Start point will go from the start Xw point. After specifying the endpoints.3 Geometry Curve-Arc Angle-Start-End.. Similarly. if you reverse the workplane normal. That is.2. the same start and endpoints create complimentary arcs. . If you specify a positive radius. This command creates arcs that go in a counter-clockwise direction (relative to the workplane axes) from starting to ending points.

This command is very similar to the Geometry Curve-Arc Angle-Start-End command described previously. the starting location and the included angle. creates an arc in the workplane by defining the location of the center. If you Start point End point Positive Angle specify a positive angle. . If the locations that you specify do not lie in the workplane. The end point is determined by rotating the start point through the specified angle.2. ... Both of these locations will be projected onto the workplane.2... they will be projected along the workplane normal to new locations that are in the workplane.4 Geometry Curve-Arc Angle-Center-Start. the arc will Xw Negative Angle go in a counterEnd point Start point clockwise direcNegative Angle tion (relative to the workplane X and Y axes) from End point Start point the start to the end point. The relative positions of these projected locations determines the arc radius. a starting location and the length of the arc chord.. . 3. if required. . Refer to the figure for Geometry Curve-Arc Angle-Start-End for an example of this convention. creates an arc in the workplane by defining the location of the center. .. Instead of specifying an ending location however. The standard coordinate definition dialog boxes are used to define both the center and starting locations. The arc radius is automatically determined from the distance between the center and starting locations. If you specify a positive angle.2.5 Geometry Curve-Arc Chord-Center-Start. you specify the center. This agrees with the normal conventions for two-dimensional polar coordinates. All in Workplane 3.2. A negative angle goes in a clockwise direction. the arc will be drawn in a counter-clockwise direction relative to the workplane axes. A negative angle will create a clockwise arc. Geometry The shape and orientation of the arc Start point End point to be created follows the convention shown for the Radius-Start-End Yw Positive Angle method.

the second for any point along the arc and the third for the ending location. the chord length must always be shorter than twice the radius (the distance from the center to starting point).Geometry Curve-Arc Points. The direction is simply based on the relative positions of the three locations. to the ending locations. This arc does not have to be in the workplane. Since the arc is drawn from the start. It is oriented by the locations that you define. . to the middle. . The ending location is .2. creates an arc which is defined by its center.. start and ending locations.2. 3.7 Geometry Curve-Arc Center and Points.. creates an arc which passes through three locations on the perimeter. The arc radius is defined by the distance from the center to the start location. ( 2 0 ( 7 5 < * 3.. If you specify Yw Start point Chord Length a positive chord Positive Chord Negative Chord length. there are no clockwise/counter-clockwise conventions. The arc created by this command does not have to lie in the workplane. Other Location End Ctrl+F9 The standard coordinate dialog boxes Start will be displayed three times during this command. The first three coordinates are used to Other Location define the center. the arc will Xw always have an included angle less than 180 degrees.2. By definition. ..2..6 Geometry Curve-Arc Points. Specifying a negative angle creates a complimentary arc with an included angle that is larger than 180 degrees.. The first coordinate is used for the start of the arc. .. The standard coordinate dialog boxes Center Other Location will be displayed Start four times during End Center this command.  All arcs created by All in Workplane this command are Center Center drawn in a counterclockwise direction Start point (relative to the workplane XY Chord Length axes).. Start End starting and ending locations. It will be drawn through any three locations that you define.

the arc will not necessarily end at the location you specify. They will result in arcs with very large radii. The tangent vector can be defined relative to any convenient location. The commands at the top of the menu (above the separator line) all create circles which lie in the current workplane. 3. Geometry used to determine the included angle. This arc does not have to lie in the workplane. creates an arc that is defined by two endpoints and the tangent vector at the starting location..2. The only time it will end exactly at that location is if the distance from the center to the end is identical to the distance from the center to the start. If it were. the standard coordinate dialog box will be displayed a fourth time. . Since the arc radius is constant however. the arc will be drawn in the direction from the start to the end that causes it to pass nearest to this fourth position. it could not be an arc tangent. Note: The only restriction on the vector direction is that it must not be parallel to the line connecting the starting and ending locations. . It is oriented by the locations of the endpoints and the direction of the tangent. . Only the direction of the vector is used to define the initial tangent direction of the resulting arc. The Geometry Curve-Circle submenu is partitioned into two sections. The two endpoints are defined first. After you specify the first three locations. There is no restriction on the Tangent Tangent Vector positions of these can be located Start End coordinates. It does not have to be based at the starting location of the arc. it is relatively unusual to choose vectors that are very close to being parallel. The end of the arc will always lie along the line connecting the center and the ending location that you specify. using the standard Start End coordinate dialog boxes.2. . the standard vector definition dialog boxes are used to define the starting tangent.8 Geometry Curve-Arc Start-End-Direction. The other commands can create circles anywhere. The fourth location can be specified anywhere. Since there is no clockwise/counterclockwise convention for this three dimensional arc..2. including in the workplane. 3. but anywhere they must not be coincident.3 Circles There are several methods of creating circles in FEMAP. but it is used to determine which of the two possible arcs will be created. Finally. Similarly.

Start Yw radius Center Xw Other points The standard coordinate definition dialog boxes will be displayed twice. .) points.1 Geometry Curve-Circle Radius. . .2. This command is similar to Geometry Curve-Circle Xw Radius. rotating. you End of diameter specify a point on the opposite side of the perimeter.. and three more every 90 degrees around the perimeter from the starting location.3. . In general you should always use the curve modification commands. then for the starting point.2 Geometry Curve-Circle Diameter. First for the center. and the other points will no longer lie on the perimeter. 3. they will be projected onto the workplane prior to defining the circle.  All of the methods can be used to create equivalent circles. you must be careful.one at the center.3. Points on a Circle No matter which command is used.. this command projects the locations that you specify onto the workplane before creating the circle... For example. If you are modifying (moving. ( 2 0 ( 7 5 < * 3. five points will be created for each circle . The other points are merely for your convenience in defining other geometry. This circle will always lie in the workplane. That is. rather than the point modifications if you wish to preserve the original geometry. a location at the center and one on the perimeter. the various commands are merely for convenience in specifying the input.Geometry Curve-Circle Radius. . the circle radius may change. creates a circle in the Other point workplane. creates a circle by specifying the two endpoints of a radius. .. . the points on the perimeter are oriented relative to the line between the center and starting locations. but instead of Other point defining the center. one at the starting location on the perimeter. The radius of the circle is determined by the distance from the center to the starting location. Again. If you specify coordinates that are not in the workplane. by specifying Start of diameter two locations at opposite diameter Yw ends of a diameter...2. They are not based on the workplane X or Y axes.. As shown in the figure. you can easily snap a cursor selection to any of these locations by choosing the Snap To Point method. If you do not move all of the points for each curve.

.... You specify the center coordinates using the standard coordinate dialog boxes. The first point is still used as the start of the perimeter. . . Rather. an additional dialog box is displayed which asks for the length of the radius. creates a circle by specifying a center location and choosing a tangent arc. by specifying a location at the center. if you specify a positive radius..3.2. and the length of the radius. it is located in the direction of the negative workplane Y axis. but does not determine the radius/diameter..2..3. Other location This command is Yw radius similar to the Geometry CurveStarting location Circle Diameter Xw command in that you first specify two points on the perimeter of the circle using the standard coordinate dialog boxes. creates a circle in the workplane. the locations are not at opposite ends of a diameter..4 Geometry Curve-Circle Two Points. If you specify a negative radius. 3. Geometry 3. .3. Then you will be prompted for the Curve ID. Positive Radius Negative Radius As shown. . . In this case however. creates a circle in the workplane Other location which passes Starting location through two locaradius tions and has a specified radius. the center of the circle will be chosen so that the circle will be drawn in a counter-clockwise direction relative to the workplane X and Y axes.5 Geometry Curve-Circle Point-Tangent. The starting location is always positioned in the direction of the positive workplane X axis relative to the center. circle or line. The center location is defined using the standard coordinate definition dialog boxes. 3...3 Geometry Curve-Circle Center. this command does depend on the orientation of the workplane X and Y axes to orient the circle. The second point is used to orient the circle.2. the first point (at 90 degrees along the circle) is located in the direction of the positive workplane Y axis. but they will be projected onto the workplane before being used to define the circle. A negative radius chooses the center so that the circle is drawn in a clockwise direction. The location that you define is first projected onto the workplane before being used as the center of the circle. Unlike the Curve-Circle Radius and Diameter commands. This command always creates circles in the workplane. If you specify a positive radius. Positive Radius Yw radius Start Xw Negative Radius Center .

arc or circle. The radius Other possible tangent circles. The coordinates that you specify for “With Center Near”. lines will extend to infinity.3. ( 2 0 ( 7 5 < * .6 Geometry Curve-Circle Tangent to Curves. 3. The starting point of the new circle will always be located at the point of tangency. if you are choosing two circles that are separated by 10 inches. Only the circle which has its center closest to the location that you specify will be created.. You can however create circles which are tangent to either the interior or exterior of another arc or circle. If Curve 2 you are choosing two lines. it will be conpositioned at point of Xw tangency. sidered to be infinite when computing the tangency. there would be two possible points of tangency. Center Near can be any value. creates a circle. chooses which one will Xw but must be large be created enough to make the double tangency possible. Only the dialog box show here is required for this command: The circle to be crePick Curve 2 graphically ated will be tangent in this quadrant to create this circle to the two curves that you select. You can not use this command to create a circle which envelops another circle. are simply used to choose from among the several possible tangent circles that could be created...  This allows you to Original Curve choose the curve that will be tangent to the new circle.Geometry Curve-Circle Tangent to Curves. For example.2.. a 1 inch radius cannot possibly be tangent to both. you can change the coordinate system in which this location is specified. You cannot Yw choose a spline. in the workplane which is tangent to two other curves.. That is. You can Center choose any line. This command will always choose the one that is closest to the center of the new circle. make cerCurve 1 tain they are not Yw parallel. No matter what curve you Start automatically choose. For convenience. and arcs will be considered to be full circles. .. If you choose an arc or circle. of a specified radius.

they will be projected onto the workplane prior to computing the tangency and you may not get the results that you expected. however they should lie in the current workplane. You can specify any radius for the new cirYw cle. . 3. Note: You can choose any type of original curves for this command. because of inaccuracies in computing offset splines (which are used in the tangency calculations).. it is completely oriented by the three locations that you specify. If you are careful. you may find that if you choose one or more splines.2.. Other Location . This command is just like the Start Geometry Curve-Arc Points command.. this command is not recommended when you are working with splines.. Similarly.2. Geometry If you are using your mouse to select the curves graphically.8 Geometry Curve-Circle Points on Arc.7 Geometry Curve-Circle Concentric. the “With Center Near” coordinates will automatically be set to the location where you choose the second curve. creates a circle which passes through three specified locations. except that it creates a full circle Final Location rather than an arc.3.3. creates a circle in the workplane which has the same center as another cirradius cle or arc. Simply select the curve and input the radius.. when you select this curve. This is a very quick method for creating a Original Circle series of circles which Xw have the same center. For this reason. The curve must be an arc or circle.. The starting location of the new circle will be in the same direction from the center as it is for the original curve that you select.. 3. If they do not. . the resulting circle does not actually touch the spline. The resulting circle does not have to lie in the workplane. you will not have to respecify any additional center coordinates..

The radius of the circle is determined from the distance between the center and starting locations. It is only used to determine the positive direction around the circle from the starting location. Hyperbola. Equation. Splines are created from their Control Points. Non-Uniform Rational B-Splines (NURBS) can be imported through the IGES translator.3.. however.. one less location is required since there is no endpoint for a circle. Tangents. . Other Location Start The “Other Location” does not have to lie on the perimeter of the circle.Geometry Curve-Circle Center and Points..2. and then store the spline with its Control Points. Splines created through the Ellipse. In addition. and Blend suboptions will automatically contain four points and be stored as cubic Bezier splines. and the curvature is increased.2. creates a circle specified by its center. 3. This command is just like the Geometry Curve-Arc Center and Points comCenter mand. the more the spline is “pulled” toward the intermediate point.4 Splines FEMAP has the capability to produce splines containing from between 4 to 110 points.. Splines created in FEMAP with 4 points will be stored as cubic Bezier curves. Final Control Point ( 2 0 ( 7 5 < * Starting Tangent First Control Point Final Tangent In addition to direction. . The control points of a spline determine the direction of the spline. Parabola. In addition. The actual curve passes through the first and last control point. FEMAP does have methods which allow you to input a spline based upon points on the spline.. Splines created with the remaining commands with more than 4 points will be stored as B-Splines.9 Geometry Curve-Circle Center and Points. FEMAP will use these points to calculate the Control Points. a starting location on the perimeter and one other location.  3. The further Final Tangent the control point is Starting Tangent pulled from the previous control point. except that it creates a full circle rather than an arc.. but does not pass through the intermediate points. distance Intermediate between control Control Points points influences curvature of the spline.

however.. Fourth Point Computed Control Point The standard coordinate dialog boxes are used to define the points. or less accurate (but faster). For display purposes however... except that Computed Control Point instead of defining All in Workplane the control points.4. is similar to the Geometry CurveSecond Point Spline Project ConFirst Point trol Points comThird Point mand. and splines in 3-D space. Simply use the Tools Undo command to remove the spline if it is inaccurate. you cannot Cancel the procedure without creating the spline. Once four points have been defined. splines are displayed as a series of line segments. they will be projected onto the workplane before the spline is created. the Cancel button is used to terminate input of more points and a spline is created. Choose the Tools and View Style list. The standard coordinate definition dialog boxes will be displayed as many times as required (up to 110 times) to allow you to define the control points. Each of the commands on these menus are discussed below 3. The control points are computed automatically so that the spline passes through the points that you specified.. as usual. If less than four points have been chosen. 3.1 Geometry Curve-Spline Project Control Points.. If you create a spline with 4 points. Note: The Cancel button on the dialog box is utilized to both cancel the creation of the spline. This is true for all procedures under Create Spline that enable you to create B-Splines. and the locations are. Then set the Max% Error value. A smaller number makes the display more accurate. . the Cancel button will enable you to terminate the process without creating a spline.2 Geometry Curve-Spline Project Points.2. as well as create it. use the View Options command. The Geometry Curve-Spline submenu is partitioned into three sections: splines in a Workplane... If you want to change the accuracy of the display. projected onto the workplane. either to make it more accurate (but slower). If the locations you choose are not in the current workplane. More points will force the curve to be a B-Spline. splines from analytics (also in the Workplane). Geometry Displaying Splines Splines are computed internally with full double precision accuracy.creates a spline in the workplane specifying the location of the control points. . If you make an input error after four points have been defined. it will be a Bezier spline. and the Curve and Surface Accuracy option.2. ..from first to last.4. you specify four or more points on the spline. The spline will go through the points in the order that you define them .

Geometry Curve-Circle Spline Ellipse. with equal radii. If you specify equal radii. is the radius of the ellipse along the vector that you just specified.. you will specify the two radii.  This command is typically used to create two-dimensional splines to fit a curve through known locations. it can result in control points at great distances from the spline.4.. You must be careful to specify a vector that is not perpendicular to the workplane. . Note: Since the underlying mathematics of the spline are based on a parametric cubic equation. All in Workplane When you choose this command you will be asked for the center location using the standard coordinate dialog boxes. If you choose points that are extremely close together. the resulting splines cannot precisely represent a circle or ellipse. however.4 Geometry Curve-Spline Parabola... creates a spline in the workplane that is one side of a parabola.2.027% of the radius. Given the four spline layout created by this command. 3. Other Radius Each spline represents one quadrant Vector Radius of the full ellipse. only the orientation is used. creates four splines.3 Geometry Curve-Circle Spline Ellipse. The first. use arc/circle commands to create precise geometry. or Vector Radius. Some care should be taken however when choosing those points. Next. since the vector must be projected onto the workplane.. that together can be major or minor axis. the splines will approximate a circle.2. For most FEA analyses. form an ellipse. It lets you precisely control points to lie along the spline. .. Each location is defined using the standard coordinate dialog boxes. in the workPrincipal Axis Vector plane.. as shown below.. The center will be projected onto the workplane whenever necessary. and is projected onto the workplane before being used to create the spline. ( 2 0 ( 7 5 < * 3. the approximation is close enough.4. the maximum deviation from a true circle would be 0...This command requires three sets of coordinates. If this is not close enough. The base location and length of the axis vector are unimportant. the standard vector definition dialog boxes are used to specify the orientation of the principal axis from the center. The other radius is the radius along the other principal axis of the ellipse. It is the projection that orients the ellipse. Focal Direction Specified Endpoint Focus Vertex All in Workplane . Finally.

They do not have any impact on the shape or orientation of the parabola. Note: Even though the spline is defined by a parametric cubic equation. These coordinates (along with the vertex) are used to determine the focal length and focal direction of the parabola.4. The final location is an approximate end for the spline. These coordinates do not have to be specified precisely. then use the Modify Trim command to cut away the portions that you do not need. The origin and magnitude of this vector are not important. they simply define where you want the parabola to end. The spline will start from this location. Finally. an approximate end for the spline/hyperbola is required. These values determine the shape of the hyperbola. They do not have any impact on the shape or orientation of the hyperbola. you must specify the vertex height and asymptote angle.. Neither the spline nor its control points are actually located at the focus. 3. The standard vector dialog boxes are then used to define a vector toward the focus. The stanVertex dard coordinate dialog boxes are used to specify this location...5 Geometry Curve-Spline Hyperbola. Next. For reference. Hint: This command always creates a parabola which extends completely to the vertex. you can still use this command to create a basic curve. These coordinates do not have to be specified precisely. they simply define where you want the curve to end. If you need some other segment of a parabola. creates a spline in the workplane that is one side of a hyperbola.2. as shown in the previous figure. Geometry The first location is the vertex of the parabola. an extra point is created at this location.. only the direction is used to orient the hyperbola. the representation of a parabola is precise. Specified Endpoint Vertex Height . Asymptote Vector toward Focus . Unlike ellipses and hyperbolas. The first input required is the location of the vertex Asymptote Angle of the hyperbola. The next location is the focus of the parabola. The spline All in Workplane will start from this location. there is no deviation from a true parabola. however.

.. and in fact may be nonplanar. creates a spline by specifying the coefficients of its parametric cubic equations. If you need some other segment of a hyperbola.4. you can still use this command to create a basic curve... This is a rather cumbersome way to create a spline.. and in fact may be nonplanar.. 3. it can not precisely represent a hyperbola. . This command is exactly like the Geometry Curve-Spline Project Points command. The parametric equations are shown in the dialog box with blanks for the coefficients.2. ( 2 0 ( 7 5 < * ..7 Geometry Curve-Spline Points. 3. This command is exactly like the Geometry Curve-Spline Project Control Points command. the spline will be planar in the corresponding global plane. Therefore.8 Geometry Curve-Spline Equation. .4. Leaving a coefficient blank effectively eliminates that term from the equation. except that the locations that you define are not projected onto the workplane. Note: Since the underlying mathematics of the spline that this command creates is a parametric cubic equation. y or z equations blank. then use the Modify Trim command to cut away the portions that you do not need. except that the locations that you define are not projected onto the workplane. the spline created by this command does not necessarily lie in the Workplane. creates a spline by specifying its control points.. Therefore.  Hint: This command always creates a hyperbola which extends completely to the vertex. but provides complete control over the resulting curve.. ..Geometry Curve-Spline Control Points.. creates a spline by specifying four points along the spline. but even extreme cases will be very accurate. the deviations are acceptable. 3.6 Geometry Curve-Spline Control Points. For most finite element applications however.2.4. The exact deviations are dependent on the geometry specified.2... If you leave all coefficients for one of the x. the spline created by this command does not necessarily lie in the Workplane..

By specifying a larger number.10 Geometry Curve-Spline Blend.. The coordinate locations are only used to determine which end of each curve that you want to select. Here you select the two curves. In fact.9 Geometry Curve-Spline Tangents. For this command it is important to define the vector direction. The standard vector creation dialog box is displayed twice so you can define the two vectors. Geometry 3. typically Blend Factor = 1. the spline will closely follow the ending tangents for a larger distance. This method can be very powerful when you use the advanced vector definition (tangent. This factor is the only control over the interior shape of the spline.. The direction and magnitude are used to position the intermediate control points. The resulting spline will be tangent to the respective ends of the two curves. bisect. normal.5 Blend Factor = 0. The base location of each vector is used as the starting and ending locations of the spline..5 . ..2.. location. This command offers only limited control of the interior of the spline but enforces both connectivity and tangency at the endpoints.0 Blend Factor = 1.4.2.. and two coordinate locations. You do not have to specify precise coordinates. if you choose the curve graphically the coordinates will be automatically specified to the location you were pointing to when you picked the curve. . The other required input is the Blend Factor.. Therefore. Starting Tangent Base of vector is endpoint of spline Magnitude and direction of vector defines intermediate control points Final Tangent .) methods. be sure to point near the end of the curve that you want to use when you make the selections.. creates a cubic Bezier spline by specifying starting and ending tangent vectors. and magnitude. 3. creates a spline that connects and blends the ends of two existing curves.4. .

sometimes by a significant deviation.. . Offset to this side of original Original Curve Offset Note: Cubic bezier splines (ones with only 4 points) can not be offset precisely..it just offsets them in a direction which is parallel to the workplane. . You will find that the offset curve is not a constant distance from the original .. Then. use a series of arcs. If you need precise offsets.Geometry Curve-Spline Midspline. If possible FEMAP will use exact replicas of the selected curves. Any two curves can be used for this command. The curves must be continuously connected in a single branch loop..11 Geometry Curve-Spline Midspline.. FEMAP will automatically create a spline which is midway between the two curves.4.. The only input required is the two curves. using the standard coordinate dialog box. The spline points and control points will be created automatically. due to the underlying mathematics. The loop does not have to be closed. most of the curvature will be near the ends of the spline. you cannot use splines. or too small. Smaller numbers make the tangency weaker.. and simply create a new continuous curve. The offset is however a planar offset.. connected curves.creates a single spline along multiple. you will specify a location on the side of the original curve (relative to the current workplane) where you want the offset curve to be created.12 Geometry Curve-Spline Offset. The following figure shows some possibilities: If you specify a blend factor which is too large. or cannot be dupli- .. The coordinates are not important.2. Three dimensional (nonplanar) splines cannot be offset in multiple directions along their length. and the offset distance.2.2. you can create splines that have loops. This is especially true when the spline is nonplanar..4.. 3.4. just which side of the original curve you want..  causing more curvature near the center of the spline. or extreme curvature. creates a spline that is offset from another spline along a direction parallel to the workplane. This does not necessarily create splines in the workplane . The first input required for this command is the ID of the original curve (which must be a spline). The only input for this command is a list of curves.13 Geometry Curve-Spline Multiple Curves. therefore.. . since arcs can be offset precisely. If the curves are from mixed geometry engines. 3. Offset B-Splines are modified by adding control points to improve how well the offset spline tracks the original curve. creates a spline which is midway between two curves. ( 2 0 ( 7 5 < * 3.. Instead.

5 Curves from Surfaces FEMAP can create Curves directly from Surfaces. This capability is most often used to create a curve at a specific location on a surface. This menu is partitioned into two segments. You can define the mesh size on these curves. If this option is On a check mark will be visible next to the command. Furthermore. but the surface itself is not updated. FEMAP will also require you to update the surfaces when in the ACIS geometry engine. FEMAP will automatically update the surfaces with these curves.2. As mentioned above. FEMAP will create a FEMAP engine spline that closely approximates the selected curves. You can imprint curves onto a surface to provide additional controls on your meshing procedures. If this option is Off (no check mark). The first portion of the menu contains one command. It simply controls how the remaining Geometry Curves . this command does not perform any operations directly. Geometry Curves . toggles the Update Surfaces between On and Off. 3. .. Individual curves with no reference to surfaces cannot be created in the ACIS geometry engine.from Surface Update Surfaces.. just like any other curve in FEMAP. This option is automatically grayed and set to On when working in the ACIS solid modeling engine. This command does not perform any calculations. Note: Take care to avoid sharp corners. Geometry cated.from Surface commands are implemented.5. the Geometry Curves . This can be very useful to obtain Nodes at specific locations. When any of the other commands on this menu are then performed.from Surface Project is not available in the ACIS geometry engine.2. .from Surface Update Surfaces. and therefore allows imprinting of these curves onto the surfaces. as well as load or constrain them.. This is a very easy method of imprinting curves onto surfaces to customize the meshing procedure. curves are created/manipulated using the surface. as the resulting spline will not be able to match the geometry correctly.1 Geometry Curves . It simply applies the curve operations in the second segment of the menu to the surfaces. This entire menu of commands is not available in the Standard geometry engine. The second portion of the menu contains the actual commands. or at the intersection of two surfaces.. 3.

3. FEMAP will create curves at all intersections of these bodies. This command will automatically project normal to the surface. . and update the surfaces at the intersections if this option is on (see Section 3.5. ( 2 0 ( 7 5 < * This command is very useful for imprinting one surface. creates a curve at the intersections of surfaces.2. onto the surface of a solid. This command is not available in the ACIS geometry engine.from Surface Intersect.from Surface Project. composed of its bounding curves.2.. You must have the Geometry Curves . You must first select the solid.Geometry Curves .2..2 Geometry Curves .. .1) to imprint the curves onto a surface of the solid....3 Geometry Curves . FEMAP will automatically project the curves onto the nearest surface of the chosen solid.  3. You will need to use the Project Along Vector command below and specify the vector. The only inputs required for this command are the two solids.5. and then select the curve(s) which you want project.. projects curves onto a specific solid surface...5.5.1). .from Surface Intersect.from Surface Update Surface on (see Section 3..2.

.5.5. using the standard plane definition dialog box.2.... you must input a location for the curve. If Update .5. . requires you to define a plane..6 Geometry Curves .2.from Surface Project Along Vector. FEMAP will then prompt you to choose between the u direction or the v direction. you can quickly partition a surface into several segments. When Update Surfaces is On (see Section 3... FEMAP will create the curve along the surface. to project along. .. After selecting this command.4 Geometry Curves . is identical to Geometry Curves ..5.5 Geometry Curves . except you define a vector. 3..from Surface Slice. through the point you input. using the standard coordinate definition dialog box.. FEMAP will create curves which will form the slice through the solid. which is often useful for loading and meshing purposes.from Surface Parametric Curve.from Surface Project.. using the standard vector definition dialog box. .2. Geometry 3.2. and the solid to slice.1). in the surface direction you chose. 3. creates a curve along a surface in either the u or v direction.

.  Surfaces is On (see Section 3. the affected surfaces will also be partitioned by the slice.5.1)..from Surface Slice.2.Geometry Curves . ( 2 0 ( 7 5 < * .

Typically used for planar meshes and as basic framework for solid model generation.3 Surfaces There are several types of surfaces in FEMAP. Sweep. The following table summarizes those types. Surface is defined by linear interpolation between the two edge curves. Ruled. you cannot perform Boolean operations on these surfaces. Boundary Surface Characteristics Bilinear Ruled Revolution Coons Bezier Face Bounded by curves on all edges and can contain voids (holes). The surface only passes through the control points at the corners. Revolve. All of the Above Complex trimmed surfaces obtained from Solid Model Boolean operations or imported from IGES files. This information is just provided so you can understand the various methods that are being used. Edge. with Sweep. Edge Surface bounded by three or four curves of any type. You do not have to worry about which type of surface is being created. Aligned Surface defined by 16 control points (arranged in a four by four array). Surface is defined by revolving a curve through Cylinder. Corners. Plane Bounded by lines on all edges. Surface is defined by bidirectional linear interpolation between the edges. Interior is defined as a bidirectional cubic interpolation. but not for intersection or Boolean solid operations. and the commands that create them. Cylinder lines joining the endpoints. All surfaces can be used equally well for meshing or other purposes. Surface Types Surface Type Boundary Commands Sketch. They can be used for meshing as well as creating volumes. Sphere some angle. Bounded by any curves on two opposing edges. . Note: When you use these commands in the FEMAP Standard geometry engine to create surfaces. Sector. Original defining curve can be of any type. Extrude. Edge. Geometry 3.

They have no impact on the actual shape of the surface or on the position of any location on the surface.Sketch  Surface Parameters When you are creating surfaces. they are purely for display purposes. while the third listing. create a Boundary Surface. although it is usually not of great concern. Typically. with the Geometry Boundary Surface command.3. When surfaces are displayed. while a surface is typically 3-dimensional. You can independently control the divisions along the two parametric surface directions (shown as s and t). You can modify the number of divisions on surfaces that you have already created using the Modify Update Surface Divisions command. The first two. is actually a submenu of several commands for creating surfaces. Surfaces. 3. Each of these commands will be discussed in more detail below. This can be of assistance when setting mesh sizes on surfaces. You can choose the ID of the next surface to be created. You will see the Geometry Parameters dialog box: All of the parameters of interest are in the Surface section. When you first select this . ( 2 0 ( 7 5 < * Commands There are three commands/menus in the surface area of the Geometry menu. You can also choose a color for the surface either by typing its number or by pressing the Palette button and choosing from the standard palette. Also.1 Sketch The Sketch command provides a quick method to create Boundary Surfaces. intermediate curves are drawn to show you the shape of the interior of the surfaces. you can very quickly see (by counting the number of curves) the orientation of the surface directions. planar surfaces need fewer. you can always change the color later with the Modify Color Surface command. By changing the number of divisions. Choosing this button lets you set various options which control the surfaces that you will create. while boundary surfaces require a “freemesher”. If you do not set a color. By setting the parameters to different values in the two directions. Sketch and Boundary Surface. Surface Divisions The final surface parameters are the number of divisions. This command essentially combines the capability of the individual geometry creation commands under the Geometry Menu. very curved surfaces will need more divisions. The major difference between a boundary surface and a surface is that a boundary surface is typically planar. you will see numerous dialog boxes with a Parameter button. you will control how many curves will be drawn for each surface. surfaces can be readily mapped mesh.

. 3. If you are selecting multiple loops. and which are easier to define as curves than as faces of solids. that is connected end-to-end.Not Closed Bad . There cannot be any gaps. The curves that you pick must form one or more closed loops. as well as the Menu commands to create geometry.Crossing Bad . In addition. the following window will appear. the curves should never cross or intersect. the other loops are actually representing holes in the outer loop. That is. Good .Branching.3. The following section describe these methods. For more information on Boundary Surfaces. If they are coincident. Geometry command.. Once you create the geometry for your Boundary Surface. 3. you will also have the option to Extrude or Revolve. Until you select Finish Sketch. A boundary is a series of connected curves that enclose an area that you want to mesh. If you hit Cancel. or by combining existing solid faces. If you have accessed this command through the Solids Toolbar.You can then use the toolbars.2.2 Boundary Surfaces. Choosing Curves for a Boundary To define a boundary you simply select the curves that you want using the standard entity selection dialog box. When you select one of these options. one of the loops must completely contain all of the others. Boundary Surfaces. A boundary is most often used to define planar areas for meshing that have more than 4sides. . Multiple Loops The curves do not have to be connected to the same end points. simply hit Finish Sketch on the above Window. but a Boundary Surface will not be created. the individual geometry which you just created contains no association between the geometric entities. There are two basic ways to create boundary surfaces . please review the next section. or multiple connections (branches) in the loops. and the right hand toolbar will be switched to one of the geometry toolbars . the end points will be merged when you create the boundary.Single Closed Loops Bad . the geometry you just created will remain.by selecting the boundary curves.3.1 Geometry Boundary Surface From Curves Alt+F11 is used to create boundaries that will be used with the Mesh On Geometry On Surface command. FEMAP will automatically create the Boundary Surface and then move to the Solids Extrude/Revolve menu. and FEMAP will automatically create a Boundary Surface from the geometry you just created. but the endpoints must be coincident.

) apply to curves that represent holes. as you might expect holes cannot overlap (or touch) each other. closed loop. Please see the Modify Update Other Boundary on Surface command for more details on this capability. This feature makes it extremely easy to use the area cursor picking methods to choose all of the curves in an area as part of your boundary. Simply pick all curves around the boundary of the hole at the same time you are selecting the outside boundary. the boundary mesh command will be . You may only select up to 750 curves to define a boundary (including holes). but the total count of all curves that define the boundary and the holes cannot exceed the 750 curve limit. complicated boundaries.. and they must be totally inside the outer boundary but outside all other holes. holes overlap Bad. ( 2 0 ( 7 5 < * Improving Meshing Speed Original Boundary Two. You can define as many holes as you like in the boundary. In addition. it is often more productive to break them into multiple smaller pieces. Good. Adding Holes to Boundaries “Holes” are areas inside the boundary that you do not want this boundary to mesh. holes inside each other Note: You may also map a boundary onto a surface to obtain a non-planar mesh. Typically. They may or may not represent physical holes in your structure.Geometry Boundary Surface From Curves  You can select the curves that form your boundary in any order. The procedure for defining a hole is identical to that for defining the outer boundary. FEMAP will automatically order your selections to put them in boundary order. FEMAP will automatically sort the curves and determine which ones are associated with the hole(s).. and you can even “box” or “circle” pick to select all the curves with one selection. The same restrictions (single. Simpler Boundaries While you can define and mesh very large. multiple holes Bad. and which curves form the outer boundary.

This delay is caused by the extra mapping required to insure that the mesh lies on the surface. Original geometry showing multi-surface boundary covering four surfaces When building multi-surface boundaries. this command lets you pick adjacent faces of a solid using the entity selection dialog box. it is probably faster to mesh the entire boundary. On the other hand. This means that the surfaces that you select must be stitched into a solid. Another area of concern is. You will want to crate this type of boundary surface when the surface geometry that you have does not lend itself to creating a good mesh. the mesh can often be improved. 3. if the surfaces are meshed individually. and the limitations of this method. In general. you have some extra control over the mesh. Geometry able to mesh two smaller boundaries faster than one large one. and uses the enclosing outer curves to form a regular boundary surface. In addition. For example. like the picture above. They can take substantially longer than meshing boundaries that just use the boundary curves. you may still want to add the extra “splits” to get the extra control of the mesh. meshing boundaries that are set to “Map onto Surface”. When you select stitched surfaces the outer boundary curves will form . if you have a number of surfaces that are somewhat skewed. The following figure shows a typical example: Obviously there is a trade-off between the time you might save when making the mesh. it is probably worthwhile if you can make the splits by just adding a line or two. it can result in a mesh that is also skewed.3. it is Meshed as four individual surfaces Meshed as Multi-surface Boundary important to understand how FEMAP will use them in meshing. and the time it takes to split the boundaries. Otherwise.2 Geometry Boundary Surface From Surfaces on Solid Unlike the method of creating boundary surfaces by picking the boundary curves. you can specify exactly the number of nodes along those splits. With the extra curves.2. By combining these surfaces into a single boundary. FEMAP simply takes the surfaces that you select.

the resulting boundary surface will not be meshable. and they are feature suppressed. Similarly. When you mesh a multi-surface boundary. If you are creating many multi-surface boundaries. the underlying surfaces will not be meshed. This is much like the Modify Project Mesh onto Solid command. If you go to the Modify Color Surface command and choose the boundary surfaces. Although the order of your selection is not important. but different color. Any features (curves or surfaces) in the interior of the boundary will simply be meshed over. but the resulting mesh quality will surely suffer if you do this. mesh the boundary . Therefore. you will be asked if you want to randomize the colors. they will be meshed over. It refers to curves and surfaces that are completely surrounded by surfaces that have been combined. Best results will be obtained if you combine surfaces that are nearly planar.Geometry Boundary Surface From Surfaces on Solid  the closed loop that is necessary to create a boundary. the mesh is created in the parametric coordinates of the surface. You may need to make additional curves. In that case. and which boundary contains the surfaces. the mesh will simply blend over this intersection. or that only join at a single point. Doing this will update the color of the surfaces. in each selected boundary. FEMAP will mesh it as a planar boundary. First. This means that when you later select surfaces or solids for meshing. This is very different than what happens when you use the Modify Update Other Boundary on Surface command to attach a boundary to a surface. You may however. There will not be any distinctive break between the surfaces. to be a distinct. nor will they even be pickable. you must select surfaces that create a single region. still be able to accomplish the same meshing result. You can not select surfaces that are disconnected. the underlying surfaces that you select are moved to the no-pick layer. It is therefore very important that you do not combine surfaces that contain too much curvature. ( 2 0 ( 7 5 < * Working with Unstitched Geometry This command only works with stitched surfaces. if you combine things like fillet surfaces into other adjacent surfaces. and the interior curves can be properly identified. The first step is to create a boundary using curves around the outside of the region of interest. you can select surfaces that surround holes (or simply surround other surfaces that you do not select). If you want to create multiple regions. if the curves that you have are not joined at their endpoints. or have moderate curvature from the “average” plane. but there is nothing to retain the basic shape of the fillet. you must do this in multiple commands. Although the surface is meshed as a planar boundary. it can sometimes be difficult to tell which surfaces have been selected. If you are unable to stitch the surfaces that you want into a single solid you will not be able to use this command. in this case refer to holes which are still on the inside of the boundary. the resulting mesh is projected and smoothed back to the original surfaces. FEMAP does several things automatically to help you in later meshing of your surfaces. Then. if you combine two surfaces that are not tangent at their intersection. Some nodes may still lie on the fillet. Just as boundaries can have holes. When you create multi-surface boundaries. There is no checking to prevent you from combining surfaces that have a very large curvature (even greater than 180 degrees). “Interior” does not. Taken to the extreme.

2. The locations you specify are not projected in any way. If you then update the underlying surfaces (slice them. When you create a multi-surface boundary.1 Geometry Surface Corners. or the Parasolid or ACIS Geometry Engine.. 3.3... and the boundary is created. Choose this command if you want to add or remove surfaces from a boundary that you have already defined via the “From Surfaces on Solid” command. you select the surfaces that you want to represent.3.3.) the already defined boundary will not reflect those changes. the boundaries will be recreated from the current definition of the underlying surfaces. . This command also creates lines along the edge of the surface which connect the corners.. 3. . Geometry surface as normal.3 Surfaces These commands enable you to create surfaces in the Standard Geometry Engine. any changes to this point will then be included..3. the boundary curves are extracted. cut a hole in them.. If you are adding surfaces. 3. If you simply select this command.3. creates a surface by defining the location of three or four corners.4 Geometry Boundary Surface Edit Surfaces . 3.2.. and go to the Modify Project Mesh onto Solid command to project the mesh back onto the original unstitched surfaces. they are simply used to define the surface. Corner 4 Corner 3 Surface t Direction Corner 1 Surface s Direction Corner 2 The standard coordinate definition dialog boxes are used to specify the corner locations. At that time.is used to modify the underlying surface definition of a multi-surface boundary. the rules for which surfaces can be added follow the same guidelines as if you were defining the surface originally.3 Geometry Boundary Surface Update Surfaces This command is used when the underlying surfaces that you used to create a multi-surface boundary change due to later modeling operations. and choose the boundary surfaces to update..

You cannot choose the curves in a random order.. Then choose the curves that you want to use either graphically or by specifying their IDs.. These will be fine as surfaces. but when you apply the finite element mesh . they will automatically mesh with triangular elements at the “tip”. going around the boundary.. they must connect coincident points (which will be merged automatically by this command). Choose Yes to make the surface. so long as they are all coincident at the endpoints.3 or Curve 4 4 sided. ( 2 0 ( 7 5 < * Curve 3 Curve 2 Curve 1 You can choose any type of curve as an edge. simply choose Cancel for the fourth corner Surface t Direction (specify a fourth location and Corner 1 choose OK to create a quadrilateral Corner 2 Surface s Direction surface). Shift+F9 . The following dialog box will be used to choose the edges: First... The edge curves must be coincident at their respective endpoints so that they form a continuous. In addition. the curves can be in any orientation.2 Geometry Surface Edge Curves..3. you should not create surfaces with extreme warping. or extreme corner angles. The curves do not have to form a planar surface. but if not. creates a surface by choosing three or four existing curves which define its boundaries or edges. When you mesh these surfaces. You must Surface t Direction choose the curves in Surface s Direction order. You will then be asked whether you want to make a triangle. you should choose the desired surface shape . They do not have to physically connect the same points. but it is not advisable.  If you want to creThe third corner is Corner 3 ate a triangular the “tip” of the triangle surface. You can create quadrilateral surfaces with coincident corners to form triangular surfaces. However. No to abort. you will get quadrilateral elements with coincident nodes.Geometry Surface Edge Curves.3. 3. If you create proper triangular surfaces. closed boundary.

but are helpful in visualizing the control “net” for the surface.3. 3. but the curves do not lie on the surface. You must select the curves in sequential Curve 4 Curve 2 order. This is especially true for curves which have significant changes in curvature in comparison to the adjacent curves . If you do have these extreme types of surfaces. but you can pick any type of curve. they are simply used to control its shape. You can use this command to create a FEMAP standard geometry engine surface. has two different capabilities based upon the geometry engine in use. it is often simpler to use one of the other surface commands. you can see how the surface follows the shape of the control curves. this command creates two additional “edge curves” which connect the ends of the four control curves. This does not hurt anything. This type of surface gives you control over the shape and curvature of the interior of the surface. In general. If you are going to use other types of curves however. . Curve 3 As shown. Geometry you may create very distorted elements.. they will no longer lie along the edge curves. if you move one or more of the endpoints of the control curves. Standard Geometry Engine The FEMAP standard geometry engine creates a quadrilateral surface defined by four control curves which are aligned in the same parametric direction. It is somewhat more difficult to use however. along the increasing parametric (surface t) direcCurve 1 tion. or a Parasolids or ACIS surface. you will want to select Surface s Direction splines for this surAutomatically creates Surface t Direction two edge curves face. In the figure above..like Curve 4 above... they should be meshed with triangular elements to minimize element distortions. .3.3 Geometry Surface Aligned Curves. since the control curves do not actually lie on the surface. The actual surface will be blended between the control curves which causes larger deviations in areas of rapidly changing curvature. These edge curves do not really define the surface. but can be confusing visually. The only places that the surface touches the control curves are at the corners. Be careful however.

. creates a quadrilateral surface between two curves. if you are having difficulty defining the surface.  Note: Since this surface does not coincide with the curves along its edges. Therefore. if you have a linear edge (the bottom edge).3. It differs from the standard aligned surface in that you can use any numbers of curves to define the surface. Parasolid or ACIS Geometry Engine The advanced geometry engine allows you to fit a lofted surface between a series of curves. Note: The curves used for this command with the Parasolid engine must always be in the same direction.Geometry Surface Ruled. If the directions are not aligned FEMAP will ask you if you want to try and create a surface through the interpolated points of the curves... two additional lines are created which join the endpoints of the original curves. ( 2 0 ( 7 5 < * Curve 2 Surface t Direction Automatically creates edge lines Surface s Direction Curve 1 . Curve and Surface Accuracy option to turn Directions on. and the curves will be on the surface that is constructed. The surface is formed by linear interpolation between corresponding parametric locations along the selected curves.. FEMAP will not automatically reverse the direction. it can be difficult to join it with surfaces of other types. The only inputs for this command are the two curves. After you select the curves. . you should check the direction of the curves by using the View Options.4 Geometry Surface Ruled.. This is a very powerful method to create surfaces with varying curvature simply by defining curves at critical locations. so you can join the surface to other surface types. but do help to show its boundaries.. Tools and View Style. You can try this or change the direction of the curves. These new lines do not control the surface. the surface will coincide with the control curve. This will enable you to confirm that all curves are formed in the same direction. As shown in the figure. It will join properly with another aligned surface that uses the same edge.3. 3.

When you have selected all of the curves. You can choose these curves in any order. You can choose any vector. but it is usually best to choose them in the order of a continuous profile or boundary. The magnitude defines the length of the extrusion. but most extrusions should be relatively perpendicular to the original curves. Geometry Ruled surfaces are very easy to create.5 Geometry Surface Extrude. If it is not. the following picture shows a boundary that was extruded: Additional curves were also created (but not shown) Selected Curves at the opposite Selected Curves side of the surfaces.. All input for this command uses standard dialog boxes.3. you will define the vector that you want to extrude them along. . The same vector is used for all curves that were selected.. Extrusion direction and magnitude Surface t Direction Surface s Direction As an example. The components define the direction of the extrusion.6 Geometry Surface Revolve. In addition. this command revolves them through an angle around a vector .3. This command allows you to quickly convert a two dimensional profile of curves into three dimensional surfaces. They do not have to lie in the same plane.3. except that instead of extruding curves along a vector. Only the vector components and magnitude are used for this command. using the standard vector definition dialog box..3. You select the curves to extrude using the standard entity selection dialog box. some surfaces may be badly shaped for meshing. 3.. the resulting surface is usually fairly uniform parametrically and yields very good finite element meshes. The vector that you define can be based at any location. is similar to Geometry Surface Extrude.. so if you need to extrude in different directions. Other curves were created to connect the endpoints of the original curves to the new curves... creates surfaces by extruding one or more curves along a vector. in any orientation. Each curve that you choose creates a separate ruled surface.. 3. You can choose any type of curves. . you must repeat this command.the axis of revolution .

3. this command creates four-sided surfaces. all curves along the path are also tangent at their endpoints. . They do not have to be connected to the same points. In this case. You simply specify the angle through which the curves will be revolved. If you want to revolve this type of curve. however. The curves that you select for the path must form a single continuous loop . Since all surfaces must have either three or four sides. This limitation includes arcs and splines where intermediate points along the curve do not lie on the axis of revolution. simply use the Modify Break command to split it into two curves and then revolve both of those curves. the sweeping operation will maintain a constant cross section as it traverses the path. or have any gaps.3. The required input for this command is minimal.  . Another special case arises if the axis of revolution intersects the curve that you are revolving.. the resulting surface will be twisted and effectively unusable for meshing. specify Selected Curves Selected Curves the vector along the axis of revolution using the vector definition dialog boxes. if you include nontangent curves.7 Geometry Surface Sweep..Just like the extrude command. If. Next. They must not branch. You simply select the curves that define the cross section that you want to sweep. 3. you select the Surface t Direction curves to Surface s Direction revolve using the standard Axis of Revolution entity selection dialog box. there are a few special cases. On the other hand. a triangular (three-sided) surface will be automatically created.. you will be prompted for the rotation angle. but you will probably want to avoid this situation.Geometry Surface Sweep. you can not revolve any curve that has both endpoints on the axis of revolution. ( 2 0 ( 7 5 < * Selecting the Path Even though you choose it after the cross section.. Finally. No checking is done for this case. the corners will be automatically .. Some Special Cases Typically. it is important to understand the implications of choosing a path before you define the cross section. the magnitude is not. you select the curves that make up the path along which you will sweep the cross section.either closed (the end is also connected to the start) or open. so you can create these surfaces. If a curve has one endpoint that lies on the axis of revolution.. Then with a second entity selection dialog box. using the standard entity selection dialog box. but must have coincident endpoints. allows you to create surfaces by moving or sweeping one or more curves along a path defined by other curves. The location and direction of this vector are important. in addition to being coincident.

It is required because of the automatic mitred corners that will be generated between the nontangent curves. but it is fairly accurate. If you do not. will result in a nonuniform cross section. and in some cases a cross section that is somewhat distorted. you can choose any curves that you want for the cross section. If your path contains arcs. it will be elliptical (which must be represented by a spline). The surfaces created by this command will be located wherever you start the cross section. If it does. the cross section that you sweep will be a projection of the true cross section. 2. This command simply extrudes and revolves the cross section along vectors which are defined by the curves you select as the path. make sure that your cross section does not protrude further than the arc radius to the “inside” of the path. and the cross section will be swept along these segments rather than the true spline. All offsets from the path to the cross section will act as rigid links as the cross section is swept around a curve. . This will result in multiple surfaces. You can control the number of line segments by setting the mesh size along the spline prior to sweeping using the Mesh Mesh Control Size Along Curve command. If you choose splines in the path they will be broken into multiple line segments. the resulting surfaces will be twisted as they are swept around the arc. The cross section at those corners will no longer be circular. the arcs and circles will be converted to equivalent splines before they are swept. This is not a precise representation. It is up to you to properly locate the starting position of the cross section. Typically you will want to create the curves for the cross section in a plane that is normal to the ending tangent of the path. Here are some general rules to follow: 1. Cross Section Curve Path Curves Spline in Path uses Mesh Size If the cross section that you choose contains arcs or circles. and your path contains curves that are not tangent to one another. Selecting the Cross Section Just as for the path. however. You do have to be aware however of the relationship between the path and the cross section. 3. if you are using the standard FEMAP geometry engine this command cannot create a single swept surface along a spline. This however. Choosing Splines in the Path You can use any type of curves in the path. The curves in the cross section must be positioned in space at the appropriate location relative to the path. Geometry mitred to the half angle between the tangents of the curves.

. ..3. The base of the plane is used for the first corner of the surface..Geometry Surface Plane. this command offers great flexibility in positioning of planar surfaces. While limited to rectangular surfaces.Before Cross Section Curve Path Curves Front View ..3.3.After Isometric View .. you will be prompted for the width (along Plane X) and Height (along Plane Y) of the plane.. The width and height of the plane are combined with the orientation of the plane to determine the other three corners..8 Geometry Surface Plane. cone or Centerline vector tube and optionally the planar endcaps...After Mitred corner where path was not tangent Path Curves 3. ( 2 0 ( 7 5 < * 3.. makes surfaces which represent the curved lateral faces of a cylinder. You will use the standard vector definition dialog box to define the location and . The Start vector first input Bottom radius required is the orientation of the object that you will create. automatically creates a rectangular. After choosing the appropriate plane. .Before Isometric View .9 Geometry Surface Cylinder.3. planar surface using the standard plane definition dialog boxes.  Front View .

Unnecessary radii for each shape will be grayed and disabled. an inner and outer surface. The various radii must be specified to define the object size. or automatically determine it from the endpoints of the vector. In this case. you can choose any nonzero vector that is not parallel to the centerline. The magnitude of the vector that you specify is also used as the object length. but tubes have two. Cones and cylinders only have one lateral (curved) surface. End Cap Cylinder Tube with capping surfaces Lateral Cap Partial Cylinder with capping surfaces Partial Cone The default angle (360 degrees) creates a full cylinder/ cone/tube. Finally. This time you must specify a vector which points toward the circumferential location where you want the lateral curved surfaces to begin. If you only want to create a partial object. these . this vector orients the surfaces by rotating them around the centerline. The top radii are used at the tip of the centerline vector. By default. the standard vector dialog box will appear again. Geometry orientation of the centerline of the object. This is fairly obvious when you are going to generate a partial cylinder (< 360 degrees). The bottom radii are applied at the base of the centerline vector. After you have defined the centerline vector. you can either explicitly specify the length. The resulting surface(s) will subtend the selected number of degrees of arc around the centerline. Planar lateral surfaces will also be made. but less than the respective outer radius. the following dialog box is used to specify the remaining parameters: The shape controls the type of object that will be created. If you really don’t care where the surfaces start. If you check the box however. The inner radii are only available for tubes. They must always be greater than zero. but is also necessary for full cylinders. Just as the centerline positioned and oriented the surfaces in space. only the lateral or curved surface is created. this command will also automatically make planar capping surfaces at the top and bottom of the cylinder/cone/tube. the “Make cap surfaces” box is not checked. specify a smaller angle. When you do not specify an angle of 360 degrees. By choosing the various vector definition methods.

You can choose to create surfaces which represent any segment of a sphere up to and including a full sphere. which is used to position the origin of the spherical surfaces.Geometry Surface Sphere. Just as the first vector oriented the sphere in space. Next. and the vector components orient the sphere in space. Finally. Note: If you are creating a Parasolid or ACIS surface. this vector controls the rotation of the surfaces around the polar vector.. another vector is required.3.. This command will create more than one surface. creates quadrilateral or triangular spherical surfaces. however you will have an opportunity to change this radius later.. 3. you will see the following dialog box: ( 2 0 ( 7 5 < * .10 Geometry Surface Sphere.. The first dialog -90 degrees longitude Pole Vector box that you see 0 degrees longitude will be the stan0 degrees latitude Longitude angles dard vector definition dialog box. if necessary.3. but will be needed if you later want to use the Create Volume Surfaces command. to represent the portion of the sphere that you select. The base is used as the center of the sphere.. The magnitude of the vector is also used as the default radius. With a 360 degree angle. and “Make cap surfaces” will not be available.. If you do not care how the surfaces are rotated. .  surfaces are required to close the sides of the object. you can only choose from a cylinder or a cone (tube will be grayed). They are also useful if you want to make elements in a cross section that you can revolve into a mesh. Latitude angles Start Vector Here you must define the vector which goes from the center of the sphere to the upper (“north”) pole of the sphere. just choose any nonzero vector that is not parallel to the polar vector. these surfaces are actually inside the object.

That is.3. The default angles. Note: If you are creating a Parasolid or ACIS surface/sphere. Zero degrees is at the equatorial plane. Lateral capping surfaces are always created.11 Geometry Surface Offset. If you specify latitude angles less than 360 degrees. This command will create a single spherical surface. The Longitude and Latitude Angles will be grayed. . Latitude angles go around the circumference of the sphere. and the Make cap surfaces will not be visible.. These surfaces are defined parallel to the equatorial plane.. will define a full sphere. they close the sides of the spherical segment. Otherwise. unless you include both poles (-90 and +90 longitude). they follow the normal right-hand rule convention around the pole vector. as shown in the dialog box. The normals of the surface are used as the offset direction. Increasing angles are measured in a counterclockwise sense when looking at the equatorial plane from the north pole of the sphere.3. Geometry It lets you choose the portion of the sphere that the surfaces will represent.create a new surface by offsetting an existing surface. and enter a distance to offset. you will only be able to create a complete sphere. split at the equator will be created. In that case. Top and bottom capping surfaces will be created if you do not choose the corresponding pole. This command requires you to select the surfaces to offset. Full Sphere Partial Sphere with capping surfaces Partial Sphere Additional planar surfaces will be created if you choose “Make cap surfaces”. . they are created internally. two surfaces. The Longitude angles must range from -90 to +90 degrees. 3. The zero angle is defined by the second vector that you specified... The offset surface may expand or contract depending on the curvature of the surface and the offset direction. just like the lateral caps for cylindrical volumes created by the Create Surface Cylinder command. -90 degrees is the north pole (along the first vector that you defined) and +90 degrees is the south pole.

Intersect. The curves are extended in both directions past the ends of the surface if necessary...trims/breaks a surface using a curve.. 3. Care must be taken to make certain that the resulting plate mesh adequately represents the model. The command will simply return if the midsurface operation fails. Any surfaces with a distance between them of less than the midsurface tolerance will have a midsurface generated..3. First pick the surface to be trimmed/broken and then pick the curve(s) to trim with.4... Pick this curve ( 2 0 ( 7 5 < * = two surfaces 3..creates a single sheet surface between two surfaces.. .3. 3. .... . 3. and Cleanup below) at once.1 Single in Solid.3.trims a surface with a solid.2 Single.4 Midsurface The midsurfacing commands are available only when using the Parasolid or ACIS geometry engines.creates a single midsurface between two surfaces of a solid. The command will simply return if the midsurface operation fails..5 Automatic.runs the three steps of semi-automatic midsurfacing (Generate.. It deletes any parts of the surface which lie outside the volume of the solid..3.4.. They are useful for generating surfaces from thin-walled solid geometry.3 Trim to Solid.4 Trim with Curve. . The midsurfaces can then be used as the basis of plate meshes.3. Not all surface pairs can be midsurfaced. .Midsurface  3.4..3. The resulting surface will be larger than both of the selected surfaces. The surface is trimmed by the solid so that it is completely contained within the solid. This command requires you to first select the surface to trim. 3. Not all surface pairs can be midsurfaced.. This command requires you to select the two surfaces. .. The command requires you to select the surfaces and specify a midsurface tolerance. and then the solid to use for trimming. deletes all small free floating surfaces.4..4. The command then intersects all created midsurfaces with one another and lastly..

although you can create .. 3. Solids provide an excellent method to form complex 3-D shapes. Any surfaces with a distance between them of less than the midsurface tolerance will have a midsurface generated. They are typically only created when you must model a very regular pattern volume (with no holes). and brick or wedge meshes are essential.3. This command requires you to select the surfaces for generation and enter a midsurface tolerance.4.9 Assign Mesh Attributes. Solids are formed by using the either the ACIS or Parasolid modeling engine to form complex 3-D shapes. The only input for this command are the selected surfaces to assign these attributes.4. but rather places them on a separate layer so they can be reviewed before they are deleted.. there is a distinct difference between Volumes and Solids.3.automatically creates and assigns properties to midsurfaces based on the thickness of the solid from which they were created. In FEMAP. and they can have voids. semi-automatically meshed with hexahedrals.automatically determines which surfaces can be deleted by checking for small free floating surfaces.. The number of faces (or surfaces) to a Solid is not limited. Volumes generated from surfaces require 4-6 surfaces which form a complete enclosed volume. It does not delete these surfaces.4.7 Intersect. and can be automatically meshed with tetrahedrals.. The only input to this command is the surfaces to intersect. 3.. This command will not create properties which vary in thickness along a surface.6 Generate. 3.4..4. ..1 Volumes The Geometry Volume menu allows you to create volumes which can be used for meshing of solid elements... 3. .automatically creates all possible midsurfaces from selected surfaces. The only input is the surfaces to check.. . or if care is taken.. . All volumes in FEMAP are essentially the same...4 Solids/Volumes The last commands for geometry creation in the Geometry Menu involve creation of 3-D Solids and Volumes.3.automatically intersects/splits all selected surfaces with one another.3. The restrictions on number of surfaces and no voids limits the usefulness of Volumes.. 3.8 Cleanup. Voids (or holes) are not permitted in volumes. Boolean operations can be performed with these Solids. Geometry 3. or holes in them. The original “top” and “bottom” surfaces must be separated by a constant thickness... Volumes are formed from analytics as well as joining selected surfaces.

the shapes shown are just the basic outlines if you used regular. others are triangular Tetra ( 2 0 ( 7 5 < * Four triangular surfaces You can choose any of these volume shapes that you need to fill the portion of your model that you want. bottom is rectangular. planar surfaces. Choosing this button lets you set the ID and color of the Volume. You can choose a color for the volume either by typing its number or by pressing the Palette button and choosing from the standard palette. you will see numerous dialog boxes with a Parameter button.Volumes  volumes with several different “shapes”. The following table summarizes those shapes. . In fact. top and bottom are triangular. any surfaces can be used and the shapes really refer more to the overall topology than the actual shape of the volume. Volume Parameters When you are creating volumes. The ID is not usually of great concern. In this case. you can always change the color later with the Modify Color Volume command. If you do not set a color. others are quadrilateral Pyramid Five surfaces. In fact. “shapes” refers to the number of surfaces which are used to bound the volume. Volume Shapes Shape Brick Characteristics Six quadrilateral surfaces Wedge Five surfaces.

Sphere) involve analytical Volumes. Each corner is defined using a separate dialog box. The final section (Cylinder. The following table shows the number of corners that are allowable when creating volumes: Number of Corners for Volumes Shape Brick Wedge Pyramid Tetra 8 6 5 4 Corners Press Cancel when Defining Never Corner 7 Corner 6 Corner 5 . The only thing actually drawn for the volume is an outline around the surface boundaries. Between). If you press cancel at a point when a volume can not be created. You do not need any existing geometry to use this command . Geometry Displaying Volumes The display of volumes is largely based on displaying the surfaces that are used to define the volume. backup.. simply choose cancel when all of the required corners have been defined.. or create a volume with that number of corners.. Geometry Volume Menu The Geometry Volume Menu is partitioned into three sections based upon the method of creation. You will be asked whether you want to cancel. This is an ideal way to update incorrectly specified coordinates before you finish the command.it creates all of the required points. creates volumes simply by specifying the coordinates of the corners.1 Geometry Volume Corners. You can control the overall display by adjusting the surface divisions and surface display options. Revolve) perform operations on a surface to create a Volume.. you will be given a chance to backup or abort. The second section (Extrude. Surfaces.4. All of the input for this command uses the standard coordinate definition dialog boxes. or both. To create volumes having different shapes.1. Surfaces. create Volumes from framework geometry of Points. lines and surfaces. The first section of commands (Corners. . Each command on the Volume menu is discussed further below 3.

 The convention for defining corner locations is as follows: Brick 8 7 Wedge 6 5 5 4 6 3 4 3 2 1 2 1 4 Pyramid 5 Tetra 3 4 3 2 1 2 1 It is always best to follow the conventions shown for specifying the order of the corner locations.Geometry Volume Surface.. Straight lines will be used to connect all of the corners. . however.. The required shapes are listed in the table at the beginning of this section for the Create Volume Menu. Alt+F9 ( 2 0 ( 7 5 < * . but there is no guarantee..2 Geometry Volume Surface.. The only dialog box required is the following one: Here you select the shape of the volume that you want to create (Brick. This “fixup” will often create the correct volume even if you specify the corners in a different order. allows you to select and combine existing surfaces to form a volume..4.1.. The same volume will be created no matter what coordinate system or systems you use to define the corner locations. You can select any type of surface. but you must follow these guidelines: m The surfaces that you choose must have the appropriate shape (triangular or quadrilateral) to define the shape of volume that you choose. Pyramid or Tetra) and the surfaces that will define the volume. 3. Wedge. FEMAP will automatically change the selection order and attempt to create a valid volume. FEMAP does check the locations that you specify to see if they match the correct shape. If they do not. and all surfaces will be bilinear.

 Geometry m All surfaces must have coincident edges. The surfaces do not have to use the same edge curves. If the surfaces do not use the same edges. This insures that the surfaces that you choose form a complete closed volume. Since this type of surface does not typically follow its edge curves exactly. You do not have to choose surfaces Top that have their parametric directions aligned. but you will probably not want to choose any Bezier surface that was created by the Create Surface Aligned Curves command. The third parametric volume direction (u) goes from the bottom to the top surface. but they must use exactly coincident curves. The volume parametric direcs direction Bottom tions are based on the parametric directions of the first surface that you select. If these directions do not form a right-handed coordinate system. any volume that you create may have gaps along its edges and you will not be able to use it for meshing. The first and second (s and t) volume directions are aligned with the parametric directions of the bottom surface. Note: You can choose any type of surface for a volume. then the s and t directions are reversed (negated. so that there are no gaps between the edges. nor Side Side do you have to choose the “Sides” t direction u direction in any particular order. the curves will be automatically merged by this command. but still along the same direction). .

The same approach is followed for the “Surface and Point” option. .4. 2 Surfaces Surface and Point To Surface To Point From Surface From Surface The “Surface and Point” option is used to create the other volume shapes.. you cannot specify coordinates.. Again the required side surfaces and curves are automatically created. creates a volume between two surfaces.4.  3. ( 2 0 ( 7 5 < * 3.When you choose the “2 Surfaces” option. but instead of specifying a top surface (“To Surface”).. You simply select the surfaces to extrude using the standard entity selection dialog boxes..If you are using the “2 Surfaces” option.3 Geometry Volume Between. Quad surfaces form a Brick volume while Tri surfaces create a wedge. One volume will be created for each surface that you select .1.Geometry Volume Between. you simply choose the two surfaces which form the top and bottom of the brick or wedge. . both surfaces must have the same shape either triangular or quadrilateral. .. and the vector to extrude along.. The point must already exist.4 Geometry Volume Extrude. using the vector definition dialog boxes. With this option.. creates volumes by moving or extruding one or more surfaces along a vector. All of the side surfaces are automatically created between the respective edges of these surfaces.1.. or between a surface and a point.. or a triangular surface to form a tetra. you will specify a top point. choose a quadrilateral surface to create a pyramid..

you must also define the angle of revolution. The location and direction are needed to define the rotation. There are similar cases with quadrilateral faces. is similar to the Geometry Volume Extrude command described above. ..4... In this case the volumes are created by revolving the original surfaces around a vector (the axis of revolution). but the direction and magnitude are used to define the direction and length of the extruded volumes.5 Geometry Volume Revolve. you will create a pyramid-shaped volume. Axis of Revolution Angle of Revolution Selected Surfaces You should never specify an axis of revolution that crosses any of the surfaces that you are revolving. if you revolve a triangular surface that has one point on the axis. there are several special cases that can arise when you revolve surfaces that have one or more points or edge curves that lie on the axis of revolution. For example. Triangular surfaces extrude into Wedge volumes. all of the additional curves and surfaces which define the volume will be created automatically. In addition to selecting the surfaces to revolve with the standard entity selection dialog box. the resulting surfaces and volumes will be twisted. and will be useless for meshing. In addition.1. . and specifying the axis of revolution with the vector definition dialog boxes. Other volume shapes cannot be created with this command. This is the angle through which the surfaces will be rotated around the axis of revolution vector to form the volumes. you will create a tetra. If you do.. the location and direction are important. As the surfaces are revolved. All quadrilateral surfaces will extrude into Brick volumes. Geometry Extrusion Vector The. If you revolve a triangular surface with one edge on the axis. When you are specifying the axis of revolution vector. Selected Surfaces 3. the magnitude is not. vector that you choose can be located anywhere. instead of extruding them along the vector.

Slice.. Slicing/Face Operations . Reset Choose this option to deactivate all solids.. Otherwise. or to reset to make no solid active. Slice Match. ( 2 0 ( 7 5 < * ... Remove. Slice.. 3. the Activate Solid dialog box appears.2. capping surfaces will always be created.4. Slice Along Face. 3. Embed Face 6. Cleanup .4.Add. Revolve. capping surfaces will always be created. ID You can select the ID by inputting its ID or simply select it from the list. Chamfer.Extrude.select and or name the active solid 2. Title You may rename a solid by typing in a different Title. Common. Shell. Boolean Operations . . The Solids Menu is partitioned into six major segments: 1. Stitch. Refer to the Geometry Surface Cylinder command for more information.6 Geometry Volume Cylinder. in addition to the surfaces.Fillet. Activate . Modifying .7 Geometry Volume Sphere. .. Otherwise.cleanup the active solid The functionality of these commands are explained in more detail below... Refer to the Geometry Surface Sphere command for more information..  3.. Slice Match.. Primitives. Embed 5. Explode 3. 3. in addition to the surfaces. the volume would not be closed.4.. Since you will be creating a volume. is identical to the Geometry Surface Cylinder command except that it creates the volume. They are only available if you have the ACIS or Parasolid geometry engine active.1.2 Solids These commands provide tools for building solid models in FEMAP. is used to change between active solids. the volume would not be closed. When you select this command. is identical to the Geometry Surface Sphere command except that it creates the volume. Embed Face 4.4. Slice Along Face. ...Geometry Volume Cylinder. Creating/Editing.1 Geometry Solid Activate.1. Since you will be creating a volume.

4. such as Model Load Set and Constraint Load Set. then removals. However. 3. (2) Direction. FEMAP will then automatically create a new solid with the title you input.. you cannot create a new solid by inputting an unused ID. or a nonplanar boundary surface.2. The default will be based upon the Add/ Extrude Material option mentioned above (Section 3. You simply move a boundary or surface along a vector to add or remove material.3 Geometry Solid Extrude.. except you do not have to form an additional solid to Add or Remove. the default will be Remove.. You must create a new solid by using one of the commands under the Solids menu which actually forms the solid and select New Solid. . If this option does not have a check mark next to it. Note: You cannot extrude a FEMAP base (standard) surface. Material This section controls the type of action to perform. When you invoke this command.. you are not required to change this option. You can create a New Solid.. or Remove from the current Solid (Hole).2 Geometry Solid Add/Remove Material.4. however. allows you to move a boundary or surface through a vector. 3. and either create a new solid from the extrusion.. Geometry Note: Unlike other similar Activate commands. you will see the following dialog box: The dialog box is separated into four major sections: (1) Material.2. or the last previous operation. it does set the defaults for the commands below. and (4) Option Buttons. . Add to the current Solid (Protrusion).2.2).4.. .. the default will be Add. you can still toggle between Remove and Add once you get into the command itself. does not perform any functions. Therefore. The Add and Remove commands are similar to the Geometry Solids Add and Remove commands below. This is a convenient method to toggle between defaults if you are performing many additions. remove material or add material. If there is a check mark. (3) Length.

. If you select the location option.allows you to change the active solid which will be used in the extrude operation. Positive. ... This is an extremely useful option when multiple holes. . FEMAP will automatically choose the normal to the entity as the vector along which to extrude. the Patterns dialog box will appear.. Options Buttons These buttons allow you to change the defaults for the extrusion.. or want to extrude along a vector other than the normal. allows you to create multiple extrusions from a single surface or boundary extrusion.. For all planar entities. If you switch from positive to negative.  Direction This option controls whether you extrude in the Negative. If you want to extrude a non-planar surface. FEMAP will automatically extrude along the normal vector for all planar surfaces.. ( 2 0 ( 7 5 < * . If you do not select this option. Pattern.. or Both Directions. to a specific location. Length You can extrude to a particular depth along the vector. You cannot use this option to extrude boundary surfaces.Geometry Solid Extrude.. Boundary surfaces area always extruded normal to their definition plane.. but it can only extrude planar boundaries. in a symmetrical pattern are required through a solid. you must use this option to define the extrusion vector. When you choose this command.. When you select this option. you must select the extrusion vector by pushing the Along Vector. the direction of the arrow will switch. Active Solid. you must input the location using the standard coordinate definition dialog box after hitting OK on the Extrusion Options dialog box. and then choose Pattern. or through all of the solid(s) along the vector direction... Simply select the appropriate solid. FEMAP can extrude both planar and non-planar surfaces. Along Vector. You can simply define one boundary/surface. You will see a small white arrow along the surface or boundary denoting the current direction. uses the standard vector definition dialog box to define the vector along which to extrude. .. a list of the available solids will be provided (the same dialog box which is used in the Geometry Solid Activate command).. If you attempt to extrude a nonplanar surface. button..

If you are planning to use this option. the number. the original surface/boundary you create should be at the most negative position on the Workplane. the work plane must be aligned with the pattern. You input the center. Rectangular Pattern Radial Pattern Boundary/Surface These options allow you to select the Boundary or Surface to extrude. A single extrusion will be performed with this option. If you would like to change this. The spacing values input must be the distance form center to center of the boundary/surface you are extruding. and FEMAP will create these extrusions into or through the solid. . FEMAP then uses the X spacing and Y spacing to form the 9 holes in the solid. The origin is specified as the center of the circle in the Workplane in the bottom left corner. simply select the option and pick the entity. except it defines a radial pattern. By default. Radial Pattern The Radial Pattern is similar except a number of 6 and a total angle of 360 degrees was specified. Examples Below you will find two examples of a pattern definition. Geometry None The default option is None. and the total angle. FEMAP will automatically move in the positive X and Y Workplane directions (unless you specify a negative distance) to create additional entities in the pattern. FEMAP will use the last Boundary created for extrusion. Rectangular Pattern The first example uses a rectangular pattern of 3 in X and 3 in Y with the same spacing for both. Also. Rectangular This option allows you to identify the number and spacing in Y. Radial This option is very similar to Rectangular.

.. blocks. . you must input the axis of revolution using the standard vector definition dialog box. it could be accidentally selected when applying loads or constraints. This dialog box is almost identical to the Extrude Options dialog box above (Geometry Solid Extrude).Geometry Solid Revolve. Note: When you perform this command...5 Geometry Solid Primitives. this is avoided. is very similar to Geometry Solid Extrude except it revolves around an axis of revolution instead of extruding along a vector. or Both) sections are identical. ( 2 0 ( 7 5 < * 3. except for a few modifications. you can simply change the No Pick Layer on the View Layers command.. This layer by default is chosen as the No Pick Layer on the View Layers command. This layer defaults to the No Pick Layer on the View Layers command. When you select this command.. but it is automatically moved to the Construction Geometry Layer (Layer 9999). the construction geometry (boundary or surface) will remain. If you need to graphically select it later. and Full 360 degrees instead of Depth. The Revolve Options dialog box then appears. 3. Since the boundary or surface will occupy the same space as a Solid Face. . If you need to graphically select it later. By moving it to a No Pick Layer. and the Length section has options for Angle.2.. The only other difference is you can choose to change your axis of revolution (instead of the Extrusion Vector) by selecting the Axis of revolution option. For more information related to this dialog box. and cones.4. This command can be used to form a new solid or to add/remove . this is avoided. the construction geometry (boundary or surface) remains. To Location. The Material (New Solid.2. it could be accidentally selected when applying loads or constraints. Add. or Remove) and Directions (Positive.. and Full 360.. please see the Geometry Solid Extrude section above. By moving it to a No Pick Layer. Since the boundary or surface will occupy the same space as a Solid Face. To Location. but it will be automatically moved to the Construction Geometry Layer (Layer 9999).4 Geometry Solid Revolve.. Negative. can be used for such geometry primitives as cylinders.  Note: When you perform this command. you can simply change the No Pick Layer on the View Layers command.4.

7 Geometry Solid Explode. If you plan on using a rectangular pattern. the Solid Primitives dialog box appears. Origin You simply specify a location for the origin of the primitive..creates independent surfaces from a solid. For a cylinder you simply input a height and radius. Y and Z directions. Direction You may also choose to move in a Positive or a Negative direction.2... The underlying solid no longer exists. A cone requires a top and bottom radius as well as a height. creates a solid from a series of surfaces.. 3. .4. Geometry material from an existing solid.4. The only inputs required for this command are the surfaces themselves and a stitching tolerance. . The tolerance can be adjusted to facilitate the closing of gaps between surface edges.6 Geometry Solid Stitch. For this particular command. Add to.. You can read an IGES file. This command is quite useful because it allows you to modify surfaces on solids and then stitch them back into a solid. For the block. You can then manipulate this solid just like any other solid you would have created in FEMAP.You must then specify the distances in the X. Each of these areas are discussed below.. you also have the option to form a new solid from common areas of the primitive you are about to create and the current active solid. or sphere. When you select this command. Material You can create a New Solid. This is a very useful command when reading trimmed surfaces from an IGES file.. and then use this command to generate a Parasolids solid from the IGES surfaces. however. you can input the origin at the center or corner of the block. cone. .. These directions are all relative to the Workplane.2. 3. The only input for this command is a solid. since FEMAP will always move in the positive direction to create the pattern. or Remove from an existing Solid just as in the Extrude/Revolve commands above. you should use the origin of the primitive which is in the most negative position in the workplane. Primitive This section defines the actual primitive to be created. cylinder. You can create a block. just like the commands above. while a sphere requires only a radius for input. This dialog box is very similar to the Extrude Options and Revolve Options dialog box. Options You may also change the active solid (Activate Solid) or choose to create a Pattern (see Geometry Solid Extrude) similar to the Geometry Solid Extrude/Revolve commands.

Below are a few examples of filleting a solid... The input for this command is simply the curve(s)/edge(s) to fillet.. .  3. and the radius of the fillet. .. and that edge will become “rounded” based upon the radius you input... This command works slightly different than the Modify Fillet command..Geometry Solid Fillet. Input for this command is simply the solid edge (curve) and the chamfer length..2. Examples of this command are shown below. you must select an edge of the solid. When using this command. allows you to create fillets on a solid model.2. in that you are modifying a solid. Examples Fillet Top Curve Fillet Top + Side Curves 3. Therefore.4.8 Geometry Solid Fillet. operates identically to Geometry Solid Fillet except it produces a chamfer instead of a fillet. ( 2 0 ( 7 5 < * Examples Chamfer Top Curve Chamfer Top + Side .9 Geometry Solid Chamfer...4. you must be careful to select the appropriate curve for filleting. not individual curves.

.. Note: If a solid is not connected to any of the other chosen solids.4. FEMAP intersects all selected solids to form one solid composed of the volumes of all selected solids. At time of publication. and the thickness of the solid shell.. .11 Geometry Solid Add.4. allows you to “hollow out” a solid. FEMAP will automatically remove the interior portion of the surface and leave an outer thickness equal to the input of the thickness and then move through the solid..10 Geometry Solid Shell. simply choose two opposing surfaces. and remove material until it reaches within a thickness value of the opposing surface. . this command was not available in the ACIS geometry engine. The only input required for these commands are the solids which are selected through the standard Entity Selection dialog box. Geometry 3. it will not be added and will remain as a separate entity.. Examples Pierce One Surface Pierce Two Surfaces 3. forms one solid from multiple. connected solids. normal to the surface.2.. .. To shell a solid completely and remove all material in the interior.. Simply select the surfaces to pierce (the surfaces on the solid to be hollowed out).2.

2.. .4..4.. and then select the solids to subtract.2.Geometry Solid Remove.12 Geometry Solid Remove. . First select the Base Solid (the one to be modified).  Example + = 3.. ... modifies one solid by subtracting other solids from it. Example = ( 2 0 ( 7 5 < * 3.. FEMAP removes material common to the solids from the first solid (the base solid).. is very similar to Geometry Solid Add except it creates a solid from the shared volumes between two solids instead of the total volumes of both.13 Geometry Solid Common.. The subtracted solids are removed from the model..

then the solid to embed. One from the shared volumes and one from the remaining volume of the base solid.. .similar to the common command except that it forms two solids.4...2. ... You are first asked to pick the base solid. This command simply requires you to select the solid.14 Geometry Solid Embed. and define the cutting plane using the standard plane definition dialog box.15 Geometry Solid Slice.. FEMAP will then slice the solid and form two individual solids from the first solid.4. Example Embed Pick this solid first = 3. Example Geometry Common = 3... . forms two solids by using a cutting plane to slice through a solid.2.

. = + ( 2 0 ( 7 5 < * 3. The faces can then be matched for meshing using the mesh size commands.  Hint: This command is extremely useful when importing CAD files of symmetrical parts. 3. You will also be guaranteed to obtain a symmetrical mesh.17 Geometry Solid Slice Along Face.4... If you need to mesh the entire model due to nonsymmetric loading conditions. .Geometry Solid Slice Match.. You will be able to produce a much better mesh in less time. You can use this command to slice the part through its plane(s) of symmetry and produce a much smaller and efficient model for meshing and analyzing. than if you attempt to mesh the entire part. . Most solid models in CAD systems will be of the entire model to generate drawings..2... but it will leave matching faces on both solids. simply mesh the sliced portion and then reflect the mesh..16 Geometry Solid Slice Match..similar to the slice match command but a face of the solid is selected instead of a plane. The face can be planar or curved.2.4..similar to the solid slice command. . This command is useful for making multiple solid meshes (tetrahedrons or hexahedrons) that can be sewn together using the coincident nodes command.

If you use this method with non-planar surfaces.extrudes a face into a new solid and embeds it into the solid that contained the face. you will be asked for a vector to use for both the direction and the distance to embed. curves on holes will also be used. . The surface will be offset through that distance and embedded. the direction can be automatically determined from the plane normal. you will simply be asked for an offset distance. If you choose “Specify Offset”. where only the outline of the face is used . If you choose “Automatic”. the surface normal will be used as the embedding direction. Embedding Direction and Distance The direction that the face will be embedded can be determined or specified in a number of ways. the resulting embedded solid will not be a simple extrusion. If you are embedding a planar face.18 Geometry Solid Embed Face.. you will want to embed the entire face. so any geometry that is “inside” the holes will be sliced out of the embedded solid. .. If you choose “Specify Direction”.4.holes are ignored. Usually you will simply want to use the defaults. That means choosing the “Outline Only” mode.. Geometry = + Pick this face 3.. You must first select a face. The sides of the solid are projected normal to the original surface. Curves In most cases. If you choose “All Curves”. by pressing OK. and the face will be embedded through your entire solid.2. Then you will have several optional methods that you can use to embed the face.

Geometry Solid Cleanup. . FEMAP will ask you for a direction vector to use for the extrusion. If you select a curved surface. they can cause great difficulties in meshing. use this command to see if you can remove it. and remove any extraneous features which are not part of the actual solid... . or multiple surfaces that are all really part of the same underlying geometric surface. points used to split curves. or drawn incorrectly. resulting in a simplified solid. two solids = pick circular face 3. Note: Do not use this option if you have imprinted curves or performed some of the matching commands since imprinted curves are considered extraneous and will be removed..4. While they are small. this geometry will be removed.2.. ( 2 0 ( 7 5 < * Remove Redundant Geometry Redundant geometry is geometry that is not required to define the volume of the solid. This command will check the solid. If a portion of your solid appears inaccurate... is used to “cleanup” a solid. Examples of this could be curves that have been imprinted in a face to split it into regions.  If a planar face is selected FEMAP uses the face normals as the extrusion direction. Typically these faces are much smaller than the other faces that define your solid.19 Geometry Solid Cleanup. Remove Sliver Surfaces “Slivers” are small faces that are created because of numerical inaccuracies in Boolean or other solid modeling operations. If you check this option. but may have developed during export from a CAD package or from Boolean operations on it.

usable solid. Check Geometry Once you have cleaned geometry. Geometry They will often completely prevent a part from being hex meshed. especially if you removed sliver surfaces. it is often good to check it to be confident that it is still a good. This option removes these surfaces and attempts to restitch your solid without them. . This option is only available with Parasolid geometry. You may even want to do this without any of the other options just to check the validity of a solid that you are creating.

Geometry Curve-Line Project Points. or solids. One repetition will create one copy of each selected entity. If you select Use Current Settings. surfaces. and (5) Reflect.After you set the Generation Options. curves. surfaces. Each of these capabilities is described in more detail below. FEMAP will only ask you for one vector that will be used to position the copies.5 Copying Geometry FEMAP provides robust tools to make duplicates of existing geometry. (3) Scale. the standard entity selection dialog box will appear. and choose parameters for the resulting entities. and then connect them properly to form the new copies. 3. each new entity will exactly match the parameters of the entity that was copied to create it. you choose Match Original Entities. If you specify multiple repetitions. including points. This vector defines both the direction and distance from the selected entities to the first copy. All Geometry Copy commands require the exact same input. independent of the geometry you are copying. volumes. you can specify a new vector for each repetition by selecting the “Update Every Repetition” option. When you copy geometry that is comprised of other geometry (such as surfaces which are comprised of curves). curves. and solids. Simply choose the desired entities. After selecting the appropriate command for the type of entity you want to select. volumes. In this mode. Specifying Generation Options The generation options control how many copies FEMAP will make. Geometry Point. set this option to the number desired. These operations can be performed with any geometry. Update Every Repetition: When this option is off. If you want multiple copies. (4) Rotate. you will see the standard vector definition dialog box.e. FEMAP will automatically copy these “framework” entities. You have the following choices: Parameters: These two choices select the parameters that will be assigned to the entities you create (such as Color and Layer).) If instead. This is the same as if you had created new entities using the geometry creation commands (i. etc. There are five commands which can be used to make duplicates of existing geometry. Optionally. at the same distance from the previous copy. Repetitions: By default this option is one. They are (1) Copy (2) Radial Copy.5. FEMAP will always offset the position of the current repetition ( 2 0 ( 7 5 < * . and FEMAP will display the following dialog box. each additional copy will be located along the same vector.1 Geometry Copy Commands You can use the copy commands to duplicate existing points. and press OK. . the entity parameters will match the active parameters.Copying Geometry  3.

In a three dimensional case. based on the direction and length of the vector that you define. the radial distance between each original and the associated copy. You cannot however. as those commands did. 3. these commands are actually a spherical copy. you must specify the radial offset length. Finally. You will want to check this option whenever you want to create multiple copies that do not lie along a single vector. This new vector will be used to offset from the original entities you selected. that is along a straight line. If you select the Update Every Repetition option however. You can specify the vector in any convenient coordinate system. as shown here. 5 10 15 20 Original Points 4 9 14 19 3 8 13 18 2 7 12 17 1 6 11 16 Make 3 copies along this vector Copying in NonRectangular Coordinates FEMAP always creates copies along the vector that you specify. you will next choose a location which defines the center of the radial pattern. to the entity.2 Geometry Radial Copy Commands The commands on this menu provide an alternative to the Geometry Copy commands. . use it to create a copy in a rotated location by choosing the angular direction in a cylindrical coordinate system. Geometry from the position of the previous repetition. not from the previous repetition. Copy FEMAP will compute a direction vector for each entity which runs from the center that you chose. Original Center Radial Vectors Offset For more information regarding the specifics of using the various generation options refer back to the Geometry Copy command. When you choose one of these commands. and to define the generation options. This portion of the process is identical to the normal copy commands. since the copy vector is computed from the “center of the sphere”. radial vector for each entity to be copied. You must use the rotation commands to create rotated copies. the Geometry Copy commands use a different. Instead of defining a vector however. FEMAP will ask you for a new vector before every repetition.5. you will be asked to select the entities to be copied. Instead of copying all entities along a constant vector. That is.

. as shown here. 1. These commands start by selecting the entities to be copied. instead of specifying a constant offset from the original. Finally. and a unit (1.0) scale factor in the third direction . For this type of operation. FEMAP will compute a direction vector for each entity which runs from the center that you chose. otherwise the arc formed by the copy may be significantly different than you would expect.0. Scale Factors of (1.0 calculate the final offsets from the center location of the copy. These compoCenter nents are multiplied by the scale factors to Scale=2. 3. You must also be careful when using this command with arcs. This portion of the process is identical to the normal copy commands.0 magnitude of these vectors is used.Geometry Scale Menu  Note: This command is not available for Solids. ( 2 0 ( 7 5 < * Note: If you use a scale factor of 1. you must specify the scale factors. A cylindrical copy can be accomplished by specifying the same factor in two directions. Just as in the Geometry Radial Copy commands.0. and defining the generation options. If you use different scale factors in different component directions. you next choose a location which defines the center of the pattern. the new copy is formed by scaling the distance from the center to the original. to the entity. the copy will not lie along the vector from the center to the original. Scaling can be done in one or more directions. The Original direction is used to determine the original “copy” vector components. For more information regarding the specifics of using the various generation options refer back to the similar Geometry Copy command.3 Geometry Scale Menu The Generate Scale commands are very similar to the Geometry Radial Copy commands. a spherical copy can be made. They create one or more copies of selected entities.5. 1. Copy In these commands. the resulting copy will be located at the same location as the original in that coordinate direction. By specifying the same scale factor in all three directions. both the direction and Scale=2. a coordinate system can also be chosen if the axes of the desired cylinder do not coincide with the global axes.0. In this case however. offset from a center location. Refer to the Modify Scale commands for more information on specifying scaling factors. It is used most often to copy arcs and other basic geometry.along the axis of the cylinder. You should typically use the center of the arc as the center of the radial pattern.0) will result in a completely coincident copy of the originals.

4 Geometry Rotate Menu Like the Geometry Copy commands. you do not have to specify a length for this axis. these commands rotate the duplicate copies around a vector. curves. and is translated along the axis vector by specified distance. All of the options in this box are used just as in the Geometry Copy command. Unlike the copy command. As always. surfaces. these commands create duplicate copies of model entities. you will use the stanReflection Plane dard entity selec20 10 tion dialog box to 19 18 17 7 8 9 choose the entities to be reflected. rule conventions). and solids across a plane. Each copy is rotated around the axis of rotation One original node vector by the specCircle created by rotating ified angle (folwith translation distance lowing right-hand set to zero. This is followed by the same Generation Options dialog box. FEMAP displays the standard entity selection dialog box to allow you to select the nodes you want to copy. Geometry 3. distance. you will be creating a spiral. Instead. volumes. 16 15 14 4 5 6 Then FEMAP will display the Gener13 12 11 1 2 3 ation Options dialog box (shown in Reflected Points Original Points the Geometry Copy Menu section). after you choose the vector.5.5. You can specify both a Rotation Axis of Revolution Angle and a TransSpiral created by rotating with a nonzero translation lation Distance. 3.5 Geometry Reflect Menu The commands on this menu allow you to generate a portion of your model by reflecting or flipping existing points. FEMAP displays one additional dialog box that asks for the Change per Repetition. This vector is used to specify the axis that you want to rotate around to generate the copies. Instead of copying along a vector. If you specify a nonzero translation distance. you will see the standard vector definition dialog box. All options work just like they do for Geometry Copy commands except that you can- . Following the Generation Options dialog box.

you can specify a Trap Width. than it is to create the curves from “scratch” in every model. When you hit the Mouse button to select the curve. you specify which option to select. This option is used most often when reflecting elements. etc.Modifying Geometry  not choose multiple repetitions. The Curve Operation commands are contained on the top section of the Modify Menu. FEMAP will not make a copy of any selected node if it is closer to the reflection plane than the trap width that you specify. were used to create new geometric entities. Modify Layer).6 Modifying Geometry The last major sections of commands involve the modification of geometry.1 Curve Operations The top portion of the Modify Menu contains commands that will modify existing curves. so you can define the reflection plane. several possible solutions may be obtained. It does not matter how your selected entities are oriented with respect to the plane. Extend. or they can be on both sides of the plane. Next. under the Geometry Menu. By inputting a “Near” location. while the Move Geometry commands are contained in the middle section. Other Boolean operations are performed directly on the Solids menu. Just remember that the reflected entities will be located on the opposite side of the plane from the original. It is often easier to modify geometry by using commands to trim or fillet curves. These commands can be separated into four specific areas for the purpose. 3. and input . not its creation.) (2) Move Geometry (3) Edit/Parameters (4) Advanced Updates These commands are all contained on the Modify menu.6. and will usually be zero when reflecting geometry. When trimming or joining curves. ( 2 0 ( 7 5 < * 3. but also so it is near the proper location. In addition. They can be on one side. Geometry commands explained above. All these commands are contained under the Modify menu. FEMAP will display the standard plane selection dialog box. either from “scratch” or as some type of duplicate from existing geometry. If you set the trap width to zero. You can choose any plane that you want. all of the nodes that you select will be reflected. The easiest method to use this option is to position the cursor so it will select the appropriate curve. Several commands also require input of a “Near” location. The bottom section of the Modify menu contains the Edit/Parameters commands (Modify Edit. and the Advanced Updates (top portion of the Modify Update Others menu). These commands essentially perform Boolean operations on Curves. The commands on the first section of the Modify menu are specifically designed to manipulate only curves. Each of these areas and their commands are discussed more thoroughly in the sections below. This section deals with the actual modification of geometry. FEMAP will automatically select the curve. Modify Color. They are: (1) Curve Operations (Trim.

By far. (4) Break. The available commands are (1) Modify. or a segment on the interior. you must select the curves that will be used as the cutting edges using the standard entity selection dialog box.. Geometry the coordinate location in the “Near” inputs. The portion of the curve closest to the “Remove Near” location you specify will be removed. the cutting curves always divide the curve that you are trimming into at least two sections. While input is set to the ID field. Note: These curve operations cannot be performed on curves that define a surface or a solid. the coordinate system has no impact on this command. Choose OK if this is the only curve that you want to trim with the selected cutting curves.. (4) Join. The extended trim option controls how the cutting curves are used.6. but other than this. When you have selected the curve and location you want to trim.. cutting curves extend past their endpoints toward “infinity”. 3. cuts curves at the locations where they intersect other curves. (5) Fillet. (3) Extend. the easiest way to use this command is to use your mouse to graphically select the curve. Trimming intersections can be . Press More if you want to trim more curves without selecting new cutting curves.1 Modify Trim. you can always set the input back to the center location and pick new coordinates. To trim. Assuming they intersect. These curve operations cannot be performed on curves that define a surface or solid. The curves you want to trim must actually intersect. and possibly more. If you double-click the mouse instead. you can press OK or More. and (6) Chamfer. You must delete any entities that reference these curves before you can perform any of these Curve Operations. This could be one of the ends of the curve. you will see the following dialog box: You must select the curve you want to trim and define a location (“Remove Near”) near the portion of the curve that you want to eliminate. This command does not project curves onto a plane before intersecting . Each of these commands are explained below. it will also automatically press the OK button and trim the curve. You can choose as many cutting curves as you like. This will select both the ID and the “Remove Near” location.it uses the three dimensional curve definition. With extended trim on. (2) Trim. Ctrl+i . point at the portion of the curve that you want to remove and click the left mouse button. The location must be specified relative to the coordinate system shown..1. If you make a mistake. Choosing the curve to trim After you choose the cutting curves.

Modify Extend. This command only uses standard dialog boxes...1.2 Modify Extend. Examples . .. The location is simply projected onto each curve at the point of closest proximity. moves the endpoints of one or more curves to a specified location. You can not use this command to extend or shrink B-Spline curves. any curves and any location can be chosen. As described above. If the location does not lie along the curve. You then specify the location using the standard coordinate dialog boxes. You choose the curves to extend using the standard entity selection dialog.  found anywhere along these extended curves.6.. Examples Curve to Trim if Remove Near is at this end if Remove Near is at this end if Remove Near is in the middle Remove Near Cutting Curve Remove Near Curve to Trim Curve to Trim ( 2 0 ( 7 5 < * 3. This command always modifies the end of the curve that is already closest to the specified location.. the cutting curves stop at their endpoints and intersections can only be found between the endpoints. This command can either lengthen or shorten the curves depending upon the chosen location. If extended trim is off.. the curve is extended along its length to the location that is closest to the coordinates you specified.

1. You just end up with two new curves of the same type. it is projected to the closest location on the curve. Geometry Original Curves Extended Curves Closest to specified location Extend to here Extend (shrink) to here Extend to here 3.3 Modify Break. Ctrl+K . The location that you choose. and the curve is split at that location. breaking a curve does not change its type.. Normally.6. must fall within the current endpoints of the curve that you are trying to break. you choose the location with the standard coordinate dialog boxes. splits one or more curves into two pieces at a location that you specify. Then. In this case.. you end up with two arcs (a different type of curve) that represent the original circle. make up the original curve. that together. Only standard dialog boxes are used for this command. . If the location is not along the length of a curve. You select the curves to break using the standard entity selection dialog box. You cannot use this command to extend the existing curve beyond its endpoints. The only exception is when you break a circle... or its projection.

.. the portion of the curve closest to the Near location is kept. The “Update 1” and “Update 2” options control whether the respective curves will be extended (or shortened) to the join location. It simply extends or shrinks the curves so they will intersect. do not intersect. Ctrl+J . This command cannot work. and a location near the intersection where you want to join the curves. If the selected curves intersect within their original length..nothing will be updated.  Examples Original Curves Break here Original Circle Starting location of circle Break here Two arcs 3. the curves are joined at the intersection that is closest to the location you specify. ( 2 0 ( 7 5 < * ... For other curve types. but is not used otherwise. If you are joining lines. Do not turn both off . or the extensions of the curves past their endpoints. that curve will not be updated. Just like Modify Fillet. if the curves. you can specify any location that you want since there will only be a single intersection. If you turn one of these off.6. This command cannot be used to create a third curve from the two selected curves. the Near location is used to determine which portion of the curves will be kept after they are updated. The coordinate system can be used for convenience in specifying the location. but the other curve will still be extended to the join location. If an intersection is found the selected curves are either extended or shortened to that common location. combines the capabilities found in the trim and extend commands to allow you to quickly connect two intersecting curves.4 Modify Join.Modify Join.. where multiple intersections are possible. Here you select the two curves.1. Only one dialog box is required for this command.

you can choose any fillet radius that you want. like two arcs or circles. The lengths of the original curves can be adjusted so that they just meet the ends of the fillet arc.. The arc is positioned so that it is tangent to both original curves at its endpoints. . Examples Geometry Join these curves These portions have been removed Near Join these curves These portions have been removed Near Join these curves Only update this curve Only one curve extended to join location 3.6.. Ctrl+F . If you are filleting nonintersecting curves. You must choose the two curves to fillet. only one dialog box is required for this command.. It must lie in the quadrant where you want the fillet arc.5 Modify Fillet. The examples below will show you how to specify this location. and a location that is near the center of the desired fillet. Just like the Modify Join command described above.1. the fillet radius must be large enough to span the gap between the curves. Since even at a line-to-line intersection there are four possible quadrants for the fillet. If you are filleting intersecting curves. like lines. it also chooses between the many possible intersection locations. connects two curves with an arc of a specified radius. this location is always important.. For other curve types.

You will have to adjust the position manually or use another technique. If you just want to add an arc. Examples Original Curves Fillet Arc Both curves trimmed or extended to the fillet locations. check the location and alignment of your workplane. turn one or more of these options off. The coordinates that you pick are typically in the workplane and if it is skewed relative to the curves that you are filleting.  As long as the “Trim Curve” options are on. or no fillet will be created. Fillet expects the geometry to be planar. Center Near here Pick the center location in the quadrant where you want the fillet. If you are having trouble creating the arc that you want. If it does not. Pick here for this fillet Original Curves ( 2 0 ( 7 5 < * Original Curves Original Curves Fillet added without trimming original circles Limitations You may encounter the following limitations when you are attempting to fillet curves: m If you are going to fillet an arc. the point you choose may not be in the quadrant that you expected. the other curve should lie in the same plane. circle or spline. m If you attempt to fillet splines. the endpoints of the respective curve will be adjusted to be coincident with the ends of the fillet arc. but not trim the curves..Modify Fillet. the center location of the fillet arc is not calculated precisely. It is always best to do filleting in a view where the curves and the workplane are normal to the screen. Since splines cannot be precisely offset. the fillet arc will probably not be tangent to the spline. .. the fillet that is created will probably not be tangent to both curves.

the endpoints of the respective line will be adjusted to be coincident with the ends of the chamfer line. (3) Rotate.6 Modify Chamfer.6. It is always best to do chamfering in a view where the lines and the workplane are normal to the screen. .1. 3. The lengths that you specify are the distances along the curves as shown here: As long as the “Trim Curve” options are on. but not trim the original lines. These commands are also very useful when assembling parts from different models into one large model. circles or splines). (2) Translate (Move). It must lie in the quadrant where you want the chamfer line. and (5) Scale. Both the Translate and Rotate categories have two capabilities based upon whether you move/rotate to a given position (Move To and Rotate To) or move along or rotate around (Move By and Rotate By) a vector.. Each of the individual commands is described in more detail below. (4) Alignment. If you are having trouble creating the chamfer that you want.6.. the point you choose may not be in the quadrant that you expected. but you must choose lines (not arcs. You must choose the two lines to chamfer. this location is always important. only one dialog box is required for this command. This command is very similar to the fillet command described above. any geometry that reference that geometry is also moved. Therefore.. and you can independently control the chamfer length along each curve. you are actually modifying that surface.2 Moving Geometry FEMAP also has robust tolls for moving geometry. These move commands. The coordinates that you pick are typically in the workplane and if it is skewed relative to the lines that you are chamfering. If you just want to add a line. trims two intersecting lines at a specified distance from their endpoints and connects the trimmed ends with a new line. and a location that is near the center of the desired chamfer. . give you the power to make large scale changes to the model with only a few changes to the geometry. The Move commands can be separated into five major categories: (1) Project. When you move geometry.. turn one or more of these options off. Since even at a line-line intersection there are four possible quadrants for the chamfer. check the location and alignment of your workplane. Chamfer Length 1 Curve 1 Choose location near here Chamfer Line Curve 2 Chamfer Length 2 You can choose any chamfer lengths that you want. therefore. Just like the Modify Fillet command. Geometry 3. if you move a Point which is referenced by a Curve on a Surface. The figure below will show you how to specify this location.

or in the case of an arc. Even though possible. the projection direction will typically be normal to the curve or surface that you are projecting onto. Actually however. and then you must select the appropriate surface. moves one or more points onto a curve. 3..6. You then select the curve for the projection. but not to infinity. however. this may or may not result in the coordinates that you expected. You can move an entire solid.. and all of the selected points will be projected onto it. Modify Project Point onto Curve. .. they extend a full 360 degrees. curves extend past their endpoints toward infinity. These commands are only used for Points (or Nodes with finite element data). you should avoid projecting onto a surface outside of its defined boundaries..1 Modify Project Menu The Project commands update the locations of points by moving them onto a selected curve or surface. . In all of these commands. . Depending on the surface type. The standard entity selection dialog box is used to choose the points that you want to project.2. Original Locations Projected Locations Points projected onto “extended” curve ( 2 0 ( 7 5 < * Original Locations Projected Locations Point projected onto “extended” arc Modify Project Point onto Surface.. Refer to the description above (Modify Project Menu) for more information on how the projection will be done.. The standard entity selection dialog box is used to choose the points that you want to project. moves one or more points onto a surface.Modify Project Menu  Note: These commands cannot be used to move entities of solids. For the purposes of these commands. these commands move the entities to the closest location on the curve or surface.. You must use the commands under the Geometry Solids menu to perform manipulations on solid entities.. surfaces extend past their edge curves. Likewise. You can choose any curve.

Each command on this menu displays the standard entity selection dialog box so you can choose the entities to move. (they would all be coincident) each command allows you to limit the movement to any subset of the three coordinates. Finally. surfaces. When you press OK.6. you could use the Move To Point command in this example to move all nodes to be in a specific plane (i. Refer to the description above (Modify Project Menu) for more information on how the projection will be done. when you move a Point. Only those coordinates that are checked will be updated. Before After Select all points and change X coordinates to this location. Geometry Original Points Projected Points Surface You can choose any surface. you can just update the X coordinates.e. you can also move to a selected radius or angle. the geometry (curves. For example. Since it is relatively useless to move multiple entities to a single location. after you choose a location. and all of the selected points will be projected onto it. there are only commands to move Coordinate Systems. Although. selected entities will be moved. Points. the standard coordinate definition dialog box appears to specify the location to Move To. same value of X). In most cases. are also updated. :For example.2. you will not want to check all three coordinates unless you are updating a single point. and Nodes.2 Modify Move To Menu The Move To commands update the location of some portion of your model. leaving all Y and Z coordinates in their original locations.) that reference the Point. 3. you will see the Move To dialog box to select which coordinate (in a specific coordinate system) to update. The basic philosophy behind each of these commands is to specify a new coordinate. By specifying a nonrectangular coordinate system. . you can use these commands to move your entire model. For example. etc. to which.

6. nodes and other coordinate systems that are defined relative to those coordinate systems. Curves and any other geometry that reference the selected Points will also be moved. it is updated based on your request. Modify Move To Point.. All of the coordinate systems that you select are updated as you requested.2. Refer to the description above (Modify Move To Menu) for more information on other options. the standard entity selection dialog box is displayed. This command only uses two dialog boxes. this command can quickly move large.. y 4 z y 3 z y y 3 z x x These nodes defined relative to CSys 3 4 z x x CSys 3 moves and so do nodes ( 2 0 ( 7 5 < * If your model was built in a hierarchical manner. Refer to the description above (Modify Move To Menu) for more information. If a coordinate system is both selected and dependent on other selected coordinate systems. the standard vector definition . do not choose Move CSys. Nodes and Points. If you did select that option. you can also use the Modify Update Coord Sys command. but it can also move all points. since you selected it.. is the most powerful Move To command. related portions of your model. . .. Other dependent entities are moved as a rigid body based on the transformation of the definition coordinate systems. The significant difference is that for these commands you specify a vector instead of coordinates... First. If you want to update the location of a coordinate system.3 Modify Move By Menu These commands are similar to those found on the Move To submenu. 3. FEMAP would move the coordinate systems you selected plus the dependent entities. Then. Not only does it update the location of the coordinate systems that you select. If you just want to move the coordinate systems that you selected... All of the entities that you select for modification are moved along (or by) that vector. but leave the entities that reference it in their original positions.. moves selected Points to a specified coordinate..Modify Move By Menu  Modify Move To Coord Sys. using multiple coordinate systems. You should select the entities to be updated.

Modify Move By Point. . Volume. Surface. All of the selected entities. but it will always represent a straight line. When you move points that are connected to curves. and the entities that reference them will be moved by that vector.e. If you only move some of the points which are attached to a curve.. by the specified vector. those curves will be moved also. Geometry dialog box will be displayed. This essentially means that the location of the selected entity is updated by adding the components of the vector. The vector you specify must contain both a direction and magnitude. Move By vector Select these nodes Move By in NonRectangular Coordinate Systems The move by commands always move along a vector (i. these commands treat the selected entities as a rigid body. Refer to the Modify Move By Menu description for more information. moves the selected points.. . along a straight line). Solid. nodes.. Be especially careful when moving points that define arcs or circles. You can define the vector in any convenient coordinate system.. Selected coordinate systems are all moved by the vector that you define. Curve. You can not use the Move By commands to rotate your model by specifying a vector in the angular direction of a cylindrical coordinate system. Refer to the Modify Move By Menu description for more information. will move all of the selected coordinate systems. Unlike the Modify Move To commands. Small movements can sometimes lead to large changes in the curve definition. dependent entities are moved as a rigid body.. 3. just like the Modify Move To Coord Sys command.. Use the Rotate commands to rotate your model. . Modify Move By Coord Sys.6. the shape and size of the curve will probably change. Again. or other coordinate systems that reference a selected system.. and any points. This can be very powerful if your model is constructed with multi-level coordinate systems. curves. All of them are rotated by the same angle. or surfaces and all geometry that references them.4 Modify Rotate To Menu The commands on this menu rotate selected entities..2.

You can select all Rotate from here of the entities that you want to rotate..2. Solid. rotates selected geometry. The selected entities will be rotated (following rightAxis of rotation hand rule conventions) around the axis of rotation by the specified angle. 3. the standard coordinate definition dialog box is displayed twice.Modify Rotate By Menu  The Modify Rotate To commands Axis of rotation require four dialog Rotate to here boxes. Curve. and define the Rotation Angle and the Translation Distance. Simply select the entities. ... Only the location of the base and the direction of this vector are important. You can also specify an optional Translation Distance with these commands. the standard vector definition dialog box defines the axis of rotation.6. Refer to the Modify Rotate To Menu description above for more information. The first time. the standard entity selection dialog box is displayed... Modify Rotate To Coord Sys.. Finally. FEMAP will determine the rotation angle. Surface. Then. Volume. Their movement is based on the motion of their definition coordinate systems. First.5 Modify Rotate By Menu These commands are similar to the commands on the Modify Rotate To menu but you must specify a rotation angle instead of locations. The second time.. and the axis of rotation. just like the Modify Move commands. and all other geometry that references them. Points and other coordinate systems that reference a selected system are also moved as a rigid body. The length is not used. you must define the ending point of the rotation. Modify Rotate To Point. you must define the coordinates of the starting point of the rotation. Using these coordinates. will rotate all selected coordinate systems. This can be very powerful if your model is constructed with multi-level coordinate systems. Simultaneously. they will be translated. Refer to the Modify Rotate To Menu description above for more information. you can move entities along a “screw-thread” or helix shaped path. around the specified vector. By combining both rotation about.. chose a vector. along the ( 2 0 ( 7 5 < * . . and translation along the axis of rotation.

The second vector defines new or desired position and orientation. Geometry same vector. Solid. The actual length of the vector is not used. FEMAP will first move the entities that you selected from the origin of the first vector to the origin of the second vector. .6 Modify Align Menu These commands combine the capabilities of the ModTo this vector. Modify Rotate By Coord Sys. you select the entities that you want to align using the standard entity selection dialog box.. these commands will simply translate along the vector . This can be very powerful if your model is constructed with multi-level coordinate systems.. around the specified vector.. Then you need to specify two vectors using the vector definition dialog boxes. Points or other coordinate systems that reference a selected system are also moved as a rigid body. the shape and size of the curve will probably change. If you simply want to use this command as an alternate method of rotation. Small movements can often lead to large changes in the curve definition.. rotates the selected points.2. Volume. along these other ify Move and elements Rotate commands to provide a simple Aligned elements way of aligning portions of your model. will rotate all of the selected coordinate systems. and all geometry that references them. Refer to the Modify Rotate By Menu description above for more information. Modify Rotate By Point.much like the Modify Move By commands. Then. Be especially careful when rotating points that define arcs or circles.. Their movement is based on the transformation of the selected coordinate systems. If you do not. Curve. If you specify a zero rotation angle. This is accomplished by a rotation based on the angle between the vectors.. Only three dialog boxes are From this vector Align these elements necessary. Surface. just like the Modify Rotate To commands.. When you rotate points that are connected to curves those curves will rotate also. 3. FEMAP will rotate the entities to the new orientation.6. make sure both vectors have the same origin. . Refer to the Modify Rotate By Menu description above for more information.. If you only select some of the points which are attached to a curve. by the specified distance. First. The first vector defines the original position and orientation that will be aligned. the entities will be translated before they are rotated .

.. you must use a scale factor of 1. a scale factor of 0. After you press OK. aligns the selected geometry. Surface. FEMAP will adjust the selected coordinates appropriately. For any coordinate direction that you do not want to scale..2. Solid. 3. FEMAP displays the Scale dialog box which requires input of a coordinate system as well as scale factors. The coordinate directions are along the axes of this system.0. FEMAP will scale your model relative to these base coordinates. Volume. The first dialog box used by these commands is the standard entity selection dialog. . Scale factors smaller than 1. You can use a negative scale factor to reflect the entities about the base location. just like the Modify Move To commands. and all geometry that references them. you can scale your model radially or tangentially. will move all entities to the base coordinate. You specify a relative scaling factor and a point to scale around. is just like the Move and Rotate commands. FEMAP will display the standard coordinate definition dialog box.7 Modify Scale Menu These commands are used to change the size of your model.. entities which reference the selected entities which you have selected to scale will also be scaled. Similarly. Modify Align Point.0 in Horizontal Direction Only ( 2 0 ( 7 5 < * All scaling is done in the Coordinate System that you select.0 decrease its size.6. No option is available to skip alignment of the referencing entities. Refer to the Modify Align Menu description above for more information. The equation used for the scaling is: { X } New = { X }Old + ( ( { X }Base – { X }Old ) × { X } ScaleFactor ) Finally... one for each coordinate direction. You must select all of the entities that you wish to scale. plus the entities that are defined relative to those systems. . Scale factors that are larger than 1. If you select a non-rectangular system.. You can specify three different scale factors.. Curve.. using the two vectors. Original Model After Scale Factor of 2.0 increase the physical size of your model.Modify Scale Menu  Modify Align by CSys. It will align all of the coordinate systems that you select. Coordinate Systems cannot be scaled. Like other modification commands.0.

will be the current color of the selected entity with the minimum ID. 3 and 5.6. you select the entities you want to modify using the standard entity selection dialog box. or just press OK to accept the current values. Modify Layer.6. 3. Modify Color.3. Following your selections.3. You can change them. You can pick a color. All of these commands work in a similar fashion. For example. These commands are typically used when you need to perform modifications to a single or a few entities. Therefore. Enter a value from 0(opaque) to 100(transparent). Then. You will be prompted for input for each entity selected. As always. 3. You can also use the Modify Edit commands to change colors.6. the standard entity selection dialog box is used. this command can only be used to modify Points and Surface Boundaries (and Coordinate Systems). Each of these commands uses the standard entity selection dialog box to select the entities to be modified. which will be applied to all of the entities that you selected. and Modify Layer) enable you to change specific items in the geometry.2 Modify Color Menu The commands on this submenu are used to modify the Color of one or more selected entities of a specific type.3 Edit/Parameters The first three commands in the third section of the Modify Menu (Modify Edit. to use this command to modify hundreds of entities. For these type of gross changes to the model. These commands are very much like those on the Modify Color menu. please see the other Modify commands in this section of the Modify Menu (Modify Color. The default color. you will immediately return to the FEMAP menu. instead of .1 Modify Edit Menu The commands on the Modify Edit menu are used to edit or “recreate” entities in your model. Then dialog boxes for Points 3 and 5 will be displayed. Modify Update Elements and Modify Update Other commands). all of the data fields default to the current values for the selected entities. If you press Cancel at any time. if you choose Edit Point and then select Points 1. Any entities that you had previously changed (and pressed OK) will still be changed. The first dialog box will display the coordinates of Point 1. can be quite time consuming. Each command first asks you to select the entities you wish to edit.3.3 Modify Layer Menu The commands on this submenu are used to modify the Layer of one or more selected entities of a specific type. Geometry 3. FEMAP simply displays the same dialog box (or boxes) used by the related command in the Geometry menu which you used to originally create the entities. The surface and element transparency commands allow you to change the transparency of multiple entities without changing the color. but these commands will be much quicker if you are changing multiple entities to the same color. First. In this case however. 3. For geometry. three additional dialog boxes will be displayed. Each of these commands are described below.6. Then the standard Color Palette dialog box is displayed. one at a time.

. curves for an ABAQUS rigid surface). 3. All of the selected entities will be modified to the specified layer. enables you to reverse the direction of a curve. This option can be useful when creating curves to model entities that require a certain direction of the curves (for example. is used to insert control points on the selected B-Splines.4.. . If you say No. you will be asked if it is OK to map onto a surface... 3.. . .3 Modify Update BSpline Knots. You simply select the curve(s) to update and then enter the location of the Knot (control point).. B-Spline curves created in FEMAP will automatically default to an order of 3.. works just like Modify Update CSys Definition CSys.. . 3.Modify Update Others Menu  selecting from the Color Palette. whichever is smaller. This command cannot be used on any curves that are referenced by surfaces.4.. The maximum order for any B-Spline is either the number of points (a mathematical limit) or ten (a FEMAP limit). you must then select the surface and the boundary will be mapped to it.6.. .5 Modify Update Boundary on Surface.6. therefore no solid curves can be reversed.4..4 Modify Update Reverse Curve. but since the parameters that they update vary. This command should be used with some care in these circumstances. The only input to this command is the curves to reverse.4. but this command is faster for multiple entities.6. each command is documented in its own section.2 Modify Update BSpline Order. FEMAP will prompt you to choose a new layer number from the list of available layers. This command provides you with a powerful tool to modify the curvature and smoothness of a particular curve by inserting control points at precise locations.4... This command enables you to provide curvature to any Boundary Surface.4 Advanced Updates .6. All of these commands work in a similar fashion. 3.. Modify Edit can be used to change layers. the parameters which are updated by these commands are only applicable to one entity type. any connections to a .. is used to map a Boundary Surface. Unlike the commands on the Modify Color and Modify Layer menus. except that you select Points to update instead of Coordinate Systems.1 Modify Update Other Point Definition CSys. is used to change the order of B-Spline curves. which is typically planar.6. 3... ( 2 0 ( 7 5 < * 3.. Higher order splines can provide some shape smoothing... Again. onto a surface.Advanced Updates . If you say Yes. but may also cause sharp fluctuations for splines that have been driven through particular points.Modify Update Others Menu The commands on this menu are used to update parameters which are referenced by one or more selected entities. When you select this command.6.

Since most of the commands on this menu work in a very similar fashion.. NonDeletable Entities Sometimes when you try to delete. and press OK. Deleting From Your Model If you want to delete any type of entity in your model. a Point is nondeletable if it is connected to one or more Curves. This final question will also let you know how many entities have been selected. Geometry surface which the boundary had previously is removed. Choosing No. you simply select the surfaces that you want to update. The defaults will be the existing values for the surface that you selected with the minimum ID. When you choose this command. you will be asked to confirm that you really want to delete the entities. is used to update the number of surface divisions that will be displayed for selected surfaces. you will receive a message that a number of nondeletable entities have been skipped. Refer to the Geometry Surface commands for more information about surface divisions. No checking is performed to see if any entities are considered Nondeletable since all geometry is removed.. 3. To begin. will delete the entities.6 Modify Update Surface Divisions. These entities are skipped because FEMAP protects you from deleting entities which are needed by other entities in your model. To delete these nondeletable entities. Therefore. If you answer No. will simply cancel the command. you can use this command to either attach a boundary surface to a surface. Answering Yes. FEMAP will ask you to confirm that you really want to delete all geometry (and Analysis Model if you select Delete All). the documentation for the entire menu is given in this section. or remove a connection. the command is canceled.7 Deleting Geometry The commands on the Delete Geometry menu are all used to delete entities. Then you simply enter the number of divisions that you want to display in each parametric direction. all you need to do is select the appropriate command (based on the entity type) from this menu.4.. you must first delete all of the . using the standard entity selection dialog box.6. All commands will delete entities from your model.. If you answer Yes. 3. The standard entity selection dialog box will then be displayed to let you select the entities you wish to delete. . You may also use the Delete All or Delete Geometry All command to remove all geometry from the model. Similarly a Curve is nondeletable if it has a load attached to it. all geometry will be removed from the model. The Delete Geometry All command is useful for removing geometry from a meshed model when it is no longer of use (assuming you do not want to constrain or load geometry). For example. When you complete your selection.

and the savings will not be worth the time it takes to perform the command. Volumes.The following table lists the entities that can cause an entity to be nondeletable: Nondeletable Entities When you are trying to delete. ( 2 0 ( 7 5 < * . and FEMAP says it is nondeletable. For example. Loads. The model file does not decrease in size. the space that they occupied is simply marked as empty and available for reuse.Deleting Geometry  entities which reference them. The File Rebuild command can do just that. Point Curve Surface Could be referenced by. and select all Points. Curves. simply choose Delete Point. and verify whether there are connections to this entity. If you attempt to delete an entity. Normally. . and you believe that there are no connections to it. Then press Yes again to allow FEMAP to compact the model. Loads Hint: You can use this feature to great advantage in “cleaning up” a model. and press Yes to perform a full rebuild. they will be removed and your model will decrease in size. as long as you are going to create additional data. After you Delete When you delete entities from a FEMAP model. . If you had blocks of empty space. In some cases however. Choose the File Rebuild command. when you delete a lot of data you may want to immediately remove that empty space from your model and reduce the size of your model file. Curves. Surfaces. . Loads. This may seem dangerous. You should only use this option after you delete large blocks of data. . but in fact only those Points which are not referenced by any other geometry or loads will be deleted. this is not a problem since the space will be reused. (Solids) Solids. (Solids) Surfaces. perform a File Rebuild. FEMAP cannot usually compact space if you have only deleted one or two scattered entities. This will check all connections in the model. if you want to get rid of all of the unused Points.

 Geometry .

Loads and Constraints 4. The menu is partitioned into different sections based upon the type of input. 4. Elements.. Each of the Menu sections and their commands are explained more fully below. .. this chapter will include commands for modifying and deleting these entities (copying commands are described under the Meshing section of this manual). Model Output. Coordinate Systems 0 (Global Rectangular).1. 1 .. In this manner. Materials. They are also a convenient way to update the position of geometry and finite elements. Optimization 6. all geometry defined in that coordinate system will move with it .1 Coordinate System Creation Coordinate systems are applicable for both finite element information and geometry. Deleting FEA Entities Coordinate systems are separated from the finite element information in this structure because it is applicable for both geometry and finite element information. 4. Finite Element Entities (Nodes. will be discussed in the Postprocessing section of this manual. If you use the Modify Move commands to move coordinate systems. The eight portions of this chapter are as follows: 1. coordinate systems can greatly simplify input to your model.. while the sixth section. The methods of creating coordinate systems are explained below. The first five sections will be discussed in this section. Contact 5.even other coordinate systems. Functions 7. allows you to define coordinate systems for coordinate. In addition. Properties) 3. In general. vector or plane entry or to align nodal degrees of freedom or material axes.1 Model Coord Sys. you can create a hierarchy of coordinate systems which greatly simplify movement of geometry. Coordinate System Creation 2.4Finite Element Modeling The commands on this menu provide the basic entity creation commands for finite element information in your model. Modifying FEA Entities 8.

. as shown here. Z z’ y’ Z θ y’ y’’ θx z’’ x’ Y X Z z’’’ y’’’ x’’ Y rotate around x then around rotated y X θz’’ x’’’ Y The orientation of the coordinate system is then specified by three rotation angles... Rotations about multiple axes are interpreted as a rotation about the reference coordinate system Xaxis. ID. The Z axis is created as the positive . then around doubly rotated z X 4. Finite Element Modeling (Global Cylindrical). The reference coordinate system is utilized to create a hierarchy of coordinate systems which can be used in later Modify Move commands. 4. All angles are entered in degrees.1 Angles Method of Creating Coordinate Systems.1.. When you choose this command you will see the Define Coordinate System dialog box which allows you to define numerous parameters which determine the type of coordinate system to be created. Type Determines the type of coordinate system that will be created.1. This will also be the default coordinate system for coordinate or vector definition . Color/Palette and Layer These options set parameters for the coordinate system to be created. Ref CSys The coordinate system you create will be defined in this coordinate system.although you can change that system when those dialog boxes are displayed.1.1. allows you to specify coordinates using the standard coordinate definition dialog boxes to define the coordinate system origin.2 Workplane Method of Creating a Coordinate System This method of creating a coordinate system simply creates a coordinate system by placing the X-Y axes at the X-Y axes of the current Workplane..3. You can create any additional coordinate systems that you need for your model with this command. Coordinate specification for each of the types is shown in Section 5. and 2 (Global Spherical) are always defined. Title. then the rotated Y-axis and finally the rotated Z-axis. around the reference coordinate system directions.

just like for XY Locate. Hint: Always specify meaningful titles.4 Axes Methods of Creating Coordinate Systems Just like the Locate methods. the Axes Z y methods require three inputs. Since this command uses the current Workplane. For example. They are shown along with the ID in the drop-down list boxes used for selection throughout FEMAP. Again. for XY Locate. you specify coordinates on the X axis and coordinates in the XY plane. 4.1. 1 * 0 . you can not enter colinear or coincident coordinates or vectors. YZ Locate and ZX Locate. you can use any convenient method of entering the coordinates or vectors to define coordinate systems. Each of these methods requires you to define three sets of XY Plane coordinates using the standard coorx X Axis dinate definition dialog boxes. The final X two sets orient the coordinate system axes. Again you z specify coordinates for the origin. 4. X which correspond to the orientation axes that you define. for XY Axes.1. using the standard vector definiY tion dialog boxes. However. you specify a vector along the X axis and a vector in the XY plane. The Y first set of coordinates defines the coordinate system origin. The final axes are calculated from the three locations that you define. The methods are titled XY Axes. Then instead of locations on the axes.3 Coordinates Method of Creating a Coordinate System There are three methods to create a Z Origin y coordinate system using coordinate z locations.Coordinates Method of Creating a Coordinate System  normal to the Workplane. Note: In general. you XY Plane specify vectors in the direction of the x X Vector axes.1. since they would not fully specify the coordinate system orientation. The methods are titled XY Locate. YZ Axes and ZX Axes. no additional input is required.1. 2 ' ( / . These names correspond to the orientation axes that you define.

degrees of freedom. Ctrl+N . Color. Element . The use of output coordinate systems and permanent constraints varies substantially between various analysis programs. along with keyboard or mouse input to define the location of a node.1 Model Node. 4.define physical position of element in space. In this case. Property . These commands allow you to create these entities one at a time. You can change this option to Scalar Point or Grid Point for other Node Types.contains physical characteristics and references a Material. . Output Coordinate System Here you can set the Output Coordinate System for the Node. Palette. offset connections for line elements and constraints are defined.. These commands are grouped together because all four entities are normally required to create a finite element in FEMAP. (2) Element. Just like all other coordinate locations. Specifying Node Parameters When you are creating a Node. Finite Element Modeling 4. Even so. and (4) Property. you can generate your individual properties and materials with these commands. This is the coordinate system in which displacements. Refer to the Translator Reference section for more information on how these features are supported for your program. Much more powerful methods are available through the various Generate commands.contains physical parameters of material. choosing the Parameters command button will display the Node Parameters dialog box. There are four commands contained under this section: (1) Node. (3) Material. The Color and Layer options define these parameters for the Node to be created. Nodes .references Nodes and Property.. you may use any of the available methods and/or snap modes.. Material . and then use the automatic meshing tools to create the finite element mesh. Increment. Many times it is much easier to use the automatic meshing tools available under the Mesh Menu to generate Nodes and Elements for the model. Layer The Increment is added to the Node ID which you create to determine the default ID for the next Node to be created.. The relationship between these four entities is described below. allows you to define Nodes by entering their coordinates using the standard coordinate definition dialog boxes.2. Node Type This option is almost always set to Node. but this is not used for most analysis programs.2 Finite Element Entities These commands allow creation of finite element entities for your model. this command creates nodes one at a time.

you can choose the Parabolic Elements option to create elements with nodes at the middle of each edge.nodes at the corners only. Proper specification of material angles is extremely important if you are using nonisotropic materials. Unlike Constraints which can be defined in multiple sets.2 Model Element. For any of the Plane or Volume elements. Element Material Orientation For planar and axisymmetric elements. You should review those sections prior to creating elements. 2 ' ( / .. The six degrees of freedom which can be constrained are the X. This will display the Element/Property Type dialog box where you can choose the type of elements to create.displays one of the element creation dialog boxes based on the active element type.. RZ). Refer to the Modify Update Material Angle command for further information. The full FEMAP element library is described in the Element Reference section in the FEMAP Users Guide.Model Element. The Permanent Constraints are combined with the Constraint sets that you request for analysis. and element types that are supported by your analysis program. Further information is given in the Translator Reference in the Users Guide concerning how each element type is translated to the various analysis programs. You can set the active element type from any of the element creation dialog boxes (or any of the property creation dialog boxes) by choosing the Type button..  Permanent Constraints Permanent Constraints. Y and Z rotations (RX. For other element types. Y and Z translations (TX. RY. you can also define an Element Material Orientation. other than Plot Only. Ctrl+E .. like other constraints are defined relative to the Output Coordinate System. 4. TZ) and the X. This includes elements that are created using the various generation techniques.2. you can only create Linear elements .. Pressing this button will display an additional dialog box that lets you set the material orientation direction or angle for all elements that are created until you change to a different orientation.. TY.. 1 * 0 . This will insure that you choose the correct element types to represent your structure. there is only one group of Permanent Constraint per Node.

These programs have several different subtypes. Each element type has a different formulation which is stored as a global variable. . simply enter the element formulation dialog box with the appropriate element type active. or would like to change the formulation. Note: If you do not set the formulation before meshing. the Element Formulation dialog box will appear. Please consult the Element Reference chapter in the FEMAP Users Guide for more information on the different available formulations. Once the formulation is set. and select from the available options. you can use the Modify Update Elements Formulation command to change the formulation of a few elements. LS-DYNA3D. all elements of that type created from that point on will have that formulation. For instance. used to choose a new element type can be found here also. Most other features are identical. Finite Element Modeling Formulation If you are exporting to ABAQUS. please consult your analysis program documentation. You will be able to set options for LS-DYNA3D.. while most options for ABAQUS/MARC change the name/number of the element.. the hybrid option in ABAQUS and MARC is typically used for large elastic (hyperelastic) materials. ABAQUS. Common Features of All Element Dialog Boxes There are quite a few different dialog boxes used for creating the various element types in FEMAP. To change to a different formulation for future meshes. or an entire mesh. The element formulation for LSDYNA3D is exported on the *SECTION cards as part of the property definition. for the same basic element. The major difference between them is the changing number of nodes required to define the various element types. When you select Formulation. The inputs to the dialog box will be slightly different based upon the current element type but all element types will have separate inputs for DYNA and ABAQUS/MARC. To determine which formulation is best for your analysis. The Type button.. or MARC. Near the top of each dialog box you will notice a group of controls which are used to set various parameters for the element to be created. and MARC. or formulations. Each element has a section on their formulations. you should also select the element formulation.

As you change the shape. Property: This drop-down list allows you to choose the property to be referenced by the element. you will be given a chance to automatically create new nodes for each of the blank entries. Parabolic plate and solid elements allow you to pick nodes at the midsides of each element edge in addition to the corner nodes. when you press OK. If you do not specify a property (leave the option blank or 0). choosing from the list. except that the element creation dialog box is still visible and the resulting property ID will automatically be entered into the list. you will see text boxes which allow you to select the nodes to define the element. and switch faces on solid elements.  ID. You should enter the nodes in this order. your choices are a brick. This is the same as using the Model Property command. you will see the number of required nodes change also. you must choose either a triangular or quadrilateral shape. You must choose one which is of the same type as the element that you are creating. For example.. You can make your choice by typing an ID. FEMAP checks its shape. Because of the automatic node creation feature described above. For Volume Elements.. you will be given a chance to automatically create a new property. the default ID will be automatically incremented. all properties that are defined in your model will be shown in the list. the automatic node creation feature can only be used with the corner nodes of parabolic elements.) do not require a property. The order of the text boxes in the dialog box matches the order of nodes shown for the various element types in the Element Reference Section. For this reason. not with the midside nodes. Rigid. without having to first create nodes. A few element types (Plot. For Plane Elements. 2 ' ( / . You will receive a warning if FEMAP had to change the order. This technique can untwist planar elements. FEMAP will attempt to reorder them so that they result in the shape you were trying to create. Every time you create an element. You can however skip the midside nodes by leaving them as blank or 0. wedge or tetrahedron. 1 * 0 . Alternatively. Using this technique. Selecting Nodes for your Elements No matter what element type you use. but most do. You should try to specify the nodes in their proper sequence. When you press OK. Color/Palette and Layer: These options set parameters for the element to be created.Model Element. you can effectively create elements using specific coordinates. the required nodes proceed either clockwise or counter-clockwise around the corners of the element (followed by the midside nodes for parabolic elements). Some element types require you to specify a shape. FEMAP will ask you to create the fourth node. You can choose nodes either by typing an ID or by selecting a node from any graphics window with the cursor. in addition to the nodes. for Plane Elements. you can not define a triangle with the shape set to quadrilateral and then only entering 3 nodes. Every time you create an element however. you can leave one or more of the node IDs blank (or 0). The number of these boxes corresponds to the number of nodes required for the type of element which you are creating. If you try this.. If you do specify the nodes in a different order. For your reference. or by graphically selecting an existing element which references the property that you want..

Beam.. In addition to the standard parameters. The first. you can simply define the offset at End A. Offsets: Offsets are used to move the end of the element a specified distance from the node.. Both the magnitude and direction of this vector are used to define the offset. When offsets have been defined. creates all elements except the Bar.2. Proper choice of the type depends upon the structural behavior that you want to represent. you will see one of two possible dialog boxes.2. The End A and End B command buttons will display the standard vector definition dialog boxes to let you define the offset at each end of the element. and Plot) connect two node points.1 Line Elements All Line Element types (Rod. Finite Element Modeling 4. By default. Beam and Curved Beam. Beam and Curved Beam however. For the Bar. Tube. you will see a more complex dialog box. after you define an element with offsets. and simplest. You can turn them off with No Offsets. Spring. the next element will use the same offsets. (On) and End B. the titles of the End A and End B buttons will change to End A. (On) to reflect the status. but lets you define element offsets. it just requires two nodes to define the element. If the element has a constant offset at both ends. Gap. Bar. DOF Spring. then press End B=End A to copy the offset to End B. Curved Beam. Xe Plane 2 (XZ) Ze B Offset B 2 Cz A Plane 1 (XY) Third Node. or Orientation Vector Cy Offset A 1 Ye Bar / Beam Elements . If you have already defined offsets. This dialog also requires two nodes.. Link. press No Offsets. and want to delete them. For all of these elements however.. orientation and releases.

of these element types.Plane Elements  Orientation: Each. The Element Releases dialog box lets you choose the translational (TX. FEMAP provides two methods of orientation. .2 Plane Elements Plane elements are created using one of two dialog boxes depending on whether you are creating linear or parabolic elements. all degrees of freedom are connected. You can either specify another node or a vector. If you specify a vector orientation.TZ) and rotational (RX. The only difference between these two boxes is the addition of midside nodes for the parabolic elements. (On). The element X axis is always along the length of the element (between the nodes). TY. . FEMAP will update the button title to Vector Orient. If you specify an Orientation Node. Releases: In some cases you do not want an element to be structurally connected to all six degrees of freedom at each node. the number of required nodes will also change.. only the orientation node will be recognized. The orientation defines the Y and Z axes. FEMAP remembers the releases that you define and uses them as the defaults for your next element. 1 * 0 . or for transitioning between varying mesh densities. midside nodes can be specified. You can choose the Releases command button to specify the degrees of freedom that you do not want to connect. Just like offsets and orientations. The numbers before the slash represent the releases on the first end of the element. along with the element X axis will define the XY plane. If you attempt to specify both a vector and an orientation node.2. The numbers after the slash represent the second end. The default orientation is the same as the orientation that you specified on the last element that you created. Since midside nodes are not required and the automatic node creation feature only works for required nodes.. You can enter the orientation node directly into the dialog box. By default. to reflect the status. requires that you orient the cross section of the element. 4. This feature allows elimination of some elemental degrees of freedom and can be used to join linear and parabolic elements. the element XY plane will be defined by the element X axis and the vector from the first element node to this orientation (or third) node. RZ). When you specify releases. that vector. or some variation of those numbers.RY. The standard vector definition dialog boxes are used.. The numbers one through six correspond to the six elemental degrees of freedom (TX. As you choose the shape..2. for either of these dialog boxes you must choose either a triangular or quadrilateral shape. but they can also be blank. For parabolic plate elements.RZ) degrees of freedom to release at each end of the element. As described previously.. you must specify an existing node or it will be left blank. (123456/123456).TY. When you define a vector. . 2 ' ( / . FEMAP changes the button title to Releases. or choose the Vector Orient command button to orient using a vector.

rigid elements can be used as Interpolation elements (for those programs that support interpolation elements) by specifying an optional interpolation factor and dependent degrees of freedom. You simply select the Interpolation degrees of freedom (and Factor if applicable) you want for a Node or Nodes..2. 4. but all other dependent nodes are optional. volume elements use one of two dialog boxes depending on whether you are creating linear or parabolic elements. You may do this as often as required to define the connections to the Dependent Nodes. In addition. You must always specify at least the independent node and one dependent node. you must specify a shape (Brick. as well as different factors. You may specify different degrees of freedom for each dependent node. Also.3 Volume Elements Just like plane elements.2..2. Tetra) and parabolic midside nodes can be skipped. Rigid and Interpolation Rigid elements are different than the other types. Wedge. They connect one independent node to a variable number of dependent nodes. In addition to the nodes. you must specify one or more degrees of freedom to be rigidly connected between the independent and dependent nodes. Use the Delete button to remove an entry in . Stiffness Matrix Stiffness Matrix elements connect two nodes and use the same dialog box described above for the simpler line elements. and select the appropriate Nodes. Finite Element Modeling 4.4 Other Elements Masses The Mass and Mass Matrix element types require no input other than a single node to locate the element.2. press the Nodes. button. just like plane elements.

as well as other properties and limits on the contact. You can only change the status of this option when no dependent nodes are selected. If you want to specify self-contact (or Single Surface contact in LS-DYNA3D). Slide lines should have their Master and Slave Nodes selected in reverse order compared to each other. appear. If you need to connect dependent nodes to different degrees of freedom on the Reference Node however. LS-DYNA3D.. If you select them in the same order. A Node may not be chosen as both a Master and a Slave. The Standard Entity Selection box will appear to choose Nodes. otherwise you are creating a rigid element. you must use multiple elements. Otherwise. only the headings Master Nodes. you will be creating an interpolation element. You must also specify a Contact Property. and Slave Nodes. or MARC and is defined using the CONTACT PAIR Element dialog box. the button for the chosen Nodes will contain (ON). or use the drop-down box to select from a list of Contact Segments. Note: If you select the interpolation factor check box. The Master and Slave Nodes are selected by choosing the appropriate button. where you can input values such as static and dynamic friction.Other Elements  the list. 1 * 0 .. Contact This element allows you to specify a Contact pair for analysis in ABAQUS. Slide Lines Slide Elements are used to define contact and sliding conditions between Nodes on surfaces. You may select as many Master and Slave Nodes as you need.. Once Nodes have been chosen. you will be asked whether you want to automatically reverse the order of the slave selection. You can pick these graphically.. simply select the same Segment for both the Master and the Slave. but the order that you select them defines the order that they will be included into the element. 2 ' ( / . or the Reset button to remove the entire list. You can also specify this type of element directly with the Model-Contact-Contact Pair command You need to select both a Master and Slave Contact Segment. You must specify both a Master and a Slave.

you should review the Translator Reference section in the Users Guide which describes how each type is translated to your analysis program. The ID can not match the ID of any other existing material. all Contact Segments will be able to contact one another. . 3D Orthotropic. Fluid and Other Types. The ID will automatically increment after each material you create. Finite Element Modeling In addition to selecting existing Contact Segments. However. Hyperelastic (Mooney-Rivlin/Polynomial form). The Type button is also found near the top of dialog box and lets you choose the material type that you want to create. Contact Segments are not placed into contact in these programs unless a Contact element is created. if you plan to use any type but Isotropic. 2D Anisotropic. while the Edit Segment access the Modify Edit Contact Segment/Surface command.3 Model Material FEMAP supports eight types of materials . 3D Anisotropic. Near the top of each box you will see controls which allow you to define the ID. If you do reference a material type which is not supported by the translator. Note: For both ABAQUS and DYNA. 4. there are numerous features that appear in all of them. Common Features of All Material Dialog Boxes Even though the material definition dialog boxes are quite different from each other. you also have the option to Define a new Segment or Edit an existing Segment for use in this Contact element. If no Contact elements exist in the model.2. These material formulations allow you to simulate different material characteristics. You should always specify a meaningful title (up to 25 characters) because it will help you to identify the material later in drop-down lists throughout FEMAP. Color and Layer for the material. FEMAP will convert it to a supported type (after giving you a warning) but the converted type might not correctly represent the material characteristics that you intended. you will need to specify Contact elements to have contact occur in your model. you only specify a Contact element when you want to limit contact to just certain segment pairs. Title. FEMAP allows any element/property type to reference any of the available material types. 2D Orthotropic. For some analysis programs however. For MARC. the 3D formulations are used to add transverse properties to plate elements. In general the 2D material types should only be used by plane (and axisymmetric) elements and the 3D formulations should only be used by solid elements.Isotropic. Define Segment simply accesses the Contact Segment/Surface option to create a new Segment.

which is directionless. 1 * 0 Properties which are not required for your analysis may be left blank (or 0.) For example. just like Copy. copying an Isotropic material to a 3D Orthotropic material will result in stiffness values which are identical in all three directions. Refer to the Common Dialogs chapter for more information on Libraries. You should review carefully any materials which you copy between different types. you can then modify the values before pressing OK to create the material. If you copy a material of one type into a material of a different type.) are specified with a single value. before pressing OK to create the new material. there is no need to specify any of the thermal properties if you do not plan to do a thermal . Pressing Load will display a list of the materials in the library and let you choose one to be loaded into the material creation dialog box. They can be used for any element type. Materials of this type exhibit constant properties in all directions. If you copy the other direction. Just like Copy. stress limits. are the simplest and most widely used material type..  Copying Materials If you need to create a material which is similar to another in your model. Working with Material Libraries Material libraries allow you to create standard materials that you can use over and over again in many different models. or even change your mind and copy a different material.. Layer and Coordinate System are not saved in the library. 3D Orthotropic to Isotropic. When you choose a material from the list. thermal. that is isotropic.. when you Load a material of a different type it is automatically converted. Pressing the Copy button. the current material is added to the material library file. The material ID. Also. FEMAP automatically converts the material to the new type. Therefore all properties (stiffness.1 Isotropic Materials.. the material values will be copied from that material and displayed in the current material creation dialog box. 2 ' ( / .3.. You can then modify those values in any way you want. Color.. there is no way to represent the orthotropic nature of the material and that information will be lost. nor updated when a material is loaded from the library. . The material constants are converted to a form which represents the material which you copied.Isotropic Materials. 4.. When you press Save..2. For example. you do not have to enter all of the material values manually. will display a list of all existing materials.

----.– -------------. you can always leave one of the three stiffness parameters (E. these terms are converted to the other ones.2 Orthotropic Material Formulation Care must be taken when specifying structural properties for Orthotropic Materials. . Finite Element Modeling analysis. G. FEMAP uses the following stress-strain relationship: ν 21 – ν 31 1. and which properties they require.---------ε1  E1 E 2 E 3  ε2  – ν 13 – ν 23 1  ---------. nu) blank also.---------. Typically.0  G 23 10 -------G 13 where the bold constants in the shaded area are the ones that you enter.---------. During translation.3. if required by the analysis program. but most analysis programs recognize this situation and automatically calculate the third parameter from an Isotropic formulation: E G = -------------------------2 × (1 + υ) 4. FEMAP will maintain its value as zero.0 E1 E 2 E 3            – ν 12 1 – ν 32 ---------. Various analysis programs use different conventions regarding how they refer to the properties.----ε3  E1 E 2 E 3  = γ12   0 0 0 γ23   γ13  0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 -------G 12 0 0 0 0 0 σ1   σ2   σ3   σ 12   σ 23   σ 13  0     0 0    0 0    1 -------.2.

material characteristics in 2 or 3 primary directions. in-plane.. In this case. 2 ' ( / .... 1 * 0 .. These values are typically used in conjunction with the Laminate property for failure calculations. .2D and 3D Anisotropic Materials. respectively... or 6 x 6 (3-D) matrix. .3 2D and 3D Anisotropic Materials.  2D and 3D Orthotropic Materials. The Limit Stress/Strain section allows you to specify limits for tension and compression as well as a shear limit value. material parameters are specified as a general 3 x 3 matrix (2-D)... Either Stress or Strain Limits may be input (for 2-D only). define different. 4.are a more general form of the 2-D and 3-D Orthotropic materials. These materials are typically used by planar or axisymmetric elements.. .3.2.

both translational and rotational. Note: When entering the Hyperelastic material constants. such as rubber.define properties for materials subject to large displacement. Di... They are translated directly for NASTRAN and ANSYS. Note: Many solvers do not support hyperelastic materials and those that do have restrictions. .4 Hyperelastic Materials.. . These data functions must be defined as vs. Finite Element Modeling 4.. or input stress/strain test data in the Experimental Data Functions area to allow the analysis program to calculate these constants.3. You can input both the Distortional and Volumetric Deformation Constants and the Strain Energy Polynomial Order. Please investigate the applicability/rules of Hyperelastic Materials in the analysis program that they plan to utilize. but for ABAQUS the values written are 1 / Di.2. be careful. Stress type FEMAP Functions with Stress as the x value and Strain as the dependent Y value.

Fluid Materials.. defines material properties for fluids.. When you select this 2 ' ( / . storage area... including liquids and gases.2..2.3.6 Other Types.. you will see the above dialog box. . These materials are unique in that the dialog box wording can be modified.3. The inputs to the dialog box will change based upon the material type that you choose.5 Fluid Materials.. but is used in heat transfer and flow analyses. This material type is not normally used in a structural analysis. The actual dialog box contents are read from a library file which contains the appropriate information for each material.. 4.. however additional fluid specific properties are also available. The properties on the fluid material type are similar to the heat transfer properties on other material types.. . including type of input. 1 * 0 option.  4. The values are then stored with that material type in the FEMAP database. . defines material properties that do not fall directly under the previous categories.

You can also create your own materials by adding to the current list. and dialog box text. Although they are not shown here. however.3. You will need to input an existing function ID for these fields (or leave it at None). If you are only using ABAQUS or MARC. integers.. When you press Next or Prev. Function values are designated by the 0. You do not have to choose a function for each property. You can modify the text in quotes. For information on how to create your own materials. you can choose from a list of available functions by pressing Ctrl-F. installed with the FEMAP executable. A default library file with the supported materials is shipped with FEMAP. The default library file shipped with FEMAP contains these material types. however any items that you leave blank will simply be considered as a constant value (not varying with any function). but all other data must remain the same. Input can include real numbers. the dialog box will scroll to show the other entities that can be input for the specific material model 4. here you must enter the ID of an already defined function. For example. FEMAP will store the information in the appropriate data fields. Simply Press Ctrl+F to see a list of available functions when in the field. . is only useful for programs that access FEMAP through a neutral file since our dedicated translators will not recognize them. This material type is most often used to define LS-DYNA3D materials instead of using the Isotropic. but FEMAP also supports additional ABAQUS and MARC materials. but only 24 at a time can be displayed in the dialog box. They may also have input limits associated with them. Creating materials in this manner. This button allows you to assign function references to the various material properties.None value when first entering a new material. but instead of entering a material constant. As is stated at the top of the dialog box. you can not choose a Time function for one value and a Temperature function for another. please refer to the MS Word file. Next and Prev FEMAP supports over 200 inputs on the Material card. Hint: All functions that you select for a material must be of the same type. Finite Element Modeling limits (if any). but do not to modify any numbers of materials you want to use. and Anisotropic defaults. This library file can be set in File Preferences Libraries. Orthotropic. The dialog box accessed through the Functions>> button contains all of the same properties as the normal material creation dialog.2.doc.7 Function Dependent Materials You will notice that many of the material dialog boxes have a button marked Functions>>. the function reference dialog boxes for the other material types also contain the same fields as their corresponding material creation dialogs. neutral. and functions. you can edit the library file to remove other materials for easy reference.

you must select the type of nonlinearity that you are trying to model. To begin. and is related to the tangential modulus. When you select the Extended Material Model. Nonlinear Materials . the following dialog box will appear. which is defined by a vs. 1 * 0 . you can simply input the tangential modulus. Elasto-Plastic materials use the linear constants coupled with the Plasticity Modulus.Nonlinear Materials  4. The Yield Criterion option contains information on the yield types to be used.8 Nonlinear Materials All materials but Hyperelastic and Other types have a Nonlinear button. Stress function and selected in the Function Dependence property. This box is only relevant for Elasto-Plastic and Plastic Nonlinearity Types. 2 ' ( / . H. H. Temperature function instead of a vs. Tresca.Extended Material Model The Extended Material Model enables you to define further information for the Nonlinear Material Model. By selecting this feature.3. This allows you to add material constants which are normally required for nonlinear analysis. von Mises and Tresca require input of the Initial Yield Stress. This is currently only available for the von Mises and Drucker-Prager Yield Criterion. Stress function. Nonlinear Elastic properties can only be defined for Isotropic Materials. ET. while Mohr-Coulomb and Drucker-Prager require input of 2*Cohesion and Angle of Internal Friction. Nonlinear Elastic and Plastic materials are defined by a stress-strain curve. Four Yield Criterion are available (von Mises. This is the work hardening slope. and Drucker-Prager). you may hit the Compute from Tangent Modulus. ET(the slope of stress vs. and Drucker-Prager is specified. Nonlinear Elastic materials can be made temperature dependent by referencing a Function vs. The function for Nonlinear Elastic materials should be defined in the first and third quadrants to accommodate different uniaxial tension and compression properties. Mohr-Coulomb.2. plastic strain) by the following: H = ET ⁄ ( 1 – ET ⁄ E ) If you have already defined Young’s Modulus (E). and FEMAP will use E to calculate the Plasticity Modulus.

Furthermore. Temperature Function vs. Strain Rate 2. Strain Rate 1. Finite Element Modeling You can input both the dilitancy angle and stress ratio for the Drucker-Prager model and specify the type of stress-strain data that you are providing in the Nonlinear Function Dependence. Stress Function vs. and a selection box will appear which will enable you to choose the appropriate function. or both. Note: Support of the Extended Material Model by analysis programs is limited. vs. By proper selection of these functions. If the Yield Criterion is von Mises. Strain Rate Resulting Stress Strain Curve(s) Single Curve Temperature Dependent Strain Rate Dependent Strain Rate and Temperature Dependent . Stress Function vs. all the required information can be input in the Nonlinear Properties dialog box except for yield function dependence on temperature and/or strain rate. Temp vs. you can generate yield and plastic region information as a function of temperature. Strain Rate TempFunction vs. The function dependence must be of a consistent type with the type of function supplied in the Function Dependence under Nonlinear Properties. Function vs. Strain Rate vs. you can provide the initial yield stress and can make this yield stress a function of temperature or strain rate. Temperature Yield Function Not Used vs. You should verify that both the FEMAP translator and the code itself supports the Extended Material Model Function Dependence vs. strain rate. You may make the yield stress function dependent by selecting the Extended Material Model.

Nonlinear Materials  Defining Creep Material Properties You will note that the Nonlinearity Properties Dialog box also has an additional button called Creep>>. You should verify that both the FEMAP translator for your analysis code and the code itself supports Creep Material Properties. Two classes of empirical creep law are available. The second Creep Formulation is Tabular Model which requires only function inputs under the Tabular Creep Law section. All inappropriate information will be grayed. Cp (primary creep) and Cs (secondary creep) of the uniaxial rheological model. the Threshold Strain. Reference Temp. t) = a σ t c b d The appropriate law and coefficients are defined by their equations in the dialog box. and Tabular Model. Creep properties can be defined even if no other nonlinear/plasticity properties have been defined. You must define FEMAP Function Types vs. 2 ' ( / . and Temp Dependent Rate must be defined as well as the Empirical Creep Law and Coefficients. 1 * 0 . Empirical Model. Note: Similar to Hyperelastic Materials. For the Empirical Model. Stress for the three coefficients Kp. t ) = A(σ) [ 1 – e where b dσ c –R(σ)t ] + K(σ)t bσ d fσ A(σ) → a σ or a e R(σ) → c e g or c σ K(σ) → e [ sinh ( f σ ) ] or e e Creep Law Class 2 : ε (σ.This enables you to define properties for creep analysis. They are: Creep Law Class 1 : ε ( σ. Two Creep Formulations are available. support of Nonlinear and Creep Material Properties by analysis programs is limited.

You should specify the constant value in the field to the left. The “Front Side” and “Reverse Side” for InfraRed and Solar properties refer to planar elements.creates a new property.9 Defining Phase Change Material Properties All materials but Other Types have a phase Change button.2.3..10 Defining Thermo-Optical Material Properties Isotropic and Orthotropic materials have the ability to also specify thermo-optical properties of the material. This allows you to add material constants which are normally required for heat transfer and thermal analysis which involve a phase change (i.e. Most property data is geometric (thicknesses. ABAQUS or any of the other structural programs where FEMAP supports heat transfer analyses. . Properties are used to define additional analysis information for one or more elements. solid-to liquid. radii. Reference Enthalpy need not be specified when using ABAQUS. If you do not select a function.. It can also be used for custom programs or programs that access the FEMAP Neutral file. but properties also specify mass and inertia and select the materials to be used.4 Model Property.).3. 4. where the “Front” is the face in the direction of the element normal.2. areas.. All of the fields are function dependent. The Phase Change material model is primarily available for NASTRAN and ABAQUS. For an element to reference a property. ANSYS. liquid-to-gas). They are not used by NASTRAN. The available property types match the available element types. .2. Finite Element Modeling 4.. 4. etc. the values are simply constants. which is applied as a multiplier to any function you select from the lists. These properties are used for heat transfer analyses in programs like TMG.

Near the top of each dialog box however. In general. When you choose a property from the list. will display a list of all existing properties. the default ID will be automatically incremented. Common Features of All Property Dialog Boxes There are many different dialog boxes used for creating the various property types since different values are required for nearly every element type. you will notice a group of controls which are used to set various parameters for the property to be created. but you should review the Translator Reference Section which describes how the various material types translate to your analysis program. for plane element/property types you should pick either an Isotropic. Copying Properties If you need to create a property which is similar to another in your model. If you do not specify a material (leave the option blank or 0).. You can make your choice by typing an ID. Similarly Isotropic. 2 ' ( / . The Type button. you do not have to enter all of the property values manually. you will be given a chance to automatically create a new material. support 3D Orthotropic materials for plate elements to add transverse properties. or by graphically selecting an existing element which references the material that you want. choosing from the list. Stiffness Matrix. Color/Palette and Layer: These options set parameters for the property to be created. or Anisotropic 2D material. Title: This option allows you to provide a title of up to 25 characters for the property.. 1 * 0 . ID. For your reference. but most do. This button will display the same dialog box as described in the Create Element command. all materials which are defined in your model will be shown in the list.Model Property. A few property types (Mass. the property values will be copied from that material and displayed in the current property creation dialog box. Pressing the Copy button. before pressing OK to create the new property. Orthotropic 3D or Anisotropic 3D materials should be used with solid elements. You can choose any type of material.. except that the property creation dialog box is still visible and the resulting material ID will automatically be entered into the list. Some analysis programs however. Every time you create a property. You can then modify any of these values. Material: This drop-down list allows you to choose the material to be referenced by the property. used to choose a new property type can be found here also.  both the property and the element must be the same type.) do not require a material. when you press OK. This is the same as using the Model Material command. The only exception is that there is no distinction between linear and parabolic properties. In fact both linear and parabolic elements can reference the same property. You should always specify descriptive titles because they will appear in the drop-down selection lists and will help you identify the property.. Orthotropic 2D. or even change your mind and copy a different property.

You should review carefully any properties which you copy between different types. like a Bar and Beam. Refer to the Common Dialogs chapter for more information on Libraries.4. Distributed. When you copy properties of the same type. Pressing Load will display a list of the properties in the library and let you choose one to be loaded into the property creation dialog box. with the addition of a bend radius.2. The property ID.area and the torsional stiffness. just like Copy. If you copy a property of one type into a property of a different type. Working with Property Libraries Property libraries allow you to create standard properties that you can use over and over again in many different models. nonstructural mass (per unit length) can also be specified. all values are directly transferred to the new property. τ is the torsional stress C is the coefficient of torsional stress. Just like Copy. nor updated when a property is loaded from the library. you will get meaningless constants. Finite Element Modeling Copying is only useful when you copy properties of the same or similar type. and Mθ is the torsional moment. 4. If the property types are similar. J is the torsional stiffness. Curved Tube Element Properties Curved Tube element properties are the same as the tube. the similar properties will be copied. the current property is added to the property library file. FEMAP converts the property to the new type. or vice versa. If you attempt to copy a Plate property to a Beam. you can then modify the values before pressing OK to create the property. Color. Also. Layer and Material are not saved in the library. .1 Line Element Properties Rod Element Properties Rod elements require cross-sectional properties . Tube Element Properties The Tube element cross section is circular. when you Load a property of a different type it is automatically converted. Distributed. The Coefficient for Torsional Stress is used in the calculation for torsional stress as follows: C × Mθ τ = ----------------J where. but many of the property constants may be meaningless. When you press Save. nonstructural mass (per unit length) can also be specified. It is defined by the outer and inner tube diameters.

These properties are identical to those required for Beam Properties except that Beam elements contain additional inputs. . Care must be taken in properly specifying these properties with respect to the element axes. Some people look at this as the moment of inertia in Plane 1. You must turn on the Tapered Beam option if you want to enter different properties at the second end of the Beam. Vectors show the elemental Y axis. their orientations and relative inertias. Large I2 Large I1. which is the orientation direction. If this option is off. and you can define a Neutral Axis Offset from the Shear Center. 1 * 0 Small I1. nonstructural mass (per unit length) can also be specified.Line Element Properties  Bar Element Properties In addition to the cross sectional area. Refer to Chapter 6 of the FEMAP Users Guide for more information on the element directions. numerous inertia properties must also be defined for the Bar element. The following picture will give some examples of cross sections. Small I2 Large I1. the properties at the second end will be equal to the first end. For FEMAP. Small I2 Distributed. I1 is the moment of inertia about the elemental Z axis. Beam Element Properties Beam properties are identical to Bar Properties except that you can specify different properties at each end of the Beam. Please see the Beam Element Properties section below for more information. the plane formed by the elemental X and Y axes. which will resist bending in the outer fiber in the elemental Y direction. 2 ' ( / .

FEMAP will automatically assign the remaining three locations with positive and negative combinations of the location that you specified. based upon the Orientation Node or Vector for the particular elements. The Offset of the Shear Center (and Neutral Axis) from the vector between the two Nodes defining the Beam is input on the Beam Element command. If you just specify the first location. and leave the remaining ones blank or zero. This feature automates stress recovery for the four corners of a rectangular cross section. not the Beam Property command. . Finite Element Modeling You can specify up to four Stress Recovery locations in the plane of the element cross section. The Neutral Axis Offsets should be specified in the local Beam Coordinate system. This Offset is only used to Offset the Neutral Axis from the Shear Center.

Section Property Generator A graphical cross section property generator is available for this property type (as well as Bar and Curved Beam). circular. trapezoidal. The common shapes include rectangular.Line Element Properties  Shape . 1 * 0 An arbitrary shape requires creating a surface before entering Model Property. and selecting the surface. Whether . Required input for these standard shapes is shown below. T. and structural shapes such as I. pushing the Surface button. FEMAP can automatically compute the cross section properties and stress recovery locations for common or arbitrary shapes. 2 ' ( / . and then selecting General Section. and hexagonal bars and tubes. Z and Hats. L. C.

and then calculate the offset of the shear center from this point. This dialog box can also be used to define the Stress Recovery locations and orientation vector direction. and the Offsets method has been set to Location. you can have FEMAP draw the cross section by hitting Draw. The result is stored on the element record as the Shear Center/Neutral Axis Offset. Finite Element Modeling you select a common or arbitrary shape. FEMAP will place the Reference Point on the line joining the two nodes. Stress Recovery and Reference Point The Stress Recovery section of this dialog box allows the selection of stress recovery locations at standard points on the cross section. The Reference Point is only used when Mesh Attributes are assigned to a curve (Mesh-Mesh Control-Attributes Along Curve). When a curve is meshed containing Mesh Attributes. An error in the input will prevent drawing of the cross section. FEMAP will move the location to the next standard point. . By hitting the Next button. they still have the option to input values directly on the previous dialog box. The Reference Point provides an easy method to automatically define the Shear Center/Neutral Axis offset for beams that are automatically meshed onto a curve. Whether you specify Stress Recovery locations here or not.

in all six degrees of freedom. 2 ' ( / . This can save some time when making these simple changes. Compute Warping Constant These options are only available for Beam Properties. They are not available for Bar or Curved Beam properties since they are not supported by most analysis codes for these types of elements. Orientation Direction This section simply allows you to specify the direction of the orientation vector. Once this option is selected. Link Element Properties Link element properties consist of just the stiffness values. The Link Element is rigid between the ends. If you simply want to edit stress recovery locations or orientation. The Attributes Along Curve command also has the capability to place the Reference Point at a distance from the line joining the two nodes of the beam by setting y and z values. This is Off by default since warping is often not important in beam analysis and there is limited support among the analysis programs for warping. FEMAP will calculate the warping constant for the cross section. If Compute Warping Constant is On. Please see the Mesh-Mesh Control-Attributes Along Curve command section near the beginning of Chapter 5 for more information. FEMAP will use its cross section generator to compute the offset of the neutral axis from the shear center and store the result on the property record. The offset stored on the property record and calculated when Compute Shear Center offset is checked offsets the Neutral Axis from the Shear Center. This is On by default since this offset can be important with certain cross sections and such programs as NASTRAN. Change Shape This option is only available when editing a cross section for which properties have already been calculated. This is very important since an inappropriate direction of the vector with respect to the beam mesh will result in erroneous results. Compute Shear Center Offset. and ANSYS provide support for these offsets. This option must be turned On before any properties can be changed. FEMAP will use the cross section generator to calculate new properties when exiting this dialog box via the OK button. The Cross Section Definition dialog box provides a visual representation of the required direction of the orientation vector for the beams. FEMAP will use stored values to calculate any change in properties instead of creating an entire new set. at each end of the element. 1 * 0 Curved Beam Element Properties The Curved Beam Element properties are just like those for the Bar element (see previous paragraphs). If Compute Shear Center Offset is On. and similar to the Beam Property (except neutral axis offsets from the shear .Line Element Properties  Note: The offset stored on the element record calculated from the Reference Point moves both the Neutral Axis and Shear Center from the line joining the two nodes of the beam. ABAQUS.

you can specify a coordinate system for orientation. . and Adjustment. For zero length gaps (coincident node gaps). Gap Element Properties For gap elements you can specify an initial gap distance. Like the Spring however. the DOF Spring connects two nodal degrees of freedom . you can specify both stiffness and damping. You choose the degrees of freedom via the buttons at the left of the dialog box. You can specify both stiffness and damping values for the same elements. Gap properties are also used to define properties of interface elements. Spring Element Properties The FEMAP spring element is a combined linear spring and damper. which connects either translational (Axial) or rotational (Torsional) degrees of freedom. some analysis programs do not support the damping values. For ABAQUS. Finite Element Modeling center and warping are not supported) except that you must also specify a bend radius. You should carefully review which of these options are supported by your analysis program before using gap elements. tension.independent of their orientation relative to each other. as well as an Adaptive option. Additional NASTRAN Options include limits on Penetration. DOF Spring Element Properties Unlike the Spring Element which acts along the line between the elemental endpoints. and you can specify the Interface normal and width/area. however. All elements which reference this property will use this constant radius. compression and transverse stiffness and friction constants.

1 * 0 .Plane Element Properties  4. For some analysis programs. but the Plate type allows you to vary the thickness at each element corner. 2 ' ( / . In addition to these options. These are not offsets.4. They all require the thickness property. Transverse Shear and Membrane-Bending Coupling behavior.2 Plane Element Properties Shear Element Properties Shear panel properties are limited to element thickness and distributed nonstructural mass.2. NASTRAN Options The Bending Stiffness (12I/T**3) and Transverse Shear Thickness/Element Thickness (Ts/ T) properties are used by NASTRAN to simulate non-isotropic or sandwich material behavior. however you can disable any of these properties. or select a different material simply by choosing the options in the lists. these corner thicknesses will be applied to each element that references this property. FEMAP now supports choosing different materials for the Bending. they are simply the location where stresses are recovered. By default. Bending. Be careful though. The stress recovery locations are measured from the neutral axis of the plate toward the top fiber. the plate will use the material that you select at the top of the dialog box. you can also specify effectiveness factors which provide for treatment of the effective extensional area of the shear panel. Plane Strain and Plate Element Properties These property types are all variations of plate element properties. Membrane.

 Finite Element Modeling Laminate Element Properties Properties of this type are different than those for any other type of element. if you specify a nonzero thickness or nonzero angle. Rather. The layers are specified in order from the “bottom” or -Z face of the element. you must list all plys in your laminate. the normal material reference (at the top of the dialog box). however. Many programs support the failure theories listed. thickness and orientation angle for each layer or ply in your laminate. you must specify a material ID. and your laminate is symmetric. They are measured from the rotated material axes otherwise. The angles are specified relative to the material axes which were defined for the element. Leaving the material ID blank or zero eliminates that layer. along with strength allowables on the materials if you want to use the failure theory calculations. You must specify the Bond Shear allowable. is not used. It is provided just for your convenience. In this case. FEMAP will ask whether you want to create a material rather than eliminate the layer. you can set the Symmetric Layers option and only enter one half of the layers. If you did not specify a material orientation angle. these angles are measured from the first side of the element (the edge from the first to the second node). If you are using NASTRAN. . The material ID for any ply can be specified by graphically selected an existing element referencing the desired material ID. In general.

If you really want almost no mass value in one of these directions.3 Volume Element Properties Axisymmetric Element Properties Actually.4. 4.2. solid element properties can reference a coordinate system to align the material axes. you must set the value to a small nonzero number like 1E-10.2. Check to see if your analysis program supports these options before using them.Volume Element Properties  Next and Prev FEMAP now supports up to 90 plys on a property. Solid Element Properties Unlike the plane elements. . this fully defines all six mass degrees of freedom for that node. In this case FEMAP just uses the X mass that you defined. if you leave My and/or Mz blank (or zero) they will be automatically set equal to the Mx value. and hence 12 degrees of freedom. Y and Z masses. The 6x6 stiffness matrix is simply replicated to form a 12x12 matrix in this case. The FEMAP property for these types is simply used to reference the desired material. the dialog box will scroll to show the other plys that make up the property that you are defining. When you press Next or Prev. Many analysis programs do not support differing X. which orient their material axes with using an angle on each element. axisymmetric elements do not have any property values. but only 18 at a time can be displayed in the dialog box. Since Mass Matrix elements are only connected to one node. so care should be taken when using this element type. This difference is due to the fact that solid elements require orientation of all three principal directions. As an input convenience. Mass and Stiffness Matrix Element Properties Properties for Mass Matrix and Stiffness Matrix elements are input as a symmetric 6x6 matrix.4. Plane elements always have their Z direction normal to the plane and can therefore be oriented with a single rotation angle. You can also choose to orient solid elements based on the directions defined by the element’s corner nodes. FEMAP can also align the principal mass directions to any coordinate system and offset the mass from a node. 4. 1 * 0 Note: This formulation does not take into account any geometric transformations required to connect non-coincident nodes. The following form is used (A is the 6x6 matrix you specify): A –A symmetric A 2 ' ( / . Stiffness matrix elements connect two nodes.4 Other Element Properties Mass Element Properties FEMAP mass elements support differing mass and inertia properties in three principal directions.

errors may result. etc. Constraint. If you select an option that requires additional information beyond the standard inputs. and specific program input for ABAQUS. which may or may not be appropriate. Contact Element Properties You must define interface information for the Contact element on the Contact Property option. or at minimum your analysis will run with all defaults.. Simply select the appropriate option in the dialog box. The most commonly used options are contained on this dialog box. option to input this information. which can also be based on the shortest diagonal. which are pertinent for all programs.. . No Material Reference is required for Slide Line Element Properties. and stiffness and frictional conditions. When you define a Contact Property. solver specific options are available by pushing the button corresponding to your solver. the following dialog box will appear: This dialog box is separated into Friction Values. while more advanced. If not. Both Symmetrical Penetration and Unsymmetrical Penetration (for the Slave Nodes only) are available. Finite Element Modeling Slide Line Element Properties You must define the interaction Property values for the Slide Line Element which include the Slide Line Plane. you must push the DYNA. The main dialog box also contains options to choose ONE_WAY contact for those types of contact that support this (default is two-way contact between surfaces). as well as a toggle to use a Penetration formulation. LS-DYNA3D Contact Properties The most important option is the Type of contact you want to define. Tied. LS-DYNA3D. width of surfaces. ANSYS. You can select many different types of contact including Automatic. An Offset for TIED contact types can be toggled on and off. Eroding. and MARC.

This value defines the maximum allowable penetration of a slave node into a master surface. 2 ' ( / . 1 * 0 . the most important input in this section is the Critical Penetration (HCRIT in ABAQUS).Other Element Properties  DYNA. as well as the Thickness/Area for input for 1or 2-D contact. If no values are input or set. ABAQUS Contact Properties The ABAQUS specific section allows you to specify parameters found on the *CONTACT PAIR option. please see the ABAQUS Standard and Explicit User’s Manuals. If you have selected one of these types (Rigid. The right side of the dialog box contains information specific to certain contact types.. allows you to specify additional contact parameters for LS-DYNA3D. Time Activation. This value can greatly affect convergence and accuracy of the overall solution. . For a description of the other parameters. or Eroding). They include Scale Factors.. Typically. you will want to select the appropriate information. Thickness Overrides. Tiebreak... the defaults will be used. When you select this option you will see the following dialog box The left side of the dialog box contains information which is pertinent for all contact types. Please refer to your LS-DYNA3D User’s Manual for more information for each of these options. and Output information. Penetration values above this value will cause ABAQUS to abandon the current increment and start again with a smaller increment.

ANSYS Contact Properties The ANSYS specific section allows you to specify the real constants on the TARGE169 (2-D). allows you to specify additional contact parameters.. and CONTA174 (3-D with midside nodes). . allows you to specify additional contact parameters.. TARGE170 (3-D). and (12) which offer additional options which can be chosen to create a more realistic contact model. The remaining option. (5). Only contact elements and target elements of the same dimension (2-D or 3-D) can be in contact with each other. . The pull down boxes in the lower half of the dialog box correspond to KEYOPTs (7). Friction Value (value for the type chosen.. CONTA173 (3-D).. Contact Surface Elements are associated with Target Segment Elements through a shared set of real constants and ANSYS only looks for contact between surfaces with the same real constant set. is input on the *CONTACT PAIR option and limits-finite sliding in 3-D deformable contact. These are more advanced options used to create contact models which require additional parameters. ANSYS. Again.... For complete definitions of these real constants please see the ANSYS Element Reference Guide as well as the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide.. CONTA172 (2-D with midside nodes). CONTA171 (2-D). The check boxes in the top of the box allow the user to toggle between two options for KEYOPTs (2). Most of these parameters are related to friction and are included on the *FRICTION card in ABAQUS. and the equivalent Shear Stress Limit. All of these parameters correspond to KEYOPT entries on the ANSYS contact and target elements (see above paragraph). please review the ANSYS Element Reference Guide as well as the ANSYS Structural Analysis Guide before beginning any type of nonlinear contact analysis. (8). . Finite Element Modeling ABAQUS. not the friction coefficient). and (11). (9). (4). Max Slide Distance. They include Friction Type. however.

Please refer to your MARC Program Input Manual (Volume C) for descriptions of these options. These parameters are only relevant if the Contact Property is chosen in translation to be output to the CONTACT option. You can specify the tolerance for contact (when two bodies are considered touching). allows you to specify additional contact parameters. Plot Only and Rigid Element Properties There are no properties required for these element types. if you choose No Relative Contact Disp. 1 * 0 .Other Element Properties  MARC Contact Properties The MARC specific section allows you to specify parameters found on the *CONTACT and *CONTACT TABLE options. In most cases.. so they are not normally defined. MARC. You can however create properties of these types if you want to use them in any of the other generation / meshing commands 2 ' ( / . and an interference closure amount. the separation force to separate a node from a body.. the glue option will be invoked... . This section was designed to contain all property inputs for the *CONTACT TABLE option. the defaults will be chosen if none of the options are selected for the contact property. They will also be used in the *CONTACT option if the property is chosen in the translation to MARC (see the Translator Reference section in the FEMAP Users Guide). In addition.

press Reset. Enter Set ID to activate here or. As always.1 Model Load Set. Model Load Nodal. 4. you can define multiple load and constraints for your analysis. to individual or groups of Nodes (Model Load Nodal. and Modal Node Nonlinear Force commands).2 Finite Element Loads FEMAP allows you to create loads directly on finite element entities. choose an existing set from this list Click here to deactivate all sets.3. To activate a Load Set which already exists. by checking the various Active options. You can even Copy or Combine sets for either loads or constraints.2. To deactivate all Load Sets. 4. and Thermal. Loads and constraints are applied in a similar manner. Then enter a Title and press OK. This menu command is also available on the tray at the bottom right portion of the graphics window.3. To create a new Load Set.1. Velocity. whenever you are asked to select a Load Set. or enter its ID. . you should choose a descriptive title. and press OK. 4.3. and then move on to constraints. Ctrl+F2 . These types of loads will be exported directly to the solver on translation. Finite Element Modeling 4. The titles are displayed.3.. Both are input as part of sets. accelerations or temperatures. simply choose it from the list.3 Loads And Constraints This section describes methods to load and constrain your model. Body Loads can be separated into Acceleration. and to individual or groups of Elements (Model Load Element command). Loads can be applied to the entire finite element model (Model Load Body command). Each type of Load and its command is discussed in more detail below. along with the IDs. as well as through the Load Toolbar.. makes a new Load Set or activates an existing set. enter an ID which does not appear in the list of available sets.. You must activate the body loads that you want prior to defining load values.1 Create/Activate Load Set 4. The sections that follow will first explain the application of loads.1 Model Load Body Body loads act on all elements of your model and represent global motions. You can apply loads and constraints to geometry and/ or FEA entities. assuming that the translator supports the type of loading input.. Therefore.

Origin This specifies the location of the center of rotation for the rotational body loads (rotational velocity and rotational acceleration). Thermal The default temperature is the temperature of all nodes/elements which are not given a specific temperature in this Load Set by Nodal or Elemental Temperature loads. As always. 4. 1 * 0 . you must select the nodes where the Load will be applied. these are not specified in “g’s”. this is done using the standard entity selection dialog box. Watch the units however. After you select the nodes. 2 ' ( / . you will see another dialog box which defines the load.3. First. Input must always be in the global directions.2 Model Load Nodal Creating Nodal Loads is a two step process. This option can be used to quickly assign a temperature for the entire model. Velocity This type of body load represents a constant speed rotation and the resulting loads which are caused by centripetal acceleration.Model Load Nodal  Acceleration These body loads represent constant translational and/or rotational acceleration.2. Translational accelerations are often used to represent gravity loads.

Displacements. Note: Since these loads are created on the Nodes themselves. These methods provide great flexibility for defining the direction of the loads. For all methods except Components. (4) Normal to Plane. the values listed will be in component form. define the Plane (FEMAP standard plane definition dialog box will appear). Velocities. FEMAP provides five methods to define the direction of a load: (1) Components. Only loads attached directly to geometry store any information regarding the direction method. and (5) Normal to Surface. Nodal Temperatures. The last 10 load types available are Fluid specific and are only accessible through the FEMAP neutral file. Finite Element Modeling The first selection you should make is the type of load you wish to create. Moments. Rotational Velocities. As you choose a load type. If you attempt to edit or list the load. select the Curve. FEMAP supports eleven types of nodal loads . or select the Surface. and then stores the result in component form. (2) Vector. FEMAP calculates the direction from the method. The Components method simply requires input of components in the three directions. Accelerations. .Forces. After choosing a load type you can proceed to define the other load parameters and values. you must check the Specify button to either define the Vector (FEMAP standard vector definition dialog box will appear). Color/Palette and Layer: These controls define parameters for the load to be created. FEMAP will disable or hide any controls in the load definition dialog box which are not required. Rotational Accelerations. This enables you to modify or remove any geometry that was created to specify the direction without changing the load direction. the actual method of computing the direction is not stored. (3) Along Curve. Enforced Rotations. Nodal Heat Generation and Nodal Heat Fluxes. Direction: All non-thermal load types are vector quantities which require a direction.

A similar projection is also required for the Normal to Surface method. The components are defined relative to the selected coordinate system. enter an equation in Value which uses the variable.Model Load Nodal  Hint: When choosing the Along Curve or Normal to Surface options.must select Advanced under Variable to change it) which will be updated to contain the ID of the node where loads are being defined. YND() and ZND() functions very useful in defining loads in terms of the locations of the nodes that you are loading. Equations are only stored for Geometric Loads. instead of entering a numeric value for the loads. and the actual calculated value of the load is stored as a Nodal Load.None. if you choose to enter an equation in Value such as: 10*(xnd(!i)-xnd(1))+50 each node will receive a load which is equal to fifty. Temperature or Frequency Dependent Loads If the loads that you are creating are constant. For example. than if it is at 180 degrees. As an alternative. Coordinate System: This option is only available if you select the Components method for Direction for nonthermal load types. 2 ' ( / . you must select a Variable (default is i . However. if your loads vary with either time. if you enter an equation. Note: The equation is evaluated at each Node. plus ten times the length in the X direction between that node and node 1. For example. If you choose this method. Then. If the Curve is anything but a line. that value will be assigned to every node. the equation will be evaluated prior to load definition and the constant result will be assigned to all selected nodes. a positive radial force goes in a different direction if the node is at 0 degrees. you can define an equation which defines the value at each node. you can choose the appropriate . If you select a cylindrical or spherical system. but also set Constant. If the projection falls well outside the Curve or Surface actual bounds. you enter a numeric value. 1 * 0 Time. FEMAP will attempt to project the position of the Nodes onto the curve to determine the direction of the curve at that location. is to assign a Constant load value to each of the nodes. If instead of entering an equation. the true direction of the loads also depends on the location of the node where it is applied. You will find the XND(). unexpected values for the direction may result. Choosing a Load Creation Method There are two methods available to create loads on the nodes that you selected. The equation. and default method. just as if you had specified a constant. simply set this option to 0. temperature or frequency. itself is not stored. The simplest. be careful that the Nodes fall within the length of the Curve or the Area bounded by the Surface. Conversely.

There is no load applied to any component which is not activated.3. Finite Element Modeling function to define that dependence. For Forces. Moments. FEMAP will automatically determine the nodes where loads will be defined. This value is only used for Frequency Analyses.) For component of non-thermal loads (Forces. using the option boxes. you must use the Model Function command to create the functions. You may not however. you must specify at least one small nonzero value. Prior to creating your loads. Phase: Non-thermal loads also allow you to specify a Phase. Moments.. you can make the phase frequency dependent by selecting an additional function. Moments. since it will have no effect. and Rotational Accelerations) you must activate the various load components. Rotational Velocities. Note: This command can be a convenient method of specifying nodal loads on complex models. In addition. . . this is equivalent to activating the component and then applying a zero (or blank) load. Then. prior to setting the load value. described previously.. Do not confuse frequency dependence of the load value (specified here) with frequency dependence of the phase (specified at the bottom of the dialog box for frequency analyses). however. Activating the component and then specifying a zero displacement (or a blank). This is an alternative to creating geometric loads and can be very useful to create loads on a portion of a surface. Displacements. You should never have to create a zero force or acceleration. especially on solid models where you can use the “Adjacent Faces” (See Model Load Elemental) approach. The Y values of the function are used to multiply the constant values that you specify in this dialog box.3 Model Load Nodal On Face. that component is free to move (displace) freely. and Rotational Accelerations. With the component deactivated. Accelerations. Displace. You will first use the standard entity selection dialog box to select the elements which reference the nodes where you want to place loads. When you have selected the element faces. except that instead of directly selecting the nodes where the loads will be applied.. is the same as Model Load Nodal. and this command will continue. Accelerations. etc. Enforced Displacements. FEMAP will allow you to activate load components which have a zero (or blank) load value. prevents all movement of that component. If you want to use Displacement loads as pseudo-constraints. Rotational Velocities. Velocities. Velocities. for frequency response analyses.. like 1E-10 or smaller. the face selection dialog box (as described later in Model Load Elemental) is used to limit the nodal selection to specific element faces. 4. This is similar to a constraint. just like the normal Create Load Nodal command. For Displacements and Enforced Rotations. have all load values equal to zero. these two alternatives are not equivalent. Creating Component Loads (Forces. so that they can be selected from the list.2.. here you select the faces of elements. As just described.

You can also make elemental loads function dependent. Finally. The elemental axes are determined by the element orientation. Distributed Loads on Line Elements. as well as input a constant or variable load. If you want a constant load along the length.Model Load Elemental. and four types of heat transfer loads .. Pressure. specify the other load parameters and values. If instead of entering an equation.) you should always use the Global directions. Their load values are specified as a force per unit length.  4. another dialog box allows you to define the load type and values similar to the Model Load Nodal dialog box. Creating Distributed Loads Distributed loads are forces applied along the length of line elements (Bars.Heat Generation. You can specify a different value at each end of the element.3. . but also set Constant.. . Temperature.. the equation will be evaluated prior to load definition and the constant result will be assigned to all selected elements.. you enter a numeric value. The process is very similar to Model Load Nodal. All elemental loads have a certain prescribed direction (typically normal to face of application).).4 Model Load Elemental. which can be along any of the elemental or global axes. Again. YEF( ) and ZEF( ) functions very useful in defining loads in terms of the locations of the elements and element faces that you are loading. There are seven types of elemental loads in FEMAP. The one major difference is that you will not be able to specify a direction. Distributed Load Direction After you specify the load magnitude and phase.2. You can not specify an arbitrary direction or the axis of any other coordinate system. you should select the load type first. Conversely. Convection and Radiation. For elements that do not require an orientation (Rods. Then. if you enter an equation. press OK. Heat Flux.. just as if you had specified a constant. If you leave End B blank. This choice will disable or hide all controls which are not necessary for the type of load you are defining. You will find the XEL( ). ZEL( ). 2 ' ( / . you must specify the same End A and End B values.. zero load will be applied at that end. You must first select the elements where the load will be applied using the standard entity selection dialog box.. You will be prompted for the load direction.. In this case the same function dependence will apply to the loads at both ends of the element..is used to create Elemental Loads. Beams. 1 * 0 . XEF( ). just like Nodal Loads (see Model Load Nodal section above for more details. that value will be assigned to every element. just like nodal loads.. YEL( ).

when you press OK. and any function dependence. you must also choose a surface and specify a tolerance. you can only apply pressure to plane or solid elements. Specifying Face IDs For pressures. simply move the mouse and click again until you get the face you want. If you translate to a program that does not support corner pressures. This will require input of four values and enables you to specify a varying pressure load across an element. . Face numbers for plane and solid elements are defined in the Element Reference Section in the FEMP Users Guide. The selected face will be highlighted. If the elements where you need to apply loads are oriented randomly. or if you just have surfaces in your model. you can simply choose the face graphically by moving the cursor near the center of the face and clicking the left mouse button. For this reason. you first defined the load magnitude and phase. You will also have the option to input the Pressure at corners. you can apply loads to element faces which are close to a selected surface. Just like distributed loads. or other element types. This capability is most useful when defining a variable pressure load across a surface. This method can only be used to apply pressure to Face 1 of planar elements (not to the edges). you will be presented with the following dialog box to choose the face or faces where the pressure will be applied: This provides four ways to select the faces. this method is not very effective. Alternatively. Finite Element Modeling Creating Pressure Loads Elemental pressure loads always act normal to an element face or edge. FEMAP will automatically average the corner pressures and output a centroidal value. Note: Not all analysis programs support pressures at the corners of elements. When you choose Near Surface. You may not apply pressure to line. Loads will be applied to the faces of the selected elements that are closer than your specified tolerance from the surface. You will either need to use one of the other methods. While this method is easy to understand. Choosing Faces Near a Surface If you have used geometry to define your elements. or in some cases you can reorient the elements (refer to the Modify Update Reverse command). it has the disadvantage of applying the loads to the same face number on all selected elements. If you chose an unexpected face. The most obvious is to simply choose Face ID and select the ID of a face.

If you need to represent temperatures which vary within an element. You choose just one initial Face (and the associated Element ID). only a single constant is required . they apply to the entire element. direction and position. Creating Elemental Temperatures For temperature loads. Choosing Adjacent Faces The final and most powerful method for choosing faces. FEMAP will search all selected elements for faces that are connected to the face that you chose and that are within the specified tolerance from being coplanar (colinear for planar elements) with an already selected face. loads could have been applied to all exterior faces. Selected Face Loads on Adjacent Faces In the picture above. This can be used to find all faces on an outer surface (or edge) of a solid (or planar) . 2 ' ( / . including those inside the hole. especially for complex solid and planar element models.  Choosing Faces Near a Plane The “Near Coordinates” method is very similar to “Near Surface”. Creating Loads for Heat Transfer All of the loads for Heat Transfer analysis are created similarly to Pressure and Temperature loads. apply the flux to a specific face.Model Load Elemental. and. This value is assigned to all selected elements. you must use nodal temperature loads. This can be done very easily by graphically selecting the face.. which is used along with the tolerance to find the closest faces. No face specification is required for temperatures. just like pressure. you can only specify a single temperature value. You then specify a Tolerance angle. Loads could have been applied just in the hole by selecting a face inside the hole and specifying a fairly low tolerance.. 1 * 0 . Heat Flux Elemental Heat Flux is applied normal to an element face. This defines a planar surface. You must specify the rate of flux.regardless of the shape. Heat Generation For Heat Generation. Instead of specifying a surface however. by choosing a tolerance greater than 90 degrees. is Adjacent Faces. the only difference is the parameters that need to be specified. you choose a coordinate system.the generation rate.

Since MSC/NASTRAN only has forced convection along “line elements”. And. you will choose the face(s) where the fluxes will be applied. If you are going to have more than one discreet flow. and do not represent a physical tube with thermal properties. so the proper coefficients can be calculated. To model this condition you must follow these steps: 1. i. In either case the components must be specified in Global Rectangular coordinates. you must specify a flux direction. Refer to Pressure loads for more information. you MUST place them on a layer that is not used by any of the forced convections that you will later apply to the plate elements.this indicates that you want the tube to be skipped during translation. or as a time varying vector. just define both the inner and outer diameters of the tube property as 0. the face is chosen after you press OK. If you need to use tube elements in your model that are not being used to represent flow tubes. you must define a series of tube elements that represent the flow location and direction. Convection Free convection loads require the convection coefficient and the film temperature. a 1-D case. If you do not. you will not want them to be written to your NASTRAN model. Model the plate. although only for a 1-D type analogy. . FEMAP may create improper links that do not represent the situation that you are attempting to represent. after pressing OK. however a rectangular mapped mesh will be much easier to understand. in the standard fashion. and will more accurately represent the flow. just specify nonzero diameters. In this case you must specify the flow rate and diameter along with the temperature. you will also have to specify numerous fluid properties in the Create Body Loads command described earlier. In that case. Forced convection loading is also supported. Refer to creating pressure loads earlier in this section for more information about choosing faces. after defining the direction. These are typically placed at some location above/below the plate. where these tubes are simply a modeling convenience. In most cases. by choosing three functions which contain the components defined as a function of time. This is a very specialized capability and requires a thorough understanding of MSC/NASTRAN’s thermal capability before you attempt to perform this type of analysis. Finite Element Modeling Alternatively. tube elements are required for this special capability. If you do want the tube to be translated. For this type of analysis. Special Case .0 . 2. Finally. you must also specify a surface absorptivity and temperature for the selected face. you can define a directional Heat Flux. In this case. You can use any general mesh. Model “flow tubes”. The direction is defined either as a constant by giving the components of a vector in the direction of the flux. then choose that layer when creating the elements. forced convection loads can also be used to model one or more flows over a plate. Use the Create Layer command to create a layer. As always. Unlike most general modeling techniques in FEMAP.Forced Convection Over a Plate or Surface For MSC/NASTRAN. place all tube elements from each flow on a separate layer. along with the face where the convection is acting. or use the Modify Layer command to change it later.e.

If you created your elements in a manner where this does not really represent the direction of your flow you should use the Modify Update Reverse command. when you check this option you will see an additional option displayed that is titled “Area Factor”.. it is necessary to properly connect the convections from the plate. You must also specify the flow diameter (hydraulic diameter). In addition. 4. flowing from the middle of the first edge of the plate to the middle of the third edge (to the opposite node for triangular plates). and not the convection effects. 1 * 0 Convection on Plate . For all of these loads you must check the “Disable Convection” option. This diameter will be used in the calculation of the Reynolds number. All forced convections on plate elements are placed on Face 1. Model the Mass Flow. Set the convection load layer to the same ID as that of the associated flow tubes. Links Created by MSC/NASTRAN Translator Flow Tube with Advection 2 ' ( / .  3. apply forced convections to the plate elements where the flow is occurring. Typically you will want to specify a value that is near (or at least the same order of magnitude) the flow diameter for the plate convections. and the “Align First Edge to Vector” option to realign your plates so that the flow is properly represented. Model the Convection on the Plate. You must specify a flow diameter on these loads. If you do not specify anything here. This will result in a load that simply models the mass/energy transfer down the flow stream. If you are working with multiple discreet flows. On all of these plate convections you should check the “Disable Advection” option. This is the step that can become very difficult if you have an arbitrary (non-rectangular or non-mapped) mesh. and indicate that you are trying to associate this load with a flow tube.. FEMAP uses the plate areas to compute coefficients in the heat transfer equation. once again you must use the FEMAP layer capability to assign these convections to a flow number. It is very important that as they are displayed.Model Load Elemental. all of these convections on the plate point along the general flow direction. The mass flow is modeled by applying forced convections to each of the flow tube elements. By specifying a value you can scale that computation to allow for fins or any other area correction that you wish to apply. This will effectively eliminate the mass transfer. Next. Even though it is not required for the mass transfer equations.

as the specification of the cavity number. 4. and value (Displacement / Velocity) that the force will be based upon. degree of freedom.2. Specify additional Fluid/Heat Transfer Options. Go to the Create Load Body Load command and choose the Heat Transfer button. When you translate these loads to MSC/NASTRAN. To provide maximum flexibility in viewing and verifying cavity definition. 6. The absorptivity is assumed to be equal to the emissivity. . you can turn on/off as many cavities/layers as you want to visually verify the loading that you have defined. For radiation to space.. For enclosure radiation only an emissivity is required. .5 Model Load Nonlinear Force. Optionally. as well as a view factor from the surface (element face) to space. Radiation Two forms of radiation can be defined: radiation to space. Surfaces in each cavity are totally independent of other cavities. and the Node(s). This will display a dialog box where you can specify the fluid properties and other flow parameters. the Node and degree of freedom for the applied force.. If you are working on a single enclosure problem. Translate to MSC/NASTRAN.. You must define the type of relationship. during the translation you will be asked to specify a factor that is used to disable the convection and advection. Also.even if you are using only a single cavity. is used to define Nonlinear Transient loads which apply forces to a node based upon displacement and/or velocity at one or two other nodes.. In this way. These links represent how each of the “convection only” plates are linked to the “advection only” flow tubes.3. and enclosure radiation. Note: Enclosure radiation problems also require a cavity/enclosure number . the translator creates Plot-Only elements to represent the CHBDY elements that are required. you must specify the surface emissivity. Since MSC/NASTRAN really has no way to “disable” these portions of the problem. we simulate this effect by scaling the appropriate components downward by the scale factor that you specify. Make sure that you always specify a small number (<< 1). FEMAP uses the layer number that is defined with each radiation load (not the layer for the element). and also create the links shown above. you can speed up the view factor calculations by limiting calculations to surfaces which can shade or can be shaded by other surfaces. otherwise advection and convection will not be properly disabled. They neither shade nor radiate to any surfaces other than the ones in their own cavity. make sure that you set the same layer on all of the radiation loads. and the view factor will be automatically calculated by the analysis program (currently only supported for MSC/NASTRAN). Currently only one fluid and set of parameters can be specified. Finite Element Modeling 5. absorptivity and temperature.

For Tabular Function loads.3. of the equation shown. In all cases. The nodal degrees of freedom must be specified as 1 through 6. FEMAP allows you to create loads on geometry. but it should contain the appropriate force values. especially in complex solid models. you must specify a scale factor. For the Positive and Negative Power Relationships. any function type can be used. Since FEMAP does not currently contain a “vs. It also provides a convenient method of load distribution. A. X=Disp/Vel) F i(t) = Scale × Table(X(t)) F i(t) = Scale × X j(t) × X k(t)  Scale × [ X j(t) ] F i(t) =  0 A where X j(t) > 0 where X j(t) ≤ 0 A Negative Variable to Power  – Scale × [ – X j(t) ] F i(t) =  0 where X j(t) < 0 where X j(t) ≥ 0 Relationship defines the type of Nonlinear Transient Loads to be created. 2 ' ( / . The X(t) arguments represent the Displacement or Velocity at Node/ DOF j (the first node) or k (the second). four types are available. Relationship Tabular Function Product of Two Variables Positive Variable to Power Definition (F=Force. Displacement/Velocity function which will be used by the analysis program to calculate the force. Since analysis programs require loads directly on Nodes and Elements.Geometric Loads  . FEMAP will convert these loads to Nodal and Elemental upon translation. The other options simply define the arguments to these equations.3 Geometric Loads As an alternative. you must define and select a Force vs. 1 * 0 . since a many times you will know the total load on a surface. FEMAP will automatically distribute that load over the surface based upon the area of the elements. 4. and/or supplement to finite element loads. Defining loads by geometry can greatly simplify load input. Power is the exponent. Force” function. As shown in the table.

based upon the type of load to create. It does not go into detailed explanation of the input values for each type of load.. allows creation of loads directly on Points. The second advantage is that you can create a Variable load which stores the equation and can then be easily modified. or when expansion to a Nodal or Elemental Load is requested. the element is not considered to be on the curve. only 2-D elements can be attached to the Curve.2 Model Load on Curve.1 Model Load on Point. The type of loads available are identical to those that are available through the Model Load Nodal command..3. 4.3. 4. The geometric load section contains four commands. (2) On Curve.. Most often you may want to simply use Model Load Nodal to create Nodal Loads directly. They are (1) On Point. FEMAP will store the equation and only evaluate it upon translation. This procedure is relatively simple for Nodal loads. FEA Attachment All loads on curves must be eventually expanded to Nodal or Elemental loads when translated to a finite element analysis program.. please see Model Load Nodal and Modal Load Elemental.creates loads on curves. All loads are converted directly to Nodal Loads upon translation or expansion. which will make selecting the Points relatively simple. which again simplifies the selection process. you will generally have less Points than Nodes in your model. which are then converted to Nodal or Elemental Loads (based upon the type of Load) upon translation or expansion.. . Finite Element Modeling Geometric loads also offer the advantage of storing equations and methods of direction. . . (3) On Surface.. When you create a variable geometric load. This section documents unique features of loads on the Curves... For more detailed information on the specific inputs for each load type.3. The first three commands enable you to create a load on the selected geometric entity. Each of these commands are discussed in more detail below. all Nodes on a face of an element must be attached to that curve. Also. For loads converted to Elemental loads. There are two major advantages of using this method over the Model Load Nodal command. Points will typically be one of the first entities created in your model. even before any FEA entities are created. while the fourth command allows you to convert between FEA (Nodal/Elemental) and geometric (Point/Curve/ Surface) loads. When FEMAP expands the loads on curves into Elemental or Nodal loads. and (4) Expand. it creates loads for nodes or elements that were originally from that curve during a meshing procedure (or manually attached). The only item which may alter this calculation is if you have turned on Midside Node Adjustment (please refer to the section below on Midside Node Adjustment). For an element to be attached to the curve.3. If a parabolic element is along a curve. but the midside node has been detached from that curve for some reason. The first is the ease of picking the correct entities. FEMAP determines which Nodes are attached to the curve and creates the loads on these Nodes.

if you choose the Along Curve 2 ' ( / . and Element Heat Generation). Direction Structural loads (i. Force Per Length. These values are applied directly to the Node with no distribution. Many of the load types. Force. Input is a total load that is then automatically distributed along the Nodes attached to the curve. and translational and rotational displacements. They cannot be Variable. If you have a load which varies along the length of the curve.  Load Types There are 33 loads available for loads on Curves. Secondly. except the values are then multiplied by the length along the curve associated with each Node. and (4) Fluid Loads. Radiation. Total loads must be input as Constant. These include Force Per Node. The “Total” loads include Force.This load type is most commonly used for Displacements. Moment Per Length.) which are converted to Nodal Loads upon expansion require input of the direction. Therefore. and (3) Per Node. Heat Flux at Node. and Force Per Node are just different input methods for the same Nodal Load type (Force). The load is distributed identically to a “Total” load.. as well as variable loading conditions for Forces.e. The heat transfer loads include loads which will be converted to Nodal loads (Heat Flux. The listing in the dialog box of the load type are separated into 4-Sections: (1) Structural Loads. Moment Per Node. These different input methods enable FEMAP to distribute loads along the curve. All structural loads except Pressure are converted to Nodal Loads. (2) Temperature. Force/Length. this type of load input will allow you to describe an equation or function to simulate that loading condition. such as Force. you will see the same direction method you originally specified. if you list or modify these loads. The direction is identified identically to the specification of Nodal Load direction (see Model Load Nodal) with two small differences. Load Input Values There are also three basic types of load input values: (1) Total. FEMAP does not convert the loads into components until you expand or translate. The distribution will be based upon the total length associated with each Node. (2) Per Length. All other loads are input on an “Per Node” basis. Heat Flux per Length. velocities. and Heat Flux. The sum of all these loads is simply the input value multiplied by the total length of the curve. Convection. These types of loads must also be input as Constant. Temperature is converted to a Nodal Temperature while Elemental Temperature obviously is an elemental load.. and Heat Flux Per Length) are very similar to “Total” loads. The first is that the Direction method is saved. and Heat Genre) or Elemental Nodes (Element Heat Flux. etc. Heat Flux Per Node. Moment. (3) Heat Transfer Loads. There are 10 Fluid loads that are scalar quantities and can only be accessed through the neutral file for use in analysis.Model Load on Curve. and accelerations. 1 * 0 . Loads input as Per Length loads (Force Per Length.

or (3) Interpolation.) and per Length (i. Note: A variable load is only available for elemental loads and nodal loads that are “per Node”.2*!y would multiply the x coordinate of each Node (or element) and then subtract the product of 2 and the y coordinate.e. If Variable loading is required (not available for “Total” and “per Length” loads). Force per Length. The only exception is FEMAP will use the node locations to calculate pressure if the At Corner option for Pressures is selected. The variable i is not used for loading on geometry. Method The Method allows you to choose between a Constant or Variable load.e. y. simply choose Constant and input the values. and z coordinates are in the coordinate system defined in the main load dialog box. preceded by an !. etc.) must be constant.35*!x . therefore all functions such as XND. . and evaluate it only upon translation or expansion. The position of the centroid of the elemental face attached to the loaded curve is used for all elemental face loads while the centroid of the element is used for non-face loads such as Elemental Temperature and Elemental Heat Generation. For example 4. FEMAP will automatically use the curve(s) to which the loads are applied. etc. Each of these values may be used in the equation definition. and z positions of the Nodes or Elements. The x. FEMAP will store the equation. Note: The node locations are used to evaluate the equation for all loads converted to Nodal Loads. which allows you to define the type of definition for your variable load: (1) Equation. Force. Nodal loads that are total (i. Moment. If constant loading is required. and XEL are not applicable and should not be used. you must select Advanced. Equation Equation allows you to specify a variable loading in terms of the x. (2) Function. Finite Element Modeling method. you cannot specify the curve. y.

is really a shortcut version of Function. FEMAP will expand the load on the 2-D element. You simply define the two locations and then define the load values associated with them. 1 * 0 Note: Loads are not expanded on Plot Only Planar elements since these elements are not translated as structural elements. if a load occurs over the entire length of the curve. You can then select Locate for 1 and 2 and the standard coordinate definition dialog box will appear. FEMAP will use the position of the Node. Interpolation The third type. Loads cannot be applied to these elements.. When you select Interpolation. it creates loads for nodes or elements that were originally generated from that curve during a meshing procedure (or manually attached). By creating a Function. and issue a warning message. you can model any irregular load pattern over the curve. Once again. or the parameter value. Two types of functions are acceptable for variable loads on curves: (1) vs. both 2-D and 3-D elements can be attached to the Surface. 2 ' ( / . The only item which may alter this calculation is if you have turned on Midside Node Adjustment (please refer to the section below on Midside Node Adjustment). When FEMAP expands these loads.  Function The second type. FEMAP will perform no extrapolation. you should take care to define the values of the curve at the beginning and end points. This function must be created before defining the load by using the Model Load Function command. FEMAP will interpolate between these values to obtain loads on the Nodes or Elements attached to the Curve. Curve Length. This procedure is relatively simple for Nodal loads. allows you to define a function to describe the loading. For an element to be attached to the surface. IF FEMAP finds faces of 2-D and 3-D elements that are identical. Simply create this type of function with the load value as Y.Model Load on Curve. but midside nodes have been detached from that surface for some reason.. This is a useful method for defining loads on a segment of a curve. Interpolation. FEA Attachment All loads on curves must be eventually expanded to Nodal or Elemental loads when translated to a finite element analysis program. Element Face centroid. If a parabolic element was created on a surface. all Nodes on a face of an element must be attached to that surface. Function. . and the X value as either the length along the curve. FEMAP does not perform any extrapolation of these values. FEMAP determines which Nodes are attached to the curve and creates the loads on these Nodes. the Locate 1 and Locate 2 areas become accessible. or Element centroid and linearly interpolate a value at that position from the function. and (2) vs. the element is not considered to be on the curve. For loads converted to Elemental loads. Therefore. The only exception to this procedure is if the 2-D elements are Plot Only Planes. Curve Parameterization.

and this value is in excess of 1/2 the value of the total load on the element. When FEMAP expands these loads. For loads converted to Elemental loads.creates loads on surfaces. You can specify the factor you want on the midside nodes under File Preferences. and Force at Node are just different input methods for the same Nodal Load type (Force).3. This section documents unique features of loads on Surfaces. Many of the load types. FEMAP will expand the load on the 2-D element and issue a warning message. This means that 2/3 of the load will be applied to the midside node. For more detailed information on the specific inputs for each load type. You must apply a larger value to the Midside Nodes than the Corner Nodes. it creates loads for nodes or elements that were originally generated from that surface during a meshing procedure (or manually attached). If your results are inappropriate for your analysis program. For an element to be attached to the surface. which are then converted to Nodal or Elemental Loads (based upon the type of Load) upon translation or expansion. 4. such as Force.3 Model Load on Surface.3. which is standard for many programs. all Nodes on a face of an element must be attached to that surface. For many parabolic elements. It does not go into detailed explanation of the input values for each type of load. Geometry. Force per Area. If FEMAP finds faces of 2-D and 3-D elements that are identical. both 2-D and 3-D elements can be attached to the Surface. but midside nodes have been detached from that surface for some reason. please see Model Load Nodal and Modal Load Elemental.. on the Edge Factor. loads cannot be applied to these elements. You can also remove the option to adjust for Midside Nodes by clicking this option off. . Finite Element Modeling Midside Node Adjustment Some methods such as Force/Length and Force distribute the loads over the entire length. This value defaults to 2/3. please consult the documentation for your program. These different input methods enable FEMAP to distribute loads along the surface. If a parabolic element was created on a surface. you cannot simply distribute the force evenly and obtain an even displacement result. FEA Attachment All loads on surfaces must be eventually expanded to Nodal or Elemental loads when translated to a finite element analysis program. . Load Types There are 33 loads available for loads on Surfaces.. The only exception to this procedure is if the 2-D elements are Plot Only Planes. the element is not considered to be on the curve.. and 1/6 to each corner node.. This procedure is relatively simple for Nodal loads. FEMAP determines which Nodes are attached to the curve and creates the loads on these Nodes. The only item which may alter this calculation is if you have turned on Midside Node Adjustment (please refer to the section below on Midside Node Adjustment). Since Plot Only elements are not translated as structural elements.

2 ' ( / . The distribution will be based upon the total area associated with each Node. The sum of all these loads is simply the input value multiplied by the total area of the elements. Moment Per Area. and Heat Flux Per Area) are very similar to “Total” loads. If you have a load which varies over a surface. 1 * 0 . The total loads include Force. velocities. and Heat Genre) and Elemental Nodes (Element Heat Flux.. They cannot be Variable. These include andy “Per Node” loads as well as translational and rotational displacements.These are most commonly used for Displacements and variable loading conditions. if you list or modify these loads. The direction is identified identically to the specification of Nodal Load direction (see Model Load Nodal) with two differences. and Element Heat Generation). Heat Flux at Node. All structural loads except Pressure are converted to Nodal Loads. Loads input as “Per Area” loads (Force Per Area. Convection. Input the total load value. The heat transfer loads include both Nodal (Heat Flux. etc. FEMAP does not convert loads into components until you expand or translate. except the values are then multiplied by the area associated with each Node. There are 10 Fluid loads that are scalar quantities and can only be accessed through the neutral file for use in analysis. All other loads are input on a “Per Node” basis. and (4) Fluid loads. These types of loads must also be input as Constant. Force. (2) Temperature. Temperature is converted to a Nodal temperature while Elemental Temperature obviously is an elemental load.. you cannot specify the surface. Heat Flux per Length. Therefore. Direction Structural loads (i. The first is that the Direction method is stored. and Heat Flux.Model Load on Surface. Load Input Values There are also three basic types of load input values: (1) Total. The load is distributed identically to a “Total” load. and FEMAP will automatically distribute it over the surface.) which are converted to Nodal Loads upon expansion require input of the direction. the same direction method is shown. this type of load input will allow you to input an equation to simulate the loading condition. Moment. These values are applied directly to the Node with no distribution. (2) Per Area. FEMAP will automatically use the surface(s) to which the loads are applied. Radiation. Force/Length.e. (2) If you choose the Normal to Surface method. Total loads must be input as Constant. and accelerations. and (3) Per Node.  The listing in the dialog box of the load type are separated into 4-Sections: (1) Structural Loads. (3) Heat Transfer Loads.

The position of the centroid of the element is used for nonface loads such as Elemental Temperature and Elemental Heat Generation.e. preceded by an !. Force. Note: A variable load is only available for elemental loads and nodal loads that are “per Node”. . you must select Advanced and select the Equation method. The Function and Interpolation methods are not available for loads on surfaces. you cannot simply distribute the force evenly and obtain an even displacement result. You must apply a larger value to the Midside Nodes than the Corner Nodes. FEMAP stores the equation and only evaluates it when the load is expanded upon translation or when the Model Load Expand Load is used. therefore all functions such as XND. y.e. If a constant load is required. The only exception to the above is FEMAP will use the position of the Nodes to calculate pressure loads if you select the At Corner option for Pressures. and evaluate it only upon translation or expansion. For many parabolic elements. The position of the centroid of the elemental face is attached to the loaded curve is used for all elemental face loads. Nodal loads that are total (i. Force per Area.) and per Area (i. Equation Equation allows you to specify a variable loading in terms of the x. The variable i is not used for loading on geometry. and z positions of the Nodes or Elements.35*!x . The x. and XEL are not applicable and should not be used. Each of these values may be used in the equation definition. and z coordinates are in the coordinate system defined in the main load dialog box. simply choose Constant and input the values.) must be constant. Midside Node Adjustment Some loads such as Force/Area and Force distribute the loads on the Nodes over the entire area.2*!y would multiply the x coordinate of each Node (or element) and then subtract the product of 2 and the y coordinate. For example 4. etc. FEMAP will store the equation. Finite Element Modeling Method The Method allows you to choose between a Constant load or a Variable load. etc. and this value is in excess of 1/2 the value of the total load on the element. Note: The location of the Nodes are used to evaluate the equation for all loads converted to Nodal Loads. If a variable load is required (not available for “Total” and “per Length” loads). y. Moment.

will be converted back to geometric loads. Therefore..  You can specify the factor you want on the midside nodes under File Preferences. If you select an option other than All in Set. you will see the following dialog box. no loads are applied to the corner nodes. and finally compressed again after translation. except at a few Nodes (or Elements). Compression is always performed on the entire set. These value represent the percentage of the load on each Midside Node. The only exception is if the loads contain either different vs. Tri-Face and Quad-Face factors. . an error message will be supplied and the load will not be expanded a second time. When compressing loads. There are two factors available for Midside Node Adjustment. The Model Load Expand can be used to either expand or compress the geometric loads. Geometry.Model Load Expand. If your results are inappropriate for your analysis program. on Curve. 1 * 0 Combined Nodal Loads When FEMAP expands multiple geometric loads. and then use the Modify Update Other Scale Load command to change individual loads. . 4. it will attempt to combine all similar Nodal loads into one load for each DOF.. to prevent duplication. With loads such as Forces and Moments. you have the option to specify which loads to expand (on Point.. The values default to 1/3. When using it to expand loads. which means for Tri-Faces. and to evaluate all loads with their current equation. Be careful when using this option. This command operates only on the current Active Load Set. 2 ' ( / . Many analysis programs require only one load on a DOF. and a -1/ 12 factor is applied to Quad-Face corner nodes. because you cannot convert back to the original geometric loads. please consult the documentation for your program. If a load has already been expanded. These values are standard for many programs. This option can be useful when a load is mostly constant (or easily described as an equation) over a surface. When translating to an FEA model. individual types of loads cannot be selected. FEMAP will add the components. or expand the entire set. You can permanently expand the load. any expanded geometric loads which appear as Elemental or Nodal loads before expansion.4 Model Load Expand. all loads used in the translation will be compressed. on Surface) or to expand the entire set (All in Set). then expanded through the translator. and you select to expand it again. Time/Temp/Freq Reference Functions..3... Convert To Node/Elem This option allows you to permanently convert the selected loads to Nodal/Elemental loads. You can also remove the option to adjust for Midside Nodes by clicking this option off. When this command is selected.3. the standard entity selection box will appear.enables you to visualize the Nodal and Elemental loads which will be created from geometric loads. This procedure prevents duplication of loads.

Solution Type The solution type determines the type of solution that will be performed for the particular load set. These commands are not used to put loads onto the model.4 Load Analysis Options These three commands enable you to set options for different analysis types. . For loads such as Displacement or Acceleration. the loads will remain separate and a warning message will be written. Finite Element Modeling different Phases. it is included in the load menu because it does relate to the other loading conditions and how they will be applied. Three commands are available. based upon the type of analysis required: (1) Heat Transfer Analysis. In these cases. Creep. These commands are not used if you are performing simple Static or Modal analysis. 4.. Rather. they simply define certain parameters which are required for the analysis type. or different Freq Reference Functions for the Phase. FEMAP will not add values for the same DOF. . While this information does not typically represent a load. Each load set to be used in a Nonlinear Analysis must have the appropriate Solution Type activated. Available options are Static.1 Model Load Nonlinear Analysis. The options contained in each of these commands are discussed below. and (3) Nonlinear Analysis. and Transient.3.. You will need to modify the input to obtain the desired values at the Nodes.defines the information that is typically required to perform a nonlinear analysis. (2)Dynamic Analysis.. It will keep these values separate and provide a warning message that two different values were found for the same DOF.3. 4.4. Only appropriate control information in the remainder of the window will be available based upon the type of solution you choose. The option to permanently convert to Nodal Loads could be used in this to expand and then modify the Displacements on the Nodes..

Convergence Tolerances The type of Convergence Tolerances (Load.  Basic These values provide the time and iteration control information for the Nonlinear Analysis Steps. Stiffness Updates This specifies the number of iterations to be performed before the Stiffness Matrix is updated. The damping values for 2 ' ( / . No time increment is used for static analysis. and/or Work) as well as the tolerance values themselves are defined in these boxes. but they are available for experienced analysts to modify the default solution controls. the nonlinear options are not required. Solution Strategy Overrides This area provides you with the capability to further control the strategy that will be employed to converge toward a solution. If an inappropriate Method is selected. They control the Number of Increments and the Time Increment to be used. A total of five different update methods are available. Copy Copy allows you to duplicate the Nonlinear Analysis information from any other Load Set in the current model. Output Control Output Control information allows you to request or eliminate output at intermediate steps (Static and Creep) or request Output Every Nth Step (Transient). By pushing this button. the Translator will provide an error message and automatically choose the default method.. Advanced This button enables you to access additional nonlinear analysis options as well as damping inputs for Nonlinear Transient analysis. Defaults When you first choose this command. Displacement.Model Load Nonlinear Analysis. For most problems. You can then modify these defaults as appropriate. 1 * 0 . as well as the Update Method. but not all are appropriate for all each Solution Type.. as well as the Maximum Iterations for each step. all values will be zero. nonzero default values will be entered for all properties.

These values provide the conversion from the frequency domain. into the time domain. In addition. (3) Direct Frequency.. The inappropriate boxes for each Solution Method will be grayed automatically. The Frequency for System Damping (W3 . and (3) Amplification vs. Equivalent Viscous Damping This box provides damping information for the structure. The Frequency for Element Damping is used in combination with the . while the Modal Damping Table is utilized for only the two Modal Methods. a Dynamic Analysis load is required for Nonlinear Transient Analysis to define structural damping.. 4.Hz) is divided into the overall damping coefficient (for NASTRAN and ANSYS). Finite Element Modeling Nonlinear Transient analyses can be input here or under Create Load Dynamic Analysis. Frequency.. Each load set to be utilized in a Dynamic Analysis must have the appropriate Solution Method activated. Equivalent Viscous Damping Conversion Information for both System Damping and Element Damping is provided in this box. . The Modal Damping table requires a function to define damping information as a function of frequency. Three types of FEMAP functions can be chosen: (1) Viscous Damping vs. Frequency. (2) Critical Damping vs. Four available options exist: (1) Direct Transient.4. and (4) Modal Frequency. The Overall Structural Damping Coefficient is input for all four solution methods.. These values are only input in Direct and Modal Transient Analysis. in which damping is usually defined. Solution Method The solution method chooses the type of Dynamics Solution to be performed.3.provides the solution type and control information for Dynamic Analyses. or the material damping values for each material (for ABAQUS and LS-DYNA3D) and then multiplied by the stiffness to obtain Element (or Stiffness) Damping. (2) Modal Transient. Frequency.2 Model Load Dynamic Analysis.

ANSYS. Frequency Response The Solutions Frequencies table is chosen in this section. and then select this function under Random Analysis Options. these options are overridden by the Nonlinear Transient Time Step input. and mass damping in ABAQUS. 1 * 0 . If you are using NASTRAN. Choosing only one point per mode will select just the modal frequencies. Choosing three points per mode will select the modal frequencies and two additional frequencies at the modal frequency plus and minus the spread value. these options control the number of steps. Random Analysis Options This option allows you to define a Power Spectral Density (PSD) function to be used for random analysis. you can automatically create a solution frequencies function/table from that output. You simply use the Create Function command to define the PSD values as a function of frequency (a vs. size of steps. and have the solution information in the current model. Transient Time Step Interval For transient analyses. This option is used only for Random Response Analysis. these options allow you to choose the number and/or range of modes to include in the frequency response or transient formulation. Additionally.Model Load Dynamic Analysis. The number of points must always be odd so that the modal frequencies are selected. and the output interval. frequencies in a band near each modal frequency can be chosen by using the Additional Solution Frequency Points. you may also select the Advanced option to define the range of solution frequencies. and LS-DYNA3D. If this load is to be used in a Nonlinear Transient analysis. and you will see the following: The modal frequency in each output case will be selected for the Solution Frequency table. Frequency function type). Simply press Modal Freq.. The y position is irrelevant and will be ignored. The frequency table is just a function with a list of frequencies in the x position. This table defines the frequencies to be analyzed for both Direct and Modal Frequency Analysis.. The Number of Points per Existing Mode defines the number of frequencies to be included for each modal frequency. Response Based On Modes For the modal solution methods. A solution frequency table can be automatically created by pressing the Modal Freq button. 2 ' ( / .  material damping values to obtain structural damping in NASTRAN. while the Frequency Band Spread defines the placement of the additional frequencies. Modal Freq If you have previously performed a modal analysis on your model.

This is currently only supported for NASTRAN. They are utilized to generate a nodal force (force = base mass * specified acceleration) at the independent node of the newly created rigid body. A rigid element is then created with the newly generated node as the independent node and the selected nodes as the dependent nodes. You can also specify addition analysis inputs for Solution Frequencies and Random Response Analysis. Advanced As with Nonlinear Analysis. an Advanced button is provided to give experienced analysts more control over the solution strategy. The default for the mass value is several orders of magnitude larger than the mass of the current model so the large mass will drive the rest of the model. These are Cluster around Modes.You can either simply press OK to accept them. Solution Frequencies This option provides an alternative method to the Solution Frequencies function on the main Dynamic Analysis dialog box. The following dialog box is provided to enable choices for Mass Formulation and Dynamic Data Recovery. You must choose a time or frequency dependent function to associate with the acceleration. change them here. The type of load to create will be limited to either Acceleration or Rotational Acceleration. links it to a set of “base nodes” in your model with rigid elements. Next you define the Base Acceleration using the standard Load creation dialog box. This option creates a base mass. Cluster around Modes will also have a logarithmic interpolation option. No. To begin you specify coordinates for the base mass using the standard Coordinate definition dialog box. of Intervals) options will be available. If you have selected a Direct Frequency analysis. . The values are automatically computed based on your current model and the acceleration that you chose. The next dialogue box is the standard Entity Selection box. Max. which asks you to choose the nodes on the base. which corresponds to the NASTRAN FREQ3 card. additional types to determine the solution frequencies from the natural modes will be available. and Spread Around Modes (MSC/NASTRAN FREQ4 card). The final required input is the mass and the acceleration scale factor. although logarithmic interpolation can also be employed for the Frequency Range. or edit the force later with the Modify Edit commands. and applies an equivalent base force. If you select Modal Frequency as the analysis type. Finite Element Modeling Enforced Motion Pressing the enforced motion button enables you to define a base acceleration. only the Default List and the Frequency Range (Min. A node will be automatically created at this location.

and select the type of formulation to use for different types of heat transfer problems. They are: Standard q = h × uCTRLND × ( T – TAMB ) Alternate q = h × u CTRLND × ( T EXPF × ( T – T AMB ) AMB ) EXPF –T EXPF The Convection Exponent is the value shown as EXPF in the above equations. Displacement. Free Convection For free convection analysis. Velocity. Copy This selection allows you to copy a Dynamic Analysis options from any other Load Set in the current model. Refer to the NASTRAN documentation for more information about the proper values for these options. 2) NASTRAN PSD Interpolation: Nastran has the ability to define the PSD table in the following four formats. .Model Load Heat Transfer Analysis  Random Analysis There are currently two options supported for random analysis.. and the Stefan-Boltzmann constant.3. thermal characteristics for convection. (Linear. the type of input on the PSD Function in the main Dynamic Analysis dialog box is modified. These options are currently used for MSC/NASTRAN only. Radiation If you are going to perform a radiation analysis. the type of Interpolation used on the PSD table input (MSC/NASTRAN TABRND1) in the main Dynamic Analysis dialog box is modified. YLog). (X Lin. Linear). you can choose between two alternative forms of the free convection temperature exponent. Log). 2 ' ( / . or Force). you must specify the temperature difference between absolute zero and zero in the temperature system that you are using. 1) ANSYS PSD type: ANSYS has the capability to input Acceleration (in g2/Hz or acc units2/Hz. (Log. By simply changing this option. 4. Y Lin).3 Model Load Heat Transfer Analysis This command enables you to define heat transfer constants. (X Log. By simply changing this option.4. These options correspond directly to the options on the MSC/NASTRAN PCONVM and MAT4 commands. 1 * 0 Forced Convection The forced convection values specify the properties and behavior of the fluid to be analyzed..

. Each command is briefly discussed below. Simply specify the ID of the load set that you want to create. This is equivalent to a single term in the above equation... . nodal elemental. and (4) From Freebody. The loads are always created in the active Load Set.3. Answer No.2 Model Load Combine..... lets you convert output data from one or more output vectors into various load types. There are four commands available: (1) Copy. If loads exist on the same node or element in different sets that are combined. After the copy has been made. If you are creating nodal or elemental temperatures. duplicates the active load set.5. if you want to continue working with the original load set. . FEMAP will always create it with the same title as the original set that was copied.3 Model Load From Output. FEMAP will simply copy the Nodal and Elemental Temperatures. . Temperature Loads will not be linearly combined. FEMAP will use the last temperature..3. FEMAP will ask whether you want to activate the new set. 4. All loads. This will combine the set. 4. (2) Combine.3.When you choose this command... instead of More. and exit the command. pressures or heat transfer loads. and geometric loads are copied to the new set.3. Input for this command is minimal. the Create Loads From Output dialog box will be displayed. After you make a selection. If you do not want to duplicate all of them. You essentially copy one “From Set” at a time with a specified Scale Factor every time you press More. which can then be combined with Tools Check Coincident Loads.5. Answer Yes. FEMAP displays a dialog box to let you choose the type of load you want to create. the resulting set will simply obtain multiple loads on that node or element. Also. and press OK. to work with the new copy.5 Load Set Manipulation This section of the menu works to create either additional load sets or new loads from output. enables you to combine two or more load sets into one new load set based upon the following formula Load = A1 Load 1 + A 2 Load 2 + … + A n Load n This command works in a repetitive fashion.1 Model Load Copy. including body. This new set must not exist. press Last One. (3) From Output. 4. Finite Element Modeling 4. you will be . Hint: You may want to use the Model Load Set command to modify the title of the new copy. use the Delete Model Load commands to remove the ones that you do not want from the new set. For the final set that you wish to linearly combine.. If conflicting temperatures exist for the same node or element in the individual load sets.. FEMAP will create a duplicate copy of the active set with the ID that you specify.5.

5. the standard entity selection dialog box will be displayed. 2 ' ( / . you might want to use displacement. First. FEMAP will automatically create loads from the FreeBody display for the nodes you selected. Then use Model Output Convert to create an additional output vector of the opposite type..creates loads directly from a FreeBody display. You must have a FreeBody display active and Show Load Summation under Freebody Display must be On. When creating elemental pressures.. You must select the Nodes or Elements where loads will be created. 1 * 0 . therefore the output must also be in Global Rectangular..3. convert your current temperatures to output data using Model Output From Load command. you may want to convert that data to temperature loads from a heat transfer run in a structural analysis. If you say Yes to the Total Load question. Data from the six vectors will be converted to the six loading degrees of freedom. or limit the conversion to some selected portion of your model. If you have defined temperatures and need to convert them to the opposite type. in which case all output will be converted. You can choose the Color and Layer for all new loads. If you leave any vectors blank (or zero).. use Model Loads From Output and select the vector created with Model Output Convert. or vice versa.  able to specify an Output Set and Output Vector which contains the temperature data. after you complete these options and press OK. The only input to this command is the Nodes to apply the loads.. all loads are created in Global Rectangular coordinates. You can either select your entire model. Converting Between Nodal and Elemental Temperatures Another reason to use this command is to convert nodal to elemental temperatures. You must always specify at least one vector. FEMAP will create a node at this location and then create the appropriate load. this command can be combined with several others to accomplish that task. you must also specify a Face ID where the load will act. no loads will be created in that direction. 4. Similarly. In either case. You cannot create output on different element faces at the same time with this command. loads will only be created if output exists for a particular Node or Element. Finally. FEMAP will ask you if it is OK to create this load as well as the individual loads. .4 Model Load From Freebody. If you have requested a total load calculation at a specific location in the Freebody Display. Why Create Loads from Output? The primary reason to convert output data to load data is for use in future analyses. force or acceleration output from one structural analysis as a loading condition for further analyses.. Finally. For example.Model Load From Freebody. For other types of loads. Also. six vectors can be selected. or many of the elemental heat transfer loads.

along with the IDs. (1) Nodal. To create a new Constraint Set.. and (3) Equation.. (2) Nodal on Face.6 Activate/Create Constraint Set All nodal constraints. you must always activate a Constraint Set prior to creating either of them. press Reset.3.3. enter an ID which does not appear in the list of available sets. The same constraints will be applied to all of the nodes that you select in a single command. and press OK. To deactivate all Constraint Sets.6. Finite Element Modeling 4. which will be constrained. constraint equations. Each of these commands is discussed below. 4. Then enter a Title and press OK. . The titles are displayed. You must apply constraints directly to the Nodes (as opposed to the geometry) when you are fixing only certain DOFs.. Shift+F2 .3. 4. whenever you are asked to select a Constraint Set. makes a new Constraint Set or activates an existing set.. There are three commands which apply constraints directly to the Nodes. you should choose a descriptive title. simply choose it from the list. 4. Geometric constraints only allow you to create Pinned (DOFs 123) or Fixed (All 6 DOFs) Constraints.1 Model Constraint Set. Enter Set ID to activate here or. or component directions. As always. Therefore. choose an existing set from this list Click here to deactivate all sets. To activate a Constraint Set which already exists.7 Finite Element (Nodal) Constraints FEMAP allows you to apply constraints directly to Nodes or create constraint equations which provide a relationship between DOF’s of Nodes.3. and geometric constraints are created in the active Constraint Set. or enter its ID.1 Model Constraint Nodal: Nodal constraints are used to prevent movement in one or more nodal directions (degrees of freedom). Creating Nodal constraints is a two step process: (1) Select the nodes to be constrained using the standard entity selection dialog box and (2) Choose the degrees of freedom. at each of these nodes.7.

to create the constraint. in all sets. . Nodal Constraint Degree of Freedom Buttons Command Button Fixed Free Pinned No Rotation X Symmetry Y Symmetry Z Symmetry X AntiSym Y AntiSym Z AntiSym TX * * * * * * * * * * * * * * TY * * TZ * * * * * * * * * * * RX * RY * RZ * 2 ' ( / . All Constraints. 1 * 0 Simply choose the command button you need.Model Constraint Nodal:  Color/Palette and Layer: These controls define parameters for the nodal constraint to be created. The coordinate system you select here replaces the coordinate system that you selected as the Nodal Output coordinate system (refer to the Model Node command). If the coordinate system that you choose is different from your previous selection. Remember. you can quickly select the combination by pressing the appropriate command button. followed by OK. you can only have one output coordinate system per node. In many cases however. and hence the constraint directions. If you have other constraints defined on the same node. Note: Be careful when you change the output coordinate system. TZ. Specifying Degrees of Freedom Any combination of the six nodal degrees of freedom (TX. as well as everything else that references nodal degrees of freedom. RY and RZ) can be selected using the check boxes. you are implicitly changing their orientation every time you change the output coordinate system. are specified relative to that coordinate system. standard combinations of degrees of freedom will be needed. TY. These changes can result in modeling errors which FEMAP can not detect. * indicates a constrained degree of freedom. even in other Constraint Sets. For these situations. In the table. Coordinate System: This list allows you to choose a coordinate system which will define the nodal degrees of freedom. for all selected nodes. RX. The following table shows the combinations which are available. you will be asked to confirm that you want to overwrite the previous selection for all nodes.

Multiple Nodes. define the coefficient.works just like Create Constraint Nodal. Delete: Nodal degrees of freedom are identified by selecting a node number and selecting the degree of freedoms (see table below). Refer to the Model Loads Nodal on Face for more information. FEMAP’s translators support these additional. non-constraint sets.7... just like you specified your constraints...2 Model Constraint Nodal on Face. STARDYNE GUYAN set) which is often used for reduced modal analysis. if you have multiple Nodes in the constraint equation that have identical degrees of freedoms and coefficient.. It is a good idea to specify a Title which will help you to properly identify the set. To input one Node at a time. One typical example of this is the analysis set (NASTRAN ASET. which contains the nodal degrees of freedom that you want.3 Model Constraint Equation. you must specify all of the terms in the following equation: 0 = ∑ Aj uj where Aj are the equation coefficients. This will add it to the Constraint Equation. . 4. You can also add multiple Nodes. All you have to do is create an additional set. Finite Element Modeling Other Uses for Nodal Constraints In most cases. but instead of directly selecting the Nodes where Constraints will be applied. . Simply input the coefficient. and then select/input the Node and hit Add. select the degrees of freedom. and uj are the nodal degrees of freedom Equation coefficients are directly specified in the constraint equation definition dialog box: Add. Then when you translate your model. You will then see the standard Entity Selection dialog . and then hit the Multiple Nodes button. you will want to create nodal constraints to do exactly what their name implies . simply choose this set for its intended purpose. you select elements and element faces. 4.. Replace.3. ANSYS M set.3. When you create a constraint equation.7.relates the motion or displacement of two or more (up to 70) nodal degrees of freedom. For some types of analysis (usually modal analysis) other sets of degrees of freedom can be used.. instead of translating it as a constraint set.. select the degrees of freedom.constrain your model. FEMAP then automatically finds all of the nodes on those faces and applies the specified constraints.

When a selection is highlighted. or No rotation) cannot be constrained through geometric constraints.Pinned). You can also modify your selections by highlighting a selection in the dialog box.3.Fixed). or all rotations (DOF 456 . Layer: In addition to the equation terms. This ID must be unique within each constraint set. Y Translation TZ. You can then select the geometric entities you want and FEMAP will automati- 2 ' ( / . The ID will automatically increment each time that you create a new equation. however. you must define an equation ID. and the combined result would be a pinned surface with one Node as fixed. ID. FEMAP will combine the constraints. Select the appropriate Nodes and hit OK. and change to a geometric method. to select these Nodes. and then create a no rotation condition on one of the Nodes through Model Constraint Nodal. In this manner. Fixed. the nodal degrees of freedom are in the X. X Rotation RY. This will add these Nodes with the selecting degrees of freedom and coefficient to the constraint equation. Geometric constraints are expanded to Nodal constraints upon translation or expansion. Y Rotation RZ. or change it to your current pick by hitting Replace. You may still use geometry. you could pin Nodes on a curve. X Translation TY.8 Geometric Constraints You may also create Nodal constraints in FEMAP by constraining geometry. simply hit the Method button.Geometric Constraints  box. Color. When the standard entity selection box appears. Nodal Degree of Freedom Numbers Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 DOF TX. Y and Z directions defined by the nodal output coordinate systems. Note: Other combinations of degrees of freedom (besides Pinned. Z Translation RX. and is used only to identify the equation within FEMAP. you can remove it by hitting Delete. Z Rotation As always. If you have already defined Nodal constraints for Nodes on the geometry. 4. all translations + all rotations (DOF 123456 . The one major limitation to all geometric constraints is that you can only fix either all translations (DOF 123 . You must use Model Constraint Nodal for these other combinations.No Rotation). You can also specify a Color and Layer for each equation. 1 * 0 . FEMAP will automatically transfer these constraints to Nodes attached to the constrained geometry upon translation or expansion.

be careful when converting to Nodal..3.allows you to apply constraints directly to Curves. If you do not want to duplicate all of them. The geometric constraints. or an entire set. and then select the type of constraint..1 Model Constraint Copy.is used to expand or compress geometric constraints. . You can select individual types to expand.. similar to the geometric loads.3. You simply select the curves through the standard entity selection box.3. Just like with the Model Load Expand command.allows you to apply constraints directly to Points.3... 4. .... and their Output Coordinate Systems will be adjusted appropriately.. If you choose Convert to Nodal. Finite Element Modeling cally determine which Nodes are attached to these entities. All nodal constraints and constraint equations are copied to the new set.. 4. 4. Nodes attached to that curve will then be constrained upon translation or expansion.2 Model Constraint on Curve.8. .. however. This command can ease the entity selection process since you will typically have many more Nodes than Points in your model.1 Model Constraint on Point..4 Model Constraint Expand. .allows you to apply constraints directly to Surfaces.. You cannot go back to the original geometric load.8. . the geometric constraint will be removed and be replaced by Nodal Constraints.8. which are then transformed to Nodal Constraints upon translation or expansion. it is often just as easy to apply the constraints directly to the Nodes with the Model Constraint Nodal command. Nodes attached to that curve will then be constrained upon translation or expansion. and then select the type of constraint. You simply select the surfaces through the standard entity selection box. This conversion is permanent.9.9 Constraint Set Manipulation This section contains command to copy or combine entire constraint sets. You can also compress an entire set.8.. It operates identically to the Model Load Expand. . (2) On Curve. and (4) Expand..duplicates the active constraint set.. (3) On Surface. 4. 4.. are divided into four commands: (1) On Point....3.3. The Nodal constraints will then be applied directly to these Nodes.3 Model Constraint on Surface. use the Delete Model Constraint commands to remove unwanted constraints from the new set. 4.

FEMAP will always create it with the same title as the original set that was copied. 4.4. LSDYNA3D. .2 Model Constraint Combine. enables you to combine two or more constraint sets into one new Constraint Set.. Answer No. and (3) Contact Pair. FEMAP will ask whether you want to activate the new set... This option works much like Create Load Combine. This type of contact is currently only supported for ABAQUS. Each of these entities are described below. you will see the Contact Segment dialog box 2 ' ( / . Answer Yes. Simply specify the ID of the constraint set that you want to create. 1 * 0 . and you will have the option to Combine or Overwrite Constraints for each set that you choose.Model Constraint Combine.9. elements. When you access this command. These options can be created through the standard Model Property and Model Element commands.4 Contact (Model Contact commands) The command under the Model Contact menu generate node.  Input for this command is minimal.. (2) Contact Property. This new set must not already exist. FEMAP will create a duplicate copy of the active set with the ID that you specify. 4. to work with the new copy. except there is no Scale Factor input.. if you want to continue working with the original constraint set. There are three steps in creating contact for these programs.3. After the copy has been made. or property information for general contact..1 Defining a Contact Segment/Surface The Model Contact Segment/Surface command creates the individual segments for contact. and MARC. Hint: You may want to use the Model Constraint Set command to modify the title of the new copy. 4. Note: The Contact Property and Contact Pair options are provided under the Model Contact menu purely for user convenience. They involve three different entity creations: (1) Contact Segment/Surface.

Only elements referencing the chosen property that have centroidal values inside the box will be considered in contact. which are the corners of a box. color. but often these segments will be very close to one another. these items perform exactly as their names suggest. The Output option of Nodes or Elements will also be disabled. thus potentially decreasing execution time dramatically. or Properties for the Contact. Elements. Nodes. If you create a Contact Box. Simply specify two points.4. . You will be able to graphically select them.4.2 Segment Definition The Defined By group in the Contact Segment dialog box performs the formation of the contact segment. Finite Element Modeling This dialog box is partitioned into four major sections: (1) Standard Entity Information. which allows selection of the other four entities. 4. Since a larger number of elements could be associated with the property. Property/ Part Contact. and Reset removes the entire list. FEMAP automatically exports all elements referencing that property as the contact body for ABAQUS and MARC. You must select <<Add before exiting for single entity input. By using the Titles. Thus. When selecting the Property/Part Contact option. ID. It is important to give each Contact Segment a descriptive title so you may easily select them when defining a Contact Pair.1. FEMAP also provides the capability to limit the number of elements with the Contact Box definition. Although there are five entities shown. Property/Part Contact This type of definition allows input of FEMAP properties only. which allows selection of only FEMAP properties. an item contained in the entry area (shown as Surface above) will not be included if you enter the entity and hit OK. or Standard Contact.1 Entity Information This section includes the typical entity information contained in FEMAP. and Reset options. For LS-DYNA3D. but not properties.. Curves. the dialog box changes to allow specification of a Contact Box. You can select Surfaces. 4. you can simply select these from a list when creating the Contact Pair. With regard to the <<Add. Add includes one item. and then later want to remove all restrictions. Multiple. (2) Defined By. Multiple allows you to select multiple entities. Each of these sections are described more fully below. (3) Type.. simply push the Delete button. and (4) Output. the actual Part ID (typically the FEMAP property ID) will be selected for contact. Note: An entity is not selected until it appears in the large window on the right of the dialog box. making it difficult to accurately pick them. there are really two methods available. layer and Title. If you push the Contact Box. button. the standard coordinate definition dialog box will appear. This is a very convenient method of limiting contact to certain regions.1. Delete. Delete removes one item.

Nodes are selected by the standard picking method. you can select both geometry and entities in the same contact segment. SEGMENTS to LS-DYNA3D corresponding to the element faces. element faces are actually chosen. You must pick both the element and its face number. Standard Contact This contact method allows selection of both geometry (Surfaces and Curves) and finite element entities (Nodes and Element Faces). The selection of geometric and FEA entities are slightly different. When exporting the model. only elements with centroidal values in the box will be exported. Note: You can not limit contact in segments for ABAQUS and MARC to element faces or nodes when using Part Contact. however. FEMAP determines what element faces are attached to the geometry. all of its nodes must be attached to the curve (for edges of planar elements) or surface (for planar and solid elements). you must use Standard Contact. 1 * 0 . This is currently used to determine if the top or bottom face of plates is in contact when attached to a surface. It is not currently implemented for curves. or you can hit Multiple. FEMAP exports the element faces to ABAQUS. FEMAP will also export the CONTACT NODE option to MARC to limit contact to the face nodes attached to the geometry.. For ABAQUS and MARC. to chose multiple entities. For an element face to be selected. You can simply select the type of entity and then input the ID and hit <<ADD.Segment Definition  The points on the Contact Box are exported directly to LS-DYNA3D as a *DEFINE_BOX. which is then referenced on the *CONTACT option for the referenced segment. The only exception is for MARC. With Output on Elements. If the Output is on Nodes. If you want to limit contact to certain faces. FEMAP determines all nodes that are attached to the particular geometry. Only the elements will be exported. There will also be a check box for positive side. simply select the appropriate entities.. Nodes can only be selected if the Output Nodes option is selected. the Nodes will be exported. and as elements to MARC. or nodes. and they are explained more fully below. For elements. 2 ' ( / . where pure node sets are not supported. The conversion from geometry to export of FEA entities is very similar to expanding geometric loads. Geometry Selection When selecting geometry (curves and surfaces) for contact. FEA Selection You can also select the FEA entities directly.

but references the rigid body directly on its *PRESCRIBED_MOTION_ and *LOAD_ options for motions and loads.) assigned to the Reference Node will be assigned to the rigid segment. as well as constraints on the *MAT_RIGID material. For ABAQUS.4. you must define the Ref Node (Rigid Body Reference Node).4 Output You must also specify the type of output for the segment. two conditions must be met: (1) Property/Part Contact must be used. and (2) the material referenced on the property must be a *MAT_RIGID type (FEMAP Other Type No.1.3 Type of Segment FEMAP supports both deformable and rigid contact segments. the Reference Node is exported. itself. you will not be able to pick Nodes for the definition. 4. If you select Elements.4. Rigid Body Reference Node The Reference Node is used to apply constraints and motions to the rigid segment. Note: For motion. . Please refer to the Model Load Elemental section contained earlier in this chapter for more information on these methods. Contact Segments defined by nodes is not supported for MARC and an error message will occur on export. a procedure identical to element loading is followed. and loads of a Reference Node to be exported as Rigid Body values. LS-DYNA3D. If you select Property/Part Contact under Define By. Finite Element Modeling When you hit the Multiple command with Elements chosen. FEMAP will automatically assign all displacements and velocities on the reference node to the rigid body exported to LS-DYNA3D. FEMAP will then export the appropriate elements to the contact entity when exporting. This dialog box is identical to the one used for elemental loads.1. First. FEMAP will export nodal lists for contact to both ABAQUS and LS-DYNA3D. Constraints and motions (displacements. 4. etc. Rigid contact segments are not currently supported for MARC and will be written as deformable. ABAQUS will automatically assign these conditions to the rigid body. with all the motions and constraints on the node. For rigid segments. and then graphically select an element and its face. 20). If you select Nodes. this option will be disabled and FEMAP will export Parts for LSDYNA3D and elements for ABAQUS and MARC. however. and then you will see the Face Selection dialog box below. does not contain a Reference Node. no other input is required in this section. pick the elements. constraints. velocities. For deformable segments. Simply select the method. Constraints will be exported to the *MAT_RIGID material for this rigid body. however.

If no Contact elements exist in the model. Other Element Properties. You must also specify a Contact Property. you will need to specify Contact elements to have contact occur in your model. or use the drop-down box to select from a list of Contact Segments.Defining a Contact Property  Hint: It is usually best to use Property/Part Contact with LS-DYNA3D in combination with the Box Definition. Both methods provide identical input. 2 ' ( / . you also have the option to Define a new Segment or Edit an existing Segment for use in this Contact element. If you want to specify self-contact (or Single Surface contact in LS-DYNA3D). simply select the same Segment for both the Master and the Slave. By selecting Elements for output for ABAQUS and MARC. 4.4. 1 * 0 .2. Both methods provide identical input.3 Defining a Contact Pair There are two menu methods to define a Contact Pair. all Contact Segments will be able to contact one another.2 Defining a Contact Property There are two menu methods to define a Contact Property. you only specify a Contact element when you want to limit contact to just certain segment pairs. These options will limit contact to certain areas. decreasing analysis time. where you can input values such as static and dynamic friction. You must specify both a Master and a Slave. when using Rigid Contact Segments. You need to select both a Master and Slave Contact Segment. as well as other properties and limits on the contact. Please refer to this section. or simply use the Model Contact Contact Property menu selection. and to define the Output as Elements ABAQUS and Property/Part Contact for LS-DYNA3D. For both ABAQUS and DYNA. Contact Segments are not placed into contact in these programs unless a Contact element is created.4. 4. or simply use Model Contact Contact Pair menu selection. and Element Output for ABAQUS and MARC. Define Segment simply accesses the Contact Segment/Surface option to create a new Segment. You can pick these graphically.4. In addition to selecting existing Contact Segments. while the Edit Segment access the Modify Edit Contact Segment/Surface command. it is best to create a separate Node that is not part of the structural model to be the reference Node. Also. The information on the Contact Property dialog box is explained in Section 4. You can use the Model Property command and switch the type to Contact. You can use the Model Element command and switch the type to Contact.2. you limit the number of nodes checked for contact to the appropriate faces. For MARC.

Variations.5 Optimization This menu option defines the Goals. (2) Vary (Design Variables) and (3) Limit (Design Constraints).. while Edit allows you to change the selected entity. Delete will remove a single entity from the list. .The only Design Objective currently supported is Minimize Weight. Currently Rod Area and Torsion. the Design Optimization dialog box will appear. These results are stored as XY Functions in FEMAP.5. and I2. The result of an optimization analysis is values for the Design Variables which enables the structure to stay within the Design Limits. while Reset will delete the entire list.5. Each of the these areas is discussed more fully below. I1. The allowable inputs will change based upon your active selection. Multiple allows you to select Multiple values. Finite Element Modeling 4. This dialog box has three sections: (1) Goal. the Goal Design Objective portion of the dialog box is active. When you select this command.2 Vary .Design Variables This section defines Design Variables in the analysis. The only input available input for this option is maximum number of design cycles. Torsion. This capability is currently only supported for NASTRAN. which demonstrates the history of the Design Variables over the requested number of cycles. With regard to the Push Buttons at the bottom left of the dialog box. Bar Area. 4. and Limits for Optimization Analysis. You will not be able to change this selection. 4. the Add does exactly that for one entity. Those items that are selected for either Vary or Limit will appear in the large window on the left of the dialog box when you select that option.1 Goal When this option is selected. and Plate Thickness can be selected.

Maximum and Minimum inputs (Value or Percent of original value) can then be specified. material. selecting Multiple and then selecting the properties. enter a Node or Element ID and hit <<Add if you only want to add a single item. while modifying the Design Constraints to Minimum Weight. the <<Add button must be selected. and strains. and input the Maximum and Minimum values. The analysis program will then cycle through the analysis attempting to limit the response to the Design Constraints. They are typically displacements. the Y function values are used to multiply the constant values that are defined by those entities. 1 * 0 . When you assign a function to a material property or a load. 2 ' ( / . stresses.Limit . The specific item is not selected unless it appears in the Window to the left of the dialog box. Once this is complete. or property behavior. The values will then appear in the Window of the left of the dialog box. These values define limitations on the response of the structure. 4.6 Functions (Model Function Command) Functions allow you to input tables of parameters that are used to describe loading. with a limit on the max allowable change per iteration.3 Limit .Design Constraints  You must specify the specific item to vary by selecting the Attribute and associated Property. select the type of Response. Multiple entities can be selected simply by entering the Design Variable information. 4. Once the values are input. as well as nonlinear material properties (including temperature dependence). You must always create the Function first before referencing it when creating a load or material property. or hit <<Multiple to select multiple nodes or elements. Their most common use is to define time or frequency dependent loading for transient/frequency response analyses.Design Constraints This section defines the constraints on the analysis.5. To select a specific limit.

Curve Parameterization (12). Temperature (2). In this case. Dimensionless (0). Strain Rate. the Y values are the IDs of other functions (typically vs. To X and Delta X options. For more complex relationships choose Equation. Stress vs. Type Currently. If you need to replicate a portion of a function. Amplification vs. you can choose periodic. Then fill in the X. Function IDs vs. and filling in the X and Y values. Y. Strain Rate (9). Finite Element Modeling ID and Title These options simply specify a unique ID and a Title by which the function can be identified. Specify “Copies” as the number of additional copies of the function range that you want to create. Critical Damping (16). You can use the Edit Magnitude option after creating the copies to update those values. Critical Damping vs. Freq. For Types 5. just like the Linear Ramp. Data Entry Options These options are used to define the XY function. vs. vs. Value (15). type in any equation (in terms of the X Variable . Strain Rate (10). Freq (8). Function IDs vs. the input options switch to those shown. Temp and Function IDs vs. Hint: It is very important to identify the proper type for the function that you are trying to define otherwise it will not be properly used when you try to analyze your model. and 15. Function IDs vs. choose Linear Ramp. All data points between X and To X will be linearly interpolated at every multiple of Delta X. In this case. but make sure that you use the new variable in your equations. vs. for Y. Viscous Damping vs. Freq (7). Plastic Strain (14). you can change it. Specify “Inc X” as the value that you want to add to the original X function values for each copy that you are going to make. Stress (4). A typical example. Stress vs. and Function vs. 9. If you do not want to use the !x variable. Curve Length (11). fill in the X. If you want to define equally spaced points along a linear function. The type simply determines how the X values will be interpreted. Temp (5). Function vs. vs. The Y values are unchanged by this command. Frequency (3). might be setting Y to sin(!x). You define functions of each of these types in an identical manner. You can specify single values in the table by choosing Single Value. (6). . vs. To X and To Y values. The X values are the temperatures or strain rates that will be assigned to each function. Strain (13). along with the Delta X value.!x by default) that defines the function that you want to represent. Stress functions). However. seventeen types of functions are available. You specify “X” and “To X” as the range of the existing function that you want to replicate. vs. Time (1).

Delete and Reset These options allow you to manage the list of data points in the function. Refer to the Common Dialogs chapter for more information on Libraries. first select the point from the list that you want to remove. you can simply define multiple Y values with the same X value. then press Delete. they will be added to the function in the order that you specify them.7 Modifying FEA Entities This section describes commands which are available to perform modifications to FEA entities. The clipboard format that is used is simply a free format. they are easy to work with in other programs like spreadsheet and graphing applications. The Put button places a TAB character between the X and Y characters. and will then be increased by the Add value. Then enter Scale and Add values. and will not be reordered by the sorting. the current function is added to the function library.Modifying FEA Entities  The XY table of values will always be shown (and used) in sorted order based on ascending values of X. The Edit Phase option modifies the X values. You do not however need to input the values in that order . Working with Other Programs Since functions are just general XY data. After selecting either of these choices. When you choose a function from the list. If you want to define a step function. When you press Save. one XY data point per line table. you can use the Get and Put buttons. This will display a list of all functions in the model. In this case. Pressing load displays a list of the functions from the library and lets you choose one to be loaded into the current function. More will add the point or points that you are currently defining to the function. The Edit Magnitude option modifies Y. To move functions between programs. Get retrieves clipboard data into the current function. you can press the Copy button. Editing Options The Edit Phase and Edit Magnitude options allow you to modify the data that you have already defined. Copying Functions If you have another function in the current model that is similar to the one that you are trying to create. They can be separated into four major areas: (1) Moving Entities. 1 * 0 4. 2 ' ( / . comma or TAB separated values. More. To use this option. all data from that function will be loaded into the current function. but Get can interpret any space. Working with Function Libraries Function libraries allow you to create standard functions that you can use in many different models. You can then add or delete additional items as you choose. Reset simply clears all data from the function. (2) Edit/Parameters . Delete removes a selected point from the function. All data between X and To X will be multiplied by Scale. Put copies the current function to the clipboard. specify the range of data points that you want to edit by entering the X and To X values.they will be automatically sorted as they are defined.

whether it be projection. elements or other entities that reference those points/nodes are also moved. this may or may not result in the coordinates that you expected. The standard entity selection dialog box is used to choose the points that you want to project. the projection direction will typically be normal to the curve or surface that you are projecting onto.1. Many of these commands are also applicable to geometric entities. Depending on the surface type. any geometry. Each of these menu commands are described below. but not to infinity. Finite Element Modeling and (3) Advanced Updates (Modify Associativity and Modify Update Commands).. but they all involve some type of movement. In all of these commands. Modify Project Node onto Curve. Likewise. and you can find descriptions of these commands in the Geometry Chapter of this manual. . they extend a full 360 degrees.. rotation.. Actually however.1 Modify Project Menu The Project commands update the locations of points or nodes by moving them onto a selected curve or surface. or in the case of an arc. moves one or more Nodes onto a curve. 4. The remaining commands are contained on the bottom portion of the Modify Menu command. When you project points or nodes. For the purposes of these commands.7. Certain commands also allow movement of coordinate systems as well as Elements. You then must select the Curve. these commands move the entities to the closest location on the curve or surface. 4.. curves extend past their endpoints toward infinity. surfaces extend past their edge curves. Even though possible. There are several commands under this section. or translation. you should avoid projecting onto a surface outside of its defined boundaries. Each of these areas are discussed more fully below.1 Moving FEA Entities The following commands allow you to move the location of Nodes.7. The movement of entities are all performed on the second partition of the Modify menu. You can choose .

Refer to the description above (Modify Project Menu) for more information on how the projection will be done. 1 * 0 . You can choose Original Nodes any surface. and all of the selected Nodes will be projected onto it. and all of the selected points will be projected onto it. Refer to the description above (Modify Project Menu) for more Surface information on how the projection will be performed.. Then.. The standard entity selection dialog box is used to choose the points that you want to project. Projected Nodes 2 ' ( / . Original Locations Projected Locations Points projected onto “extended” curve Original Locations Projected Locations Point projected onto “extended” arc Modify Project Node onto Surface.Modify Project Menu  any curve. moves one or more points onto a surface. . simply select the surface...

. so you can choose the entities that you want to move. because of the “closest location projection”. the better your results will be.1. The standard entity selection dialog box is used to select the nodes (on the mesh) that you want to project onto the solid. are also updated. then the following dialog box is displayed. With this dialog you can either directly pick a solid.. Although.2 Modify Move To Menu The Move To commands update the location of some portion of your model. Finite Element Modeling Modify Project Mesh onto Solid. Since it is relatively useless to move multiple entities to a single location. If you choose surfaces. and Nodes. you can also move to a selected radius or angle. Projecting onto a Solid will simply use all of the surfaces of that solid for the projection. If you want to limit the projection to a certain group of surfaces. you will be asked to choose the surfaces after you press OK to close this dialog. (they would all be coincident) each command allows you to limit the movement to any subset of the three coordinates. Constraints and Loads that reference the Node. there are only commands to move Coordinate Systems. but the closer you can start the mesh to the final surface. When you press OK. For example. then you must choose them explicitly. The basic philosophy behind each of these commands is to specify a new coordinate. leaving all Y and Z coordinates in their original locations. Points. you can use these commands to move your entire model. you can just update the X coordinates. it is usually best to start with your mesh somewhere close to the final surfaces.. when you move a Node. this will be followed by . The method used to project your mesh is to find the closest point on the solid/surfaces to the initial node in the mesh. For example. moves a mesh onto a solid or group of surfaces. 4. Each of the commands on this menu displays the standard entity selection dialog box. If you select smoothing of the projected mesh.. In general. As you can see in the example. . to which. in areas of high curvature. you will probably still have some cleanup to do using this approach. By specifying a nonrectangular coordinate system.7. especially if there is a large amount of curvature in the surfaces. selected entities will be moved. the mesh is repeatedly smoothed and reprojected onto the surfaces. or choose to project onto surfaces. the Elements.

Modify Move To Menu  the standard coordinate definition dialog box.. but it can also move all points. Not only does it update the location of the coordinate systems that you select. since you selected it. you can also use the Modify Update Coord Sys command. related portions of your model. If you choose any coordinate system other than Global Rectangular. it is updated based on your request. nodes and other coordinate systems that are defined relative to those coordinate systems. unless you are updating a single entity. If a coordinate system is both selected and dependent on other selected coordinate systems. Refer to the description above (Modify Move To Menu) for more information on other options. If you did select that option. If your model was built in a hierarchical manner. Finally. . In most cases. The entities that you selected will be moved to the location that you specify.. using multiple coordinate systems. this command can quickly move large. is the most powerful Move To command. FEMAP would move the coordinate systems you selected plus the dependent entities. you will see the Move To dialog box. but leave the entities that reference it in their original positions. you can choose the coordinates to update (X. after you choose a location. it is updated based on your request. Other dependent entities are moved as a rigid body based on the transformay y y y Cases 3 moves tion of the definiand so do nodes 4 3 3 These nodes defined z4 z x z x x z x tion coordinate relative to Cases 3 systems. the location you chose previously is transformed into that system. you will not want to check all of the coordinates. If a coordinate system is both selected and dependent on other selected coordinate systems. Y and/or Z) and the Coordinate System to use for the modification. Here.. Nodes and Points.. Modify Move To Coord Sys. If you just want to move the coordinate systems. Coordinate systems that you select are updated as you requested. Only those coordinates that are checked will be updated. Other dependent entities are moved as a rigid body based on the transformation of the definition coordinate systems. 2 ' ( / . 1 * 0 . All of the coordinate systems that you select are updated as you requested. If you want to update the location of a coordinate system. do not choose Move CSys. since you selected it. .. before the entities are moved.. Refer to the description above (Modify Move To Menu) for more information on other options.

. nodes. and all parts of the model that reference them. Finite Element Modeling Modify Move To Node. Selected coordinate systems are all moved by the vector that you define. and any points.. Use the Rotate commands to rotate your model. The vector you specify must contain both a direction and magnitude. that is along a straight line. by the specified vector. Modify Move By Coord Sys. . moves the selected nodes.1. Then. You can not use the Move By commands to rotate your model by specifying a vector in the angular direction of a cylindrical coordinate system.... Loads. . Elements. First.just like the Modify Move To Coord Sys command. Refer to the Modify Move By Menu description for more information. 4... or other coordinate systems that reference a selected system.. All of the selected entities. this command will move all of the selected coordinate systems. All of the entities that you select for modification are moved along (or by) that vector.. This command only uses two dialog boxes. The significant difference is that for these commands you specify a vector instead of coordinates. You should select the entities to be updated. You can define the vector in any convenient coordinate system. Again.. Move By vector Move By in NonRectangular Coordinate Systems The move by commands always move along a vector. . moves selected Nodes to a specified coordinate.7. but it will always represent a straight line. Constraints and any other entities that reference the selected Nodes will also be moved.. This essentially means that the location of the selected entity is updated by adding the components of the vector. the standard vector Select these nodes definition dialog box will be displayed. dependent entities are moved as a rigid body.3 Modify Move By Menu These commands are similar to those found on the Move To submenu. Refer to the description above (Modify Move To Menu) for more information.. and the entities that reference them will be moved by that vector. the standard entity selection dialog box is displayed. This can be very powerful if your model is constructed with multilevel coordinate systems. Refer to the Modify Move By Menu description for more information. . Modify Move By Node.

. New Position Point to move about r Modify Move By Radial Element. except that you choose elements. FEMAP will automatically move all nodes which are connected to those elements by the radial length. .. In fact.. Modify Move By Offset Element. The Modify Move By Element command.Modify Move By Menu  Modify Move By Element. Refer to the Modify Move By Radial Node Menu description for more information. . All elements are simply moved by a constant amount.. FEMAP will automatically move all nodes which are connected to those elements. you will simply be prompted for a vector (just like an extrusion vector).. unlike the other commands in this menu. Refer to the Modify Move By Menu description for more information. If you choose Vector. Modify Move By Radial Node will move the selected nodes along a vector directed from the point selected to move about to each of the nodes being moved. then choose the offset method.. 2 ' ( / . This in effect allows you to modify the radial size of a sphere. is identical to Modify Move By Node. 1 * 0 . It is intended for use with planar elements. .. in function.is somewhat different than the other commands on this menu. orientation vectors and offsets of any line elements that you select. This allows you to move those elements as a rigid body.. the nodes will be moved in the plane the r distance from the point to move about.. except that you choose elements. Modify Move By Radial Node.is identical to Modify Move By Radial Node.. will also update the orientation nodes.. When this command is used on set of planer nodes.. Using the command with this option is equivalent to using the Modify Move By Element command. You simply select the elements that you want to offset.. it is very similar to the Mesh Extrude Element command. and the elements will be offset along that vector...

you will normally need to use a negative offset value. the . Modify Rotate To Menu The commands on this menu rotate selected entities. Since all solid surfaces have normals that point outward. In this case however. you will move the elements toward the interior of the solid. Refer to the Mesh Extrude Element command for more description of the differences between these two options and the effect of using Thickness Correction. Finally. these commands treat the selected entities as a rigid body. Original elements on outer surface Using this command. to the midsurface. Parts with multiple constant thicknesses can be handled by using this command several times and selectively moving the elements. the standard entity selection dialog box is displayed. For most cases however. You can select all Rotate from here of the entities that you want to rotate. When doing this. You simply mesh one of the sides of the thin walled Elements offset to half of solid thickness solid. The Modify Rotate To commands Axis of rotation require four dialog Rotate to here boxes. Whether it is the “outer” or “inner” surface really does not matter. First. The length is not used. Then. Unlike the Modify Move To commands. you will want to choose the Normals with Thickness Correction option. Finite Element Modeling The other two options are more interesting. the planar elements meshed on those surfaces will also have elements that point outward. If you choose the Normals. You then use this command to offset the element by half the thickness. By specifying a negative offset distance. or Normals with Thickness Correction options. All of them are rotated by the same angle. with this option can be a simple way to create midsurface meshes in constant thickness parts. each element will be offset along its normal direction. you will be asked for the offset distance. Only the location of the base and the direction of this vector are important. the standard vector definition dialog box defines the axis of rotation.

. This can be very powerful if your model is constructed with multi-level coordinate systems. only three dialog boxes are necessary. around the specified vector. By combining both rotation about. unlike the other commands in this menu.. Finally. FEMAP will automatically rotate all nodes which are connected to those elements. orientation vectors and offsets of any line elements that you select. will also update the orientation nodes. The second time.. Modify Rotate To Coord Sys. . The first time. The length is not used.4 Modify Rotate By Menu These commands are similar to the commands on the Modify Rotate To menu. The first is the standard entity selection dialog box. FEMAP will determine the rotation angle. This allows you to move those elements as a rigid body. Points. Next. you must define the coordinates of the starting point of the rotation.. and retain their original characteristics.Modify Rotate By Menu  standard coordinate definition dialog box is displayed twice. This defines the axis of rotation.. Modify Rotate To Element. and the axis of rotation. 2 ' ( / . Modify Rotate To Node. rotates the selected nodes.. the standard vector definition dialog box will be displayed. you should select all of the entities that you want to rotate. As always.. and translation along. Their movement is based on the motion of their definition coordinate systems. this command will rotate all of the selected coordinate systems.1. This time. is just like the Modify Rotate To Node command. nodes. Refer to the Modify Rotate To Menu description above for more information. you can move entities along a “screw-thread” or helix shaped path.just like the Modify Move commands. except that you choose elements. You must specify the Rotation Angle and the Translation Distance. You can also specify an optional Translation Distance with these commands. only the location and direction of this axis are important. Refer to the Modify Rotate To Menu description above for more information... The Modify Rotate To Element command. and all parts of the model that reference them.. the axis of rotation. As in the Modify Rotate To commands. 4. . you must define the ending point of the rotation.7. 1 * 0 . or other coordinate systems that reference a selected system are also moved as a rigid body. you must specify a rotation angle. Instead of using a starting and ending location however. Using these coordinates. the Rotation and Translation dialog box will appear. Refer to the Modify Rotate To Menu description above for more information.. ..

This can be very powerful if your model is constructed with multi-level coordinate systems. rotates the selected nodes. and all parts of the model that reference them.5 Modify Align Menu These commands combine the capabilities of the Modify Move and Rotate commands to provide a simple way of aligning portions of your model... Finite Element Modeling The selected entities will be rotated (following righthand rule conventions) around the axis of rotation by the specified angle. Then. around the specified vector. Their movement is based on the transformation of the selected coordinate systems. If you specify a zero rotation angle. FEMAP will rotate the entities to the new orientation. and retain their original characteristics.... except that you choose elements.. you select the entities that you want to align using the standard entity selection dialog box. this command will rotate all of the selected coordinate systems.1. is just like the Modify Rotate By Node command. The second vector defines new or desired position and orientation. First. Simultaneously. or other coordinate systems that reference a selected system are also moved as a rigid body.just like the Modify Rotate To commands. . Only three dialog boxes are necessary. unlike the other commands in this menu. ..... orientation vectors and offsets of any line elements that you select. Refer to the Modify Rotate By Menu description above for more information. The first vector defines the original position and orientation that will be aligned. FEMAP will automatically rotate all nodes which are connected to those elements. Modify Rotate By Element. This allows you to move those elements as a rigid body. Modify Rotate By Node. FEMAP will first move the entities that you selected from the origin of the first vector to the origin of the second vector. Refer to the Modify Rotate By Menu description above for more information. they will be transAxis of rotation lated along the same vector by the specified distance. . The Modify Rotate By Element command. This is accomplished by a rotation based on the angle between the vectors. these commands will simply translate along the vector much like the Modify Move By commands. nodes.. Modify Rotate By Coord Sys. 4. . Points. Then you need to specify two vectors using the vector definition dialog boxes.7.. Refer to the Modify Rotate By Menu description above for more information. will also update the orientation nodes.

. You specify a relative scaling factor and a point to scale around.. Refer to the Modify Align Menu description above for more information..Modify Scale Menu  If you simply want to use this command as an alternate method of rotation. unlike the other commands in this menu.. and all parts of the model that reference them.1.. 2 ' ( / . orientation vectors and offsets of any line elements that you select... along these other elements Aligned elements From this vector Align these elements Note: The Modify Align Element command. This allows you to move those elements as a rigid body. Modify Align Node. This allows you to move those elements as a rigid body. No option is available to skip alignment of the referencing entities. Like other modification commands. The Modify Rotate By Element command. and retain their original characteristics..6 Modify Scale Menu These commands are used to change the size of your model. but FEMAP will just automatically select the proper Points or Nodes for you. unlike the other commands in this menu. is just like the Move and Rotate commands. Only Points and Nodes can be scaled. orientation vectors and offsets of any line elements that you select. You can also choose to scale curves or elements. using the two vectors.. 1 * 0 . To this vector. . entities which reference the selected Points and Nodes will also grow or shrink with them. If you do not. is just like the Modify Align Node command.. 4. Refer to the Modify Align Menu description above for more information. Modify Align Coord Sys. Coordinate Systems cannot be scaled. make sure both vectors have the same origin. except that you choose elements. Modify Align Element. FEMAP will automatically align all nodes which are connected to those elements. plus the entities that are defined relative to those systems. the entities will be translated before they are rotated... will also update the orientation nodes. will also update the orientation nodes.. It will align all of the coordinate systems that you select. . and retain their original characteristics.7. aligns the selected nodes. FEMAP will adjust the selected coordinates appropriately.

is just like the Modify Scale Node command.. Finite Element Modeling The first dialog box used by these commands is the standard entity selection dialog.. For these . 4. except that you choose elements. Modify Color. .0. These commands are typically used when you need to perform modifications to a single or a few entities. you can scale your model radially or tangentially. 4. along the specified directions. to use this command to modify hundreds of entities can be quite time consuming.7..7. You will be prompted for input for each entity selected. FEMAP will scale your model relative to these base coordinates.. Each of these commands are described below. and all parts of the model that reference them. Modify Scale Element. You can use a negative scale factor to reflect the entities about the base location. one for each coordinate direction.1 Modify Edit Menu The commands on the Modify Edit menu are used to edit or “recreate” entities in your model.2 Edit/Parameters The first four commands in the third section of the Modify Menu (Modify Edit. just like the Modify Move To commands. Original Model After Scale Factor of 2.. You must select all of the entities that you wish to scale. . and Modify Renumber) enable you to change specific items for the FEA information.0 will move all entities to the base coordinate. Refer to the Modify Scale Menu description above for more information. If you select a non-rectangular system. Scale factors smaller than 1.. you must use a scale factor of 1. a scale factor of 0.2. FEMAP will display the standard coordinate definition dialog box. Modify Scale Node.0 in Horizontal Direction Only All scaling is done in the Coordinate System that you select. Similarly. Refer to the Modify Scale Menu description above for more information.0 decrease its size.0 increase the physical size of your model. For any coordinate direction that you do not want to scale. The equation used for the scaling is: { X } New = { X } Base + ( ( { X } Old – { X } Base ) × { X } ScaleFactor ) You can specify three different scale factors. Modify Layer. Therefore.. After you press OK. scales the selected nodes. FEMAP will automatically scale all nodes which are connected to those elements. Scale factors that are larger than 1.. The coordinate directions are along the axes of this system.

2. please see the other Modify commands in this section of the Modify Menu (Modify Color. all of the data fields default to the current values for the selected entities. All commands work in a similar fashion. FEMAP will prompt you to choose a new layer number from the list of available layers.3 Modify Layer Menu The commands on this submenu are used to modify the Layer of one or more selected entities of a specific type. Entities to be modified are selected with the standard entity selection dialog box. 2 ' ( / . you will immediately return to the FEMAP menu. FEMAP simply displays the same dialog box (or boxes) used by the related command in the Model menu which you used to originally create the entities.7. Again. The surface and element transparency commands allow you to change the transparency of multiple entities without changing the color. In this case however. Then.2. Any entities that you had previously changed (and pressed OK) will still be changed. 3 and 5.2 Modify Color Menu The commands on this submenu are used to modify the Color of one or more selected entities of a specific type. The standard Color Palette dialog box is displayed. You can change these values or just press OK to accept the current values. As always. Modify Layer. Modify Edit can be used to change the colors of entites. 4. The default color. The first dialog box will display the coordinates of Node 1. will be the current color of the selected entity with the minimum ID. If you press Cancel at any time. which will be applied to all of the entities that you selected. Each command first asks you to select the entities you wish to edit. All of the selected entities will be modified to the specified layer. but this command is much faster for multiple entities. three additional dialog boxes will be displayed. instead of selecting from the Color Palette. Then dialog boxes for Nodes 3 and 5 will be displayed. 1 * 0 . the standard entity selection dialog box is used.7.Modify Color Menu  type of gross changes to the model. For example. Following your selections. Modify Edit can be used to change layers. First. one at a time. 4. if you choose Edit Node and then select Nodes 1. Modify Update Elements and Modify Update Other commands). These commands are very much like those on the Modify Color menu. You can pick a color. you select the entities you want to modify using the standard entity selection dialog box. Enter a value from 0(opaque) to 100(transparent). but this command is faster for multiple entities.

If an entity which is not being renumbered has an ID which conflicts with the renumbering. Constraint. You select a new Starting ID and Increment. sets (Load.2. After you press OK. CSys Original ID Selection Order Color Layer Type Definition CSys Property Material Min Node ID X Y Z • • • • • Node • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Elem • • • • • Prop • • • • • Matl • • • • • Renumbering by Original ID.4 Modify Renumber Menu The commands on this submenu are used to renumber the IDs of one or more selected entities of a specific type. the Renumber To dialog box is displayed. The specific sort options which are available for each command are shown in the following table. The first entity to be renumbered is changed to the Starting ID. This option is the default... If you choose Verify Renumbering. The IDs will change. a list of the existing and new IDs will be created in the Messages and Lists Window and you will be asked to confirm that you wish to renumber the selected entities. or Groups. . These sorting options are identical to those used by the corresponding list commands. The Increment will simply be added extra times until an unused ID is found. but not the relative sequence of entities within your model. Finite Element Modeling 4. It is most often used to do a simple renumbering from one ID range to another.. Each of these commands uses the standard entity selection dialog box to select the entities to be renumbered.7. Your choice of sorting options determines the order that FEMAP will use to renumber the selected entities. .. keeps the original entity order. and Output Sets). that ID will be skipped. The Increment is then added to the Starting ID before each subsequent entity is renumbered.

. These options sort based on the element property reference or the property material reference. It is just like renumbering by color or type. When you choose any one of these options. you can also check Absolute Value if you want FEMAP to ignore the sign (positive or negative) of the coordinate value.. By defining and choosing different coordinate systems. are also just like renumbering by color or type... Y or Z. Renumbering by Property or Material. Renumbering by X. . You can force FEMAP to renumber into any sequence that you want. will renumber entities based on their coordinates in your model. It will group each type into similar IDs. and numerically less than positive values. The renumbered elements will be in the order of the minimum node ID which the element references. ... and elements use the center of the element.. properties and materials. For example. . is only available when you renumber coordinate systems or nodes. is the most flexible option.. and renumber by X (or R) you can renumber entities based on their radial distance from the origin of the coordinate system. you can implement many different renumbering sequences.. simply by choosing them in that order.. . Y. 2 ' ( / .. except that it uses the entity definition coordinate system. is only available for elements. if you choose a cylindrical coordinate system. These options will group entities with the same color or layer in the same ID range.. but can be very useful for making specific changes to a portion of your model. .. If you are renumbering nodes.. This option is usually not appropriate for renumbering large numbers of entities.. When renumbering by coordinates. Renumbering by Type.. If this option is not checked. .... or Z nodal coordinates are simply used to determine the renumbering sequence. You can use this option in models which use many different element types. 1 * 0 . finds the minimum node ID on each element. Renumbering by Min Node ID. Renumbering by Definition CSys. Renumbering by Color or Layer.... but the one which requires the most work from you. Just like renumbering by color. this option uses the entity type to renumber similar entities into the same ID range.. .. Entities are renumbered in the sequence that you have chosen them in the original standard entity selection dialog. you must also choose a coordinate system. the X... negative values will be different.. both use the data on the entity records to sort the renumbered entities. The entities coordinates are transformed into the coordinate system that you choose prior to being sorted for renumbering..Modify Renumber Menu  Renumbering by Selection Order. Coordinate systems use the coordinate system origin.

. You must just remember to choose the sort options in reverse order. you may want to renumber your model based on more than one of the options. then finally based on X. No sorting will take place.. and you can only choose the Starting ID and the Verify Renumbering option.000-11. while Modify Update others pertain to other entity types. you should use Modify Renumber Node three times. This is an easy method to maintain a numbering structure while shifting it to another level (such as changing all IDs from 1-1000 to 10.. FEMAP will simply change the lowest ID value to the starting increment.. and (3) Modify Update Others. As the names suggest. The second time based on Y. selecting the sort options in reverse order. but it is very easy to do. All Modify Update commands work in a similar fashion.000). you wanted all of your node IDs to be sorted based on their X. It will then add the constant difference between the original lowest ID and the new starting increment to all other IDs. not just with X. then Y (for all identical X) then Z (for all identical X and Y) position. all Sort Renumbered Order by options are grayed.3. Unlike the commands on the Modify Color and Modify Layer menus. 4. Ascending order is the default. Finite Element Modeling Reversing the Renumbering Order You can choose to either renumber entities in Ascending or Descending order. The first time you would sort based on Z.7. FEMAP cannot do this in one command. allows you to attach or remove nodes and elements from geometry. and no gaps will be filled. (2) Modify Update Elements..7.3 Advanced Updates (Modify Update Commands) The commands on these menus are used to update parameters which are referenced by one or more selected entities. and will sequence entities from the lowest to the highest value of the sort option that you select. Descending order will reverse that sequence. . the parameters which are updated by these commands are only applicable to one entity type. If for example. These commands are separated into three major areas: (1)Modify Associativity. This can be a very useful command to eliminate some areas of a mesh from a curve or surface to prevent geometric loading from applying to them. Constant Offset If you select this option. Y. Multiple options can always be used.1 Modify Associativity. but since the parameters that they update vary. You have the option to choose either nodes or elements. Renumbering based on Multiple Options Sometimes. each command is documented in its own section 4. Modify Update Elements commands apply only to elements. and Z.

2 Modify Update Elements Type. Therefore. Interior Nodes Only The Interior Nodes Only option is available when you are removing geometry from Curves. You also will not be able to develop the hierarchy that FEMAP creates automatically when meshing. 4. For example. An element is consider on a surface for geometric loads if all nodes from an element’s face are attached to the surface. you must first use Model Property. Expansion of geometric loads onto finite elements is always performed on a nodal basis.3. include nodes attached directly to the surface. all attachments will be removed. You will be asked to select the Elements to be updated using the standard entity selection dialog box. or any other available method. 2 ' ( / .. for example.Modify Update Elements Type. to make a Property of the type you want to use for the Elements. Note: When attaching nodes. 1 * 0 . You must choose between Detach From or Attach To. but the curve and point attachments will remain. . you must also input (or graphically select) the ID of the geometric entity.... the attachments directly to the surface will be removed. or vice versa. FEMAP uses a hierarchal system of attachment. you can remove all attachments. choose this command. Then you will be presented with a list of available Properties. You can never change elements to an incompatible type. If you select Any. and nodes on the points which define the curves. If you do not select Interior Nodes Only. or Solid/Volumes. Surfaces. If you select a specific type of geometry. You must also choose the type of geometry from which you wish to detach. You will still be able to load or constrain the curves. you can effectively remove an element from a surface by simply detaching one of its nodes.7. When you select this command. you will see the Geometry Associativity dialog box. you cannot change a Beam to a Plate. updates the Type of one or more selected elements. If you select the Interior Nodes Only option. After you make the Property. You can however use this command to change between various Line Element types or between the Plane Element types... Before you choose this command.  Hint: You will typically want to use this command with nodes only. nodes attached to the curves which define the surface. they must not have any other attachments to geometry. Attach/detach of elements will only affect certain picking options. Nodes on a surface.

You first select the Properties to be updated. 4.. Updating orientations using this command does not however change the default values that you have currently defined.. all of the Element types will be changed along with the Properties that the Elements reference..3. Then the Element Material Orientation dialog box will appear. If you attempt to update one of these you will receive a warning message. FEMAP will automatically call the Modify Update Orientation command.4 Modify Update Elements Property ID. This is the same dialog box used to define the default orientations... 4. updates the Material which is referenced by one or more selected Properties. and then choose a new Material from a list of the available Materials. 4.3. . FEMAP will automatically assign an orientation to each of the updated elements. use this update command. You will receive messages if any of the Elements are incompatible with the Property you selected.3.. and then the Element Formulation dialog box will appear to set the formulation..5 Modify Update Elements Material ID. You cannot change the Element Type using this command. ..7.7. . Finite Element Modeling Choose a Property of the type that you want for the selected Elements... Similarly. If you do not however. Review any of these automatic assignments very carefully. All elements must be of the same type. Please see the Model Elements section previously in this chapter. Some Property types. This allows you to properly orient the elements that you just modified. except that you must choose a Property of the same Type as the Elements. such as Masses.use Modify Edit Property instead. When you press OK.. You set the default material orientation angle in the Element/Property Type dialog which can be accessed from any of the element or property creation commands. the many Materials referenced by Laminate Plate Properties cannot be updated using this command .7. You will choose the elements to update using the standard entity selection dialog box. works just like Modify Update Element Type. you want to change the material angle for existing elements. FEMAP will then reassign the chosen element formulation to the selected elements. This default is applied to all new elements that you create. If you are changing from a Line element type that does not require an orientation to a type that does..6 Modify Update Elements Material Angle.3. You should always specify the orientation that you want. ..7.. do not require Material definitions.. You must select the elements to change. as well as the Element Reference section in the FEMAP Users Guide for more details concerning Element Formulations. .enables you to specify the element formulation for a selected set of elements. 4. updates the Element Material Orientation Angle for planar and axisymmetric elements. If however..3 Modify Update Elements Formulation.

you should probably be defining a material angle for all of your planar elements.).. This will typically produce a different alignment for each element and can give meaningless analysis results. If you are going to recover and postprocess elemental normal stresses (i. The vector and resulting angle are simply defined along a coordinate direction at the first node of each element. Whenever you are using orthotropic or anisotropic materials. which will turn off the material orientation. FEMAP will automatically calculate the material angle values for each element which will align the primary (X) material direction with the vector you specified.Modify Update Elements Material Angle. be sure to refer to your analysis program documentation and the translator section of this manual to see how material orientation angles are used and to find any limitations. The final option. and what commands are required to do this. Y Stress.e. This method is especially useful if you want to align the material axes to the radial or tangential direction in a cylindrical or spherical coordinate system. You should check the documentation of your analysis program to determine whether you can force the analysis program to output results in the material angle coordinate system. the default orientation. You can choose None. When to Set a Material Angle Most analysis programs have two basic uses for this type of orientation angle. You may not have to set angles if stress output is reported relative to some other coordinate reference. if you do not align all of your elemental axes.  You have four basic choices for setting the orientation. Note: Not all programs will report analysis results automatically in the material angle coordinate system. Before choosing any of these methods. “Angle Value” allows you to directly define the orientation angle value. Again. FEMAP will display the standard vector definition dialog box. The first is to align the principal directions of a nonisotropic material. XY Shear. If you do not. they are usually reported relative to the elemental coordinate system. etc. 1 * 0 . along the vector between the first two nodes of the element is used. Choosing “Coordinate Direction” is very similar to choosing “Vector Direction”.. X Stress. In most other cases. If you choose “Vector Direction” and press OK. the “X Normal Stress” for one element may not be in the same direction as the “X Normal Stress” for the next element.. 2 ' ( / . FEMAP does no further calculations with this angle value. The second use for material angles can be equally important. This will typically result in material axes that are oriented along the default elemental axes. Refer to your analysis program documentation to see how your stresses are reported. You then assign a vector direction. That coordinate system is aligned by the material angle. “Vector Direction” is preferred.

.7. in the direction of the Third Node.7 Modify Update Elements Orientation. remember that you may be specifying different orientation directions for each Element when you choose Node ID since the orientation direction is based on the location of the first Node on the Element. is simply computed for each Element. You can choose to “Update End A” offsets and/or “Update End B” offsets. Updating the offsets at one end will require only one vector definition. Curved Beam) Elements. Beam. Equivalent Vector Orientations. Also. After you press OK. A third option. Viewing Material Angles You can see the material angles that you have defined for your planar elements by using the View Options command. you will want to see that all of the vectors are parallel .. Updating both offsets requires two vectors. If you choose Vector.. Then the Update Element Offsets. The default vectors will be the current offsets from the selected Element with the minimum ID. If you enable the “Set EndB=EndA” option.. Generally. 4. updates the Element Orientation for various Line (Bar. can also be selected.7. Beam. the offsets are defined using the standard vector definition dialog boxes. and it must not be colinear with any of the elements. the standard vector definition dialog box will be displayed after you press OK. updates the offsets for various Line (Bar.. and then use the Model Output Transform command to convert the stresses. No additional input is required. Simply set the material angle using the Modify Update Elements Material Angle. If you choose Node ID.. An orientation vector. This will display a small vector at the center of each element where an angle has been defined.3. dialog box is displayed..This option allows you to convert elements which are oriented using “third nodes” to vector orientations.Orientation/Shape” option and turn on “Show Orientation”... This option has no effect if the Element was already oriented by a vector. the offset at the first end (A) of the Elements is automatically applied to the second end (B) of all selected Elements.8 Modify Update Elements Offsets. you must also specify the Node to use. Then you can select whether to update the Elements using an orientation Node ID or a Vector.3. You must first select the Elements to be updated using the standard entity selection dialog box. You must first select the Elements to be updated using the standard entity selection dialog box. Choose the “Element . . . Finite Element Modeling Hint: You may define a Material Angle after you have analyzed a model to transform the normal stresses to a different coordinate system. 4. Curved Beam) Elements. Your orientation will be applied to all elements you selected.then your elements will be aligned. The orientation of the vector shows the angle that you chose.

.. You must first select the Elements to be updated using the standard entity selection dialog box. Beam..Modify Update Elements Releases.. 1 * 0 . Choosing this option a second time for the same Elements will effectively undo the reversal.9 Modify Update Elements Releases.  Radial Offsets If you want to offset beams in a radial pattern. the Define Element Releases dialog box allows you to choose any combination of the six degrees of freedom at each end of the Element to release. 4. The All Normals Outward and Inward options apply only to Planar Elements.3.. In either of these last two cases. turning the element “inside-out”. at both ends of the elements are set to the same size. however. from the center of a sphere. align normals either outward or inward. Use this carefully since the resulting element orientations may also need to be updated. You must then enter a distance to offset the element endpoints from the node. the connections are swapped to reverse the direction of the element normal. .You should make certain. After selecting the elements to reverse.. For Plane Elements.. 4.. the direction of any applied pressure loads will change. For Solid Elements. or if you want to align planar elements to a vector. you will be asked for the coordinates of the center of a sphere. Line and Solid elements are unchanged by this operation. choose the Radial Offset option. switches the Before direction of selected elements. only the order in which the nodes are connected is changed. Curved Beam) Elements. When you press OK. updates the releases for various Line (Bar. but provide a very easy way to make all normals consistent. After Reverse these elements If you are simply reversing the normals.3. If you choose to align the edges of planar elements to a vector. The default degrees of freedom will be the current releases from the selected Element with the minimum ID. this command simply swaps the first and second ends of line elements.. all planar elements are reconnected so that their first edge is closest to the direction that you specify. This can be used to “rotate” a group of elements so that their first edge lies along a model boundary. the top and bottom faces are swapped. If the elements that you selected form one or 2 ' ( / . .10 Modify Update Elements Reverse. that your element is still capable of supporting any load you may want to apply. The element normal is actually unchanged in this operation. only the directions change. Then. The offset directions lie along the lines connecting this center location and the individual nodes. All offsets.7..7. you will given be the option to reverse the normals.

Pressing No will update Parabolic Elements to Linear ones. In addition... but this command only recognizes Plane and Volume types. 4. Converting from Linear to Parabolic Elements creates new Nodes automatically at all element midside locations. Finite Element Modeling more complete shell (like the outside of a solid model) all normals can be automatically adjusted to the direction you chose. Definition and Output Coordinate Systems. Only parabolic elements are considered and only the nodes which are referenced as mid- . only the Linear ones will be updated. but are not deleted. When you convert Parabolic to Linear Elements.) are used for these Nodes. It makes no attempt to find current Nodes in your model at the correct locations.7. choose the Elements to be updated using the standard entity selection dialog box. Pressing Yes will update Linear Elements to Parabolic ones. midside nodes are no longer needed for the converted Elements. You can choose any elements in your model.Linear Plates After . 4. only elements which are currently of the selected order are updated..3.7.11 Modify Update Elements Order..12 Modify Update Elements Midside Nodes.. FEMAP can still usually align the normals..Midside nodes moved . This command always creates new Nodes. changes Linear Elements to Parabolic Elements and vice versa. they have free edges). Before After .. You can use Delete Node to remove them.converted to Parabolic with Midside Nodes . Before .e. etc. if you are converting Linear to Parabolic Elements and choose a mixture of Linear and Parabolics. You will be asked to choose the direction. For example. Current Nodal Parameters (Next ID. After making your selection.. but the concept of inward/outward may not be maintained. You will also receive a warning if the elements you select do not form a complete shell (i.3. Permanent Constraints. moves nodes to the midpoint of element edges. If there are interior features/panels (like internal bulkheads) FEMAP will make the directions consistent. You can use the Check Coincident Nodes command to remove any duplicates.

4.7. they will simply be ignored. 2 ' ( / .. Currently defined offsets and thicknesses have no bearing on this command. new Plate Properties will be written for each thickness value calculated.. .. Update These options control whether FEMAP will update the Thickness or the Offsets for the selected plates. If you select non-parabolic elements. changes quadrilateral elements into Before After . The elements can have loads applied.3....  side nodes are moved. If you are updating thickness..7. When you select this command.3. you will be asked to select the elements to update. and you will then see the following dialog box.Modify Update Elements Split Quads. You cannot control the direction of the split.. other than by the initial shape of the quad elements. 1 * 0 . enables you to adjust the thickness or the offsets of the selected plate elements. You may choose any element types or shapes only quadrilateral elements (with or without midside nodes) will be changed. New nodes will be added at the element center if you are splitting elements with midside nodes. New properties are not required when you vary offsets.. FEMAP will automatically split the quad elements to form the “best” triangles that it can. This command simply asks for the elements to be split. Those loads will automatically be applied to one or both of the new triangular elements . .13 Modify Update Elements Split Quads.whichever is appropriate.14 Modify Update Elements Adjust Plate.Quads Split triangles. the position of all midside nodes will be checked and moved to the midside of their respective element edges.. When you press OK. Input for this command is minimal. You just select the elements to be updated using the standard entity selection dialog box. 4.

You can choose any Coordinate System from the list. Finite Element Modeling Method These options control the calculation of the thickness/offset values.. will average the Nodal Thickness for each plate. You must select the Coordinate Systems to be updated using the standard entity selection dialog box. For the Vary Between Nodes option.. FEMAP will then compute values for all other nodes attached to the selected elements based upon their relative distance between the From and To Nodes. an Equation or a Constant value. and nodes for thickness values.7. This is especially convenient if you want to limit thicknesses or offsets to an increment of a specific value (like 0. .3.. if you choose one of the systems that is being updated.. Rather. This option has no effect when modifying plate offsets because these offsets are already calculated on an elemental basis. for example) You may also limit the minimum and maximum allowable values. . simply allows you to input an equation or constant value for the thickness/offsets. Average for each Element.16 Modify Update Other Node Definition CSys. Otherwise... This command does not move the coordinate system location. it redefines the system so that it is in the same location and orientation relative to the new definition coordinate system.001. except that you select Nodes to update instead of Coordinate Systems. chooses a new Definition Coordinate System for one or more Coordinate Systems. You can choose to calculate variable values based upon nodal position (Vary Between Nodes option). 4. If an Equation is chosen. Limits This section enables you to define the Tolerance. You will receive an error message however.. and assign this constant thickness to all corner nodes on the plate. Equation or Constant. and Minimum values to be used in the update. Then. The other option. also works just like Modify Update CSys Definition CSys. You can limit the number of significant digits to be retained as a unique thickness or offset by specifying a tolerance value. each corner of the plate will most likely have a different value..3. . since a Coordinate System cannot reference itself. not on a nodal basis. Maximum.7.15 Modify Update Other CSys Definition CSys. another dialog box will be displayed which will contain a list of all available Coordinate Systems. the “i” variable will represent elements for offsets. which is especially useful when defining equations. 4. last node. you must input the first node. The final option in this area. and values at each of these nodes. This option provides an easy way to gradually vary the thickness/offsets of plates which are in a patterned series.

3. After you select the type of Load. Curve. In this command however. When you invoke this command. 4.. the second factor is added. Only Loads from the active Load Set will be updated by this command. Radiation with absorptivity. .3. If you use this command to update temperatures. emissivity.18 Modify Update Other Perm Constraint.. you must choose the entities where the Loads will be updated.7. The standard entity selection dialog box is used. FEMAP does not change the reference temperature when you use this command. When you have identified the entities to update.20 Modify Update Other Scale Load.. You may then select the appropriate DOFs to constrain permanently through the Update Nodal Permanent Constraints dialog box. you will be asked whether you wish to update Nodal. and then choose a Coordinate System from a list of available systems. or Surface Loads.. . You can choose any combination of the six permanent constraints to be applied to all selected Nodes. you will identify the entities where the loads will be updated. updates the Permanent Constraints on one or more selected Nodes.. allows you to modify the values of existing loads. If there are multiple loads on an entity in the active Load Set.  4.17 Modify Update Other Output CSys. Simply say Yes to those you want to update.19 Modify Update Other Load Phase.. 4. . they will all be updated. First.. The default factors do not change the load values. .. The current load values are multiplied by the first factor. Then depending on the load type. you will also have to adjust the reference temperature appropriately to get the desired loads. view factor. Since structural loads are determined by the difference between the specified and reference temperature. Point. When you invoke this command. you will see another dialog box that will let you specify the new Load Phase.Modify Update Other Output CSys.e. You select the Nodes to be updated using the standard entity selection dialog box. updates the Phase of Loads. When you press OK. Elemental.7. 4.. This command will just scale the temperature value..7.. Only Loads from the active Load Set will be updated by this command.... If there are multiple loads at a single entity in the same load set. . you select the Nodes to be updated.7.. 2 ' ( / .3. the Nodal Output Coordinate System is updated instead of the Definition Coordinate System. FEMAP will ask you to identify the type of loads that you want to update.3. FEMAP will ask for two factors. FEMAP will ask whether you want to update each input. some care must be taken. they will all be updated. 1 * 0 Note: If you use this command to update heat transfer loads with multiple inputs (i.. and temperature). works just like Modify Update Node Definition CSys.. then following the multiplication..

Using Delete Mesh allows you to delete any finite element entity by simply selecting it. you will receive a message that a number of nondeletable entities have been skipped. you will be asked to confirm that you really want to delete the entities. This command will delete the selected entity and any other entities that are associated with it. Such as Loads that are defined on elements. This final question will also let you know how many entities have been selected. You will then be prompted by several questions to determine which function references on the loads to update (for instance. If you select Yes to update. . For example. the documentation for the entire menu is given in this section. Deleting From Your Model If you want to delete any type of entity in your model. Neither of these commands perform any checking to see if any of these entities are NonDeletable. You may also use the Delete All or Delete Model All commands to remove the entire model or all FEA model entities and output. and press OK. You simply need to select the Function for each update.. When you select either of these commands. These entities are skipped because FEMAP protects you from deleting entities which are needed by other entities in your model. a Point is nondeletable if it is connected to one or more Curves.21 Modify Update Other Load Function ID. FEMAP will provide a list of functions from which to pick. This is very convenient when you need to change the function reference for a load condition on a large number of entities.. They are simply deleted.. Similarly a Curve is nondeletable if . The standard entity selection dialog box will then be displayed to let you select the entities you wish to delete. Answering yes will delete all appropriate entities. Since most of the commands on this menu work in a very similar fashion. FEMAP will ask you to identify the type of loads that you want to update. simply select the appropriate command (based on the entity type) from this menu. while answering No will cancel the command.3. 4. Finite Element Modeling 4.. This works very similar to Modify Update Other Scale Load. Answering Yes will delete the entities. When you complete your selection. All commands will delete entities from your model. you will be prompted to confirm your request.7. a force can have both a function for the magnitude and phase). Simply answer No to those functions you do not wish to update. allows you to update the function referenced by loads. Choosing No will simply cancel the command.8 Deleting FEA Entities The commands on the Delete Model menu are all used to delete entities. NonDeletable Entities Sometimes when you delete entities.

The following table lists entities that can cause an entity to be nondeletable. but in fact only those Nodes which are not referenced by any Elements. simply choose Delete Node. The model file does not decrease in size. Choose the File Rebuild command. You will then also be asked to confirm whether to delete the Temperatures. Properties. the space that they occupied is marked as empty and available for reuse. Blocks of empty space are removed and your model decreases in size. if you want to get rid of all of the unused Nodes. Loads. the normal confirmation “Ok to Delete Loads” only applies to the temperature loads. For example. . In this case there is nothing to select. Load Elemental. You do not select the set. . Normally. in the same load set. You should only use this option after you delete large blocks of data. . Deleting Body Loads also works with the active Load Set. The File Rebuild command does just that. when you delete a lot of data (output. for example). Constraints. and press Yes to perform a full rebuild and Yes again to allow FEMAP to compact the model. After you Delete When entities are deleted from a FEMAP model.Deleting FEA Entities  it has a load attached to it. Nondeletable Entities When you are trying to delete. 1 * 0 . To delete these nondeletable entities. Constraints Loads Elements Properties Points. you are just asked to confirm the deletion. Deleting From a Set The Delete Load Nodal. 2 ' ( / . Nodes. In some cases however. Materials Hint: You can use this feature to great advantage in “cleaning up” a model. this is not a problem because new entities will reuse this space. Materials Element (Contact type) Loads. you may want to immediately remove empty space from your model and reduce model file size. This may seem a little scary. Node Element Property Material Coordinate System Contact Segment Function Could be referenced by. Loads. just the Node or Element IDs you want. Coordinate Systems. . Elements. and select all Nodes. first delete all entities which reference them. Loads or Constraints will be deleted. If you have multiple temperature loads defined on the same node or element. Constraint Nodal and Constraint Equation all delete entities out of the active Load or Constraint Set. they will all be deleted. When deleting nodal or elemental loads.

Another way to compact your model is to use the File Export FEMAP Neutral command to write a FEMAP Neutral file. Finite Element Modeling FEMAP cannot usually compact space if you have only deleted one or two scattered entities. The new model will contain all of the old data. . Start a new model and then use File Import FEMAP Neutral to read that file. and the savings will not be worth the time it takes to try the command. but no unnecessary space.

scale. (5)Attributes. (6) Approaches and (7) Feature Suppression. Curve.1. reflect. The final section “Extrude/Revolve” is most often used to convert a 2-D mesh. Each of these areas and their associated commands are explained below. (3) Interactive Sizing. The Non-Geometry Meshing section provides specific tools which can be very helpful in certain situations.5Meshing This chapter provides descriptions for the many automatic meshing tools available in FEMAP. The Geometry command is used to produce the actual mesh on the selected geometry. but are not as widely applicable to most FEA models. Duplicating a Mesh 5. They are: 1. The “Modifying a Mesh” section allows you to smooth or refine a mesh. Solid). Mesh Control and Geometry. Meshing on Geometry 2. 5. you will be using the commands under the Mesh Menu to automatically generate a finite element mesh. you will be using the commands for meshing on Geometry. Extrude/Revolve Most often. Each of these areas and their associated commands will be discussed below. as well as customize the meshing procedure.1 Meshing on Geometry This portion of the Mesh menu contains two major menus. while the “Duplicating a Mesh” section enables you to copy an existing mesh and rotate. The Mesh Control menu allows you to specify mesh size. especially if you are surface/solid modeling. Non-Geometry Meshing 3. (2) Size on Geometric Entities (Point. (4) Customization. The commands on the Mesh menu are partitioned into five categories based upon the type of meshing.1 Mesh Mesh Control Menu This menu contains the commands to control your meshing. which has a consistent third dimension. but most often. . or simply copy it. The Model Element command can be used to generate one element at a time. Surface. Modifying a Mesh 4. 5. This menu is separated into seven sections: (1) Default Size. into a 3-D mesh.

then point mesh sizes are used wherever they are defined. 5. 5. The default size is used for all geometry where you did not define a specific size or number of elements. you will see the Mesh Size Along Curve dialog box.. If you choose a “Number of Elements”. This size is used to define the mesh size along any curve that references that point as an endpoint.1 Mesh Mesh Control Default Size.1... the nominal size that you specify is adjusted to the ...specifies the element size at a point. It is always important to set the default size to a value that matches your model. When you set the mesh size using this method.. Global mesh sizes are only used when neither curve nor point mesh sizes apply. Only two inputs are required for this command: (1) Size and (2) Min Elem. If you specify an “Element Size”.defines the number and spacing of elements along selected curves.1. To “turn off” or delete a point mesh size that you have already defined.. In all of these commands there are three basic ways that mesh sizing is specified . . this will be the only value that you need.. If you set the size along a curve. that size is used. and does not have a specific mesh definition along the curve. If you only need a uniform mesh. Use this option if you have some small features (short curves) in your model compared to the default mesh size that you are using. is used to define the default element size. even if you specify them.. The size is specified in model units. you can also specify a minimum number of elements along a curve. then every curve that you selected will be meshed with that number of elements. along with the curve length. 5..1. After you select the curves. then increases the number if it is below the minimum.2 Mesh Mesh Control Size At Point. In addition to the size. . Mesh Size This section of the dialog box contains the options to determine the mesh size along the curve. simply define the size in model units.1. Since fractional elements are not allowed. it overrides all point and default sizes.1.. This number is only used along curves where no other curve or point sizes have been defined. If you do not set sizes along a curve. simply choose the point again and specify a mesh size equal to zero.1.3 Mesh Mesh Control Size Along Curve. FEMAP first calculates the number of elements along these curves using the default size.. Meshing Note: The first four categories above all pertain to setting the size of mesh that you will generate. the other two methods are ignored. Shift+F10 . to determine the number of elements that will be on each curve. This will allow you to add refinement (more elements) along those curves without impacting your overall mesh size.along a curve. After choosing the points where you want to set a mesh size. at a point or globally.

you must also specEdge 1 .all in a single command. You can chose no biasing Edge 4 . these ( 6 + .5 elements. Node Spacing The Node Spacing secEdge 3 . If you select a bias.4 elements set. you can create a fine mesh in the regions of most interest.0 with linear bias. If you are using this method. as well as provide a smooth transition to regions of less importance.e. will make the last element twice as big as the first if you select “Small Elements at Start”. Setting it to a value of 2..0 Small Elements at End Small Elements at Start (Biased). 1 * 0 . “Min Elem on Closed Edges” sets the minimum number of elements that will be placed along any closed edge.like splines.ou can set the “Min Elem on Lines” to insure that each straight line in your model will have at least a specified number of elements. The diagram below shows a sample surface mesh using different biases on the curves. specify a fairly large mesh size. bias=2. like an arc or circle. tion of the dialog box 5 elements created. Y. These options are not typically used if you are setting the mesh size on a single curve. no bias ify the Bias Factor and where the small elements will be located (i.. “Min Elem on Other Edges” applies to curves that are neither straight lines or closed edges . By using biases appropriately. there are several additional options that will allow you to further control the mesh sizing.3 elements set. and still obtain some mesh refinement around desired curves . is to select many curves (possibly your entire model). Edge 2 .0 (Equal). arcs and circles.0 allows you to bias the mesh along a curve. The Bias Factor controls the spacing of Nodes. What they allow you to do however. you can also choose whether mesh locations will be located in parametric or length coordinates along the curve. linear biasing 6 elements created.  closest size that will fit evenly into each curve length.Mesh Mesh Control Size Along Curve. bias = 2. Similarly. which location to bias towards). bias=2. Parametric vs.6 elements. or logarithmic biasing (Geometric Bias). The first element refers to the element at the first endpoint of the curve. For lines. Length Spacing In addition to the biasing methods.

the parametric coordinates are typically much different. . You also have the opportunity to further control the mesh sizing using the other options. Normally. Min Elements on Edge This option specifies the minimum number of elements along any curve on the selected surfaces. However. After selecting the surfaces the Automatic Mesh Sizing dialog box will appear. In most cases. 1 is the correct setting.see Custom Size Along Curve). all curves on the surfaces will be sized. .4 Mesh Mesh Control Size On Surface. Parametric spacing should therefore be used whenever possible. Replace Mesh Sizes on All Curves If you choose this options.1. which happen to have different parametric coordinates. since if you do not size all curves simultaneously. if you have two spline curves side by side. and the number of elements are just determined by the sizing. “Equal Length” spacing will allow you to match the meshes on those two curves (this can also be accomplished using a matched custom mesh size on one of the curves .. Normally.1. It results in a finer mesh in areas of high curvature. specify a nominal “Element Size” which is adjusted to fit evenly into each curve. choosing parametric spacing is the preferred method. other options like “Mapped Meshing Refinement” may be less effective. If you do not. 5. Note: “Equal Length” based spacing is slower for display and meshing than parametric spacing. For spline curves however. only curves that do not currently have mesh sizing will be updated. This command can be used to override mesh sizing on curves associated to that surface. or to define a mesh on all curves that do not currently have a mesh size. this option should be checked. Meshing options make no difference since the parametric and length coordinates are equivalent..is another way to set the mesh size along all curves that are used to define selected surfaces.. Just as if you were specifying the size along curves.. You can set higher numbers if you want to force some degree of refinement. which is often desirable.

. they will often get different numbers of elements. If the effective diameter of the loop of curves is less than the size you specified. Mapped Meshing Refinement This option provides final adjustments to be made to the mesh sizes that favor mapped meshing. while still accurately represent geometry that has high curvature. if the adjustment will not change the mesh size too much (factor of 2 from nominal. It allows specification of a fairly large Angle mesh size. these options limit the number of elements placed around “small” features to the “Max Elem on Small Feature” input. It is compared to the length of the perimeter around any closed loop of curves divided by PI (the effective diameter of the loop). the sizes on opposite sides will be adjusted so that they match. Vector to next mesh location With this option enabled. Vertex Aspect Ratio Turn this option on to optimize mesh spacing on geometry that has both short and long curves that join at common vertices. the long curves will have a fairly large mesh size right beside a short mesh size on the short curve. 1 * 0 . in which case the sizes will be matched regardless of size). It only applies to surfaces that are 3 or 4 sided (mapped-meshable). the elements are added to the curve until it meets the requirement that you specified. ( 6 + . The curve tangent vector is then compared to the vector that connects adjacent mesh locations. This is especially useful if you are specifying a mesh size that is large compared to the length of your shorter curves. The aspect ratio that you specify controls the maximum variation between adjacent mesh sizes. the longer mesh sizes will be biased and shortened at the ends where they join small mesh sizes.. Small Feature Adjustments Instead of increasing the number of elements.Mesh Mesh Control Size On Surface.  Max Angle Tolerance This is one of the most important Tangent options for controlling mesh sizes. If the angle between those vectors is larger than the angle that you specified. without this option. a nominal size. It prevents a large concentration of elements along small features that may not be needed in your model. If curves on opposite sides of these surfaces have different lengths. If you use this option. By turning on this option. then the number of elements around that loop will be limited to the maximum number you choose. preventing them from being mapped meshed. This number is not a curve length. unless you defined a mapped meshing approach. based on the input nominal size. A “small” feature is determined by the size you specify. In this case. you may find that at points where long curves join short curves. is determined.

If this ratio is larger than the value specified then FEMAP will automatically reduce the element size and remesh the surface with the new sizing. Chord Height Original mesh locations Chord Length . When Curvature Based Mesh Refinement is selected FEMAP first meshes the surface at the initial element size. If the surface is mapped or 4 sided then you must specify a Parametric Free mesh using the MeshMesh Control-Approach on Surface command. Factor = 0 Factor = 5 Factor = . This value is used as the target size of all the elements in the interior of the surface. It then calculates the ratio of Chord Height to Chord Length for each element. If you wish to decrease the size of the elements in the interior of the surface then use a number between 0 and 1 and a value above 1 to increase the size of the elements formed in the interior of the surface. Meshing Surface Interior Mesh Growth The Mesh Growth factor is simply a factor that is multiplied by the average size of the elements around the perimeter of the surface.2 Note: When using the Surface Interior Mesh Growth option the surface MUST be free meshed. Free meshing will be the default on any non regular surface ( more than 4 edges). This will continue until all the elements on that surface do not exceed the ratio. Curvature-Based Mesh Refinement Curvature Based Mesh Refinement will reduce the size of elements in areas of a surface with a high amount of curvature.

. Tet meshing does not require any additional adjustments to the mesh sizing. If you try to select them one at a time..5 Mesh Mesh Control Size On Solid. Hex Meshing Choosing these options is fairly easy. In addition. Many surfaces must be mapped meshed so that the hex mesh can be generated.. ( 6 + .. and Curvature Based Mesh Refinement sections. 1 * 0 Hint: If you are preparing for Hex Meshing. Tet vs. you MUST select all solids that you plan to mesh in a single command.. Refer to the previous section. Surface Interior Mesh Growth..1. .  5. and also has additional options that pertain primarily to multi-solid and hexahedral meshing. Preparing for hex meshing however. Mesh Mesh Control Size on Surface for information about the controls that you can specify in the Initial Sizing. hex mesh sizing takes much more time than tet mesh sizing. requires very specific mesh sizing. surfaces across multiple solids must be consistently sized and meshed so that the resulting hex mesh will be compatible. Depending on your choice however. Due to this extra checking that must be done. there is no way to guarantee that the meshes will be compatible across different solids. Refer to the Mesh Geometry Hex Mesh Solids command later in this section for more information about Hex Mesh Sizing.Mesh Mesh Control Size On Solid. the resulting sizes are similar to those created if you had simply set mesh sizes on the individual surfaces. If you choose Tet meshing. the mesh sizing that is generated can be significantly different. Simply choose the option that is appropriate to the type of meshing that you want to do.1. provides the same basic options as Mesh Mesh Control Size on Surface described previously. .

This option automatically finds surfaces which are adjacent between multiple solids and slaves them to each other. Adjust Colors This option simply changes colors of surfaces during the mesh sizing process to give more information about how they were processed. to make sure that all of the surfaces that you expected were found. It is often difficult to see all of the surfaces in a solid assembly. Setting one of the surfaces as a slave to the other insures a consistent mesh. Remove Previous Slaving This option removes all slaving from surfaces in the solids that you are sizing before proceeding with the new sizes. the cylinder is contained in a “box with a cylindrical hole”. For example. After sizing. To mesh these parts. Adjacent Surface Matching If you are specifying sizes on multiple solids at the same time. Surfaces of solids that can not be hex meshed You must be displaying your model in solid. however this is particularly important when you are slicing a solid in preparation for hex meshing. . You can also easily see which solids need to be further simplified to allow hex meshing. Surfaces that were successfully sized and which are adjacent to another surface. You will always want to leave this option on unless you have manually defined some slaved surfaces that you want to keep slaved. Turning this option off however can interfere with the proper operation of Hex mesh sizing. surface colors will be adjusted as follows: Color Dark. Transparent Blue Light Solid Blue Red Description Free surfaces that were successfully sized. this option will set a “slaved” mesh approach on surfaces that are adjacent to each other and which are the same size. The outer surface of the cylinder is “adjacent” to the similar surface of the hole through the box. in the picture shown. shaded render mode for the best effect of these colors. you must insure that the meshes on these two surfaces are identical. Meshing Assembly / Multi-Solid Sizing Adjacent Surfaces These options are used to automatically specify Mesh Approaches (which can be defined manually using the Mesh Mesh Control Approach On Surface command). If you enable this option. you can graphically see which surfaces were detected and slaved as adjacent.

Mesh Definition The Mesh Definition area shows the location of nodes and the number of elements and the bias on the mesh. 5.. The curve mesh size is set equal to the number of elements specified ( 6 + . The Mesh Definition Window shows the locations of the mesh points.1.. It is not reduced below 1. and the mesh size is adjusted. This is extremely useful when you require nodes at specific locations along curves due to either stress concentrations.1.1. you will be asked to select the curve and then the Custom Mesh Spacing Along Curves Dialog box will appear.1. or connections to other parts in an assembly. As you keep clicking on curves they are changed appropriately. allows you to set custom sizes along the curve. In the example above. as follows: Mode Add Subtract Set To Result The current curve mesh size is increased by the number of elements specified The current curve mesh size is decreased by the number of elements specified. however it is rather simple when separated into its components. You can set the mesh between specific locations to guarantee that certain locations will be present in the mesh. allows you to interactively modify existing mesh sizes along one or more curves. Switch modes at any time to make a different type of modification. as well as the buttons on the side work on editing. When you select this command.. The options under this window serve to modify or fill the entire window.. nodes will be placed at locations . This command can be used in three different modes. 1 * 0 Always choose the mode and numbers before beginning. adding. .Mesh Mesh Control Interactive  5. At first glance this dialog box can appear quite complex. Then.6 Mesh Mesh Control Interactive ... The options under Mesh Point Data. or deleting one entry at a time.7 Mesh Mesh Control Custom Size Along Curve. simply click on the curve you want to change.

Num Elements This option allows you to input the location along the curve (1e-08 to 1. Match This option simply allows you to match the mesh locations of one or more other curves. 0. such as a symmetric configuration. Expand This command simply takes all locations that have more than one element assigned. You can define the mesh size on one curve. Please see this section for more information on biasing. The four buttons at the bottom of the Mesh Definition section provide capability to make changes to the mesh Definition Window (as compared to the options on the right side of the dialog box which work on one location at a time). Equal This option asks for the number of elements that you want along the curve. Location. When you select this option you will be prompted for the mesh size. This command is very useful when you have similar curves. and then use Match on each additional curve to copy the mesh locations.333. Fill Fill is used to “fill” between mesh points. expand to each individual location. you always get equal length divisions. The bias itself cannot be used with the automatic methods (Fill and Equal). and edit certain points if they are not at the exact location you require. 0. then computes the mesh locations so that there will be that number of equal length segments along the curve. as well as any biasing. These options must be used when you need to specify a biased mesh.0) at which you want a mesh location (node). Each of the mesh locations on the original curves is projected onto the target curve. Each division is created with 1 element and no bias. and expands it to each individual location. Mesh Point Data This section of the dialog box contains the definition of the actual location.0 (Nodes are always placed at the beginning and end of curves). The Bias and Spacing portions of the dialog box are identical to those found in the Mesh Mesh Control Size on Curve dialog box. This is again a quick method to set an overall mesh size (using Fill and/or Equal). The only input required for this option is to select the curves you wish to match. The automatic methods (Fill and Equal) are not available. It simply updates the number of elements between each point to as closely as possible match the size you specify. It does not matter whether you specify parametric or length spacing for this approach. . Meshing 0. This command does not change the number of points in the Window. You would typically select this option after defining one or more mesh points. This mesh size will be used to fill intermittent points between the current mesh points. A total of three elements will be created in a uniform fashion (Bias of 1). it is the beginning of the curve). You must also specify the number of elements required between this location and the previous location on the curve (if no previous location is specified.667 and 1.

Locate Often you will not know the percentage distance along a curve for a mesh point. however. it will automatically be converted to the location on the curve. This dialog box allows you to define the number of elements. or at least be able to be projected onto the curve. as well as a bias. or hit Cancel to abort the mesh sizing. Be careful when inputting the location. This command will allow you to define a mapped mesh grid for rectangular and triangular surfaces. simply use the Locate button. FEMAP will edit the list. Move. but you will know the coordinate location. Delete This option removes the highlighted entry in the Mesh Definition Window from the list.1. When you have finished defining the mesh points..8 Mesh Mesh Control Mapped Divisions on Surface. The Standard Coordinate Definition dialog box will appear. simply hit OK to set the mesh size.. you will be prompted to select the surfaces.1.. ( 6 + ... After surface selection. Move The Move option is identical to the Locate option. Once you select the location. The s direction is denoted by an arrow that is drawn at one of the corners of the surface. you will see the Mesh Size on Surface dialog box. . The results will appear in the Mesh Definition Window. and the value will be added to the mesh points in the Mesh Definition Window. . otherwise it will simply add it to the list. except it replaces the highlighted entity in the Mesh Definition Window instead of creating a new entity.Mesh Mesh Control Mapped Divisions on Surface.. for the s and t directions. and Delete Options These options control the transfer of data from input to individual mesh locations. In this case. If the value under Locations is already contained in the list. 1 * 0 5. and you can input the coordinates with any of the standard methods. Add/Edit. It must be along the curve. When you select this command. Add/Edit This button simply adds the location and number of elements contained in the Location and Num Elements boxes to the list of mesh locations. allows you to specify divisions for a mesh on 3 and 4-sided surfaces.  Locate.

You will see the standard selection dialog. . you use this same command to remove them. Note: This command is used for placing mesh locations in the interior of a surface. FEMAP will project the points onto the surface and use the projected location. but it will be filled with the list of points that you already selected. you will be asked to select the points that you want to use. Instead. To do that. This method is useful when you have an existing mesh that intersects the middle of a surface and you want to match that mesh. If you want to selectively remove one or more points. defines specific locations on a surface where nodes will be created when the surface is meshed.1. You will be prompted to specify the mesh locations and points will be automatically created and attached as mesh locations. If you have neither points nor nodes. the points that you specify do not really need to be “on” the surface. If you have already defined mesh locations on a surface. Note that even if you choose these nodes.. or the Remove/Exclude picking. choose Use Existing Points. If you have already created Points on the surface at the locations that you want.1. For multisurface boundaries however you must locate the points on the surface. If there are already nodes on the surface at the desired locations.. they will not be projected. . You will then see the Custom Mesh dialog box. nor does it work. in that dialog to remove the points that you no longer need.. choose Use Existing Nodes and select the ones you want. Simply choose Remove All Points to delete all of the mesh locations for this surface. use the Mesh Mesh Control Custom Size Along Curve command. FEMAP automatically creates points at those node locations and uses the points as mesh locations. To begin you simply select the surface where you want to define mesh locations. and when you press OK. Here you have several options. choose Use Existing Points instead.. You can use the Delete button. Meshing 5. Note: For most surface types. it is not actually the nodes that are “attached” to the surface. It is not intended. to place locations along or very near the bounding curves. choose Create Points.9 Mesh Mesh Control Mesh Points on Surface.

properties. and a better mesh will result. Unlike Point Mesh Attributes. FEMAP then resmooths the mesh. The Reverse Element Direction option even allows you to flip the section if the curve is pointed in the opposite direction.10 Mesh Mesh Control Attributes At Point . Once attributes have been defined. simply delete the mesh. these points can be meshed with elements which will automatically use the assigned properties. ( 6 + . it creates the original mesh without the “Hard” mesh points. When you press OK in this dialog box you will either be asked for a vector. curves are easily meshed with elements. you must have one or more properties defined that correspond to Mass.. You can create. Releases are specified immediately. Beam. It then moves the Node closest to each hard point to the hard point location. Property You must select a property that corresponds to a “Line” element (Bar.. This techniques works very well when there is a significant number of Nodes in the mesh (and a reasonably fine mesh) in comparison to the number of hard points. Orientation and Releases These options are similar to the options in the Model Element command. releases and offsets that will be used when the curve is meshed. You simply define the orientation and releases that you want applied. 1 * 0 5... .1.1.11 Mesh Mesh Control Attributes Along Curve . offsets.Mesh Mesh Control Attributes At Point  Hint: When FEMAP meshes a surface. 5. If you do not have the property that you need. Before you begin this command. and then define the mesh size on it.. it is best to imprint a Curve or Surface on the surface (see Geometry Curves from Surfaces menu). or other “point” element types. They also specify the element orientation. Once attributes have been defined. orient and position all cross sections on the geometry and then mesh all curves in one easy operation.. For this type of mesh. You will be asked for the points where you want to assign attributes. adjust the mesh sizes and remesh all of the attribute information is still retained. or a location (not a node) to define the orientation.). This will use a different technique in the FEMAP surface mesher.1. This orientation will be used for all elements along the curve. is used to assign meshing attributes (properties) to one or more points. orientations and releases all automatically assigned. you can press “New Prop” to create a new property. this technique will not produce good meshes. If there are not many more Nodes than hard points.1. is used to assign meshing attributes along one or more curves. and the property to assign. If the resulting mesh needs to be changed. Curve Mesh Attributes contains more information than just a property.

not in global coordinates.12 Mesh Mesh Control Attributes On Surface .. Element connections to internal nodes along the curve are not released. You define a vector at each end. and the offsets correspond to those vectors.1. If you also want to assign offsets to the planar elements (typically plates only). but do not choose either the “End B Offset”. then redefine them using the new method. check the Offset box. The Vector method is identical to the Create Element method. surfaces can be easily meshed with elements. You must first press “No Offsets” to delete the existing offsets. Offsets Like Orientations and Releases. Simply choosing the method does not define an offset. In this case a zero offset locates the shape so that the reference point lies on the curve at every location. In most cases you will simply choose a surface element property to be assigned to the surfaces. the ends here refer to the start and end of the curve (not the start and end of each element). offsets vary linearly along the curve from the End A vector to the End B vector.. Similarly. Meshing when you press the “Releases” button. you will not be able to change the definition method..) will be automatically assigned. or “End B = End A”. Even if you want to specify a zero offset. Using the vector method. first choose the method.1. then you MUST press “End A Offset” (or one or more of the other offset buttons) to define actual offsets. materials.. if you define the End A Offset. offsets are defined in the YZ plane of the cross section. The main differences here are in the three methods used to define the offset. 5. All of the offsets will be created as radial vectors pointing away from the center (assuming a positive offset distance) along the line connecting the center to the nodal location. and specify the value of the offset before pressing OK. If you are editing the attributes on a curve that already has offsets defined. If you choose this method. properties (thicknesses. Just like releases. offsets closely follow the Create Element counterparts. The Radial method allows you to choose a center location and offset distance. Press “New Prop” if you have not already created the property that you need. you must still specify the End A and End B offsets or the reference point will not be used. . is used to assign meshing attributes to one or more surfaces. Releases specified on attributes apply to connections at the first end of the curve (End A Releases) and the last (End B Releases). The Location method uses the “Reference Point” that you can choose when creating a property from a standard or general shape. Note: To use any of these options. then the End B offset is zero. Once attributes have been defined.

5. Most notably these would be cones or caps of spheres.Mesh Mesh Control Attributes On Volume  5. split it into several pieces and mesh them using this approach.13 Mesh Mesh Control Attributes On Volume . except that it applies to solids. You must create the property before using this command. is used to assign meshing attributes to one or more solids. described above.1. except the mesh is created on a plane and is projected onto the surface.1. the free mesh may look like a mapped mesh.Parametric This approach tells FEMAP to always try a free mesh on the surfaces. in addition to “Not Specified”. 1 * 0 5. If you choose “Not Specified” FEMAP will decide which mesh is appropriate based on geometry.. In this case. After selecting surfaces where you want to specify the approach. . Even if mesh spacings allow a mapped mesh. then select the property that you want. Free . a free mesh is always created. is used to assign meshing attributes to one or more volumes. without specifying an approach. This command is identical to Mesh Mesh Control Attributes On Volume.1. is used to specify the type of mesh to be created on a surface. and allows you to define additional information so that mapped meshes can be created on surfaces that could otherwise not be mapped meshed. This approach is never used automatically. you will see the Mesh Approach dialog box. There are six different approaches to choose from. ( 6 + . FEMAP will decide whether to create a free/boundary mesh or a mapped mesh on each surface.. In some cases. volumes can be meshed and properties (primarily material information) will be automatically assigned. Specifying this approach usually has little effect since it uses the same approach that is most commonly taken by FEMAP anyway. Normally. but it is created using the free meshing technique.14 Mesh Mesh Control Attributes On Solid . This is called “Free-Parametric” because surfaces are meshed in their parametric coordinates. This command gives you control over that selection.. This technique can only be used for surfaces that do not have too much curvature.. If your surface is too curved. mesh sizing and resulting mesh quality.1.1. Once attributes have been defined. but can help to overcome problems with meshing surfaces that have problems in their parametric representation. where surfaces normally have an undefined “pole” in the parametric coordinates.1.15 Mesh Mesh Control Approach On Surface . you simply select the volumes where you want to assign attributes..Planar Projection This approach is similar to Free-Parametric. Free ..

you do not have to specify points on the surface where you are setting the approach. The “edges” of the mesh are all of the curves that lie between the points that you choose. If you do not specify mesh sizes that are compatible with the mapped meshing approach. Meshing Fast Tri . but can help to overcome problems with meshing surfaces that have problems in their parametric representation. This is a requirement. the total number of elements specified on the three outside curves equals the number of elements on the arc. split it into several pieces and mesh them using this approach. These points can be specified in any arbitrary order.Parametric This approach applies a free mesh to the surfaces using the FEMAP Fast Triangle mesher. It can also be used to your advantage if you need to set approaches on a series of parallel or similar surfaces. but you must choose four different points.Planar Projection This approach is similar to Fast Tri-Parametric.Four Corner This approach creates a mapped mesh on the surface. the corner points have been defined at the locations of the dots. If your surface is too curved. between four corners that you select. where surfaces normally have an undefined “pole” in the parametric coordinates. When you select this approach. . This is called “Fast Tri-Parametric” because surfaces are meshed in their parametric coordinates. even if you specified “Four Corner”. Mapped . In this example. Most notably these would be cones or caps of spheres. Fast Tri . and use those. The Fast Triangle mesher uses a different method when creating surface triangles that is faster and produces triangles with better aspect ratios. This approach is never used automatically. This eliminates problems in knowing which points to pick when surfaces are adjacent (coincident) with each other. Free Four Corner When specifying the mesh corners. except the mesh is created on a plane and is projected onto the surface. you will still get a free mesh. the right hand side of the dialog box allows you to select four points for the “corners” of the mesh. This technique can only be used for surfaces that do not have too much curvature. You may be able to define them at once by picking the points on one surface and letting FEMAP automatically select the others. FEMAP will automatically find the closest points on the surface to the ones you selected. In addition.

and to insure compatible meshes between adjacent surfaces of multiple solids. it must have the same mesh sizing as the master surface. they do not have to be parallel or aligned in any particular fashion. linking surfaces is intended to be used with hex-meshable solids only. You can only slave surfaces in one direction. In order for a linked surface to be meshed. they can be anywhere in space. 1 * 0 Mapped . If surfaces are on the same solid. If you have more complicated geometry. If surfaces are not on solids. rather it simply instructs FEMAP to make the mesh on the selected surface match the one on the surface that you link it to. This is the only point that must be specified in a particular order. then they are meshed by matching the closest points on the surfaces. or must at least be closely aligned. Just as in the four corner methods. 3. You can not to define circular references. Matched .Mesh Mesh Control Approach On Surface  Mapped . Surfaces to linked must also have the same mesh sizing. but care must be taken: 1. . Three Corner Three Corner Fan ( 6 + . the points in these three corner methods do not need to lie on the selected surfaces.Three Corner This approach is similar to the Four Corner approach. it simply defines three corner locations. The resulting mesh can be an all quadrilateral mesh on the three cornered surface. but they can only be linked if the other curves on the solid directly connect the two surfaces. the surfaces must be positioned and aligned so that the points on the curves that are closest to each other result in the proper mapping between the surfaces. Surfaces to be linked must either be on the same solid. This approach is primarily used to insure compatible meshing in a single solid for hex meshing. Surfaces that are rotated arbitrarily in space relative to each other will usually not meet this criteria. but meshing the linked surface will fail. this mode is primarily intended for matching adjacent surfaces between multiple solids. that is if A is linked to B. 2. or must be adjacent/coincident in space. the resulting mesh can be severely warped. but the resulting mesh has triangles at the first corner location. solids that are essentially extrudable. In this mode. Depending on the geometry however. you will still be able to link the surfaces.Linked to Surface This final approach does not directly define a new type of mesh. then B must be independently meshable. You can use it for certain other situations. it can not be linked to A. For this reason. to mesh properly. Again.Three Corner Fan Again this method is similar to Three Corner. or are on different solids. That is. or they will not mesh properly.

and have FEMAP mesh the part as if they did not exist. This is an extremely useful command to remove these small features from the model.. but you must be careful that the area you specify is not so large as to lose significant faces in your model. It simply removes the faces..There are two methods of feature suppression. There are three options under Automatic. you can also specify a length tolerance. In many circumstances. Features in your model which are under this size are removed.. Meshing 5. you must be careful that the length you specify does not cause removal of important edges. Any edge below this tolerance will be removed. Edges Shorter Than Similar to the Face Area option above.. This option does not check for any loops in the model. Once again. Only the edge will be removed.Removal of large edges can cause you to lose the integrity of your model. You can suppress these features. Removal of many faces may cause you to lose the integrity of the solid model. which are explained below. Smaller Than This option is used to remove loops from the model smaller than a certain size. Automatic The automatic feature is a good method of cleansing a part with a significant number of small features. this will enable a much smoother mesh. as opposed to have to remove them manually. The fact that the end portion of this feature is smaller than the tolerance will cause FEMAP to remove the entire loop. No loops will be examined. the Feature Suppression dialog box will appear. enables you to remove features from the model when meshing. and Edge Length commands because it will walk along the entire loop and remove the entire loop from the part. This is a very valuable tool when a CAD part has been imported to FEMAP and contains many small features which are unimportant to the finite element model. The commands on this menu provide meshing capabilities to automatically mesh your geometry. The total length of the feature may be longer than the specified value (as in the case of a very long but small radius cylinder). . These commands range from simple creation of Nodes on Points to 3-D meshing . When you choose this command. Simply select the values for small features and hit OK. This command works differently than the Face Area. This option is useful for removing small sliver faces. Automatic and Manual. Face Area Less Than This option removes any faces in the model which are below the area you specify.1.1.16 Mesh Mesh Control Feature Suppression.

The menu is partitioned into five sections based upon the type of entities to mesh. You should always use a distinguishing color to remind yourself which features have been suppressed. Most other commands will simply use the mesh size which you have already defined (or the default mesh size if you have not defined a mesh size). The last two sections deal with Solids and Volumes. 5.. FEMAP will give you an additional opportunity to define the mesh size before proceeding. You can remove/restore three types of entities. which makes it easy to distinguish these curves and surfaces from the rest of the model. Manual By switching to Manual operation. This command has both a Remove and Restore option. Faces will require input of surfaces. and the entire loop will be removed. . 1 * 0 Set Color To This section allows you to define colors for your suppressed and restored curves and surfaces. (2) Loops. (1) Edges. provides an easy method to restore all features in the model. When you choose the Edges and Loops command. but you only want to remove a few of them. The default colors to restore will be the current colors of curves and surfaces.1. Curves.Mesh Geometry  of complex solids. The first allows you to Hex Mesh solids and the last performs Tet Meshing in Volumes and Solids. If you are meshing a solid model. but you only want to remove a few of them.. Before using these commands. This can be very useful for removing small holes which run through the model.. ( 6 + .2 Mesh Geometry This menu provides the tools for automatically meshing geometry. Removal of key areas may result in loss of integrity of the solid. The default for removal is typically a dark color. Loops You can also select the Loops to remove features from your model. Surfaces. you will often want to use the Mesh Mesh Control commands to define the mesh sizes for the geometry you wish to mesh. Faces This button allows you to remove specific faces from the model. Simply select a curve on the loop. The menu is partitioned into several segments based upon the type of geometry you are meshing. . and (3) Faces. you can specify individual features in your model to remove. you will be asked to input Curves via the Standard Entity Selection box. This option is most useful when you may have many small edges. Each of the commands are described below. Edges This button allows you to remove specific edges from the model.. You can create meshes on Points. The same warnings for Automatic removal of Edges and Faces (see Automatic above) apply to manual removal. Restore All Features. This option is most useful when you may have many small faces.

You will see the Geometry Mesh Options dialog box (shown below). simply pick or create a different property.1. and the Property. the Coordinate System (to set the definition coordinate system of the nodes...2. where you choose to generate either just Nodes or Nodes and Elements. It will simply generate Nodes (or Elements and Nodes) at the selected Points. If you choose that property. . you must select the Points through the Standard Entity Selection Dialog box. Generate This option controls whether you generate Nodes or Nodes and Elements. You may also use the New Prop button to define a new line element property if you have not already defined one. Once you select the curves.Use Meshing Attributes) in the list. . If you wish to ignore the attributes. One of the Point Element Types (Masses) must be selected if you are going to generate elements.1 Mesh Geometry Point. Element Shape This section of the dialog box will be grayed.. you will see an additional property (0. as well as change the Node and Element parameters. you will see the Geometry Mesh Options dialog box.2. Node and Element Options These options allow you to specify the beginning Node and Element IDs. When you select this option. you will be asked to select the curves through the Standard Entity Selection dialog box. Using Meshing Attributes If the curves that you are meshing have mesh attributes defined.. orientation. offsets and releases for the elements that will be created... is the most basic of automatic meshing commands. creates a mesh of Nodes and 1-D Elements along a curve. When you choose this command. 5.. This section is available for some of the NonGeometry based meshing commands (Mesh Between for example). . since lines elements do not have a “shape”.1.. FEMAP will use the attributes to define the property. You must choose a line element property for this command.. Meshing 5.2 Mesh Geometry Curve.

1. If you want to control this process.) the standard vector definition dialog box will be Curves used to define an orientation vector.. you can usually press OK to accept all default options. etc. The CSys option does not control the mesh in any way..2.3 Mesh Geometry On Surface. The Mesh Control and Smoothing areas do. It is just assigned as the defi- . Node and Element Options These options control parameters that are assigned to the nodes and elements that you will create. You cannot orient using a third node. Beams. require an orientation (Bars.. however mapped meshes will be created whenever possible. but you can modify the orientation later. Shift+F11 .Mesh Geometry On Surface. so it must be specified carefully. Before choosing this command. you must select the surfaces to mesh.. The single vector that you define is used for all elements that are generated. refer to the Mesh Mesh Control Approach on Surface command to define the meshing approach for your surfaces. however. the Automesh Surfaces dialog box appears After choosing the appropriate property.. ( 6 + . Normally this will result in a free/boundary mesh. 1 * 0 5. After they are selected. When you select the Mesh Geometry on Surface command. Controlling the Mesh If you simply specify sizes and then mesh surfaces. FEMAP will decide which type of mesh to create based upon what it can do automatically.  If you are meshing Beam Elements generated with elements that along curves with cross section shown. you must define the mesh sizes using the various Mesh Mesh Control commands. give you significant control over the resulting mesh. creates nodes and planar elements on a selected set of surfaces.. for example to force a mapped mesh onto surfaces with more than four boundary curves.

Primarily. Large numbers can lead to severely distorted elements. If you choose that property. Using Meshing Attributes If the surfaces that you are meshing have mesh attributes defined. Setting this number greater than one can greatly increase the number of elements that are generated. thin “appendages”. undo the mesh and try it again with the number increased. then if the results are undesirable. If you wish to ignore the attributes. Meshing nition coordinate system of each node. In this case however. groups of elements are often generated between two opposite edges of a boundary. the mesh sizes that you have defined are large enough that a single element will span the distance between surfaces. The elements along the boundary edges are defined by the mesh sizes that you choose and are unaffected by these settings. simply pick or create a different property. you will see an additional property (0. Smaller numbers usually create slightly more uniform meshes with elements that are better shaped. It is usually best to leave this parameter set to one initially. or one that has long. Max Element Aspect Ratio Like the Min Elements setting described above. thin or distorted elements. Those mesh sizes also have substantial impact on the interior of the mesh..0. Min Elements = 1 Min Elements = 3 (or 2) You will usually only have to set this option if you are meshing a surface that is long and thin relative to the mesh size. but these options give you additional control. You must choose a property which corresponds to a planar element. try again with a smaller aspect ratio. as this example demonstrates. this number is used as a guideline for how “long” elements can be relative to their “width”. control over the number of elements is only a secondary effect of this option. Min Elements Between Boundaries As a boundary is being meshed. You must always specify a value that is greater than or equal to 1.Use Meshing Attributes) in the list. Setting this parameter does not guarantee that you will get that number of elements between every edge. Sometimes. If you make a mesh that contains long. this option controls the elements inside the mesh. The property is most important. But wherever possible (based on compatibility with your surface mesh sizes) that number of elements or greater will be created. . you can control this behavior by setting a minimum number of elements that must be created between any boundary edges. Mesh Control These options control the size and shape of the mesh inside the boundary. Since this may not be enough refinement for the model that you are creating. FEMAP will use the attributes to define the property and type of the elements that will be created.

. you have the choice of All Triangles with or without the Fast Tri Mesh option. You will usually just want to accept the default values for these options. but there are a few distorted areas. 1 * 0 Mesh Smoothing These options are the same as those described in the Mesh Smooth command. Turning this option on shortens the time required while usually having minimal impact on the overall mesh quality. The Fast Tri Mesh option uses a different method to create triangles that generally produces less triangles with better aspect ratios. Do not have large changes in size from one curve to the next. it is automatically smoothed to reduce element distortions. After an initial mesh is generated. This technique works particularly well if you have a long thin surface with holes. or mesh quality will substantially decrease. and wherever a quadrilateral would be severely distorted. Lower distortion values will result in more triangles. turn this option off. If that does not work.. ( 6 + . If you want to create all triangles. . If you want to change them. Examples The following pictures show sample boundary meshes created using this command. m If most of a mesh looks good. Hint: The following suggestions can help you use the free meshing commands more effectively: m Specify mesh sizes that transition gradually along the edges.Mesh Geometry On Surface.) Triangles are created wherever quadrilaterals cannot meet the specified boundary mesh sizes. m Use default generation settings first. Element Shape These options control the creation of triangular elements in your mesh. consider changing some mesh sizes. Do not reduce the number of nodes too much. There is no “all quads” setting. and are willing to wait.  Quick-Cut Meshing large non-uniform surfaces can often take some time. You can override the default 60 degree allowable distortion with any value that you want. but the default will generate quadrilateral elements whenever possible. You can also control the threshold by setting the number of nodes to a smaller or larger number. use the remesh option in the Mesh Refine command to “clean-up” the distorted elements. refer to the Mesh Smooth command for more information. (Note: You must always get at least one triangle if you specify an odd number of nodes on the surface. m Map a boundary to a surface (Modify Update Others Boundary on Surface) whenever it is nonplanar. If you want the best possible mesh. then undo and try again with modified settings if you do not like the results.

0 Edge 1 .3 elements set. It will not be ignored along the third and fourth edges.5 elements.0 Edge 4 . even in the mapped meshing case. no bias The nodal locations along all edges can vary due to the shape of the surface and biasing. bias=2. Biasing along edges can be varied independently.5 Edge 2 . bias=0. 5 elements created. . bias=2. Meshing Simultaneous generation in two boundaries Outer boundary with circular hole Inner.6 elements. circular boundary Boundary mapped to cylindrical surface Boundary curves are not on the surface You could use the “Min Elements” option to increase the number of elements in this area Surface and shrunken elements Edge 3 . 6 elements created.4 elements set.

If Boundary Mesh Mapped Mesh you have the same number of divisions along opposite edges of the surfaces..Mesh Geometry On Surface. or a free/ boundary mesh.  This command can Surface generate either a mapped.. FEMAP will create a boundary mesh. Surface Elements ( 6 + . If not. described earlier in this chapter. a mapped mesh can be automatically generated. You can further control this process by specifying a mesh approach using the Mesh Mesh Control Approach on Surface command. 1 * 0 .

In many cases however. inner surface boundaries and features will be lost. For . surfaces may be split at places that you really do not need. the mesh will only conform to the outer boundary of the surfaces that you combine. In this case. Meshing Surface Elements Requires 4-corner mapped approach on surface Multi-Surface Meshing When you mesh surfaces. Multi-surface boundaries address this problem. to split the mesh. All of the surface boundaries become boundaries in the mesh. the shape of the mesh is strongly controlled by the shape of the underlying surfaces. or even want. You can use the Geometry Boundary Surface From Surfaces on Solid command to create boundary surfaces that span multiple underlying surfaces.

however for multi-surface boundaries. .  more information on creating Multi-Surface boundaries. refer to the Geometry Boundary Surface From Surfaces on Solid command.. Note how boundaries of interior surfaces are ignored Individually Meshed Surfaces If you create a multi-surface boundary. but not surfaces . If you want to create Mesh Points on a multi-surface boundary.Mesh Geometry On Surface. such as Mesh Approaches. Geometry (dark outlines show edges of multisurface boundaries interior hatching shows boundaries of individual surfaces) Mesh . and Mesh Points on Surface to customize the mesh on the boundary. the Mesh locations must be on the surface. you can still use the other features..follows boundary outlines. ( 6 + . Other surfaces will work with the projected mesh location. 1 * 0 Geometry Multi-Surface Boundary with mapped mesh. they must be “on” the surface.

Subdivide your model into hex meshable solids. the actual solids that FEMAP can mesh are much . Hex mesh using the Mesh Geometry Hex Mesh Solids command. Verify that all solids are hex meshable. 1. and are properly linked to adjacent solids.2. If not. you must follow a fairly strict procedure. creates a hexahedral mesh in a selected set of solids. While we use the word “extrudable” here. therefore if you have a part that is more complex. and often most difficult step in the hex meshing process involves dividing your part (which we assume is one arbitrarily shaped solid) into simpler hex meshable solids. you must define the mesh sizes using the Mesh Mesh Control Size on Solid command and choose the Hex Meshing option.. simpler solids that can be meshed. 4. Hex Meshable Solids The first. and continue dividing your solids.. Before choosing this command. To create a Hex Mesh in solids. correct hex mesh. return to step 1. Set the Mesh Sizes using Mesh Mesh Control Size on Solid.4 Mesh Geometry HexMesh Solids . Meshing 5. with the hex meshing option. 3. 2.1. FEMAP can only hex mesh “extrudable” solids. you must break/slice it into multiple. most important. Each of these steps is extremely important if you are going to succeed in creating a complete.

FEMAP can mesh solids where it can identify a “base” and “top” surface that are connected by all four-sided. The base and top surfaces must produce the same surface mesh.Mesh Geometry HexMesh Solids  more complex than simple. The base and top surface can be any shape. they . including surfaces with holes. look at the following pictures: Examples of Solids that can be automatically Hex Meshed ( 6 + . the same number of edges. To give you some ideas of the types of solids that FEMAP can and can not mesh. all are four sided surfaces with one edge on the base and the opposite edge on the top surface. and do not even have to be geometrically similar (although the mesh quality may suffer depending upon how different they are). The lateral or side surfaces (everything but base and top) control the mesh “along the length” of the extrusion. not necessarily the same shape. There must also be a single “path” through the lateral surfaces from each edge of the base surface. to a corresponding edge on the top surface. 1 * 0 The preceding pictures represent some general solids that can be meshed. Often more complicated connections exist but many can still be meshed. the requirement is that all lateral surfaces must be foursided. straight extrusions. In the simplest case. If you combine all “paths”. The base and top surfaces do have to have similar connectivity. but the same number of nodes and elements with the same connectivity. During the process of hex meshing sizing. mapped meshable surfaces. In general. that is. This is required for successful hex meshing. FEMAP identifies the base and top surfaces and automatically matches (slaves) the mesh on the two surfaces.

but they are connected with 3-sided. These are small surfaces that are usually generated by inaccuracies in the solid modeling process. Cannot mesh solids that have “partial depth” holes The split on the top faces. combined with the five sided face prevents identifying a top and bottom surface. Refer to those commands for more information. especially with complicated solids. In this case the holes force the left and right sides to be the base and top. The various Geometry Solid Slicing and Embedding commands are the primary tools that you have for cutting your solid. Cannot mesh revolvable. If you have “sliver” surfaces. To mesh. The other main problem that leads to non-meshable solids is “sliver” surfaces. . another approach that is often helpful. Meshing must cross the lateral surfaces once and only once. Commands for Subdividing Solids Most real solids will have to be subdivided before they can be hex meshed. and there cannot be any surfaces that are missed. The Geometry Solid Cleanup. you will have to remove them before proceeding. Some examples of solids that do not meet these requirements are: The corner of this solid creates three five-sided faces. split the solid near the point inside the hole. or Explode and Stitch commands can often be used to remove these surfaces. You can then use the surface modeling tools to add internal surfaces to divide the region. In addition. simply split it into two solids along the line. To mesh this part. You can split this solid into three six-sided solids Cannot mesh solids with holes in faces other than base and top. but no extrudable solids. is to use the Geometry Solid Explode command to “explode” the solid into a set of disconnected surfaces. and use Geometry Solid Stitch to reassemble the pieces. This technique can also be used to remove undesirable portions of your part. not 4-sided surfaces.

FEMAP automatically creates a solid property which references the active material. consistent mesh sizing is mandatory for hex meshing. This will use the standard material creation dialog boxes (refer to Model Material). you will first be asked to define a material for the mesh (if you have not defined meshing attributes on your solids). select a Solid Property. .Mesh Geometry HexMesh Solids  Hex Mesh Sizing The Mesh Mesh Control Size on Solid command (with the Hex Meshing option selected) is the primary mechanism to setup the necessary mesh sizing for successful hex meshing. curves on opposite sides of those surfaces must have the same number of element divisions. only surface elements will be created. If you do not. All of these curves must get the same mesh size. Once you have properly subdivided your part. You will then see the Hex Mesh Solids dialog box. ( 6 + . other than the Midside Nodes on Surface options. Node and Element Options Most Node and Element Options were explained in the Mesh Geometry Curve section above. If you do not have any properties defined in your model. Similarly. FEMAP will not be able to hex mesh your solids. If you choose Surface Mesh Only. While you are doing this process. which are important if you are meshing with elements that have midside nodes. this consistent sizing must propagate through the model. you must also manually change the mesh sizes (to the same settings) on all of the other curves in your solids that must match the first curve to maintain mapped meshable surfaces. across the multiple solids that you have created. The Options button controls more advanced meshing options. Choose Midside Nodes if you want to create solids that have midside nodes. not solid elements on the interior. In addition to properly subdivided solids.. 1 * 0 Hex Meshing When you choose this command. or create a Solid Property with the New Prop. Most of the options are unimportant for Hex Meshing. For this meshing procedure. there will be duplicate curves .you must use great care.one on each solid. Since many surfaces on your solids must be mapped meshed. If you manually change the mesh size along a curve.. In particular. the “Size on Solid” command handles all sizing automatically. The Options dialog box is identical to that described below for the Mesh Geometry Solids (for Tet Meshing) command. Simply specify a nominal size. If you need further mesh grading or want to modify the sizes that “Size on Solid” has created . at the common boundaries where you have sliced solids. button. you must make sure that you pick ALL of the curves. Mesh Generation The options in this section of the dialog box control the actual meshing procedure.

This method also requires the meshes on the base and top surfaces be mapped meshes . if surfaces are too far apart. You can choose to turn off “Merge Nodes on Slaved Surfaces” if you want to connect surfaces using other means (like Mesh Connection commands). FEMAP only merges nodes on the solids you are meshing. nodes will fall outside of the automatic merge tolerances and you could have gaps in your model. Meshing If you choose “Merge Nodes on Slaved Surfaces” all nodes on the surfaces that lie between sliced solids will be merged. be aware that the alternate smoothing method is significantly slower than the normal smoothing approach . Solid with 3 slices Resulting Hex Mesh .so you might have to divide your solid further before trying it. In most cases FEMAP automatically chooses a mesh smoothing method that produces a good mesh. If the solid that you are meshing has a high degree of curvature (especially with a small number of elements) and you want a more evenly spaced mesh. If you are not meshing all of your solids at once. you will have to manually merge the nodes. If this happens. You should always use the free face and free edge display. or to simulate contact conditions. or if you are getting messages that FEMAP can not produce a valid hex mesh. In some cases.but it can solve problems that are otherwise not possible. This should result in a single fully connected mesh. use the Tools commands to merge your nodes with a larger tolerance. and examine them carefully for any disconnections. Finally. you might want to try turning on “Alternate Smoothing”.

Then you only need to further subdivide one of the symmetric pieces. HexMesh From Elements provides two ways to create a hex mesh out of mapped surface quads. . 1 * 0 5... Top Region Bottom Region Elements Enclosing the volume to Hex Mesh: For hex mesh regions that do not have straight lines that connect the top and bottom regions you will have map mesh all of the surfaces that enclose the volume to hex mesh.2.  Hint: Take advantage of any symmetry in your geometry when you are slicing. Top and Bottom: To mesh Hexahedral elements between two mapped surfaces.HexMesh from Elements. The last question defines how many layers of elements should be created between the top and bottom regions. or reflect the resulting mesh.. When you are done subdividing. you can either reflect the solids to recreate the entire part. ( 6 + . A hexahedral mesh can be created from a fully enclosed outer bound of mapped surface quads or between a bottom and top mapped region that is connected with straight lines.. This will insure the extrusion matches the top region of elements. After the bottom and top of the mesh have been defined FEMAP will ask you if you would like to automatically match the top and bottom meshes. by saying No you will be able to choose a node on the bottom set of elements and a matching node on the top set of elements. First divide your solid along the lines of symmetry. you will be asked to select the elements on the base of the mesh and then the elements that form the top of the mesh.5 HexMesh from Elements.1. In most cases FEMAP will be able to automatically match the top and bottom mesh.

1. you must define the mesh sizes using the various Mesh Mesh Control commands. the number of nodes/elements along opposite faces of a volume must always be equal. . . Before choosing this command.. 5.2. Since this command uses a mapped meshing technique. The volumes are selected using the standard entity selection dialog box. Additional meshing options are then specified using the Geometry Mesh Options dialog box. Group Operations Generate Solids. Biasing can vary independently along each edge of the volume.6 Mesh Geometry Volume. described in the Mesh Geometry Curve section. Meshing In this case you will first select the elements that form the mapped base region and then you will be prompted to select all of the elements that form the remainder of the enclosing volume. Base Region Hint: It is helpful to place the solids that must be manually hex meshed into their own group in order to simplify the selection of surface elements use... and shown here. creates nodes and solid elements in a selected set of volumes..

or built directly inside of FEMAP. Wedges. Mesh Geometry Solids from Surfaces. If you have multiple solids. or Mesh Geometry Solids from Elements. You can specify between Bricks.7 Mesh Geometry Solids.  The only options not described in this section is the Element Shape options.Mesh Geometry Solids. . and Tetra elements.. and the type of bias for Wedges and Tetras. The Bias options are explained in more detail in the Mesh between command section.. if you have only one solid in your model. produces a 3-D solid tetrahedral mesh in a solid part. it is best to use Mesh Geometry Solids.1.2.. FEMAP will automatically select it.. The solid tetra mesher provides much more flexibility and robustness than the volume mesher. For all other solid parts. 1 * 0 Examples Volume Elements 5. . When you select this command. ( 6 + ..x_t). you will be prompted to select the solids to mesh. Hint: Volume meshing is typically only used if you have a very regular part and require a mapped mesh of Bricks and Wedges.SAT) file. a Parasolid (*.. The solid must either have been imported from an ACIS (*.

you must select a Solid Property. FEMAP will ask you to update them. Node and Element Options Most of the Node and Element Options were explained in the Mesh Geometry Curve section above. but not mesh the solid itself. you will either be prompted to input a material for the solid (if no materials are defined in your model). Once you select OK on the Automatic Mesh Sizing dialog box.. For this meshing procedure. Mesh Generation These options control different aspects of the mesh. Simply delete the original mesh. The Options button provides more advanced meshing options (explained more fully below). and then use a different element size. or create a Solid Property with the New Prop.. This dialog box is identical to the one under Mesh Mesh Control Size on Solid Command. If you mesh the part and are unhappy with the sizing. Surface Mesh Only: If you would like to only create a surface mesh. the Automatic Mesh Sizing dialog box will appear. or you will go straight to the Automesh Solids dialog box shown below. If you do not have any properties defined in your model. Each of these options are described below. FEMAP will automatically create a solid property which references the active material. button. or if you have surfaces/curves which do not have defined mesh sizes. Meshing If you have already defined mesh sizes for all of the curves and surfaces in your model. FEMAP will compute a default mesh size for your part based upon characteristic lengths in your part. Many times this will be a very good initial guess. . you may select Surface Mesh Only. or you can review the surface mesh before going to a full solid mesh. If you say Yes. This option provides an easy method to mesh all of the surfaces related to a solid. Please see this command for information on each of these options. You can then use these surfaces for analysis if you actually have a thin part modeled as a solid.

These options are segregated into two major sections: (1) Solid meshing options.. inward or outward (2) no free edges and .. the tetrahedral elements will be larger than the surface elements. or on the surfaces of your solid model) by choosing Options (explained below). Options This button allows you to access some advanced meshing options for the solid mesher. this option should always be checked. and (2) Status Options. Solid Meshing Options These options control the actual meshing procedure. Therefore.  Simply review and modify the surface mesh as appropriate. If you need to form larger or smaller tetrahedral elements than this ratio will allow. Check Surface Elements: This option checks the surface elements that are input to the solid mesher. and then use the Mesh Geometry Solids from Elements command to create a solid mesh from this modified surface mesh. When you select this button.5). Tet Growth Ratio: The Tet Growth Ratio allows you to modify the size of the tetrahedral elements based upon the size of elements in the surface mesh. 1 * 0 Hint: You should almost always leave this option On. If this value is above 1 (maximum of 100). If the Tet Growth factor is set to one. Several checks are performed including (1) element normal directions face in the same direction. simply remesh the surfaces of the solid with a finer or coarser mesh. you will see the Solid Automeshing Options dialog box. you should use the default settings. the size of tetrahedral elements formed will be approximately the same as the surface mesh elements. 4-Noded Tetrahedral elements can give inaccurate results. Turn this option on to create midside nodes. They have been chosen based on experiences in developing the solid mesher. the length of the tetrahedral elements formed by the solid mesher will be smaller than the surface mesh elements. unless your analysis program does not support 10-Noded Tetrahedral elements. If this value is set below 1 (minimum of 0. You can further control their placement (at the exact midside. In general however. ( 6 + . The functionality associated with each of these options is described in the following sections. Details of the solid tetrahedral mesher are controlled here.Mesh Geometry Solids. Midside Nodes: The Midside Nodes option controls whether or not midside nodes are generated in the tetrahedral mesh.

and you will have both planar and solid elements in your part. If you leave this option off. This command does not have to be invoked here in the automatic meshing process. Basically. Smoothing is more fully described under the Mesh Smooth command. Hint: In general. This option should almost always be turned off. but can be executed from FEMAP at any time after automatic meshing. At Midside Projected Onto Surface . Meshing (3) that there are no interior walls/bulkheads in the model. Smooth Solid Elements/Smooth Tolerance: These options will automatically smooth the tetrahedral elements generated in a solid mesh to the tolerance specified. It is not possible for the volume mesher to fill a volume that is not completely closed. You can invoke this command later if required simply by using the Mesh Smooth command. the solid mesher produces nicely shaped tetrahedral elements so there is no need for smoothing. It is best demonstrated with a simple example. or simply created at the geometric center of the two adjacent corners of the element. Delete Surface Elements: This option controls whether or not the surface elements that have been generated are deleted after completion of the solid mesh. Midside Nodes on Surface/Limit Distortion/Max Angle: This option controls whether or not the midside nodes of parabolic tetrahedral elements are moved onto the edges and surfaces of your solid model. smoothing will move the interior nodes of a solid mesh to try to maximize the smoothness of the elements. the surface mesh will be retained.

most meshes will proceed without any difficulty. You can also specify an angular limit to the midside node projection to limit distortion. Notice the accurate representation of the cylindrical portion of this model since the midside nodes are actually on the radius of the cylinder. Larger meshes will require more memory. midside nodes were projected onto the surfaces and edge curves. If the estimate is not large enough. FEMAP will automatically estimate the amount of memory required. you must specify an angular limit to the distortion. and then compare the resulting angles with the two corner nodes. which creates an angle equal to the limit angle. Max Elem This option controls the allocation of memory for the solid mesher. as shown on the right. FEMAP will retry two more times. each time doubling the memory. the cylindrical portion is more faceted. Without midside node projection. . 1 * 0 Position on Surface Angle Exceeds Angular Limit Final Position Corner Node Limit Angle Exact Midside Position Corner Node Note: Please consult with the documentation for your particular analysis program regarding the placement of midside nodes on parabolic tetrahedral elements. If either of these angles is above the specified limit. The minimum amount of memory allocated for any mesh is equivalent to 50. An angle that is too severe can cause significant discrepancies in calculated stresses for that element. ( 6 + . Therefore..  In the case on the left. If the limit distortion option is On. Some codes have limits on the included angle between the two node to node segments of each edge of the element. FEMAP will calculate the position of the midside Node on the surface.. The following diagram shows an example of this. If you set this value to 0 (the default).Mesh Geometry Solids. It is up to you to ensure that the limit angle is within the tolerance imposed by your solver.000 elements. FEMAP will recompute a new position for the node on the line between the exact midside position and the position on the surface.

You can continue in this loop until you obtain a mesh. FEMAP will produce status messages while the tetrahedral meshing is occurring and provide feedback on element numbers and quality. Note: The FEMAP default calculations will work for almost all meshes.. Loading Elements.. Meshing If you specify a number of elements (minimum of 5000). FEMAP will also check the available physical memory to prevent large allocations of unavailable memory. If you want to limit the mesh to a specific number of elements but FEMAP cannot finish the mesh simply change the Tet Growth Ratio. Mesh Geometry Solids Material 1 Created.. If this amount of memory is insufficient. you should be careful to specify a large enough number of elements to finish the mesh.. or go with the current value (which will require swapping to disk and may significantly slow the process). or remesh the surfaces with a coarser mesh. Detailed Status Messages: Controls output of additional status messages from the tetrahedral meshing engine to the FEMAP Messages and Lists Window. Status Options Both of the options in this section control the output of messages and files that can be used in the rare event that there is a problem generating a particular automatic mesh.. If the memory allocation exceeds the amount available. Meshing Volume. These messages can help pinpoint exactly where in the automatic meshing process that a problem has arisen... The following is a sample list of a typical status message list. Loading Tetrahedral Mesher. -. FEMAP will use this number to allocate memory.193572 WORST ELEMENT 2608 2243 ELEMENT QUALITY TABLE 1 < Q < 2 100% 4800 ELEMENTS 2244 .SURFACE MESH QUALITY WORST ELEMENT QUALITY 1. Completing the Mesh Once you have set the desired options. FEMAP will ask you to increase the number or cancel.LOADING SURFACE MESH NUMBER OF SURFACE NODES 2402 NUMBER OF SURFACE TRIANGLES 4800 -. Merging.393847 BEST ELEMENT QUALITY 1. simply hit OK and the solid mesher will produce a tetrahedral mesh of your part. FEMAP will ask you if you want to reduce memory allocation (which will reduce the number of elements you can create).. When overriding the defaults.

This is a useful tool if you need to mesh a volume enclosed by surfaces.1.8 Mesh Geometry Solids from Surfaces. 5.. and then merge the meshes to obtain one mesh..2. Please refer to the Mesh Geometry Solids explanation above for information on the solid meshing procedure. The solid tetrahedral mesher maintains the original meshes on the surface. if you use the same surface meshes to generate solid meshes on different sides of a surface. and then merge the meshes when you have completed the solid mesh. mesh the sections separately. the two meshes will be coincident at that location..PHASE 1 : SPECIFIED POINTS -. 1 * 0 If you have an assembly of parts.. Loading Elements.  -. This is a useful tool if you created finite elements without geometry to enclose a volume. Therefore. except the initial input is FEMAP planar elements enclosing a volume instead of a solid. -.749431 BEST ELEMENT QUALITY 1... and need to create a solid mesh....000000 ELEMENT QUALITY TABLE 1 < Q < 2 93% 21552 ELEMENTS 2 < Q < 3 6% 1429 ELEMENTS 3 < Q < 4 0% 4 ELEMENTS 4 < Q < 5 0% 2 ELEMENTS -.1.PHASE 4 : OPTIMIZATION -.. you can mesh the different sections as different solids. .PERFORMANCE OVERALL : 99654 ELEMENTS/MIN....Mesh Geometry Solids from Surfaces.9 Mesh Geometry Solids from Elements. You may also use this feature if you have difficulty obtaining a mesh on one large solid..STORING MESH TOTAL NUMBER OF NODES 5085 NUMBER OF TETRAHEDRA 22987 Finishing Mesh. 5. or one part with different materials. MESHING ONLY : 310635 ELEMENTS/MIN.. You can slice this solid into two or more sections.2.. operates identically to the Mesh Geometry Solids command. ( 6 + .PHASE 3 : FIELD POINTS -. .PHASE 2 : BOUNDARY REGENERATION -. but which do not form faces of a solid.TETRAHEDRAL MESH QUALITY WORST ELEMENT QUALITY 4. Adding Midside Nodes. also operates identically to the Mesh Geometry Solids command. . Please refer to the Mesh Geometry Solids explanation above for information on the solid meshing procedure. except the initial input is the surfaces which enclose a volume instead of a solid.



Meshing

5.2 Non-Geometry Meshing
This section of the Mesh Menu command contains tools for meshing without geometry. Most often you will automatically create meshes using geometry and the command on the mesh geometry menu discussed previously. However, FEMAP does have specific tools for non-geometry based meshing which can be very useful in certain circumstances. You can generate an automatic mesh between locations (Mesh Between), create a ruled region of nodes and elements (Mesh Region), automatically create line elements, rigid elements, or constraint equations between two sections of your model (Mesh Connection commands), and generate a free mesh between existing nodes. Each of these options is discussed in more detail below.

5.2.1 Mesh Between...

Ctrl+B or F11

... creates a mapped mesh of nodes and elements between corner locations that you specify. This is one of the simplest ways to create a mesh. There are no requirements to start this command. You do not need existing geometry, nodes or elements - everything can be done directly with this command. All options for this command are specified through the following dialog box:
Choose or create property first. It controls the setup for the dialog box

Node and Element Options
These options establish the basic parameters that will be assigned to each node or element as it is created. Node ID and Elem ID These are the IDs of the next node and element that will be created. Usually you can ignore these numbers, but if you want to start with specific IDs, you can define them here.

Mesh Between... 

CSys and Gen Clockwise The CSys option chooses the coordinate system in which the generation will take place. The most important aspect of this parameter is whether you choose a rectangular, cylindrical or spherical coordinate system. Generating between corners in nonrectangular systems is different (but sometimes very useful!), than generating in rectangular systems. For example, in cylindrical coordinates, you can generate between four corners to create a cylinder instead of a rectangle. The Gen Clockwise option is only used when you are working in a cylindrical or spherical coordinate system. It controls whether generation will be done in a clockwise (negative theta) or counter-clockwise (positive theta) direction. Examples of using these options are given later in this section. Property and New Prop The property that you choose is extremely important when you use this command. First, it is the property that will be assigned to any elements you create. More importantly however, the type of property that you select controls the type of elements that will be generated. If you choose a plate property, plate elements will be generated. Choosing a solid property will generate solid elements. Furthermore, if you chose a parabolic element/property type when you created the property, this command will generate parabolic elements with midside nodes. If you did not, linear elements will be created. If you do not have any properties, or if you do not have the correct property, just press the New Prop button to create a new property.

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0

Hint:
If the default property shown is not the one you want, you should always change (or create) the property first. It controls the activation of many of the other options in this dialog box. Node and Elem Param These buttons allow you to set additional parameters for the nodes and elements that you will create. They access the same dialog boxes as the Parameter buttons found in the Model Node and Model Element commands. Refer to those commands for more information.

Generate Options
For any generation, you can choose one of the three available options - Nodes, Elements, or both. When you choose Nodes or Both, you will specify the corner locations that you want to generate. When you choose Elem, you do not choose corner locations. Instead, you will choose a starting Node ID, and the Node Increments. Elements will simply be created based on the ID numbers of the existing nodes. This approach can be used if you had previously created nodes with this command, or if you have other nodes that follow the same ID pattern. It is usually easiest to use the default option, Both.

Corners
Use this option to choose the type of generation pattern that you want. The available options will be based on the type of property that you have selected. The following table shows the available patterns:



Meshing

Patterns for Generate Between Corners Property Type Line Available Corners 2 line
2 1

Shape and Corners

Planar

3 triangle, 4 quadrilateral
1

3

2

4 1 2

3

Solid

4T tetra, 5 pyramid, 6 wedge, 8 brick

4 3 2 4

5 3

1

1 6 5 8 5 3 2 4 1

2 7 6 3 2

4

1

The shapes above are all typical for 4 4 rectangular coordiCylindrical Coordinates nates. In spherical Rectangular Z Coordinates coordinates, the Y 2 shapes are “warped” 2 1 1 or “mapped” to folX low the principal coordinate directions. For example, a quadrilateral can become a cylindrical surface if you work in cylindrical coordinates:
3 3

Mesh Size
The Mesh Size parameters determine the number of nodes and elements that will be generated between your corners, and their spacing. # Nodes The “# Nodes” options define the number of nodes that will be created in each direction between the corners. If you are generating between 2 corners, only the first box (Dir 1) will

Mesh Between... 

be active. For 3 or 4 corners, the first two (Dir 1 and Dir 2) will be active. The solid generation patterns require all three numbers. Remember, this is the number of nodes, not the number of elements. The numbers must include the nodes at the corners. For linear elements, the number of elements in each direction will be one less than the number of nodes that you choose. If you are going to create parabolic elements, you must always specify an odd number of nodes. The number of parabolic elements will be half the number of linear elements. Here are some examples:
4 Corners 4 3 Dir 2 (4 nodes) Dir 2 (7 nodes) (3.0 bias) 3 Corners 3 Triangular elements are created at the “tip” of a 3 cornered mesh.

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0

1

Dir 1 (5 nodes, 0.5 bias)

2

1

Dir 1 (6 nodes)

2

Bias If you want your nodes and elements to be equally spaced between the corners, just leave the bias options blank, or specify a bias of 1.0. To control the spacing such that elements at one end of a pattern are smaller than at the other end, use these options. If you specify a bias of 0.5, the last element along that direction will be one half the size of the first element. Use a bias of 2 if you want the last element to be twice the size of the first element. In the figure above, the effect of biasing on a four cornered, quad mesh is shown. If you want to use an alternate logarithmic bias, check the geometric bias option (provides a smoother transition). Node Increment These options are only available when generating planar or solid elements on existing nodes, by choosing the “Elems” button. In this case, the generation logic will looks for existing nodes that start with an ID that you specify. The ID increment in the first direction is equal to the nodal creation increment. This value is normally one, but you can change it by pressing the “Node Param” button. If you do not specify additional increments, the direction increment is used to calculate required node IDs in other directions. If your node numbering does not follow the required pattern, simply specify a different increment in each direction. For example, if you wanted to generate plate elements on this pattern, you would have to specify that you had a pattern of 5 nodes by 5 nodes, the start41 42 43 44 45

31

32

33

34

35

21

22

23

24

25

11

12

13

14

15

1

2

3

4

5



Meshing

ing node was 1, the regular node increment was 1, and the Node Increment in the second direction was 10. This last entry accounts for the vertical numbering pattern in the picture (1,11,21,31,41 - an increment of 10).

Element Shape
This group of options controls the shape of the elements that you will create. Only those shapes that correspond to the type of elements that you are creating will be available. You can refer to the Model Element command for more information on the available shapes for each element type. If you choose to generate quad or brick elements, you will still create some triangles, wedges or tetras unless you are generating between 4 corners for the quads or between 8 corners for the bricks. These other elements are required to “fill the tips” of the triangular generation patterns.
4 3 4 3

1 2 1 2 Right, Not Alternating Left, Not Alternating 4 3 4 3

If you choose the “Tri”, “Tetra” or “Wedge” options, you have further control over the pattern of elements that will be generated. The following figure shows how the Right, Left and Alternate options control these elements. Control for the solid elements is similar, however you cannot alternate Tetra elements.

1

2 Right, Alternating

1

2 Left, Alternating

Corner Nodes

The corner nodes will be used as the location of the corners of the mesh that you are going to generate. You will see as many text fields here as you are selecting corners. You have two choices. You can either choose existing nodes here for the corners, or you can leave these corners blank. For each corner that is still blank when you press OK, FEMAP will display the standard coordinate definition dialog box. This allows you to specify any coordinate location as the corner - including selecting an existing node. Whether you use the corner node fields, or the coordinate dialog boxes, you must specify the corners in the order shown for each generation pattern (see Corners above). If you use other patterns, FEMAP will attempt to untwist and “fixup” the corners that you choose, but the results can be unpredictable. It is always best to follow the default patterns. If you make a mistake, or change your mind, when you are using the coordinate dialogs to define corner locations, you can backup to the previous corner by pressing Cancel when the next dialog box is displayed. You cannot backup after you press OK for the last corner. The mesh will already be generated.

Mesh Between... 

Hint:
Since the Between Corners dialog box is rather large, it is often best to leave the corner nodes blank, even if you are going to select an existing node. The coordinate definition dialog boxes will not occupy as much of the screen and it may be easier to select the nodes graphically using that approach. First Corner Node When you are generating elements on existing nodes, the lower portion of the dialog box will change to allow you to specify the starting node ID in the pattern, rather than the corner nodes. You can either enter the ID, or select it graphically, but you cannot leave it blank - the coordinate dialog boxes cannot be used for this method.

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0

“All-Quad” Meshing Option
Normally when you choose the 3, 4T (tetra), 5 or 6 cornered options and a quadrilateral or brick element shape, mapped meshing requires that you add some triangular (or wedge/tetra) elements to finish the pattern. That is the case with this command also, unless you meet the following conditions: m You must have an odd number of nodes along each parametric direction. All “#Nodes” entries must be odd numbers. The only exception to this is along the third direction of a mesh between 6 corners. In that direction, you can have either an odd or even number of nodes. m Biasing is not allowed. All entries must be blank or 1.0. m Generation must be done in a rectangular coordinate system. m You must generate nodes and elements simultaneously. You cannot use this approach unless you select the “Both” option.
3 9 by 9 mesh between 3 corners using All-Quad meshing

1

2

If you follow these guidelines, a final question will be displayed (after you have pressed OK for the final corner) that asks if you want to use mesh with all quadrilateral elements. If you answer No, the normal mixed quad/tri, or brick/wedge/tetra mesh will be created. If you answer Yes however, you will get a mesh that contains only quadrilateral or only brick elements. For planar elements, the mesh will resemble the picture shown above. The mesh for solid elements is similar, it just extends into three dimensions.



Meshing

Some Examples
The following pictures show some examples of meshes created with this command.

In Rectangular Coordinates
5 4 Brick Elements between 6 corners using All-Quad meshing 2

Mixed Solid Elements between 4 corners 3 1

4

3 2 1

In Cylindrical Coordinates
Generating between corners in cylindrical coordinates works just like 8 Corners rectangular except the prisame as other mary coordinate directions side, just set Gen Clockwise are not X, Y and Z, but R, theta and Z. The typical reason for generating in cylindrical coordinates is to create a cylindrical mesh. As shown in the this example, this usually involves specifying corners that vary in the angular (theta) direction. It is often helpful to visualize these cylindrical sections as an “unwrapped” or “flat-pattern”.
8 Corners (1,0,0), (1,180,0), (0.6,180,0), (0.6,0,0), (1,0,2), (1,180,2), (0.6,180,2), (0.6,0,2)

In Spherical Coordinates
Corner 3 at the pole 3 Corners (1,90,0), (1,90,360), (1,0,0) 4 Corners (1,120,0), (1,120,60), (1,60,60), (1,60,0)

First and Second corners are coincident, automatically implies full 360 degree rotation

Working in spherical coordinates is the same as cylindrical, you just have to remember the orientation of the coordinate directions. Probably the only time that you will want to use spherical coordinates is to mesh a spherical dome.

Mesh Region... 

Generating Line Elements
When you generate line elements, like Bars and Beams, in addition to the connectivity, you must define the orientation of the cross section. Because of this, if you generate between two corners, you will see the standard vector definition dialog box for these and other element types. You cannot generate these elements referencing a third node, but you can always change the orientation with the Modify Update Elements Orientation command.

5.2.2 Mesh Region...
... creates a ruled region of nodes and/or elements between patterns of existing nodes. These patterns can take any shape, but must be compatible with the type of elements you are attempting to generate between the patterns. The standard entity selection dialog box is displayed twice to select the nodes in each pattern. Although these are the standard dialog boxes, you must use them in a slightly different manner. In addition to selecting the nodes, you must follow these guidelines: m Both patterns must contain the same number of nodes, therefore you must select the same number of nodes for each dialog box. m Nodes must be selected in order. This command simply generates nodes and elements from nodes in the first pattern to nodes in the second. Node IDs do not matter, but selection order does. The first node is connected to the first, the last to the last. This restriction makes it practically impossible to use area graphical selections, unless both patterns are in the same ID order. Individual graphical selections, however can easily be used. After you select the node patterns, you will see the dialog box shown here. The top of this dialog box is identical to the generation options used for the Mesh Between command. Refer to that section for more information. Just remember that the property should always be chosen first as it sets up many of the other options in the dialog box. Also, the GenClockwise option controls the direction of the generation between the two end patterns selected.

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Generate
These options allow you to choose whether to generate Nodes or both Nodes and Elements between the selected node patterns. Usually you will want to generate both nodes and elements, but if you choose Nodes, the node IDs that are generated are compatible with the requirements of the Mesh Between command for generating just elements on existing nodes. You can use that command to add elements to the nodes at a later time. This command always generates a coincident set of nodes on top of the original nodes in your patterns so node numbering will be consistent with the Generate Between command.



Meshing

Between Ends
The #Nodes option specifies how many nodes will be generated in the direction between the selected node patterns. This number includes the nodes already in the selected patterns, not just the nodes between the patterns. For example, if you specify #Nodes as 3, this means the two nodes in the patterns and one additional node between the patterns. Bias controls the spacing of the generated nodes between the patterns. As in Mesh Between, a 1.0 (or 0.0) bias chooses equal spacing. Values less than one mean that the last element (closest to the second pattern) will be smaller than the first. Values greater than one reverse that spacing.

Element Shape
These options are just like those for the Mesh Between command. Refer to that section for more information. You will note however that you cannot choose a line shape since line elements cannot be generated with this command.

End Nodes
By default, this command is setup to generate planar 9 End Pattern elements. By choos11 6 8 ing a solid element 10 5 3 property, you can 7 2 4 also use this com1 mand to create solid Numbers show elements, if the Choose Solid property selection order, Set #Nodes = 5, not node IDs original nodes Dir 2 = 3 and Dir 3 = 4 formed four-cornered patterns. In this case however, you must specify additional information about the patterns of selected nodes. The Dir 2 and Dir 3 options define the “layout” of those patterns. Specify the number of nodes along the first edge of the pattern as Dir 2 and number of nodes along the other pattern direction as Dir 3. Dir 2 times Dir 3 must equal the total number of nodes in the pattern.
Start Pattern 12

Other Example
Start Pattern 3 2 1 4 5 6 7 4 nodes along generation direction

When generating planar elements using this command, follow the conventions shown here. Note that the patterns can be any shape, but are chosen “in order” along an edge. If you choose them in random order, this command will not work.

Numbers show selection order, not node IDs 3 2 1

5 4

6

7

End Pattern

Mesh Connection 

5.2.3 Mesh Connection
These menu commands enable you to automatically create connections in your model, typically either rigid elements, line elements, or constraint equations between sets of nodes. These commands are very useful for simulating rigid links as well as providing a simple method of loads transfer from one section of the model to the next. The major difference in each command is how the sets of nodes are created, and what type of entities can be created. The specifics for each command will be provided under the individual descriptions below, but first we will examine the commonalities among these commands. All four commands use the identical dialog box shown here, although the Connection Type may change based upon the command. The Node and Element Options contain the standard information for any meshing procedure. If you select Constraint Equations or Rigid Elements, you must select the DOFs to connect. One constraint equation will be created for each DOF checked with a coefficient values of 1 and -1 for the primary and secondary node, respectively. For Rigid Elements, only one rigid element will be created for each node pair since this one element can reference any combination of DOFs. The effect of either of these options is the same, therefore you should check your analysis program to see if rigid elements and/or constraint equations are supported to select the type. The Line Element selection does not require DOFs to be chosen (in fact they will be grayed), but you must select a Line Element under Property. If you do not have a line property in your model, simply hit New Prop... to create one. When exiting this command via OK, FEMAP will create line elements between the nodes by using the property that you select. The type of element created is based upon the line property. As mentioned above, the major difference between the commands on the Mesh Connection menu is the method to obtain the nodes to generate the connections. Each of these four commands, Closest Link, Multiple, Unzip, and Coincident are explained below.

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5.2.3.1 Mesh Connection Closest Link...
.. enables you to choose two sets of nodes, and FEMAP will automatically generate Line Elements, Constraint Equations, or Rigid Elements between each node in the first set of nodes (the Generate From selection) to the nearest node in the second set of nodes (the Gen-

2. and then either connects the nodes with Constrain Equations Rigid Elements. Meshing erate To selection). The user can choose None.. you simply pick each pair of nodes individually with the Connection Nodes dialog box. . You can choose constraint equations or rigid elements (with their DOFs) just like the previous Closest Link and Multiple commands. This is a useful method to automatically generate a series of connections between two patterns of nodes or between a pattern of nodes and a single node.2 Mesh Connection Multiple. This has the effect of “unzipping” the mesh at these locations.. FEMAP creates new nodes which are coincident with the selected nodes. . 5..3. and then modifies all elements connected to the selected node to use the new node except for those that are on the primary side of the interface as chosen above. This is convenient when the distances between nodes are such that the Closest Link command would create improper connections. The type of connections available for this command are slightly different than the previous commands... If you select Rigid Elements. .. or Gap Elements. until you hit Cancel. works differently than the previous connection commands in that it actually disconnects a mesh by creating new nodes.2. DOF Spring Elements.3.. or leaves the mesh “unzipped”. From Nodes To Nodes 5.3 Mesh Connection Unzip..is identical to Mesh Connection Closet Link except instead of inputting two lists of nodes. The Connection Nodes dialog box will continue to repeat. The inputs to this command are the elements on the primary side of the mesh and the nodes to unzip. This command is very useful when a mesh has been merged but the user needs to simulate an interface resistance or force between two sections of the mesh. at which point the mesh will remain completely unconnected. the Master Node will be the original node selected and the Slave Node will be the new node that was created. enabling you to create multiple connections.

After you specify the last node. that if you are limited in the type of line element to specify for the connection.3. 3. Instead of using geometry.. This new node will be automatically added to the boundary.. you will also need to define an Orientation Vector.. is very similar to the Mesh Connection Unzip command described above. Since you are not selecting any surfaces or other geometry. when you press More. The choices for the type of connection are identical to the Unzip command above (except for the None option) since this command again forms connections that are zero length. 5. If you choose either of these options. or have been previously “unzipped”.do not select the starting node twice.hence the name transition. When you begin this command. Choose the first two nodes you want on the boundary. Mapping to a surface is not available. Pick the next node on the boundary as the “To” node. It is used to define a pseudo-boundary. this command meshes between existing nodes or coordinates .. however.. If all of the nodes along the boundary do not exist..2. The simplest way to use this dialog is to follow these steps: 1. If you select Gap Elements.4 Mesh Transition. Press “More” to repeat this step and add nodes to the boundary. 2. you must also pick a corresponding property. If you leave the To (or From) node blank. you will see the Transition Boundary Dialog box... You can then create a node using any of the available methods.2. by selecting the nodes that you want the transition mesh to join. leave “To” blank and press “Close Boundary” to join the boundary back to the starting node . except it is used on meshes that have not been merged. such as a DOF spring or GAP element. you must select an element that can be zero length. Ctrl+F11 .Mesh Connection Coincident Link. You will notice that the last node you selected has moved to the “From” position and cannot change. is an alternate way to generate a free mesh without having geometry. Set Number equal to 1 and press More..4 Mesh Connection Coincident Link. the standard coordinate definition dialog box will be displayed. . ( 6 + . this command is limited to creating the types of meshes that would be created on a boundary that maps to the boundary curves (typically planar). Since the nodes are coincident.. .  You will notice. you have several other options. 1 * 0 5. The user simply selects a group of nodes and a Coincident Tolerance value below which nodes are considered coincident and FEMAP will create the requested entities at any coincident nodes.

A bias of 1. it is intended to handle these simpler tasks. Generation Options After you choose “Close Boundary” you will see the same options dialog used for the Mesh Geometry Surface command described above. A bias less than one puts the smallest elements at the “To” node. If you need very complicated boundaries. As before. If you specify both a bias and a size. it is usually simpler to define geometry. This is most helpful if you are using this command to generate a separate mesh that does not connect to existing nodes. you probably will just want to use the default options and press OK Examples These figures show some typical uses of this command. Nodes along boundary Transition elements Nodes along boundary Multiple elements generated along edges by setting Number=3 when picking top and bottom nodes . While you could conceivably use this command to generate very complex areas. you can use the “Elements Along Edge” options to generate one or more additional nodes between the From and To nodes. The size will not be used unless the number is zero or blank. Meshing Alternately. These options work just like the Mesh Mesh Control commands. Biasing works just like all other generation commands. A bias greater than one puts the smallest elements at the “From” node. the size will be adjusted slightly to keep the correct number of elements with the desired bias. if the missing nodes lie along a straight line between other nodes. You can then just choose the corner nodes and create additional nodes along the edges without specifying each one individually. The distance between the corners is used with the size to compute the required number of elements.0 implies uniform spacing. All options are exactly the same for this command. You can either specify a number of elements between the corners or an element size.

. smoother meshes will be obtained. . those commands will sometimes generate elements in a certain area that are distorted. updating. m The elements should all lie in one plane.. smooth. especially if the original mesh was produced over a large area. These command can be used very effectively to “clean-up” meshes that were generated with other surface and transition meshing commands. This section of the menu contains command for modifying a mesh. you will see the standard entity selection dialog box asking for the elements to remesh or refine. just point and double-click them (instead of single-clicking). You can choose any group of elements. or unrefining your mesh. The second section contains commands for removing small edges and slivers from your model. When you choose this command. all operate in a very similar manner. the redefined mesh cannot be mapped onto a surface. or unrefine the existing mesh.3 Modifying a Mesh Previous commands on the Mesh menu contained commands for creating a mesh. the remeshed elements may not follow the same surface contours as the original elements.1 Mesh Remesh Menu This menu contains commands to take existing nodes and produce a new mesh with the same boundaries.1. whether it be to refine. The final section contains tools for large scale remeshing which are most often used to remesh large surface meshes in preparation for solid meshing. The first section contains three commands which are very similar for either refining.. In general. or remesh particular elements.3. Update. include additional boundary nodes to refine the existing mesh. 5. You can either remesh with the same boundary nodes. These commands take existing nodes and planar elements and produces a new mesh with the same boundaries. When working with large complex areas. but they must meet the following requirements: m All selected elements must be planar type elements. These tools can be very useful to smooth or remesh small areas of meshes.1 Mesh Remesh Refine. ( 6 + . The menu is partitioned into three segments. 1 * 0 5. .Modifying a Mesh  Hint: If you are selecting nodes for the boundary graphically. If you pick a nonplanar group of elements. In many cases the result will be significantly improved compared to the original. Unlike surface meshing. This will select the node and automatically press “More” so you can go on and select additional nodes.. unrefine. You can use these command to select that area and remesh it. 5. Unrefine. and remeshing will produce excellent results when small areas of the mesh are connected.3.

except that you do not specify any nodes for refinement. If you are trying to refine a curved edge. but you could change your mind at this point and select one of the other options. After you have remeshed. After picking the elements to refine. the new nodes are placed along a straight line between the original edge nodes. and switch from 1 to 3 elements. If you have remeshed a small region. The default of 2 means one new node is created between each node you select for refinement. Meshing Hint: You can still use this command on elements that are nonplanar. Update/Remesh The remeshing option is used in the same way as the refine option. The command originally chosen will be the default. the new locations will most likely not be on the surface. you will see the dialog box shown here. All nodes on the original boundary will be matched “1 to . After you choose OK. especially over small areas. additional nodes are added between nodes you choose later. Original Refined Note: When you refine an edge. Additional nodes will only be added between selected nodes. Choosing 3 will add two nodes. Simply use Modify Project Node Onto Surface to move these nodes back to the surface. The Refinement Ratio determines how many nodes are added. you will want for 2 to 1 refinement to choose nodes on a free boundary since the refined mesh will not join with any adjacent mesh. the mesh should contain little or no distortion from this projection. Refining a Mesh If you choose the “Refine elements” option. This doubles the number of elements. you must use the Modify Project Node commands to adjust the position of the new nodes after they are created. you will see the Original nodes and Refine 4 elements elements were deleted standard entity selection dialog box so you can choose the nodes on the edges to refine. TypiChoose these nodes cally.

For this option.. You will usually want to leave this option on.. Initial Mesh ( 6 + . Update. Other Options If “Delete Original Nodes. times 2) in refinement. You will use this option only rarely (if ever). FEMAP will automatically retain any nodes on the boundary where the angle between the edges of the adjacent element edges exceeds the Break Angle. are removed in this process the Break Angle must be set. 1 * 0 Coarse Mesh after 3:1Unrefine Unrefine provides an automatic way to unrefine a mesh. To insure that no important features. a refinement ratio of 2. A refinement ratio of 3 will remove every third node. but only nodes that lie on the outer boundary of the selected mesh will actually impact the remeshing/coarsening process..Mesh Remesh Refine. the new mesh will be coincident with the old one and you must manually delete some of the elements. a square would exhibit an edge angle of 90 degrees at the corners. If you do not. and zero everywhere along the sides. Unrefining a Mesh The Unrefine option allows you to automatically coarsen an existing mesh. first choose the Remesh option . If you set the break angle less than 90 degrees FEMAP would automatically find and keep all of the corner nodes during the remeshing. Finally. If you want to manually control which nodes are removed from the mesh. like corners. If global coarsening is desired. The “Exclude Nodes from Boundary” push button allows you to adjust the boundary that is defined by the elements that you select. simply selecting all nodes will apply the coarsening to the entire selected mesh. This gives you the option of biasing the remeshing. where you will be asked to choose the nodes to remove using the standard selection dialog box. You can combine the manual and automatic methods by proceeding as if you were using the Automatic method (select Unrefine) and then in addition. During the unrefinement process. FEMAP will remove every other node around the periphery of the elements selected.  1” by the nodes in the updated mesh.not Unrefine.e.. means that the mesh will be halved (i.” is set. As a simple example. Unrefine. You can select any nodes in the model during this process. The only time that you will want to use this option is when attempting to “clean-up” an existing mesh. pressing Exclude Nodes from Boundary to manually remove any additional nodes that you do not want in the final mesh. the nodes and elements that you selected for refinement will be automatically deleted after the new mesh is created. that is unrefining along one or more edges while keeping other parts of the selected area at the same mesh density. you must specify both the Refinement Ratio and the Break Angle. For example. you will be asked to select the nodes where unrefinement will take place. You must then press the Exclude Nodes from Boundary button. When .

.. The nodes you select here are then removed.. Simply specify the tolerances for Min Angles and/or Min Edge Length.. Generation Options After you choose the refinement options and nodes you will see the same options dialog that is used for the Generate Boundary Mesh command.When you select this command. Even when you are remeshing..1. For this command. This can be very useful when you have meshed a solid/surface model with very small features. You must choose the elements to check.2 Mesh Remesh Cleanup Slivers. is used to manually delete edges in the surface mesh. Here you can choose nodes that you want to remove from the boundary.3 Mesh Remesh Edge Removal. you will see the standard entity selection dialog box. You can choose to “cleanup” based upon angle and/or edge length. all nodes that are on the free edges of the element you chose are considered to be on the boundary. Remeshing just maintains the same mesh density along the boundaries.3.. Edge Removal is designed to let you quickly remove features that are too small compared to the rest of the mesh (or in the case Short Edge . ... Meshing you push the button. This will help maintain the most accurate representation of the shape of the part. When a short or flat edge has been identified. as described above. 5. you may want to adjust these options to reduce the allowable aspect ratio and turn off “Quick-Cut”. 5. This command will remove them based upon the tolerances you choose. The Sliver Removal dialog box will then appear.3. you probably will just want to use the default options and press OK. . By default.1. provides the capability to remove small features from the mesh. not necessarily between the boundaries. . If you want more information about changing these options refer back to the Mesh Geometry Surface command. This dialog box contains statistical information for both angles and lengths of the selected elements. All options are exactly the same for this command. FEMAP will display the standard entity selection box. the cleanup routine will keep the most significant node of this edge and delete the less significant one. and FEMAP will remove these edges from the model. As before. Great care must be used in selecting these nodes or you could cause a portion of the existing mesh to be skipped when you are remeshing. you can change these options.

4 Mesh Remesh Build Remeshing Regions. Unless you intend to mesh the overall part to this level of refinement. it can still be very time consuming in a model with many short edges. You will notice several facets of the STL mesh that contain extremely short edges.3.1.. updating all affected elements to reference the first node.  of stereolithography files. and then select the node to be deleted (as the To Node). The Mesh Remesh Edge Removal command can be used to remove the short edge at the tip of our sample model.. automatically takes the face of your initial mesh and groups them into regions for remeshing. Consider the sample Stereolithography file above. This process. The only input required is the angle tolerance for grouping of adjacent faces... 1 * 0 By deleting more of the short edges the model can quickly be transformed to: While this process is not difficult. . The AutoRemesh Delete Edges Dialog Box prompts you for two nodes. they must be removed.. The results of removing the edge at the tip of this model is: ( 6 + . If you are working on an STL mesh. and close the gap. and some . is automated by the Mesh Remesh Cleanup Slivers command where you simply specify an edge length and angle value and all edges below those values are automatically deleted.Mesh Remesh Build Remeshing Regions. most CAD systems make it possible to control the faceting of your original solid model. FEMAP will delete the second node. however. The remaining faces are grouped based on the angle tolerance that you select. Select the node that you want to keep first (as the From Node). The most important factor when selecting an angle tolerance is that the angle should closely match the faceting angle of your original mesh.. future surface and solid meshes that will be generated). the two elements that were attached to that edge. 5. All flat or nearly flat areas of your model are always grouped together by Build Remeshing Regions.

Once Build Regions has been completed. this region will be split in the middle. FEMAP will also change the display to a full hidden line plot with element fill turned on. If the angle tolerance you specify is too high. segmented representation of your model may not be pretty. By specifying a high angle tolerance for region construction. Meshing even let you directly specify the angle tolerance used in creating the STL facets. The Build Regions command will automatically place elements of each region in their own layer. Element Number by Layer ID) or by selectively displaying only certain layers using the Layer Management capabilities. the curved areas of your model will lose geometric accuracy during remeshing. but it does enable you to quickly identify how the individual regions are being grouped. facets in the curved area of the model are grouped together too coarsely: High Angle Tolerance Smaller Angle Tolerance Region of Interest Resulting Surface Meshes Better Representation of Curved Area In the region identified in the figure at the top left above. . and with the elements colored by their respective layer. This brightly colored. and the resulting surface mesh will more closely approximate the original faceted surface definition (as shown to the right). Subsequent remeshing of these regions results in elements that deviate significantly from the original surfaces. Again consider our example problem. By using a smaller angle tolerance. a high angle tolerance has grouped together four facets of the original mesh in the region of interest. You can further explore the grouping by turning on Layer Numbers (View Options.

and change the Label Mode to Option 1.. Color Category: Select the Element Option. the FEMAP Boundary Mesher will be presented with a triangular area to remesh.. Another example (although less frequently encountered). 5. or into one of its edges. All elements will now be drawn with their ID readily visible. This command is used to adjust the regions to ensure a better surface mesh.takes the regions identified in the previous steps and uses the FEMAP Boundary Mesher to “remesh” them with better shaped triangular elements. . you should choose the element that you want to move to a new region (Move Elem).. When you choose this command.  5. 2. Entity. rectangular region has a single sliver face protruding from.6 Mesh Remesh Mesh Remeshing Regions. then select any element that is in the region that you want to move into (To Region with Elem).. To make this easier. ID.. but occasionally you might want to adjust these regions manually. Entities. First. is when a relatively large.. Press OK in the View Options Dialog Box to return to STL Remesh. you will see the AutoRemesh Edit Regions dialog box. Just like all FEMAP picking commands. The best example for wanting to use Edit Remeshing Regions is when a region contains only a single triangular face from the original mesh. ( 6 + . Entities. Erase Background.3. You can only select regions that are already adjacent to the element that you are trying to update.Mesh Remesh Edit Remeshing Regions.1.. This prevents accidentally creating regions that are not connected. You will be required to specify a . When picking elements in the Edit Regions command. Use View Options. the centroid is the deciding factor in selection. . Labels. during remeshing. The Build Remeshing Regions command attempts to build the best possible regions for remeshing. In this case. Colors Category: Select the Label Parameters Option. and the label is drawn at the centroid of the element.. 1 * 0 Hint: The discrete regions of your original mesh will be displayed in different colors... Triangular regions with a fairly steep aspect ratio will remesh with poorly shaped elements. aim for the element number. allows you to adjust the regions that were created automatically in the Build Remeshing Regions command described above. it is usually helpful to move the sliver into the adjacent region. but it is often difficult to pick the exact elements you wish to modify with the Edit Remeshing Regions command. and change the Color Mode to option 2.1. and change the following options to make element picking and visualization easier: 1. In this case. Again from the Labels.3.5 Mesh Remesh Edit Remeshing Regions.

Just select the elements to be “framed” into a group. or planar elements on the free faces of solid elements. you can use this method to make a preliminary check.2 Mesh Edge Members. planar edge members will be created. creates line elements along the free edges of selected planar elements. The edges/faces you see will create elements.. If you do not have the correct property. If you select planar elements. This makes it possible to use the View Layers Command to isolate discrete regions of your model if you wish to manipulate the face mesh manually before moving on the meshing the interior with solid elements. You should not select both planar and solid elements in the same command. and for paving the surface of solid structures with plates or membranes. and also defines the type of elements to be created. After you select elements to be framed. . select the group for display and choose a free edge or face plot. Before Remeshing After Remeshing Both Build Remeshing Regions and Mesh Remeshing Regions will create and keep elements associated with each region on their own unique level in FEMAP. use the Create Property command to make one. If you select solid elements. or automatic property creation in this command. you must have an existing property in your model that defines the type of elements that you want to create. This command provides a convenient way for framing plate or beam structures with Beam or other line elements. FEMAP uses the same logic that it uses for a free edge/face plot to determine the locations where elements will be created. The top face of our example STL file serves as an excellent demonstration of this command. In fact. FEMAP displays a list of existing properties for you to select one. You must select the elements that you want to frame using the standard entity selection dialog box. FEMAP will automatically attempt to create line elements as edge members... This property is assigned to all elements that will be created. Meshing mesh density that will be used to split any long edges of regions. You do not have to specify one contiguous group of elements.3.. There is no option for changing type. Before you invoke this command. 5. .

Finally. no corners on the free edges). Note: If you only want to create 2-D plates on one side of a set of solids.. It is usually best to orient the vector normal to the plane of the elements that you are framing. In the example above. Element select all nodes and press Shrink used for clarity. however. use the appropriate Modify Update Element commands after you create the line elements.Mesh Edge Members. or other element options. FEMAP will display the standard vector definition dialog box so you can define an orientation vector. 1 * 0 Original Plate Elements Beam Edge Members Offsets have been added for clarity in this picture If you want edge members around all of the elePlate Edge Members along the top surface of ments that you selected. solid elements. offsets. If instead you just want edge members in one area. select interior nodes (i.e. you will see the standard entity selection box again. OK. Box picking is often very convenient for doing these selections. If you select these nodes. . This time. you must select the nodes where you want the edge members to be generated.. Using this approach will eliminate the possibility of placing orientation vectors along the length of the elements. just select the nodes in that area. releases. not all 25 nodes. FEMAP will create faces on the corresponding free faces along that boundary. You should select all of the nodes on the surface where you want to generate the planar elements. This is especially important if you are generating planar elements on free faces of solids. If you want to specify a nodal orientation.  If you chose to create elements that require an orientation. ( 6 + . only the 9 interior face nodes where selected.

is used to adjust the locations of element corners (nodes) to reduce distortions in those elements. The maximum distance that a node was moved is given in the message. at least one node was moved farther than the tolerance. It is also the faster method. Meshing 5. the Laplacian method will produce the mesh with the least element distortion.. This does not mean that anything was wrong. Laplacian smoothing pulls a node toward the center of surrounding nodes directly connected to that node along an element edge. Centroidal smoothing pulls a node toward the elementarea-weighted centroid of the surrounding elements.3. It simply means that in the last iteration. After you select the elements to be smoothed using the standard entity selection dialog box.. All nodes are smoothed according to one of the techniques shown above. Using the default values. the Mesh Smoothing dialog box is used to define the smoothing parameters.. . Both methods produce good results with “free” meshes. you can start with the already partially smoothed mesh. you will often see a message stating that the smoothing did not converge in the allowed number of iterations. Then the smoothing is reevaluated with the updated nodal locations. Typically. You do not have to revert to the original.3 Mesh Smooth. If you decide to do additional smoothing. This process continues until the maximum number of iterations has been exceeded. or no node is moved by a greater distance than the specified tolerance. This procedure is performed automatically by all “free-meshing” commands described above. Smoothing Iterations Both of the smoothing methods use an iterative procedure to converge toward a smoothed mesh.. Centroidal smoothing usually produces a mesh that has more uniform element sizes. . You can decide whether this distance is acceptable. Choosing a Smoothing Method Laplacian Centroidal Node moves toward center of surrounding nodes Node moves toward center of area weighted element centroids There are two different smoothing algorithms from which to choose. but you can use it to smooth any planar or solid element mesh.

.Mesh Smooth. If you fix the positions of some nodes in this manner. ( 6 + . using the standard entity selection dialog box.. press “Fix Nodes”. You can also remove boundary nodes from the list to allow them to move from their current position. You can then add those nodes to the list of nodes on the boundary. The elements around those nodes may still have substantial distortions. the mesh will not be fully smoothed.  Fixing Nodes If you are smoothing a mesh that contains some interior nodes that must stay in the present location. 1 * 0 .

Rotate 5.. except they work with Nodes and Elements instead of geometry (Points. . Scale 4. Meshing 5. 5.). These commands are similar to the Mesh Rotate and Mesh Reflect commands. It is often easier to mesh a small portion of your model.. Then. Copy 2. Separating your model into smaller areas will give you more control over the mesh without having to use many of the Mesh Control capabilities described at the beginning of this chapter.4 Copying a Mesh This section of the Mesh Menu allows you to produce duplicate copies of a mesh (Nodes and/or Elements). you select the nodes that you want to copy using the standard entity selection dialog box.1. 5.1 Mesh Copy Node. “Update Every Repetition”. etc.4. as opposed to generating one large mesh. Here. Curves. The functionality of each of these commands is described below..4. and then use these commands to produce the rest of the mesh There are five basic commands based upon the type of copy you need to make: 1. The other controls are used by the Generate Copy Elements .1 Mesh Copy Menu You can use the copy commands to duplicate existing nodes or elements. makes one or more copies of a selected set of nodes. only the “Parameters”. the entities are copied along a vector that you specify. These commands are very useful when you have portions of your model which are symmetrical. and “Repetitions” controls are active. and then reflect or rotate the mesh to produce other areas of your model. you must complete three dialog boxes. This can be extremely valuable for symmetric parts which may require full modeling due to nonsymmetric loading. When you are copying nodes. the Generation Options dialog box is displayed. To copy nodes.. First. Radial Copy 3. Reflect These commands are very similar to the commands contained on the Geometry Menu. Simply mesh 1/2 or 1/4 of the part (if 1/2 or 1/4 symmetry exists) using the meshing commands above.

FEMAP will only ask you for one vector that will be used to position the copies. If you specify multiple repetitions. You have the following choices: Parameters: These two choices select the parameters that will be assigned to the nodes that are generated. If you select the Update Every Repetition option however. just set this option to the number you want.. color and layer. each additional copy will be located along the same vector. FEMAP will ask you for a new vector before every repetition. Finally. not from the previous repetition. you can specify a new vector for each repetition by selecting the “Update Every Repetition” option. You can specify the vector in any convenient coordinate system.  command. Repetitions: By default this option is one. If instead. the node parameters will match the active node parameters. Optionally. If you select Use Current Settings. This new vector will be used to offset from the original nodes that you selected. and press OK. FEMAP will always offset the position of the current repetition from the position of the previous repetition. permanent constraints. output coordinate system. at the same distance from the previous copy. each new node will exactly match the parameters of the node that was copied to create it. after you set the options. 5 10 15 20 ( 6 + . If you want multiple copies. This vector defines both the direction and distance from the selected nodes to the first copy. that is along a straight line. This is the same as if you had created new nodes using the Create Node command. One repetition will create one copy of each selected node.Mesh Copy Node. You cannot however. 1 * 0 Original Nodes 4 9 14 19 3 8 13 18 2 7 12 17 1 6 11 16 Make 3 copies along this vector Copying in NonRectangular Coordinates FEMAP always creates copies along the vector that you specify. based on the direction and length of the vector that you define. You will want to check this option whenever you want to create multiple copies that do not lie along a single vector. use it . you choose Match Original Entities. you will see the standard vector definition dialog box. and choose parameters for the resulting nodes. These include the definition coordinate system.. In this mode. Specifying Generation Options The generation options control how many copies FEMAP will make. Update Every Repetition: When this option is off.

. you would specify an increment of 100 (the difference between each repetition) and an offset of 1000 (the difference from the current numbering to the first repetition). This offset. just like in Mesh Copy Node to let you define the direction and distance that you want to offset each copy. and all of the required nodes must already exist. and so on.4. is very similar to the Mesh Copy Node command. each repetition gets its own set of nodes. Here however.2 Mesh Copy Element. FEMAP will simply copy the selected elements to other already existing nodes. . FEMAP will display the standard vector definition dialog box. The Node Increment is added to ID of each node before each repetition. the second copy to node 250. you can also specify a Node Offset. For example.1. 1250. and so on. it is independent of node or element numbering. When you do copy elements using this technique however. FEMAP will display the Generation Options dialog box. This is the same dialog box displayed by Mesh Copy Node (and shown above). The options are: Element Options: This category of options allows you to use Mesh Copy Element in two completely different ways. FEMAP will copy the elements that you selected. You do not have to create any nodes before using this option.. In this case you also must specify the Node Increment and Node Offset values. and you specify an increment of 100. is only applied to the first copy. 1 1 6 5 11 9 16 If you do not check Use Existing Nodes. unlike copying to existing nodes. The first dialog box displayed by this command is used to select the elements to copy. If you check the Use Existing Nodes box. You probably will want to use this technique most of the time. 1150. but now several additional options are available.. For example.. FEMAP will make one or more copies of existing elements. If the nodes that you want to copy to have IDs that are not an equal increment from the current node numbering on the elements. This can result in . 5 10 15 20 Original Elements 4 4 9 3 3 2 2 7 8 8 14 7 13 6 12 12 19 11 18 10 17 Make 2 copies onto existing nodes with the Node Increment set to 5. the first copy will be connected to node 150. 5. You must use the rotation commands to create rotated copies. along with all nodes that they reference. if an element is connected to node 50. Meshing to create a copy in a rotated location by choosing the angular direction in a cylindrical coordinate system. and you want to make copies connected to nodes 1050. if an element is connected to node 50. When you have chosen the elements that you wish to duplicate. Further.

if the active element type is a beam. the element type or property will still match the original elements. Instead of defining a vector however. this includes the property ID. When you choose one of these commands. and to define the generation options. Finally. as those commands do. you will be asked to select the entities to be copied. If you choose Match Original Entities. but coincident nodes. One repetition will create one copy of each selected element. For elements. color and layer. This portion of the process is identical to the normal copy commands. . just set this option to the number you want.4. you will next choose a location which defines the center of the radial pattern. and you are copying plates. element type. 5. This option is not available when you check “Use Existing Nodes”. Repetitions: By default this option is one. the radial distance between each original and the associated copy. the copied element parameters will match the elements that were used to create them. FEMAP cannot make the plates into beams and therefore makes the copies as plates . 1 * 0 7 30 35 40 45 1 13 17 1 6 29 34 39 44 Make 2 copies along vector Parameters: These options work just as they do in the Mesh Copy Node command. Instead of copying all entities along a constant vector.2 Mesh Radial Copy Menu The commands on this menu provide an alternative to the Mesh Copy commands. For example. the Radial Copy commands use a different radial vector for each entity to be copied. The one exception to this is if the active element type or active property is incompatible with the elements that you are copying. Update Every Repetition: Refer to Mesh Copy Node for more information. the nodes and elements that are created will match the currently active parameters. If you choose Use Current Settings. 5 10 33 38 43 48 Original Elements 4 4 16 20 9 3 32 15 37 42 19 47 3 2 2 8 31 14 36 41 18 46 ( 6 + . you must specify the radial offset length.Mesh Radial Copy Menu  duplicate. In this case. If you want multiple copies. You can connect the elements and eliminate the duplicate nodes with the Tools Check Coincident Nodes command.even though you specified Use Current Settings. and a model that is disconnected.

FEMAP will compute a direction vector for each entity which runs from the center that you chose. to the entity. For more information regarding the specifics of using the various generation options refer back to the similar Mesh Copy command. By specifying the same scale factor in all three directions. 5. and a unit (1.3 Mesh Scale Menu The Mesh Scale commands are very similar to the Mesh Radial Copy commands. For this type of operation. Copy Scale=2. They create one or more copies of selected entities. Just as in the Mesh Radial Copy commands. Original Center Radial Vectors Offset When you choose the Mesh Radial Copy Elements command. If you use different scale factors in different component directions.0 In these commands. as shown here. A cylindrical copy can be accomplished by specifying the same factor in two directions. as shown here. The scaled nodes are then simply reconnected to create the copied entities. When you choose the Scale Elements. the new copy is formed by scaling the distance from the center to the original. you next choose a location which defines the center of the pattern.0 calculate the final offsets from the center location of the copy. The copied nodes are then simply reconnected to create the copied entities. to the entity. you must specify the scale factors. a coordinate system can also be chosen if the axes of the desired cylinder do not coincide with the global axes.4. These compoCenter nents are multiplied by the scale factors to Scale=2. In this case however. and defining the generation options. The Original direction is used to determine the original “copy” vector components. Finally. the copy will not lie along the vector from the center to the original. a spherical copy can be made. instead of specifying a constant offset from the original. since the copy vector is computed from the “center of the sphere”. These commands start by selecting the entities to be copied.0) scale factor in the third direction . these commands are actually a spherical copy.along the axis of the cylinder. both the direction and magnitude of these vectors are used. Scaling can be done in one or more directions. Meshing Copy FEMAP will compute a direction vector for each entity which runs from the center that you chose. In a three dimensional case. This portion of the process is identical to the normal copy commands. . the associated nodes are scaled. the radial vectors are computed to each of the defining nodes. offset from a center location.

Instead of copying along a vector. . All of the options in this box are used just as in the move command. If you specify a nonzero translation distance.4.0) will result in a completely coincident copy of the originals. FEMAP displays one additional dialog box that asks for the Change per Repetition.. Unlike the copy command. You can specify both a Rotation Axis of Revolution Angle and a TransSpiral created by rotating with a nonzero translation lation Distance. if you choose the Use Existing Nodes option there is no difference at all. and is translated along the axis vector by specified distance. If instead you want to create rotated copies of nodes and elements. ( 6 + . 1.. In fact. . Refer to the Modify Scale commands for more information on specifying scaling factors. followed by the same Generation Options dialog box...4. 1 * 0 5. this command follows the conventions of the Mesh Rotate Node command.0.4 Mesh Rotate Menu Like the Mesh Copy commands. after you choose the vector.. It asks for a rotation axis.0. Instead. FEMAP displays the standard entity selection dialog box to allow you to select the nodes to copy.0. 5..Mesh Rotate Menu  For more information regarding the specifics of using the various generation options refer back to the similar Mesh Copy command.4. and makes copies in rotated locations..4.. these commands rotate the duplicate copies around a vector. 1. Each copy is rotated around the axis of rotation One original node vector by the specCircle created by rotating ified angle (folwith translation distance lowing right-hand set to zero.1 Mesh Rotate Node. is similar to Mesh Copy Element. you do not have to specify a length for this axis.2 Mesh Rotate Element. Following the Generation Options dialog box. these commands create duplicate copies of model entities. Scale Factors of (1. an angle and a translation distance. is similar to Mesh Copy Node in its operation. distance. you will see the standard vector definition dialog box. rule conventions). you will be creating a spiral. Note: If you use a scale factor of 1. This vector is used to specify the axis that you want to rotate around to generate the copies. the resulting copy will be located at the same location as the original in that coordinate direction. .4. 5.

. .4. They can be on one side.1 Mesh Reflect Node.5. so you can define the reflection plane. You can choose any plane that you want. FEMAP will display the standard plane selection dialog box. . You will use the standard entity selection dialog box to choose the nodes to be reflected. creates one copy of selected nodes by reflecting them across a plane. All options work identical to Mesh Copy Node and Mesh Rotate Node commands. 5. Meshing 3 copies rotated 90 degrees each around the normal to this view Original Elements 5. except you cannot choose multiple repetitions.4. This option is used most often when reflecting elements (to join nodes on the reflection plane).. Just remember that the reflected node will be located on the opposite side of the plane from the original. It does not matter how your selected nodes are oriented with respect to the plane. you can specify a Trap Width. all of the nodes that you select Reflected Nodes Original Nodes will be reflected. Reflection Plane FEMAP will not make a 20 10 copy of any selected 19 18 17 7 8 9 node if it is closer to the reflection plane than the 16 15 14 4 5 6 trap width that you specify. or they can be on both sides of the plane. and will usually be zero when you reflect nodes. In addition. FEMAP will then display the Generation Options dialog box (shown in the Mesh Copy Node command). If you set the 13 12 11 1 2 3 trap width to zero..5 Mesh Reflect Menu The commands on this menu allow you to generate a portion of your model by reflecting or flipping existing nodes or elements across a plane. Next..

and then move (extrude) along a specified vector to form the new elements. The only difference between using this command and Mesh Copy Elements with existing nodes is that elements will have their normals reversed just as if you had reflected the elements and nodes.. The mesh size will determine the number of elements created by each curve.5 Extrude/Revolve The commands on the Mesh Extrude and Mesh Revolve menu allow you to convert a 2-D model (curves or elements) into a 3-D model of planar or solid elements.Mesh Reflect Element.  5... you can set the Trap Width to a nonzero value to automatically join the new elements to the old.5.. .1 Mesh Extrude Curve.4. for the curves you select. 1 * 0 Original Elements Reflected Elements You can Reflect onto existing nodes rather than across a plane by choosing the Use Existing Nodes option. To begin.. You must select the elements to be reflected. however. Any type of curve can be selected. 5. and the curves do not have to form a closed or ordered boundary. while extruding elements will form either planar elements (if 1-D elements are extruded) or solid element (if planar elements are extruded). creates planar elements by moving curves along a vector or curve. the reflection options. Here however.. They are very useful for 3-D solid parts which have a consistent third dimension (whether it be an axis of rotation or a length). select the curves to extrude using the standard entity selection dialog box.not on any position of the original elements.. This option is somewhat misnamed however. Before you choose this command.2 Mesh Reflect Element.5. . 5. and the reflection plane. since the generated copy is really not a reflection since its position is based purely on the position of the nodes that you “reflect” onto .1. Extruding curves will form FEMAP planar (2-D) elements. is similar to the Mesh Reflect Nodes command described above.5. This will only work if some nodes from the original elements lie within the Trap Width from the reflection plane.. If you choose to reflect elements and nodes (by not turning on Use Existing Nodes). or elements. Trap Width Reflection Plane Elements automatically connected at nodes inside the trap width ( 6 + . the generated elements will only be connected to each other at locations where . you will select elements to be reflected across a plane.. you must define the mesh size. 5. The functionality of these commands are explained below.1 Mesh Extrude Menu The Mesh Extrude Menu allows you to select curves. using the Mesh Control Size Along Curve command..

Mesh Size along curves Extrusion Vector Original Curves Extruded Elements . The length of this vector will be the total length of the extruded elements. you will see the Generation Options dialog box. which is accessed by pressing the Advanced>> button.This dialog box provides two methods of creating your elements: (1) Standard. For example. If you do not have any planar element properties. the same vector will be used for all selected curves so in general it should be relatively normal to the “plane” of the curves (although the curves do not have to be planar). Specify the number of elements that you want along the extrusion vector in the “Elements along Length” box before you press OK. After you select the curves. Meshing the original curves were connected. choose a plate property to create plate elements. a laminate property to create laminate elements. and (2) Advanced. The following picture shows one example of extruding a connected set of curves. Also remember. if you are trying to generate a connected group of elements (with no coincident nodes) it is always best to select a connected boundary in an ordered sequence around the boundary. which simply uses this dialog box. choose New Property to create one. The vector can be located anywhere but must have the direction and magnitude that you want for the extrusion. Once you press OK. FEMAP will prompt you to specify the extrusion vector using the standard vector dialog boxes. Standard Extrusion Standard extrusions are used to simply extrude the curves a constant distance along a vector. You must choose the property to be used for the planar elements and the total number of Elements along Length as shown in the above dialog box. and so on. Therefore. Each of these methods are discussed below. The type of elements that are created is based on the type of property that you select.

as seen above. FEMAP will automatically update the offset so that it corresponds to the location of the end of the previous extrusion. . The dialog box will continue to repeat each time you hit OK. You will notice that the mesh both follows the spline.. This dialog box controls the different methods of extrusion. ( 6 + .Mesh Extrude Curve. simply input the appropriate parameters for each extrusion and pick a different property. The Offset and Along areas next to OK and Cancel provide status information on their current settings. Original Curves to Extrude Curve for Extrusion Path Mesh Size Along Curves Extruded Plate Elements You can even do multi-level extrusions with different properties. the OK option will be grayed and Along will show Must Specify.. as well as offsets from the original curves. but first a quick explanation of the overall procedure is necessary. You can specify mesh biasing for the extrusion.  Advanced Extrusion The Advanced>> button provides access to the Generation Options dialog box for advanced extrusions. If no method (Along or Follow Curve) has been specified. Once the first extrusion is created. 1 * 0 Operation The Advanced option can be used to extrude along one or more vectors or curves. Each area of the dialog box will be explained more fully below. as well as gets finer in the area of curvature due to the specified mesh sizing on the spline. If you need to make several levels of extrusions with different properties. The sample below shows a rectangle which was extruded into plate elements by extruding along a spline.

2. There are times when you may want to keep coincident nodes to simulate contact or other interface conditions. Property For each extrusion. There are two modes of extrusion: Along a vector and Follow Curve. If you do not have a planar property in your model. If you do want to merge all coincident nodes. The Follow Curve option requires selection of a curve. When you extrude along a curve. you can update the offsets manually before extruding again. If you want to create a discontinuous mesh. The mesh sizing is defined similar to any mesh sizing on a curve. If you choose Along a vector. If you want to remove any offset. The vector option provides access to the Extrusion Distance and Elements section of the dialog box to define the length and mesh sizing. you can hit New Property to select one. You can create a multi-level extrusion of different properties simply by picking a different property for each extrusion pass. simply use the Tools Check Coincident Nodes command after the extrusion is complete to merge the extrusions together. before the length . the offsets will be automatically updated at the end of each individual extrusion. you will be asked to define the location (with the standard coordinate dialog) when you press OK to create the extrusion. the Extrusion Distance and Elements area of the dialog box must be specified. you must specify the vector through the standard Vector Definition dialog box. so that the next one starts where the last one ended. it is very important to define the mesh size on the selected curve before performing the extrusion to guarantee that you get the desired mesh. however. Meshing Note: FEMAP does not automatically merge coincident nodes of multi-level extrusions. Extrusion Distance and Elements If the extrusion is to take place along a vector. This offset defines the vector from the original curves to the start of the extrusion. This section determines the overall length and mesh sizing of the extrusion. There are three options available to define the total length of the extrusion: 1. The Offset option allows you to specify an offset via the standard Vector Definition dialog box. Normally you will not specify offsets manually. you must choose a planar property. If you choose this method. Extrusion Vectors The four options in this section of the dialog box allow you to specify the vector for extrusion. simply hit Reset Offset. unless your curves are not located where you want to start the extrusion. The distance and mesh sizing for the extrusion is obtained from the curve you selected to follow and its mesh spacing.uses the length of the vector that you defined for the total extrusion length. Simply specify the total number of elements and a bias factor. If you are creating a multi-level extrusion. these options are grayed. If the location that you specify is not along the extrusion vector. Therefore.The extrusion length is calculated from start of the extrusion to a defined location. it is projected onto that vector. Use Vector Length . Locate .

. You can simply pick nodes or points for the location to extrude to.  is computed. The required input and procedure are similar to the Mesh Extrude Curve command.2 Mesh Extrude Element. Each of these methods is explained below. which simply uses the Generation Options dialog box shown here. The new elements will use the color and layer of the original elements that you are extruding if you choose “Match Original Entities”. creates elements by extruding existing elements of a different type. 5. There are two modes of operation: (1) Standard. in favor of the distance you specify here. 3.. In either case. and (2) Advanced. they will create parabolic solids. along the same vector. and you know the distances or “stations” where you want the extrusions to end. or geometry. Standard Extrusion You may only select one type (line or planar) of elements for this command.1.. ( 6 + . then specify the extrusion parameters.. you cannot create parabolic elements simply by selecting a parabolic property.this method requires direct specification of the extrusion length. Distance . Triangular and Quadrilateral plane elements extrude into Wedge and Brick solids respectively. Line elements will extrude into quadrilateral plane elements. just keep specifying new distances. This method is a good one to use if you are trying to match another existing mesh. You can however convert the linear elements to parabolics after they are created by using the Modify Update Elements Order command. If you choose “Use Current Settings” they will use the active color and layer. If you choose parabolic planar elements. If you selected planar elements you will need a property for solid elements. Any line element or planar element can be extruded. if you selected line elements you will need a property for planar elements. Remember. without worrying about the actual dimensions.Mesh Extrude Element. The “Elements along Length” parameter sets the number of elements that each original element will produce. . 1 * 0 Note: This command always creates linear elements. The vector length is ignored. Each element that you select will create one element at each step along the extrusion length. The property that you select or create must be of the correct type for the elements that you will create. you must first select the elements to extrude.5.. You never need to redefine the vector. This method is a good one if you have a series of extrusions. which is accessed through the Advanced >> button. You also will want to check the “Delete Original Elements” option ..

Both of these methods use the normal vectors at each node to determine the extrusion direction. Meshing if you want to automatically delete the original elements that are being extruded. This method will result in the distance between all inner and outer nodes being equal to the extrusion length. Both used the same extrusion vector. All elements are shown with “element shrink” turned on. press OK and then define the extrusion vector using the standard Vector Definition dialog box. These pictures show two extrusions. and in general will be . Finally. this can be used to quickly take a surface model and turn it into a solid element model. the resulting element thicknesses will not be constant. Alternate Extrusion Methods When you are extruding planar elements. As shown here. The magnitude of the vector will be the extrusion length. you will have two additional methods available: extruding along the element normal directions. so that you can see Extrude as Solids Extrude as Plates Extrusion vector 4 elements along length 5 elements along length Original Line Elements Original Plate Elements both the original and generated elements. Original Planar Elements Extruded with Thickness Correction The Element normal method simply extrudes along the element normals by the extrusion length that you specify. one of line elements. In areas where the planar elements are not “coplanar” however. The selected elements will be extruded along this vector direction. and extruding along the element normal directions with thickness corrections. the other of planar elements.

1 * 0 with thickness correction Extrude without thickness correction By choosing the Normals with Thickness Correction method. FEMAP assumes you want to use the normal direction that you defined. The View Options command can be used to display normal vectors. ( 6 + .. you will have to use this command twice. . you will specify a positive extrusion length (along the positive element normal). Then use a negative extrusion length (along the negative element normal). You can use Modify Update Reverse or Tools Check Normals to adjust element normals. If your plates are at the midplane of where you want the solids. This will typically result in the distance between the inner and outer nodes being greater than the distance you specified. For this reason. FEMAP attempts to adjust the extrusion length at each node to make the resulting element thicknesses at that node equal to the extrusion length. One time. it is usually best to choose the final method that includes thickness corrections..Mesh Extrude Element. Note: It is up to you to prepare your plate elements with all of their normals pointing in a consistent direction prior to using this command.  less than the extrusion length.

. FEMAP will automatically update the offset so that it corresponds to the location at the end of the previous extrusion. You will notice that the mesh both follows the spline. as well as offsets from the original curves. Once the first extrusion is created. the OK option will be grayed and Along will show Must Specify. The dialog box will continue to repeat each time you hit OK. Solid Extruded Elements Planar Elements Curve for Extrusion Path Mesh Size on Curve You can even do multi-level extrusions with different properties. The Offset and Along areas next to OK and Cancel provide status information on their current settings. If you need to make several levels of extrusions with different properties. The sample below shows a rectangular plate mesh which was extruded into solid elements by extruding along a spline. as seen above. You can also specify mesh biasing for the extrusion. Each area of the dialog box is explained more fully below. If no method (Along or Follow Curve) has been specified. as well as gets finer in the area of curvature due to the specified mesh sizing on the spline. but the overall procedure is explained first. Meshing Advanced Extrusion The Advanced>> option provides access to the Generation Options dialog box for advanced extrusions which controls the different methods of extrusion. Operation The Advanced option can be used to extrude along a vector or curve. simply input the appropriate parameters for each extrusion and pick the selected property.

Normally you will not specify offsets manually. This must be either a planar property if extruding line elements. There are two modes of extrusion: Along a vector and Follow Curve. Extrusion Vectors The four options in this section of the dialog box allow you to specify the vector for extrusion. 1 * 0 Hint: You can tell the current offset value and extrusion method by examining values of Offset and Along. These values are dynamically updated every time you or FEMAP changes the information. Therefore. The Offset option allows you to specify an offset via the standard Vector Definition dialog box. the offsets will be automatically updated at the end of each individual extrusion. The distance and mesh sizing for the extrusion is obtained from the curve you selected to follow and its mesh spacing. simply hit Reset Offset. you can hit New Property to select one. unless your curves are not located where you want to start the extrusion. If you want to create a discontinuous mesh. it is very important to define the mesh size on the selected curve before performing the extrusion to guarantee that you get the desired mesh.  Note: FEMAP does not automatically merge coincident nodes of multilevel extrusions since there are times when you want to keep coincident nodes to simulate contact or other interface conditions. or the . you must also choose a property. If you are creating a multi-level extrusion.Mesh Extrude Element. If you do want to merge all coincident nodes. ( 6 + . you must specify the vector through the standard Vector Definition dialog box. If you want to remove any offset. The vector option provides access to the Extrusion Distance and Elements section of the dialog box to define the length and mesh sizing. however. You can create a multi-level extrusion of different properties simply by picking a different property for each extrusion pass. The Follow Curve option requires selection of a curve. The Offset will either be No Offset. When you extrude along a curve. simply use the Tools Check Coincident Nodes command after the extrusion is complete to sew the extrusions together. If you do not have an appropriate property in your model. so that the next one starts where the last one ended.. For each extrusion. these options are grayed. If you choose Along a vector. This offset defines the vector from the original curves to the start of the extrusion. Parameters You can select whether the new entities will use current settings or match the values for the original entities. or a solid property if extruding plate elements. you can update the offsets manually before extruding again..

5.. Use the Mesh Mesh Control Size Along Curve command to define these sizes. The mesh size will determine the number of elements created by each curve.2. z Global).The extrusion length is calculated from start of the extrusion to a defined location. To begin. Before you choose this command. There are three options available to define the total length of the extrusion: 1. if you are trying to generate a connected group of elements (with no coincident nodes) it is always best to select a connected boundary in an ordered sequence around the boundary.this method requires direct specification of the extrusion length. You never need to redefine the vector. the generated elements will only be connected to each other at locations where the original curves were connected. the Extrusion Distance and Elements area of the dialog box must be specified. The Along option will be Must Specify.. Meshing offset vector (x. If Must Specify is the Along option. This method is a good one to use if you are trying to match another existing mesh. define the mesh size along the curves that you will select. Extrusion Distance and Elements If the extrusion is to take place along a vector. you select the curves to revolve using the standard entity selection dialog box. Locate .uses the length of the vector that you defined for the total extrusion length. If you choose this method. However. before the length is computed. and you know the distances or “stations” where you want the extrusions to end. The vector length is ignored.1 Mesh Revolve Curve. Simply specify the total number of elements and a bias factor. the original elements are rotated (revolved) around an axis vector. it is projected onto that vector.they take existing curves or elements and create additional planar or solid elements. or geometry. 2. the OK button will be grayed until you choose Along or Follow Curve to specify the extrusion method. z Global). Any type of curve can be selected. just keep specifying new distances. The mesh sizing is defined similar to any mesh sizing on a curve. 3. along the same vector. without worrying about the actual dimensions. Distance . In this case however.5. the extrusion vector (x. in favor of the distance you specify here.5. creates planar elements by revolving curves around a vector... rather than being translated along the vector as in the Extrude commands. . If the location that you specify is not along the extrusion vector. This method is a good one if you have a series of extrusions. or the Curve ID. y. you will be asked to define the location (with the standard coordinate dialog) when you press OK to create the extrusion. You can simply pick nodes or points for the location to extrude to. 5. y. This section determines the overall length and mesh sizing of the extrusion. Use Vector Length .2 Mesh Revolve Menu The Mesh Revolve commands are very similar to the Mesh Extrude commands . Therefore. and the curves do not have to form a closed or ordered boundary. . The other major difference is that there are no Advanced options available for the Mesh Revolve commands.

you must specify the generation options. The relationship between the location of the vector and the curves you selected determines how the elements will be created. and you should refer back to that section for more information.. only the location and direction of this vector are important for this command.. but its location and direction are important. creates planar or solid elements by revolving existing elements around a vector . . define the axis of revolution using the vector definition dialog boxes. Line elements will create planar elements and planar elements will create solids as they are revolved. choose curves that have endpoints on the axis of revolution..the axis of revolution. 1 * 0 Axis of Revolution Triangular Elements 9 elements along length of revolution Original curves 5. Next.Mesh Revolve Element. Using this command is essentially the same as the Mesh Revolve Curve command. Second. those curves will generate twisted elements since each end of the curve would revolve in a different direction. except you specify the total angle and total distance.2 Mesh Revolve Element. Line and planar elements can be revolved. In extreme cases like revolving plates in their own plane. the standard vector dialog box is used to define the axis of revolution. set the generation options using the dialog box shown in the Mesh Extrude Elements command. This command makes no allowance for generating triangular elements in the middle of a curve to eliminate this restriction... it should be defined so elements will be revolved normal to their current positions. If you do. It is important to specify an axis that is properly positioned relative to the elements you selected. Finally. but you can only choose one type in a single command. Remember. These curves will automatically create triangular elements (instead of quadrilaterals) at those endpoints. choose the elements to revolve. Next. You can.5. These values are just like those specified for the Mesh Rotate commands. this command will fail and will not create new elements.. Mesh Size controls elements along curves Quadrilateral Elements ( 6 + . the magnitude of this vector is not important. it can result in badly shaped elements. First. you must specify the angle of rotation and the distance to translate along the axis of revolution. . Unlike the extrude commands. If you choose other locations or directions. The following picture shows the result of revolving a series of curves (no translation distance was specified). on the other hand.2. not the values per iteration.  You should not select any curves that cross the vector that you plan to revolve around. After you have selected the curves to revolve. This is identical to the Mesh Extrude Curves command. In general.

Line Elements Revolve into Plates Axis of Revolution Plate Elements Quads with one corner on axis are split into two triangles and revolve into 4 tetras Revolve into Solids Triangles revolve into Wedges Quads revolve into Bricks Axis of Revolution Quads on axis revolve into Wedges . set the total rotation angle. and the translation distance (along the axis of revolution). Both of these quantities are input as the total values for the entire revolution. Meshing Finally.

Each of these areas is described more fully below.1 View Menu Commands The commands on this menu control the display of your model on your computer monitor. This option is on by default. FEMAP uses the term “View” to refer to the combination of the graphics window and all of the options that define what. whether it be through magnification. Each of these areas and their associated commands are discussed more fully below. Unlike View Redraw. not the full view. these commands help you to create and manage the graphical windows on your screen. The first partition involves redrawing of the views.1 Redrawing Views This section of command involves redrawing of your model. The options and methods for controlling how your model is displayed on screen can be divided into two broad categories: (1) View menu command. and (2) Groups and Layers. You can redraw your graphics at any time. 6. the Autoplot option only draws entities you created or modified. Ctrl+D or F12 . on printed/plotted output. as well as apply all changes to All Views. all entities which are created or modified will be drawn automatically.1 View Redraw. Inactive views are not currently displayed on your screen. but can be activated at any time you choose.6Viewing Your Model In addition to the numerous Pre-and Post-processing options provided by FEMAP. and the fourth through six sections all involve modifying the view. the second is multiple view manipulation.. and where your model will be displayed. Graphics windows are redrawn automatically whenever required by Windows. 6.. In addition. Additionally. Active views are associated with an on-screen Window. FEMAP Views are stored with your model database. Only non-iconic active Views can be modified.1. how. They can be either active or inactive. There are two different command for redrawing: View Redraw and View Regenerate. you can show particular entities in a view. FEMAP also provides a wide array of viewing options that play a key role in increasing your FEA productivity. and in graphical data which is saved or transferred to other applications. 6.. The View Menu is separated into six partitions.. etc. rotation.1. Additionally. if you select the Autoplot option in the File Preferences command. the third is View Selection and Option.1. Refer to the View Regenerate command for additional information. forces FEMAP to redraw or redisplay the active graphics window. .

Saving this data speeds up future redraws. no matter how “All Views” is set. if you make a new selection. you should still be able to graphically select any of the entities which have been displayed.. to the orientation you choose on the twodimensional screen. these saved lists will be used. FEMAP will also update the transformed coordinates whenever you .1. even more information is saved. but the current command will be aborted automatically. If you are using the Quick Display capability.. FEMAP will automatically discard the display lists whenever you change alignment or close/deactivate a view. FEMAP will save a display list of transformed coordinates. If you choose the View Redraw command. In these cases. If the display lists were never created. These are the actions that you have to do to choose the next command anyway. FEMAP just “watches” the keyboard and mouse. Extensive graphical selections should always be done in a view which has been completely redrawn. Viewing Your Model Redrawing Multiple Windows Ctrl+Shift+D If you have multiple graphics windows on your screen. Once this list has been calculated. lists of the free edges and faces are retained. it can be redisplayed without additional hidden line calculations. or mouse button. In addition. This shape indicates that FEMAP is busy with your current command. whenever they are available. and “All Views” is set..2 View Regenerate. This eliminates the need to continually transform from your three-dimensional model. you can never press either of them before a redraw is complete . The command is aborted whenever you press any key. You may not be able to select entities which have not been displayed.unless you want to abort.. It forces FEMAP to redraw either the active graphics window. you can abort the display simply by choosing your next command. or all graphics windows (if “All Views” is set). Actually. for free edge and free face displays. the hourglass will disappear and the cursor will return to its normal pointer or crosshair shape. When FEMAP draws your model for the first time certain view dependent data is retained in your model. is just like the View Redraw command. Similarly. In some cases. Drawing your model can take a significant amount of time. When FEMAP is redrawing your display the graphics cursor will change to an hourglass behind a pointer. Ctrl+G or Ctrl+F12 . For all types of displays.1. For hidden line displays. When FEMAP is done with the current command. they will all be redrawn. Refer to the “View All Views” command for more information. View Redraw and View Regenerate are identical. Aborting a Redraw 6. you may not want to wait for the view to be completely redrawn before you choose your next command. If you abort a redraw. Since FEMAP automatically aborts whenever you press a key. FEMAP also saves a sorted list of the entities which you displayed. depending on the size of your model and the options you choose. or the left mouse button. This forces FEMAP to regenerate all of the information from your model. View Regenerate will throw away all of the lists and then call View Redraw. you can redraw all active windows by pressing Ctrl+Shift+D.

Regenerating Multiple Windows Ctrl+Shift+G If you have multiple graphics windows on your screen. . the window will be erased before the selected entities are shown. .)? The first potential use occurs if you have a model displayed on the screen with no labels (because the picture is too complicated with them). Where is element (or node . FEMAP will not update or destroy the hidden line or free edge display lists since rebuilding them involves significant computations. . If you autoscale your model before using this command.. The “Label with ID” option controls whether IDs will be added to the selected entities. layer. . they will all be regenerated. .1.1. FEMAP will highlight the entities that you have chosen and optionally add labels. Conversely. you can just type its ID. Shift+F12 . Hint: If you are redrawing your model and something does not look correct. there are two primary reasons you might want to choose it: What is the ID of this element (or node . and “All Views” is set. . You can choose View Show and graphically pick one or more entities.3 View Show. You can only select one type of entity each time you use this command.. If entity labels are already on. Selecting Options The View Show command requires input of the type of entity to show.View Show. color. It is up to you to choose the View Regenerate command whenever you want FEMAP to calculate a new hidden line or free edge display. small position changes. you can regenerate all active windows by pressing Ctrl+Shift+G. otherwise the entities will just be added to the current picture. 6. ( : 9 . the entity will be visible on your screen. Style If you select “Erase Background First”. rather than selecting it graphically. they will be drawn even if this option is off. provides a way to graphically query your model. Although there are many possible uses for this command. . always try to do a regenerate before looking for other problems. .) number 10? The second use involves finding certain entities in a complicated model.  move a Node or Point. turning this option on insures that the entities that you show will be labelled with their ID. . FEMAP will display the IDs of the entities that you choose. . . If they are normally off however. for many modifications (zoom. With the labelling option turned on. If you need to find a certain entity. pan.) you can still choose View Redraw and save a large portion of the time required for these displays. In addition. no matter how “All Views” is set.

and press OK. the active one. non-iconic views will be updated. . This will display the entities in their normal colors. “Show Color” is selected. Just like other commands. Simply clicking with the left mouse button in a graphics window will select it as the active graphics window. . When “All Views” is on. Selecting the Entities to Show After you choose the desired options.1. If you just want to add IDs to the selected entities. a check mark will appear in the menu beside this command. Similarly. Alt+F7 . FEMAP will redraw all of the on-screen windows. The type of entities that are selected by this box depends on the entity type option that you chose. or by pressing Palette to choose a color from the palette dialog. “All Views” is on . You can change this color by typing a different ID. If you do nothing else. to see what nodes are attached to a surface. the last window that you activated will still be active. You can also tell the active window by the “arrow” pointers that are place around its title (assuming you have title bars turned on). 6. For example... you can use any combination of keyboard and graphical input to select the entities that you want to show. and when the standard entity selection dialog box appears. Instead of using this command. alternately turns the “All Views” switch on and off. No input is required for this command. Viewing Your Model By default. change the method to On Surface. The active window is always the one that you last selected. If the box is checked. You will see a check box named “All Views” in the upper right corner of each dialog box. You can therefore limit updates to a selected set of windows simply by minimizing the others and then turning “All Views” on.all of the on-screen. will be redrawn or modified. and select the desired surface.4 View All Views. Press OK to show the entities that you have selected. After you make the changes you want. you will see the standard entity selection dialog box. . only one window. select Node as the option. When “All Views” is off. prior to making the modification. When the “All Views” switch is on. the other view-related commands will update all of the on-screen windows which are not minimized (turned into icons). FEMAP will then highlight all nodes that are attached to that surface. you may want to switch to entity colors. This will cause all selected entities to be drawn in the color listed to the right. The default show color has been chosen to highlight the entities that you choose.1. you can restore the iconic windows to their original size and position. the same “All Views” switch can also be controlled from the various dialog boxes which are displayed by the other View commands. Hint: The View Show command is also very useful to show connections between FEA entities and geometry.

and press the “Activate->” button. 6.2. .1 View Activate. . you must start a second copy of FEMAP. sizing. In addition. but FEMAP will only allow you to have 20 graphics windows active at one time.Manipulating Multiple Views  6.2 Manipulating Multiple Views This section involves creating. ( : 9 To activate a view. . If you need additional windows. select it from the list on the left. Hint: You can also Activate/Close a view simply by double-clicking on the name in one of the lists. move a view from one list to the other. The list on the right shows the views which are currently active. . You can also use this command to close or deactivate graphics windows. select it from the list on the right. use the Delete View command. The Activate View dialog box is used by this command. When a view is activated. FEMAP supplies automatic tools for activating. but the view will still remain in your database. The command buttons in the middle. and press “<-Close”. You can also close graphics windows by using the Close command on the window system menu. This will create a new on-screen window and activate the view. . To activate one or more views which have not yet been defined. or by double-clicking the window system menu. You can have as many views defined in your model as you want. a new graphics window is created on your screen. . It can be reactivated at any time using the “Activate->” button. Each active View in FEMAP corresponds to a given graphics window which can be sized or changed similar to any standard Graphics Window.1. and hence activate or deactivate the view. It contains two lists. creating. and sizing single or multiple graphics Windows (Views). The list on the left shows all of the views which are defined in your model. activates views which have been previously defined in your model. The on-screen window will be closed.1. and activating multiple views. To close a single view. and which are not currently active (on-screen). . Pressing “<-Close All” will close all of the active graphics windows. use the View New command. If you want to delete a view from your database.

XZ.2 View New. .34. XY. or to the orientation of the view that you are copying if Default View is off.. The pictures show the window layout that will be created. The dialog box shows you six possible alternatives to create between one and six new views. If the Default View option is chosen. The black (or darkest) rectangle indicates the graphics window which will initially be active. Default (XY or copy) Isometric (-23. Default (XY or copy) 3 XZ. Whenever you create multiple views. the new views are created to match the view that you select from the list. If Copy is chosen. This is the view that is created automatically when you start FEMAP with an Unnamed model. XY. . Default (XY or copy) 6 . .2.1. creates new views in your model. The following table shows the orientations of the views which are created for each layout. The view represented by the black rectangle is always set to an XY view if you use the Default View option. 2H XY. This command uses the New View dialog box. the view options and selections will be set to match those of the Default View. YZ. and automatically activates them by opening new graphics windows. Each rectangle represents a window that will be created.. Viewing Your Model 6. XY. Isometric (60.60 rotation). and ZX) and isometric views. Layout 1 View Rotations Default (XY or copy) Layout 4 View Rotations XZ. the orientation of the views is automatically defined to provide multiple planes (XY. YZ. Default (XY or copy) 2V. Your most basic choice is to select the number of views and the window layout that you want to create.0.0 rotation). YZ. when new views are created.

. background color. If you reposition or resize/reshape the Messages and Lists window. . The current size and position of the FEMAP Main window. Titles are automatically assigned to the other views in any multi-view layout that you create. resizes and arranges all of the active graphics windows to fit in the FEMAP workspace. . View titles are displayed in the title bar of the window. you can use Tile to automatically make your graphics windows as large as possible without having any overlapping windows.1. before you press OK.View Tile.3 View Tile. 6. .. In general. The windows are arranged so that the contents of each window are visible. Tile uses the largest available rectangular area which is inside the Main Window and which is not obscured by the Messages and Lists window or the toolbox. and so that no windows overlap.2. and appearance of the on-screen window. Tile will restore it to the size and position of the default graphics window. Choosing the option during this command however. . resizes and arranges all of the active graphics windows to fit in the FEMAP workspace. controls the view title. Like View Tile. You should press this button. If you do not change either of these. Cascade chooses the available area as the largest rectangular area within the Main Window that is not obscured by the Messages and Lists window or toolbox. . and the FEMAP Messages and Lists window combine to determine the overall area that Tile can use..5 View Window. View Cascade is only available when you have multiple active graphics windows. but only one graphics window will be fully visible. You can also accomplish this with the View Activate command.. These automatic titles describe the view orientation.. The Close All command button will close all graphics windows and deactivate the associated views. so that you can identify the active windows. . will save you time. ( : 9 6.4 View Cascade. Cascading windows are not generally recommended since they can result in additional redrawing of the graphics windows.  The ID and Title are used to set the ID and View Title for the window represented by the black rectangle. 6... if you want the new views to be the only ones which are active.. Each window’s title remains visible. The windows are arranged starting in the upper left corner of the Main window workspace.1. .1.2.....2. overlapping windows are not desirable since they can cause additional redrawing to reveal obscured information. and only have one graphics window.

On None. The following table shows the impact of various settings: Title Bar On Window Border Thick Visual Impact Standard Graphics Window Functions Disabled None. only the title for the active view will be changed. can not minimize or maximize window. No matter what settings you choose for your graphics windows. title bar. and you can always close them with View Activate. and system menu. The Title Bar and Window Border options let you control the appearance and functionality of the window itself. . yet they should be used with caution. The view title is displayed in the window title bar. These options can be very powerful. Viewing Your Model Using the View Window dialog box you can change the title which has been defined for (or automatically assigned to) a view. you can always resize and reposition them with the View Tile and View Cascade commands. Some normal Windows functions will be temporarily lost for windows where you change these options. Thin Thick Off Off None. around window becomes thin or invisible. Thin Thick border around window becomes a thin line No Title bar Can not move window by grabbing title bar. This prevents you from accidently changing all titles to the same text. Even if “All Views” is set. Maximizes graphics area. Can not change window in Thick border any way. can not use system menu. you can move and resize the window using the borders. and identifies the view which is shown in the window. Can not resize window.

If you choose Transparent. it will disappear. the color that you select fills the entire window background prior to drawing your model. then click the right mouse button inside the graphics window..1. If you use overlapping windows. If a title bar was visible. FEMAP will simply not draw the background. In this case. You can also press Shift and click the right mouse button in the title bar or border (not the drawing area) of any graphics window to display the View Window dialog box. allows you to control which layers will be active for display.. ( : 9 6. You can pick any color. the resulting image can be very strange since FEMAP does not “properly” erase the background. you can quickly toggle the window title bar on or off. The normal setting is to choose a Solid Background Color.. even though they are “behind” another window with a transparent background. .6 View Layers. you should never make changes to graphics windows which are maximized to full screen. If you move or resize a window that has a transparent background. It can also be used to toggle the title bar of the Messages and Lists Window. and then move the layers that you want to the Visible . you can see graphics in one window. ... change to Show Visible Layers Only. This technique does not affect the border or background colors.View Layers. If you want to only show selected layers.  Note: Due to limitations in Windows. You can also set the Background Color for your graphics windows using this command. You should normally pick a color for your background which is a solid (non-dithered) color. The default settings are to “Show All Layers”. With your mouse. This option should only be chosen for final images and special effects. Press the Shift key.2. the changes may be ignored. If you do. Repeating the process will restore the title bar.. but dithered colors can make it difficult to see your model.

View Select controls the top level display options.1. what color elements are drawn with. The Show. The View Layers command can also be accessed from the Toolbar. To move a single layer. You can select both the type of display. You may also use the View Layer option to create a new layer. etc.. just double-click the layer and it will move to the other list. turn on and off stress contours. Ctrl+S or F5 . since this geometry may occupy the identical space as a solid face or edge.1 View Select. chooses what will be displayed in a view. In addition to controlling your display. If you need to access this geometry. 6. then press Show or Hide. Alternatively.3. i. and deformed plots. View Options also provides extensive control over Postprocessing display options that are more fully described in the postprocessing section of this manual. 6. . Only entities on visible layers and which are not on the NoPick Layer can be selected graphically. With View Select you can control whether your model is displayed in hidden line or plain wireframe mode.. Be careful when doing this however. visible layers also control entity selection. Note: Entities used for solid geometry construction (such as a Boundary Surface for an Extrusion) are automatically moved onto the Construction Layer. View Select and View Options. etc. Viewing Your Model Layers list. you can also select the layer that will be used for entity creation. select it in the appropriate box. and the model or postprocessing data which will be displayed. Show All. With the Active Layer option.. change the NoPick Layer and you will be able to graphically select these entities.e.1. FEMAP moves construction geometry onto this layer to prevent it from being selected for load or constraint application.3 View Select and Options This section of the menu contains two of the most often used commands in FEMAP. Hide and Hide All buttons simply move the layers between the Hidden and Visible lists. View Options provides detailed control over how entities are displayed.. animations. whether or not labels for nodes are displayed. whether or not perspective is turned on. which is the default for the NoPick Layer.

1. consists of the XY Data. your model will be displayed in the view. ( : 9 6.3. located under the previous sections. Usually best “working mode”. XY Styles are only available when you have output data available for postprocessing (or functions). then Hidden displays from the back of visualization of complex Line view. alternately draw and erase themselves. using all of the other options you choose. Fast. Here you can choose one option from each category to define the type of postprocessing display that you want to have. Model Data. Not usually appropriate for screen selection. If you choose a model style. The final section of the dialog box. but it will not be used until you also select the appropriate styles. lines are removed.hidden ful for screen selection in complicated models. You can select data using any of these buttons. as described above. These options choose the method for display. Each style provides certain benefits. The settings of these options are ignored if you choose an XY style. Does not properly remove hidden lines for some elements (see Full Hidden Line). XY plot of the selected output data or function. With proper color assignments can show property or material boundaries. Lines of the same color. Not usually best for picking . The following table describes all of the styles. Can be helpwhich are visible . Disadvantages Complex 3D models can be hard to visualize. If instead you choose an XY Style. Good for screen selection. Fairly Slow.2 Choosing a Model Style FEMAP provides numerous styles in which you can display your model. The default settings (None-Model Only) are used to create a normal model display which does not use any output data for postprocessing. Resulting display depends on your color choices. Good for final display and Quick Sorts all elements. Entities drawn on top of each other may make it difficult to locate a particular detail.Choosing a Model Style  The View Select dialog box is divided into several sections. . Each of these buttons displays an additional dialog box which allows you to select the model or output data which will be used in the view. the view will contain a 2D. Only shows entities 3D models. Features Draws all entities. which overlap. . Choice of the best style depends upon what you need to accomplish. their advantages and disadvantages: Style Draw Model Description Simply displays all entities. Results in a plot which only shows color boundaries. You can choose any one option from these two groups of styles. Advantages Fast. and Deformed and Contour Data command buttons. Everything visible. The second section of the dialog box consists of the Deformed Style and Contour Style option buttons. The Model Style and XY Style option buttons comprise the first section.many entities are not visible.

Free Finds and displays all eleEdge ment edges which do not join to another element. Hidden Line The pictures. and chose one of the “Skip” methods. Disadvantages Slow. This is especially true for 3D models. Reduces for checking model. you can even use this mode to show hidden lines in a different line style (like dashed). they can often be the best approach to understanding a complex model. and are therefore somewhat slower. in the View Options command. complexity of solid model plots. FEMAP retains a display list of the sorted information. Free Face Can quickly point out Not appropriate as a holes or disconnections in working mode.Can quickly point out dis. In fact. Can help to find duplicate plate elements. show examples of the various model styles. After you make the first hidden line display. To remove backfaces. Refer to the View Redraw and View Regenerate commands for more information. instead of removing them. Viewing Your Model Style Description Advantages Same as Quick Hidden Line.Usually not used for a working mode. but does additional Line checking to properly remove all hidden lines. Really your model. you can also use the Free Face option to simulate a hidden line view. This dramatically speeds up redrawing hidden line views. Finds and displays all ele. below. . Draw Model Free Edge Free Face Although the hidden line removal options do require substantial calculations. solid elements. Intended ment faces which do not connections between join to another element. Choose the “Show All Faces” method to show hidden lines as a different color/style. use the Fill. Backfaces and Hidden Option. Full Same as Quick Hidden Hidden Line. just intended for checking your model. For Solid Element Models.

. whatever load and constraint set you activate will be displayed. The final section of this dialog box. is used to select the function that will be displayed when you choose the XY of Function display style. Then only the entities which are in the appropriate Group will be displayed. from your entire model. not postprocessing information like other XY plotting styles. Render mode enables you to dynamically rotate a model by simply holding the left mouse button and without switching to wireframe (including rotation of models with contours on them). Function. This enables you to activate a Group and then graphically select entities. If you choose the Select option. It is most often used for complex solid models in both hidden line mode as well as for postprocessing. Just press the right mouse button while you are pointing inside any graphics window. By default. By default. The Select Model Data for View dialog box will then be displayed. and choose Model Data. or you can Select a particular set for display whether or not it is active. switch this option to either Active or Select. If you want to display only a portion of your model. Constraint Set and Group which will be displayed in the view. your entire model will always be displayed. Render The Render selection box is applicable to all Model Styles. Even though this is obviously an XY plot. ( : 9 Quickly Choosing Model Data In addition to using the View Select command. activating a Group will not change the display. . You can also get to this dialog box by pressing Ctrl+F5. you must specify an existing set in the appropriate dropdown list. you can also access the Model Data dialog box directly from the Quick Access menu. you must choose the function to be displayed from this dialog because it is a display of model information. Finally. Since the Group option is set to None. choose the color and line style you want to use. Here you can choose the Load Set. You can however eliminate loads and/or constraints by choosing the None options. Selecting Data for a Model Style You can control what portions of your model are displayed by any of the model styles by pressing the Model Data command button.Choosing a Model Style  then go to the Free Edge and Face option and set the Free Edge Color to “Use View Color”. The Render option implements the FEMAP OpenGL capability for more rapid drawing and rotating of large models. into the Group.

. For more information on the options available and overall general postprocessing capability. There are three basic parts to this dialog box. When you choose a category. just choose both a deformed and a contour style.controls how your model (or XY plot) is displayed in a view.3. You can control whether entities are displayed. . 6. a Deformed Contour. . . Ctrl+O or F6 .3 View Options. such as the view origin. see the Postprocessing section of this manual. Finally. If you want to display a combined postprocessing view. using the scroll bar. the Options list is automatically updated. Choose category to change between option lists Scroll down for more options Choose option to display or change settings All of these different options are controlled from the View Options dialog box. colors. Choosing None for either of these options disables that type of postprocessing. . and snap grid. labelling. this command controls all of the graphical postprocessing options. You can also control the display of non-model entities. you must choose one of the deformed or contour styles.1. to see all of available options. The Category option buttons choose the type of view options that you want to update. for example. workplane.. You may have to scroll through the list. Viewing Your Model Choosing Deformed and Contour Styles When you want to graphically postprocess model output. You will use None any time you just want to display your model. in addition to a model style. This list displays all View options that you can update for each Category. and hundreds of other options.

this text box defines a single color for the selected entity option. and many more. The titles of the controls change depending on the option being updated. or press Palette to select the color graphically. . You can either type a color ID in the text box. has a similar function for all view options. It displays various controls which allow you to set the option. If you pick Use View Color. For certain view options. Line Elements in a Free Edge Check. and symbol sizing. You can refer to the table at the end of this section for more detailed information on the settings that can be chosen for each option. We will therefore describe them in terms of overall titles. Label List: This list box is usually used to choose the labelling mode for entities. the related entities will be drawn. this list is used for other label-related options. or light source position for shading. Still other view options use this list to control settings like the legend style. the colors that you assigned to each entity will be displayed. to label by ID. label or legend positioning. . you must also choose the Use View Color setting from the Color Mode List. other settings are also available. The current option settings are loaded as the defaults. For example. and many other settings.  To modify an option. Each control however. That table also shows the titles for any controls that do not control the standard functions that are described here. Depending on the view option you are updating. You can do this either by pointing at it with the cursor and clicking the left mouse button. and most only use a few. down the right side of the dialog box. Filling. Examples include: font selections. otherwise they will be skipped. Element Shrinking. that control will not be visible. none of the options use all eight controls. . . View Color and Palette: Typically. To use this color. You can choose to turn all labels off. Some view options use this control to turn something else on or off.View Options. In order. XY curve style. Color Mode List: This list box controls how an entity color will be chosen. ( : 9 Hint: Double clicking the associated item in the Options list will toggle this control on and off. Choosing Use Layer Color will result in each entity being displayed with the color of the layer that it references. simply select it from the list. the right side of the dialog box is updated. In fact. from top to bottom. As you select an option. If you pick Entity Colors. If the option you select does not need a particular control. or by pressing the direction keys. Label Prefixes. the controls are: Draw Check Box: If this control is checked. the single color that you specify in the View Color control will be used. The Standard View Option Settings There are eight standard controls which appear in the right side of the View Option dialog box.

Examples of this include scale factors. This will automatically restore all view options to their prior settings. and the view aspect ratio. You can repeat this as many times as you want. You choose the Category and Option that you want to modify and then change the available settings in the other controls. just press Cancel to leave the dialog box. To save your changes. You can choose any of the command buttons on this dialog box to instantly set all of the related view options. Viewing Your Model Additional Text Boxes: Below the View Color controls. you will see the View Quick Options dialog box. Previewing and Cancelling your Selections If you would like to see the effect of your changes. When you are finished. or you can individually control which entities will be drawn using the check boxes on the left. minimum and maximum criteria limits. and a new Option. Then change those settings. Other than Reset. If you press Quick Options. press Done. where you can make further updates or review your selections. Using Quick Options There are times that you will want to quickly update many different options. Pick a new Category. there are two additional controls which are used to specify other numeric settings. Setting Multiple View Options Updating a view option is simple. Pushing this button will display other dialog boxes. To modify other view options. This will redraw the current view. The options that use these buttons are described later in this section. just repeat the process. FEMAP will return to the View Options dialog box. If you decide that you did not like the changes. if necessary. the quick option buttons only update the options from the . you must press OK. animation frames. Command Button: A few view options display an additional command button (located directly above Apply). Most options do not use these text boxes. shrink and lighting percentages. using the new settings. press Apply.

. . Changes Color Mode to “View Colors” for all options. . not just the view options. Turns Draw Entity Check Box off for Points. and Color category. Note: The following buttons change the entire view (selections. . .View Options.. Curves. magnification. Turns Draw Entity Check Box on for Nodes. Elements.  Labels. Turns Draw Entity Check Box on for Points. The following table describes the functions performed by each of the quick options command buttons: Quick Option Button All Entities On All Entities Off Geometry On Geometry Off Analysis Entities On Analysis Entities Off Labels On Labels Off Entity Colors View Colors Function Turns Draw Entity Check Box on for all options. Save View Store the current view in the View library . . Changes Label Mode to “No Labels” for all options. Changes Color Mode to “Entity Colors” for all options.Ctrl+Q or Shift+F6 You can also access the Quick Options dialog box without using the View Options command by pressing Ctrl+Q or Shift+F6. . Reset View Resets the entire View to FEMAP defaults. Turns Draw Entity Check Box off for all options. . Changes made in this manner however cannot be cancelled. Turns Draw Entity Check Box off for Nodes. etc. Elements. Load View Updates the current view by restoring from the View library. .). Curves. Entities.. ( : 9 Quick Access to Quick Options. Changes Label Mode to ID for all options. alignment.

perspective. PostProcessing. For example. you choose whether entities will be drawn. With these options. Criteria. These include all of the options for Deformed. element filling. For example. Viewing Your Model View Option Categories As described above. like the workplane and snap grid. Vector. Each of these will change the overall style of the view. and stereo options. Entities. and what colors will be used. among others. The Labels. Contour. Finally. Animated. This category also contains options that control the style of the view. shading. you will find options in this category to control view-related items. will be displayed. Other entity-related view options can also be found here. Each category contains related options. and view axes. The Tools and View Style category contains the options that control whether tools. you can control the display of element direction arrows. and XY . free edge settings. Entity label sizes and styles are further controlled by the Label Parameter option that is also in this category. FEMAP splits the view options into three categories. offsets. such as the legend. controls all of the graphical postprocessing options. if and how they will be labeled. and Color category contains all of the options that control the display of model entities. you can choose. origin. The final category. and orientation vectors.

. The first two color mode options.. Entities and Colors as well as Tools and View Style categories. Surface. . Entities and Color Options Label Parameters This option controls the format of all labels in your view. Points can be labelled with their defined Mesh Size.refer to the Symbols options. through the View Select command. has any impact. If you pick one of these options however. . “Entity. For example. label mode (typically ID). unless you have selected one of the postprocessing options. any point that has a size defined will be labelled with the size value.. You can choose any of the listed fonts. You can choose a color mode. . Curve.. Erase Back” and “View. Additional Comments on View Options Options which are not self-explanatory are described in the following paragraphs for the Labels. . but often obliterate each other on complex models. in the same way as the first two options. . If you are labelling filled areas.View Options. choose the label color. controls the display of user defined coordinate systems only.. Use the View Axes display option to update those axes. Points which have no size defined will not be labelled. and whether to draw the entity. You can also label all of these entities with their Mesh Attributes instead of and ID .  plots. Simply change the Font and reprint. just draw the label. Larger fonts can be easier to read for simple models. it is often good to choose one of these final options . The font must be available to Windows before you can use it. controls the display of these entities. This is not used for the global (or view) axes. With the prefix turned off only the number will be used. FEMAP will erase the area where the label will be drawn. ( : 9 Note: If the labels appear fine on the screen but are not printed properly. None.they are easier to read. it is probably because your Windows Printer Driver does not support that Font. . Labels. If you turn the prefix on. prior to drawing the label. Erase Back”. Node 1 will be labeled N1. Volume. Postprocessing related items will be further explained in the Postprocessing section of this manual. Points can be drawn as “+” symbols or dots . Boundary.. Element 23 will be labelled E23.. or else all labels are drawn using the single View Color. entity labels will be preceded by a single letter prefix which will identify the entity type. In fact if you do not. Entity Colors and Use View Color. Coordinate System. The final two options. Point. Label colors either match the entities that they are labelling. you will not be able to see any labels that use the same color as the filled area. In this case.. of these options.

In this case however. .. Node . Type.0 (a uniform mesh). Element. the arrowhead indicates the direction of the element connectivity. For Line Elements. Refer to the next several options for additional information on elements. Property. . again. If a mesh size is implied from point or default mesh sizes. You will be unable to distinguish graphically which degrees of freedom are permanent constraints.. the size will be determined from point and default sizes. Symbols (all curves). by choosing one of the visibility settings. Element .. it will not be shown. ID/Property/Material. The final labeling option. The default setting. controls display of Nodes. The third labelling option.. these settings will determine whether or not they are displayed. If you choose the Right-Hand Rule Normal Style... and which are nodal. controls the display of Elements. For solid elements. Size and Bias. the arrow is always located on the last edge. You can eliminate certain types of text from the View. Text. .... If the Constraint view option is also on. For Planar elements. pointing at the first node. works similarly. . Material. the arrow is located on the last edge of the first face. . permanent constraints will be combined with the nodal constraints at any node where both exist. Viewing Your Model Curve . the arrowhead points at the second node. will display symbols on every curve... and Material modes. If you have permanent constraints applied to one or more of your nodes.. . Layer.Directions If this option is turned on. View. and layer). There are several different options for labeling (ID. numeric values for the number of elements along the curve and the bias are shown. Nodes can be drawn as either an “X” symbol or as dots . Symbols and Count will show symbols as well as a numeric value for the number of elements for all curves that have a mesh size set. .. Symbols Only. will only display symbols on curves which have a mesh size defined along the curve. you must turn one of the options off. Node. The second labelling option. and points at the first node. controls the display of Text. Property. If no mesh size is defined along the curve. controls the display of mesh symbols and labels along curves. The bias value is not displayed when it is 1. FEMAP will display an arrowhead on one element side. . To make that determination.refer to the Symbols options.. or a vector normal to the element (planar elements only). .Mesh Size. and color (Entity.Perm Constraint.

.. right-hand rule direction. you might not see them. FEMAP will draw a vector in the direction of the element orientation.Orientation/Shape If this option is on. ( : 9 . Element . that Orientation On Offset Beams with Orientation Vectors . Element . You may want to turn on Shrink Elements.  Face normals can be determined by using the righthand rule in conjunction with the direction arrows. .Offsets/Releases.. of Freedom FEMAP will draw lines from the nodes to the offset 456 Offsets locations. FEMAP uses the numbers one to six to represent the six elemental degrees of freedom. For Beams and other line elements. vectors will be drawn at the center of planar elements to indicate the positive normal direction. For Plane Elements. When this option is set.. FEMAP always draws offsets to their actual lengths. If instead. You can use the Release Labels option to display the degrees of freedom that are released. The normal points in the positive. Released Degrees If this option is on. you choose the Normal Vector style. .View Options. to see the relationships between arrowheads and elements. If you have very small offsets. controls whether Centerline of Beam element offsets will be displayed. FEMAP will label each released degree of freedom at the appropriate end of the beam. or in the direction of the vector orientation that you specified. and then draw the element connecting the offset locations. . this vector Plates with Material Orientation Vectors will either point toward the third node. even though they are displayed.

These options only affect line elements. Line elements will just be a single line. The beam cross section picture provides a much better physical representation of the actual model. The Show Fiber Thickness and Show Inertia Ratio settings display the cross section as a rectangle. . FEMAP will draw the vector in the direction of the material axes. Show Inertia Ratio.Beam Y-Axis” is very similar to this option. The area. Line/Plane Only. if you choose Show Fiber Thickness. I1 and I2 values must all be nonzero or no cross section will be shown. Plates or a box denoting the Stress recovery Location. Element Shape On Offset Beams Show Cross Section draws the cross-section of the beams based upon the input to the FEMAP cross section property generator. these elements will simply be drawn connecting the nodes. For Bar and Beam elements. the rectangular cross section is based on the area and cross-sectional inertias (I1 and I2). Since the cross section may not really be a rectangle. “Element . In the default setting. but it will be representative of a rectangular cross section with the same inertia ratio (I1/I2). This can be an arbitrary surface shape or a standard shape. plane elements will be a triangle or quadrilateral. the actual input cross section. Switching to either of the other options lets you see more information for these elements. Line elements can be shown with a rectangular cross section. The second list box. If you choose Show Inertia Ratios. the size of the rectangle is based on the stress recovery locations. Show Cross Section or Show Stress Recovery Locations. the height and width of the rectangle shown may not be correct. Viewing Your Model have rotated material axes. There is no difference for solid or plate elements between Show Fiber Thickness. “Element Shape” allows you to change how line and plane elements will be displayed. This sample shows the difference between drawing the beam cross section and just line representations.

For Tubes and Rods the cross-section is based on the radius.. Heat Flux. ( : 9 . Thermal. you can graphically check beam cross sections.. Planar elements will be expanded to show their thicknesses. or vector orientation that you specify. FEMAP will display one vector for each load in the direction of the resultant load. it also helps you to determine if you have properly specified the beam orientations. You may also specify the magnitude which controls the length of the largest load.. For beam/bar elements. Other line elements can not display a cross section. using the element X axis and the element orientation to determine the Y-Axis. If you choose either Color/Component Mode option 0 or 1. except it will draw a rectangular cross section based upon the stress recovery locations for all beams that do not have a defined cross section. Moments.  Show Stress Recovery Locations will be identical to Show Cross Section. Load . Heat Generation. . you may also specify a Minimum Scale. Element .. these four options produce identical results. Since the rectangular cross section rotates with the orientation vector. independently control the display of each load type.Orientation. find errors. or the element type does not support fiber distances. All loads which would fall below this minimum are then scaled to the minimum. You can choose a Uniform style or Scale by Magnitude. To prevent visual loss of small loads in a large model. it will always be equivalent to the Y-axis. All other loads are scaled accordingly. Nonlinear Force. This will draw up to three vectors which are aligned with the global rectangular directions. As stated above. these will be used. . you should not display element thicknesses when you are doing contour plots.controls the length of the displayed vectors on the screen. and Enforced Displacements. the element thickness will be used and will be centered about the nodal plane. Each load type is scaled separately. Load Vector. Velocity.. If you choose option 2 or 3. Velocities.. FEMAP will calculate cross products.Force. This option is only used for line elements. Distributed Loads. Moment. .. for all other element types. For Forces.. It allows you to graphically see your property data.. which scales the vector length based upon the magnitude. It does not matter . this option will draw a vector in the true element Y-Axis. Enforced Displacement.View Options. and it provides a more realistic display.Beam Y-Axis. is similar to Element . Convection and Radiation. . you can see how your beam is oriented. . By choosing these different options.. Pressure. Acceleration. Instead of drawing the vector toward the third node. FEMAP does not adjust the contour data to the surfaces of the “thickened” elements and the resulting picture can be confusing. FEMAP will display the components of the load. If you have not. you can choose to display either the resultant load vectors or the load components.. Accelerations.. There are many benefits to using this option. Note: Although possible. If you have specified top and bottom fiber distances. If the orientation that you specified is perpendicular to the element X-Axis.

In either case. Directional elemental loads (like direction heat flux and distributed loads) also represent the direction in which the load will be applied. the various nodal forces are drawn as shown as in the accompanying diagram. Constant Load Load Dependent on Function 1 . The function ID is shown in parenthesis. but are located at the center (or along) the element face where they are applied. Viewing Your Model what coordinate system you used to define the load. 2. When displayed. the components are always drawn in global rectangular. the vectors will be colored based on the entity or view color.(1) 2. Distributed Load Radiation Convection Temperature Pressure Heat Generation Heat Flux Function dependent loads can be labelled with both the load value and the function ID that has been selected. Force Moment Enforced Displacement Enforced Rotation Acceleration Rotational Acceleration Temperature Heat Generation Heat Flux Elemental loads are drawn very much like nodal loads. as is typical for all of the other view options.

and the coefficients for Constraint Equations. backfaces in Free Face displays will use the Free Edge View Color.View Options. In this case. . . controls whether Contact Segments are visible. This insures that you do not miss a true disconnection at the midnodes between two parabolic elements. Refer to the 123456 246 comments on 123456 Node . a plate made of planar elements and framed with beams would have no free edges. FEMAP only checks the corner nodes of parabolic elements. The same framed plate would have all of its outer edges free. so that it is easier to locate them. and only volume elements are used in free face calculations. Otherwise. is only used for free edge and free face displays.. and plane elements will be considered in the search for free faces. Similarly. only the corners of element faces are used in the free face calculations. the beams would not be considered. In general. . Draw Model option. that you can label both the degree of freedom. The Free Edge/Backface Color options are primarily for Free Edge displays.. ( : 9 Tools and View Style Options Free Edge and Face. Contact Segment. line elements will be considered in the search for free edges...  Constraint and Constraint Equation. . FEMAP requires that all nodes on an edge or face must match.. .. and whether the label ID is plotted. Otherwise.. You can even create a pseudo Hidden Line plot with dashed lines by changing the View Color to a dashed line style.. only plane and volume elements are used in free edge calculations. . if you choose Use View Color. . you should always use the midnodes. If you would like to display the free edges along with the remainder of your model. If you skip midnodes. choose the View. With All Elements active. the color mode. you can often get a better understanding of the front and back portions of your model. The default Free Edge View color has been chosen so that they will still be visible with most element displays. If All Elements is selected. . If All Elements were off. however. edges of linear elements that connect to parabolic elements will not be considered free edges. the edge or face is free. If you use midnodes. control the disNodal Constraints play of Nodal Con12456 with DOF labels 156 straints and 246 156 Constraint Equa246 156 tions. . .Perm Con123456 straint for more 123456 123456 information if you 123456 123456 123456 also have perma123456 nent constraints in your model. . Also note. By adjusting this color. The Parabolic Edges options are similar.

you can safely turn on the first level. Since this removes information. On the other hand. A size of 0% reduces the elements to a point at their centroid. It all depends on how you define their normals. Show All Faces. If it faces forward. If Fill is on. that will override this switch. out of the screen. and takes some additional computations.e. this option is normally off. Skip Solid Backfaces. the backface option may discard faces of planar elements which lie on the “front” of your model. Since you determine the orientation of normal to planar elements by the way you connect them. Viewing Your Model Shrink Elements Shrink Off Shrink On Reveals Line Elements that were hidden with Shrink Off If this option is on. Whenever it is off. just the boundaries of the entities will be drawn. Then choose the appropriate option to remove the elements that you want. If you choose filled contours or filled criteria. will be properly defined backfaces. since each element can only be filled once. The Backfaces option allows you to automatically remove some element faces from the display. all elements will be reduced in size. by the percentage that you specify. When you define solid elements. Backfaces and Hidden Element Fill On Edges option for additional information. Fill can be used to fill elements with color for line contour and line criteria displays. If you do want to use these options. you must build your model so that all planar elements are defined with their normals pointing either “inward” or “outward” from the center of the model. elements in your model will be filled with color. the final two options must be used very carefully. Refer to the Filled Fill. i. FEMAP calculates the normal (based on the right hand rule around the face) of each element face. that face is not drawn when backfaces are being skipped. Therefore. A size of 100% means that the elements will not be reduced. . and be reasonably sure that you will not lose any meaningful information. they are automatically constructed so that the faces on the “back” of each element.

If you want to draw just the filled areas. .  The Hidden Line Option selections control how hidden line calculations will be done for solid elements. the colors currently chosen by the Element option are used. Be aware however that Draw All Faces is substantially slower. The skipping of midside node information on deformed plots may lead to misinterpretation of results. and will result in the same final picture unless you have element shrink turned on. If you choose entity colors. The Curve Transparency controls whether Curves are viewed even when hidden in Hidden Line Mode. FEMAP will calculate the free faces of all solids. The color of those boundaries is determined by the color mode set for this option. Contrasting colors are also based on the entity color. you may want to Skip Midnodes when viewing and orienting your model. The Section Cut Edges options determine whether element edges will be draw on section cutting planes. you may not be able to see the border. it can increase drawing times while in Render Mode. Instead.including interior ones . and accurate hidden line plot of complex solid element models. The Filled Edges on/off switch is used any time you turn on the Fill Element option. If this option is on. along with faces from all planar and line elements... This option is typically Off. but FEMAP automatically chooses a color which does not match that color. the boundaries will also be drawn. choose Free Faces Only. Filled Edges When elements.controls the viewing of surfaces and curves on solid models. The Filled Edges color is only used when you set Fill Element on. By default. since it will probably match the filled area. If drawing time is significantly increased. and just display them in a hidden line view. ( : 9 .. with no edges. The Parabolic Edge/Face allows you to view or skip midside nodes while in Render Mode.choose Draw All Faces. . It is not automatically used for contour and criteria displays. the normal entity color fills the interior. . The only exception is line criteria displays where the switch is ignored since turning off the edges would eliminate the criteria information. Turning it On will enable you to view all curves even in Hidden Line Mode. or if you want to see all faces being drawn . The default is to show surfaces only (no hatching). and Use Midnodes only when examining deformed plots. You may use the Hatch Surfaces option to show parametric (or hatch) lines on the surface. turn this option off.View Options. as well as midside nodes for parabolic elements. You can combine the Free Face plot style and Skip Solid Backfaces to do a fairly quick. or for contour and criteria displays. Render Options.. these edges are drawn with the Filled Edge view color. If displayed. If you use midside nodes for viewing purposes. These options have no effect unless you are in Render Mode (see View Select above). . If you just want to see the solid elements. or other entities are filled. This option is available for Draw Model and Hidden Line Modes when in Render Mode.

Windows will map the shaded . you will still be able to shade lines. The specularity decreases with increasing distance. the shaded color is equal to the original. All surfaces are equally lit. Ambient light is considered to be directionless. Note: Because Windows cannot dither lines. Render Mode will highlight backfaces. many graphics boards will be unable to properly shade the lines in your view. Spotlight at Viewer. you must also press the Light command button. For plane elements. since FEMAP does not restrict the direction of plate normals. If you choose Position Light. you can use the Shading Mode options to shade either filled areas. The third option.. lines or both. Viewing Your Model Shading When this option is on. backfaces will receive only ambient light. The remainder of the light comes from a single point source that you can position with the Color Mode option. If you specify a very large distance. This option has no affect when in Render Mode. FEMAP will modify the entity colors based on its orientation to the light source. You should therefore turn on the appropriate fill options along with shading. where FEMAP controls the face normals. FEMAP and Windows will properly shade the resulting filled areas. For solid elements in normal mode. you can create a specular pattern for the light. You can perform shading both in normal mode and Render Mode. This will result in bright areas on the “back-side” of a plate model. Shaded Tube For normal mode. it will have the same result as the Position Light at Viewer option. Render mode can only shade filled areas. Co-planar elements which have face normals pointing toward and away from the light source will be shaded identically. If you choose Light at Viewer for the Color Mode option. This will display the standard coordinate dialog box and you can specify a location for the light source. If you try to shade lines on graphics boards with less colors. It is necessary however. the light is actually located along the vector that is normal to the screen at an infinite distance from your model. unshaded color. If your graphics board supports a large number (>256) of colors. but Hidden Line mode will hide them. FEMAP does not consider the direction of the face normal when calculating the angle to the light source. By providing a distance for the spotlight. When the entity normal is perpendicular to the light source. is applicable only to Render Mode and works in conjunction with the distance value input.

you may be surprised at what is selected. This setting changes the separation between the left and right image. Finally.do not choose a hidden line view.View Options. it will appear three dimensional. it can take some time to properly focus your eyes to see the 3D image. you should review what was really selected before you proceed. although it may work. FEMAP will display a perspective projection of your model. Graphical selection is inherently two-dimensional. the lines will be properly shaded. Refer to Stereo for more information. . ( : 9 . You can adjust the Left Stereo Color (in the Perspective option) and the Right Stereo Color if they do not properly match your glasses. If you do make graphical selections from perspective views. slightly rotated from each other. otherwise axonometric (parallel) projections are drawn. each displayed in a different color. When you first look at a stereo image. If you make a hardcopy on a color printer that can print a large number of colors. You should always turn perspective on for stereo views. . you must just draw your model . Keep trying! You may find it helpful to vary the Eye Separation. This is not required for non-perspective views. The Left Stereo Color is not a part of perspective. because of the non-parallel transformations involved. or magnify a perspective view. Stereo When this option is on. Since perspective projections distort any two dimensional object which is not perpendicular to the projection. and turn fill off. Smaller values result in more distortion. FEMAP will display a stereo image of your model. Additionally. If you view the stereo image through 3D or stereo glasses. This can look strange on the screen. perspective views are not usually the best to use for graphical selection. center. The stereo image is actually two images. The method that FEMAP uses to produce hidden line views is not compatible with stereo.  color to one of its available colors. even though they might look strange on your screen. but take longer to draw. . FEMAP must fully rebuild the display lists whenever you zoom. Perspective drawPerspective Off Perspective On ings can result in more realistic images. pan. You can control the distortion in the perspective projection by modifying the Distance. Perspective When this option is on. Most 3D stereo glasses have one red and one blue lens. Similarly.

5. For rulers to be drawn. X X 12. and the appropriate ruler options must be set in the Tools Snap To command. Y 10. You can choose to display either the IDs or titles of these items. 2. Y 1. The workplane is always present and active . The color of both the Workplane and the Rulers is chosen by the View Color. View Axes The view axes represent the orientation of the global axes. 4. 10. You can also select the position graphically by pointing with the mouse and clicking the left button. Workplane Grid 3. If you define an Invisible grid in that command. 8. the workplane will be visible. 9. Origin The origin of Global coordinates is indicated by a circular symbol. in the workplane. and the view (V) that are displayed in a window. 7. 2. When this option is on. 1. 4. 11. 3. 11. Workplane Grid If this option is on. 6. Workplane and Rulers Workplane Rulers 12. the group (G). 8. but you can specify a new position by pressing Position. Viewing Your Model View Legend V: Default XY View L: 100 psi Pressure Loading C: Fixed Edges and Symmetry G: Plate Elements View Legend with Titles View Axes Z Y X The view legend identifies the load (prefixed by L) and constraint (C) sets. They are normally displayed in the lower left corner of the view. Z 9. 6. The style of the grid is controlled by the Tools Snap To command. 5. 7. You can also move the legend to any of the eight positions.even if it is not visible. the snap grid will be drawn. This option can be used to turn this symbol on or off. . Here you can simply enter the location in percentages of the graphics window (from top left) where you want the axes to appear. the Show Rulers option must be on.

. If you want to display shorter vectors..if you go to a printer or metafile they will still be a single dot in the device resolution. controls how FEMAP will distort your model as it is drawn on the screen. reduce the numbers below the 100% default value. circles are drawn as circles. The default Aspect Ratio can be set using the File Preferences command. Clipping Planes If you turn this option on. Load Vectors option to scale the load lengths as well as use a Uniform or scaled distribution. not ellipses. even though you turn this option on. the clipping planes will be drawn. You do not have to be snapping to the grid for it to be visible.. The Load Len and Other Vec options allow you to customize the length of vectors that are displayed.0 will make your model appear taller than normal. Nodes. If you choose the dot option. With AutoAspect on. ( : 9 Note: If may also use the View Options. For example. This includes the symbols drawn for Points. FEMAP will gather information about your display from Windows and will calculate an internal aspect ratio.0 will make it appear wider. It adjusts the aspect ratio. . The Preview Color is used for the symbols (dots. You can either adjust your monitor sizes. or specify an Aspect Ratio manually. Constraints.. Labels. There is no way to determine the effect of the horizontal and vertical size settings on your monitor.View Options. AutoAspect may not result in a true correction. You should never specify very large aspect ratios . Aspect ratios less than 1. Entities and Colors. If you turn AutoAspect off... . or to intentionally distort a view of your model. Larger numbers result in longer vectors. Choosing a larger size makes the symbols larger. Other Vec is used for everything else. . This automatic calculation will attempt to correct for differences between graphics boards. vectors. . a single pixel is drawn . and you are displaying a group which uses one or more clipping planes. Aspect ratios that are larger than 1. controls the size and color of symbols. .) which are drawn when you press the Preview command buttons that can be found on many dialog boxes.. Symbols.the severe distortion introduces other display problems for coordinate system triads and other symbols. View Aspect Ratio. . you can specify an Aspect Ratio that you can use to eliminate any remaining distortions. . so that the true shape of your model is shown. You can also choose whether Nodes and Points will be drawn as their normal “x” and “+” symbols. planes. . Loads and many more. Load Len is used for all loads. . Note: FEMAP and Windows adjust the aspect ratio based on the normal aspect ratio of pixels for your graphics board. For this reason.  you will not be able to see it. or as single dots.

The View Animation command provides “VCR-like” controls for your animating plot. This means that if you specify 1%. When the switch is off. all surfaces will be drawn with the number of divisions set below in the Divisions control. the surface divisions are based on the current mesh sizes. FEMAP draws all curves as a series of line segments. An arrow is placed at the end of each curve. without having to generate the elements.1.) and surfaces are drawn. no pixel on the lines drawn will be more than 1% of the radius distance away from the true arc. Show Mesh Size.. circles. including any biasing. The final choice. These options are more fully explained in the Postprocessing section of this manual. The direction is particularly important when defining a mesh size on the s and t directions of a surface. This same number is used in both parametric directions. should be used sparingly since it is the slowest. . relative to the arc radius. each surface will display the number of divisions for that entity. 5. while the other two commands provide special “Move through” viewing using OpenGL for postprocessing. With this option. Viewing Your Model Curve and Surface Accuracy This option allows you to set the accuracy with which curves (arcs. Curved beam elements with no bend radius. 6. The Parametric Directions enable you to view the directions of curves and surfaces. This can be very helpful as you adjust the mesh sizes. Every surface has a number of divisions assigned for each parametric direction. One line is drawn at each mesh point. and arrows are produced on the surface divisions to designate the s direction of the surface.5% Error For circles and arcs. When Entity Divisions is active. the error percentage that you specify is the ratio of the maximum distance from the chord formed by the line segments to the actual arc boundary. PostProcessing Options Please see the Postprocessing section of this manual. with their appropriate bend radii. a higher value results in a faster draw but a less accurate picture (circles look like polygons). A more precise (lower value) curve accuracy requires more line segments and drawing will be slower. or a radius that is too small for the nodal spacing are always drawn as straight lines.3. so the resulting pattern looks just like quadrilateral elements that will be created on the surface. Turning the Curved Beam switch on causes curved beam elements to be drawn as arcs. they are drawn as straight lines connecting nodes. The Surface Divisions adjustments allow you to control the number of lines drawn for each surface. It provides a way to see the elements that would be created by the Generate On Geometry On Surface command. If you choose View Divisions. Similarly.. just like other straight beam elements.0% Error 0.4 View Advanced Post These commands provide special animation capability.

and begin redrawing again. You decide how much of the redraw you want or need to see before you make your next selection. it is easier to use the Dynamic Rotate. An explanation of these menu commands are provided below. Using the Scroll Bars The three scroll bars.. Turn off Redraw for the fastest possible rotations. and Zoom (see the View Toolbar section of the FEMAP Users Guide) capability to quickly manipulate the View. Dynamic provides flexible interactive manipulation of the view. They can be very helpful to orient your model in different positions for both checking and entity selection purposes. 6..Modifying the View  6. FEMAP will begin redrawing your current view. update the orientation. As soon as you make a change though. this command ignores the All Views option. This dialog box is very interactive. Pan. It will only update one view at a time. Many times.4 Modifying the View The last three sections of commands on the View menu all involve modifying the active View. These commands provide capability to rotate. Since FEMAP lets you abort any redraw by simply pressing a key. are used to rotate your view from its present position. rotates the current view. and align your model. If you turn off the Redraw check box. pan. ( : 9 This command displays the View Rotate dialog box.1. Rotate Model provides precise control of rotation angles and quick access to predefined views. that selection will abort the previous redraw. FEMAP will only redraw the global axes (instead of the entire model). when you press the scroll bars. FEMAP also draws the entire model if the global axes are not visible in the active view.1. . If the new orientation is not what you want. The current view orientation will be loaded as the default orientation. When in Render mode you can access this capability simply by holding down the left mouse button. located near the left side of the dialog box. This is especially convenient since this command is available while in another menu command. while the View Toolbar button provides this capability in normal mode. View Rotate Model. zoom.1 View Rotate Menu The commands on this menu provide two basic capabilities to rotate the view of your model. Ctrl+R or F8 .. however. FEMAP always draws the entire model when you choose one of the standard orientation push buttons.. This gives you instantaneous feedback on whether you have made the correct choice. Unlike most of the other view commands. or type rotation angles. . or the left mouse button.4. you can immediately make a new selection.

First. Hint: When using the scroll bars. the redraw time will significantly slow down your rotations. FEMAP will ignore the Delta angle. Viewing Your Model As you click the scroll bar arrows. to rotate by Delta around the negative axis direction. Then press Left Arrow. The right scroll arrow rotates around the positive axis direction. . Unless your model is small. Y is always upward and Z is always “out of the screen”. you must repeatedly press and release the left mouse button. after you get close to the orientation you want. the view will rotate by the number of degrees currently defined in the Delta text box. you must select the desired scroll bar. the rotation will be around the global coordinate directions. PageUp and PageDown rotate by 45 degrees. If Model Axes are selected. specify a larger Delta. pressing the left mouse button. the last three change it to 90 degrees. FEMAP will completely redraw your model. Clicking in the gray scroll bar area is very similar to clicking the scroll arrow. Clicking the left scroll arrow rotates around the negative axis direction. These automatic changes allow you to quickly select a starting point using these buttons. rotation about one model or screen axis can actually result in changes to all three rotation angles. m The standard orientation buttons that are described later in this section automatically update Delta. remember: m If you want the rotation to go faster. m Don't worry about the position of the scroll bar “thumb buttons”. When you click here however. and always rotate by 45 degrees. Because of the way FEMAP defines the rotation angles. you can dynamically rotate the model on screen by pointing at one of the scroll arrows. When Screen Axes are selected. m If you want to quickly rotate your model around one axis multiple times. they tend to jump around. For the same reason. When you rotate your view. it is very difficult to orient your view by dragging the “thumb buttons”. use the arrows for smaller rotations. The first six buttons change it to 10 degrees. or Right Arrow to rotate around the positive direction. and the selected rotation axes. Let go of the button whenever you want to stop. and draw again. Hit the TAB key until the scroll bar is highlighted. The screen X axis is always horizontal to the right. Then. rotations will be around the screen axes. FEMAP does not abort redraws if you just hold the button down. The axis of rotation is based on the scroll bar you selected. The axis and direction of rotation are identical. and then use the scroll bars to update that orientation. rotate the view. m For small models. This is a good coarse adjustment for the orientation. and holding it down. You can accomplish the same rotations using the keyboard.

. No . respectively. define three additional orientations. If you would like to use other orientations. . The first six buttons. than to press OK and then choose the command from the menu. If you are in Render mode. it is often more convenient to use these buttons. you may know the rotation angles that produce the orientation that you want. you will see the following dialog box: If you are not in Render mode (under View Select menu). XY Top. Pressing any of these buttons automatically accepts any changes you have made . YZ Right. Whether you are in render mode or not. or Shift keys down when first pressing the left mouse button. you can Rotate About Z. always align the view with one of the principal planes of the global coordinate system.allows you to dynamically rotate.just as if you had pressed OK. . If you do. We have chosen orientations for these three buttons that are frequently used and correspond to their names.View Rotate Menu  Typing Rotation Angles Occasionally. then the doubly rotated Z axis. . They are not direction cosine angles. and Pan commands. Holding down Alt+Ctrl and pressing the left mouse button allows you to rotate around another axis that you define. . Left. Bottom. Hint: These dynamic rotation commands can also be accessed at any time in Render mode simply by holding the left mouse button in the graphics window. If you hold the Alt. You will then be able to Rotate around XY.. View Rotate Dynamic . then the rotated Y axis. and Back. Ctrl. You can use these to quickly look at your model from six orthogonal directions. your model will automatically switch to a wireframe. The last three buttons. these angles are rotations about X axis. Zoom. ZX Front. Refer to the Model Coord Sys command in this manual. the model will look the same. Pan. or Zoom. single color display of the curves and elements. These buttons will instantly switch your orientation to the appropriate predefined orientation. the operations for the View Align By Dynamic operate the same. you can use the File Preferences Views command to redefine the names and orientations of all three buttons. Zoom. for more information on rotation angles. If you are updating a view. you can type the angles into the three text boxes located just to the right of the scroll bars. All other entities will temporarily disappear. Dimetric and Trimetric. ( : 9 Mag. Selecting Standard Orientations Near the center of the dialog box you will see nine command buttons. Isometric. When you choose this command. and Pan These command buttons are shortcuts to the View Magnify. Remember. pan and zoom your model curves and elements.

with the left button down: Rotate XY Mode Rotate Around -X Rotate Around -Z Rotate Around -Y Rotate Around +Y Rotate Z Mode Rotate Around +Z Rotate Around +X Pan Mode Pan Up Zoom Mode Zoom Out (smaller) Pan Left Pan Right Pan Down Zoom In (larger) For the Rotate axis mode. pan or zoom) are done by pressing and holding the left mouse button in the active graphics window. moving the mouse to the right rotates counter-clockwise about the axis (right-hand rule). For example. you can simply hold down the Alt key as you press the left button down to Rotate around the Z axis. and then dragging the mouse either horizontally or vertically. Press Alt and Ctrl to rotate around the predefined axis. The dynamic mode can be chosen in several ways. Pan. and moving left rotates clockwise. FEMAP will automatically default to this mode when you next access dynamic rotation. The most obvious is to select one of the available buttons. or Zoom. Rotate Axis. Alternatively however. to rotate around the screen Y axis: Press Left Button Drag Mouse Z Release Button Y X Y Z X The following mouse actions are recognized. just make sure it is down before you press the mouse button. . All operations (rotate. or press Shift to Zoom. if you have previously selected one of the buttons for Rotate Z. Press Ctrl to Pan. Viewing Your Model dialog box will appear. Also. You do not have to hold the key as you drag the mouse.

When you choose this command. if you are in the Rotate Axis mode (Alt+Ctrl keys). Options. Model Axes Controls whether rotations will be around the default screen axes or around the model axes. Allows you to specify a center of rotation to be used for future rotations. If you choose the Options button. This does not change the location of the model on the screen like View Center does. in that it calculates a new model center. If you are rotating around model axes. When it is checked. so all rotations will be about that point. “Use Rotation Center” is automatically turned on. mouse movements are the same. Since it is very difficult to drag the mouse along a precisely horizontal or vertical axis however. AutoCenter is just like the View Autoscale command. your model will begin to redraw in whatever mode that you have selected. . ( : 9 .. the Single Axis option limits rotations to the single direction in which you are moving the greatest distance. Rotation Center. You can either choose pan to bring it back. you will occasionally find that your model is rotating off of the screen as you move it with this command. When you specify a rotation vector. you will see a menu that provides further control over the dynamic alignment command Single Axis Controls how model XY rotations will be done.. rotations will be around the View Center. it is easiest to accomplish compound rotations by dragging along one axis for a while. Small deviations from horizontal or vertical will be ignored.. the base of the vector is automatically used to update the Rotation Center.. moving the mouse diagonally will perform a rotation about a diagonal vector. Normally. but it does not change the scale at which the model is displayed. That is with all entities and postprocessing options. Rotation Axis... If you refer back to the previous diagram. simply press the button down again and drag it further. If you turn this option off however. it simply allows rotation around another location. Use Rotation Center This menu item is simply a toggle that turns on and off every time you choose it. or press AutoCenter.View Rotate Menu  When you let go of the left mouse button. then dragging along the other. they just apply to the corresponding model axes instead of the screen axes. AutoCenter In a three dimensional model. dragging vertically rotates around Z. or need to do more transformations. Like Rotation Center. all rotations will be about the center of rotation that you specify with the Rotation Center command. dragging horizontally rotates around Y. If it is off. Allows you to specify a vector that will be used as the rotation axis. this command also turns on “Use Rotation Center”. If you are not satisfied with the view.

and available memory you should be able to display models of around 3000-4000 faces. while limitations 3-5 apply only when you are not in Render mode. render mode can provide significantly increased dynamic rotation speed and drawing with an OpenGL accelerator board. No labels or other symbols are displayed. Viewing Your Model Note: This command does not account for any Perspective that you have specified. it is because that portion of the model you are rotating is well away from the center of rotation possibly in the direction that is perpendicular to the screen. It is usually best therefore to turn off Perspective before using this command. 2. Improving Performance of Dynamic Display FEMAP provides three different methods to redisplay your model during this command. There are limitations on the total number of nodes. If your model is larger.still probably more than enough to orient your model. you will still be able to use this function. 1. these methods are only applicable when you are not in Render mode. but only the first 3000-4000 faces will be displayed . 4. You should always experiment with these methods to find the one . the free edges will be rotated. Depending on your computer. Hidden line removal can not be done during dynamic display. Depending upon your model. If you only move the mouse slightly and a large rotation occurs. Alternatively you can switch to a free edge display. Limitations While the dynamic display capability will work with any graphics adapter (you do not need any special acceleration or 3D hardware). consider either activating a group to reduce the number. Only element edges and curves are drawn. The first two limitations apply to both modes. Note: All rotations are performed around the View Center (or the rotation center. and faces that can be displayed. Solid elements do not display interior faces (like a free-face plot). There are very few limitations to Dynamic Rotations performed in Render mode. The model is drawn in various styles depending on the View Style that is active and the type of elements in your model. position the View Center (or Rotation Center) on the geometry/mesh you are trying to rotate. Again. The display is limited to a single color . if you rotate a free-edge view.either black or white depending on the color you choose for the window background. 3. if you have turned on this option). graphics adapter and graphics drivers. and choose the elements that will be displayed. 5. To avoid this. If you are working with very large models. For example. any one of these three methods may result in best performance.

Reduced Bitmap Full Bitmap Experiment with both small and large models to see which works best for you. and then use View Rotate to update the view relative to that starting point. . Will usually be slower . Basically the same as Reduced Bitmap.. . . . rotations will be around the View Center. .but not always.1. This does not change the location of the model on the screen like View Center does.allows you to specify a center of rotation to be used for future dynamic rotations.4. . The methods are selected using the Dynamic option of the File Preferences command.. it simply allows rotation around another location. . This command can also be accessed from the Options menu on the Dynamic Rotations dialog box. If it is off.View Align By Menu  that works best on your system. remember to choose the Permanent button in File Preferences to save your selection for future models. . Little or no flicker. ( : 9 View Rotate Rotation Center. .. When you have found the method that you like. Like Rotation Center. View Rotate Rotation Axis. This command displays a standard dialog box so you can select a coordinate system. View Rotate Use Rotation Center. automatically aligns the view to the XY axes of a coordinate system. 6. Some screen flicker.. This command can also be accessed from the Options menu on the Dynamic Rotations dialog box. These commands are usually used when you want to orient the view relative to some geometry or other entities in your model. . “Use Rotation Center” is automatically turned on. this command also turns on “Use Rotation Center”. You can also use these commands to define an initial orientation. When you specify a rotation vector.. This command can also be accessed from the Options menu on the Dynamic Rotations dialog box. The view will be rotated . depending upon the capabilities of your graphics adapter. This menu item is simply a toggle that turns on and off every time you choose it. if you are also in the Rotate Axis mode (Alt+Ctrl keys). When it is checked. They are also used to orient your model within a view. . Method Fast Redraw Description Usually fastest for small models. but not good for large models unless your graphics adapter can draw vectors very rapidly. . Fast on most systems. View Align By Coord Sys. so all rotations will be about that point..2 View Align By Menu The commands on this menu are alternatives to the View Rotate command. the base of the vector is automatically used to update the Rotation Center. all dynamic rotations will be about the center of rotation that you specify with the Rotation Center command. In some cases the performance differences will be dramatic. When you choose this command.allows you to specify a vector that will be used as the rotation axis for dynamic rotation.

3 View Autoscale Menu. automatically centers and magnifies your model in the view. FEMAP will align one of the global coordinate axes with the screen X (horizontal) axis. Shift+F7 This menu provides several ways to automatically scale and move your model so that it is visible in your window. and Z “out of the screen”.. Hint: If you want to align your view normal to a plane in your model. .. . FEMAP finds the maximum dimensions of your model in all three global directions. View Autoscale All Shift+F7 . toward the tip. To use this command. This will retain the vector orientation. just switch to the View Rotate command. This will enable you to easily orient your view relative to different entities in your model. Viewing Your Model so that the coordinate system axes are aligned with the screen axes. This is the rotation about the screen Z axis (“out of the screen”). and rotate the view about the Z Screen Axis. . . aligns the view to a specified vector. No additional input is required. . the rotation of your model about the orientation vector is undefined. FEMAP sets the center of the view to the center of that box. That is.4. Hint: You can choose any of the available vector definition methods. The standard vector definition dialog box defines the alignment vector. When you specify the vector. . your model will be oriented so that you are looking from the base of the vector. or this command. The scale is adjusted. If you want to update this orientation. Y is up. the view will be aligned so the vector you selected will be pointing into the screen. . and the smallest window dimension. immediately aligns the view to the current workplane. 6. so that you can rotate your model to any orientation without parts of it going out of the window. . Y up. You can also use the various snap modes to select the vector. In general. X horizontally to the right.1. The workplane axes are aligned with the screen axes.. No additional input is required. To determine the automatic scale and center. diagonal of the “box”. but will rotate about that vector. . you can use View Align By Along Vector. Since a vector really only defines one of the orientation axes. This approach allows you to use all of the standard plane definition methods for selecting the orientation plane. and Z is out of the screen. Ctrl+F8 . View Align By Workplane. View Align By Along Vector.. In the resulting view. The X axis is horizontal (to the right). you must first use the Tools Workplane command to align the workplane to the desired orientation. It is based on the longest. This essentially puts your model inside a “box”. .

( : 9 View Autoscale Visible Ctrl+A . Likewise. .works just like the View Autoscale All command. If you are displaying a group that only contains one corner of your model. and typically not centered. This will result in scaling which is too small. thin models in non-square windows. Before you choose View Autoscale. the autoscale calculations may still be based on the larger overall model size. and then deleted or moved those entities. you must use the All Views command to select the views that you want to modify. This means that if you are only displaying geometry.View Magnify. adjusts the scale of your model in the active view. during this command.  Depending on the real shape of your model. These selections display the entire XY-plot. View Autoscale Regenerate All If AutoScale All does not work then. you can force FEMAP to recalculate all of the autoscaling information by choosing this command. then that corner will be scaled to fill the window and moved to the center. then the nodes and elements in your mesh will not be used for the scaling (and therefore may be outside of the window). View Autoscale will set both the XY X Range/Grid and XY Y Range/Grid options to Automatic.4 View Magnify. This combination should restore your scaling to the proper size and centering.4. If you have created some entities which were positioned at a large distance from your model... you may feel that the autoscaled magnification is too small. . or pressing Shift+Ctrl+A (instead of just Ctrl+A). This can be especially true for long. you cannot choose between autoscaling one. or multiple views. . 6. the shape of the window. If you see this behavior. Ctrl+M or Ctrl+F7 . Using Autoscale for XY-Plots If you have selected any of the XY-plot styles.. The axis extents are determined from the data you have selected. except that it only uses considers the portions of the model that are displayed when doing the centering and scaling computations.. Ctrl+Shift+A FEMAP maintains overall size information about your model in your database. Since no dialog box is displayed. If you need to enlarge the model use either the View Zoom or View Magnify command. This information is used to properly autoscale your model into the active window. .. relative to your window.. . the current group and layer settings are also considered.1. . and the orientation you have currently chosen.

Zoom. the Fill View button will automatically adjust the centering of your model. This does not mean that one inch in your model equals one inch on the screen. For XY-plot styles. FEMAP will magnify around the center of the view. They adjust the magnification relative to the current setting. However. this button only considers the current orientation of your model. The current view scale is shown in the Magnification Factor edit control. . or type a new factor. than to press OK and then choose the command from the menu. The buttons near the center of the dialog box provide another method of adjusting the magnification. Up 10% and Up 50% make your model appear larger. Magnification factors are relative to the size determined by the View Autoscale command. this option still might not fill the view. Viewing Your Model Up 50% Original Down 50% This command displays the View Magnify dialog box. It too bases its calculations on the overall model dimensions. It projects the overall dimensions into the current view and then adjusts the magnification factor to attempt to fill the screen. you can type it in this control and press OK. Pressing any of these buttons automatically accepts any changes you have made . This will always result in a larger image than View Autoscale. or has cutouts.0 is always used for an autoscaled view. Unlike the other View Magnify options. View Magnify will set both the XY X Range/ Grid and XY Y Range/Grid options to Max Min. Larger magnification factors make your model appear larger in the view. If you are updating a view. Using Magnify for XY-Plots If you have selected any of the XY-plot styles. If you know the scale factor you want. but just like the View Autoscale command. The Minimum and Maximum axes values are also adjusted to magnify the curves. Rotate. A magnification factor of 1. You cannot type a Magnification Factor for XY-plot styles. When you press any of these buttons. If your model geometry is non-rectangular. Down 10% and Down 50% make your model appear smaller. and Pan These command buttons are shortcuts to the View Rotate. The Fill View button is similar to the View Autoscale command.just as if you had pressed OK. Zoom. This method is also useful when you want to set All Views to the same scale factor. it is often more convenient to use these buttons. pressing Fill View results in the same image as the View Autoscale command. and Pan commands.

Upper-right is (100%. .  F7 6. if you want to automatically select OK. The four text boxes near the center of the dialog box are used to define two diagonal corners of the zoom rectangle.) they may change the location you pick with the mouse. Then move the mouse. It does not matter whether you choose the upper-left and lower-right corners.. When you Zoom In. so that the portion of your model that had filled the entire window now only fills the rectangular zoom area. .5 View Zoom. The corner locations are specified in percentages of the window. Double click the button instead.0%). Refer to the FEMAP Users Guide for more information on graphical selection. .1. make sure one of the Corner 1 text boxes is active. First.0%). in the graphics window. If you have any of the cursor snap modes enabled. simultaneously updates the scale and centering of your model in the active view. (Snap To Grid. The magnification is reduced. Position it wherever you want and press the left mouse button again. Then move the mouse to point at the diagonally opposite corner. The lower-right corner is (100%. You must choose between two zooming directions: Zoom In and Zoom Out. Snap To Node. or the upper-right and lower-left corners.100%). You can use this feature to your advantage if you want to use a Node or Point as the corner of the zoom rectangle. you will see the rectangular zoom area in your graphics window. Press the left mouse button.4. Zoom Out does just the opposite.. The update is based on a rectangular area that you define relative to the window. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Zoom Area . .. This command displays the View Zoom dialog box. It also does not matter which corner you specify first. The upper-left corner of the window is (0%.. FEMAP will enlarge the rectangular area that you define to fill the entire window. to point at the first corner of the rectangle. .View Zoom. As you do this. ( : 9 6 10 14 7 11 15 The easiest way to specify the zoom rectangle is to use your mouse. ..

or center command. This provides a quick way to alternate between full-model. 6. View Zoom will set both the XY X Range/ Grid and XY Y Range/Grid options to Max Min.6 View UnZoom. . and Pan These command buttons are shortcuts to the View Rotate. chooses the model coordinates which will be located at the center of the view.1. or you center. . It just moves the specified coordinates to the center of the view.just as if you had pressed OK. returns you to the previous magnification and centering.4. Viewing Your Model You can also just type the locations of the corners using the keyboard. to zoom. magnify. This is just like pressing OK. . . Rotate. Choosing this command a second time will return to the original view. . for example. then magnify. . after you have changed them with a zoom. The zoom area that you choose should be inside the graph area . Pressing any of these buttons automatically accepts any changes you have made . Mag. It also allows you to change your view to see other parts of your model. This command does not change the magnification or orientation of the model. You can still press Cancel to revert to the original view. If you are updating a view. and detailed views. That means.7 View Center. pan.although it does not have to be. and redraw the view. .not return the the original position before you changed the view. you can press Apply. If you choose this method however. The Minimum and Maximum axes values are adjusted based on the zoom area that you specify. Magnify. you will only be able to back up one step . or you can define additional zoom areas to further update the view. Shift+F8 . and Pan commands. you do not have the advantage of using the dynamic zoom box to position the zoom area. it is often more convenient to use these buttons.1. Note: Only one level of previous zoom is saved. if you press the Pan buttons on the toolbar more than once. and quickly return to the original settings.. than to press OK and then choose the command from the menu. except that the View Zoom dialog box is still present. This is probably the easiest way to choose particular sections of a complex XY plot. 6..4. . Previewing the Zoomed View After you define the zoom area. Using Zoom for XY-Plots If you have selected any of the XY-plot styles.

View Center. View Center will set both the XY X Range/ Grid and XY Y Range/Grid options to “Max Min”. Instead of the standard coordinate definition dialog boxes. that the depth. XY-plots display the View Position dialog box. Just point at the location with the mouse. The location (0%. . Remember however.  The standard coordinate definition dialog boxes are used to define the center coordinates. You can also graphically select coordinates. and you do not care about later rotations. It will work just like any other graphical coordinate selection. The center is entered in three dimensions because FEMAP will use this locaCenter on this point tion as the center of rotation for the View Rotate command. This is especially true since the required coordinates are relative to the window and not the graph area. If you want to center about an existing Node or Point. . It is usually best to use the mouse to graphically select the new center. As described in the previous paragraph. and then update one or more of them prior to pressing OK. You can choose any of the standard coordinate definition methods. These coordinates are specified as a percentage of the window. This will move the location you chose to the center of the view. 1 5 9 13 2 6 10 14 3 7 11 15 4 8 12 16 1 5 9 13 2 6 10 14 3 7 11 15 . The magnification is unchanged. and enter the coordinates manually. Alternatively. In this case. The Minimum and Maximum axes values are adjusted based on the location that you specify. the center coordinates will be equal to the coordinates of the entity you “snapped to”. ( : 9 You can use the mouse to choose the center of the view. the coordinate perpendicular to the screen can be given any value (or just skipped). . The lower-right corner is (100%. if you just want to quickly center the current view. and press the left mouse button. will be chosen in the Workplane. By precisely specifying the location you want. The location that you choose is just moved to the center of the graph. this might not be the point you want to rotate around.0%) is in the upper-left corner of the window.100%). you can later rotate a view about any location in your model. If you just want to move something to the center of the screen. Using Center for XY-Plots If you have selected any of the XY-plot styles. It is unimportant. you can enable the appropriate Snap Mode prior to your graphical selection. If you really want to specify a three-dimensional center. you may want to use the keyboard. this may be the easiest way to accomplish it. “into the screen”.

Right. Up.although it does not have to be. This command provides two different methods to position your model. The location (0%. the model is moved from the first location to the second.just as if you had pressed OK.5 View Pan. Previewing the Panned View After you define the pan locations.100%). which indicates a percent of the window. without changing the magnification or orientation. Then point to the location you want to move To. Pressing any of these buttons automatically accepts any changes you have made . to pan. it is often more convenient to use these buttons.0%). this is an easy way to move it around to see different portions of the curves. you will see an arrow moving with the cursor. and the upper-right corner is (100%. or Down buttons to move your model in the indicated direction. As you move. except that the View Pan dialog box is still present. Point to the location that you want to move From. Ctrl+P or Alt+F8 .. You can still press Cancel to revert to the original view. This method moves the amount specified by Percent.1.. . The lower-right corner is (100%. or you can define additional pan locations to further update the view. View Pan will set both the XY X Range/Grid and XY Y Range/Grid options to “Max Min”. Using Pan for XY-Plots If you have selected any of the XY-plot styles. and redraw the view. You can just press the Left. Right. You will probably find that the easiest method of panning with the second method is to choose the two locations graphically. is similar to the View Center command. . you can press Apply. than to press OK and then choose the command from the menu. The Minimum and Maximum axes values are adjusted based on the pan locations that you specify. or Down buttons. The other positioning method requires two locations. Viewing Your Model 6. and Zoom commands. If you are updating a view. Within the view. If you use the Left.0%) indicates the upper-left window corner. Up. Magnify. The arrow indicates the direction and distance of the pan. Mag. The two pan locations are specified in percentages of the window. This is just like pressing OK. The pan locations that you choose should be inside the graph area . Rotate. . they will automatically redraw the view. and press the left mouse button. You can also pan the view by typing coordinates. It adjusts the position of your model within a view. and Zoom These command buttons are shortcuts to the View Rotate. If you have magnified an XY-plot.

If you say No. commands pertaining to layering. it may be due to a corrupted View (especially if this model had experienced an abnormal termination previously). or in printed reports by specifying which group will be seen or used to create a report.Deleting Views  It is usually best to use the mouse to graphically select the pan locations.1 Differences Between Groups and Layers Groups and layers provide a convenient method of segmenting a model. FEMAP will ask if it is OK to delete this view. discrete pieces. so they are therefore always deletable. certain items do not appear. simply delete the View and create a new one with the View New command. and the Group Menu. more manageable. you can create an infinite number of visual combinations for your model.1. however.2. the command will be canceled. Groups Reference Display Active Entity in multiple groups Only one group at a time Active or Specific Group Only One Active Group Layers Each Entity on only one Layer Any Combination of Layers Only One Active Layer By creating multiple groups. . or you get Abort messages. and using multiple layers. This section will describe the differences between Groups and Layers. By using groups and layers. This greater flexibility also provides the disadvantage . The other major area to modify what you see in a view involves groups and layers. These pieces can then be used to minimize the amount of information presented in the View window. You should also then perform a File Rebuild to restructure the database. Groups and layers also make it easier to manipulate. and select the number of the Views you wish to delete. can be deleted from the model. Although it is often times just as easy to de-Activate a View than delete it. just like other FEMAP entities. If you say yes. Simply use the Delete View command.6 Deleting Views Views. 6. there are some key differences between Groups and Layers. This should remove the corruption from the model. Some main points about groups and layers are summarized in the table below.2 Groups and Layers The previous section concentrated on the View Menu command to manipulate the view. This is especially true since the required coordinates are relative to the window and not the graph area. there are specific instances when deleting a View is recommended. update. which are scattered throughout the FEMAP menu. the View(s) will be deleted. Views have no entities which are dependent upon them. 6. you can segment your model into smaller. if you have trouble working with a view. You may also simply click on a View if it is currently visible to select it. If you suspect a View is corrupt. and apply loads to your model. ( : 9 6. Specifically.

They can be separated into two major areas (1) Creating a Layer and (2) Viewing Layers. Viewing Your Model of more methods to “hide” things in your model. . Other commands involve deleting layers.2. Rather. You may also easily group elements using a particular property or material.2. By themselves. Then enter a title. where all the entities associated with a given layer would be drawn on a clear sheet of paper. modifying layer reference on entities. You may also use this command to activate a layer by selecting the layer and pressing OK (you may also use the View Layers command to activate a layer). in the aircraft industry. 6. a model of a complete aircraft would be carefully numbered. and only the “active” clear sheets being overlaid would produce a visual image. If you do not see an entity which you created. on the other hand. The name layer comes from the clear sheet of paper analogy for CAD layering. Groups are designed to mimic how FEA models were numbered and arranged when they were built by hand. All the nodes and elements at a frame at a particular location along the fuselage would be numbered in such a manner as to clearly identify them as belonging to that frame. all entities in FEMAP are placed on the layers that you create with this command. To make a new layer. you must always have some layer active. or it is not on a visible layer. 6. it is a good bet that either it is not in the Group you are currently displaying.2 Layer Commands There are several commands associated with layers which are scattered through the FEMAP Menu. FEMAP grouping makes it very easy to isolate portions of a finite element model that are numbered in such a manner. Unlike other sets. Layers. choose a color and press OK. are designed similar to layering in most CAD systems. Brief explanations are also provided for these entities. and the Group Layers command. which are discussed below. enter an ID that does not exist in the list of available layers. For example.2.1 Creating a Layer (Tools Layers command) The Tools Layers command is used to define layers in your model. The following dialog box is displayed: This dialog box works just like the other set creation dialog boxes. layers cannot be displayed.

Each of these commands are described in more detail in their appropriate sections. These commands are separated into three major sections: (1) the Group Set command.2. or to control groups (Group Layers command). You may Show All Layers (Default Setting) or Show Visible Layers Only. please see View Layers under the View Menu commands in this manual. these entities may still have the same layer reference. The entities which were on the deleted layer will automatically be placed on the new layer. The entities on the deleted layers will then not be visible unless you have Show All Layers active. is provided below. Delete Tools Layer.3 Group Menu Commands The commands on this menu allow you to create. and Group Layer. and manipulate Groups within your model. .2 Viewing Layers (View Layers command) The View Layers command allows you to control which layers are active for the display. This does not automatically create a group with all the entities in that layer. you may simply use Tools Layers to create a new layer with that same number. . 6. There are also no checks made to see if entities exist on a layer when you are about to delete it.Viewing Layers (View Layers command)  Once layers have been created and entities assigned to them. 6. You may select any combination of layers to Show or Hide. 6. they can be used to control display and entity selection (View Layers command).2. This command does not delete entities that are on the layer. edit.3 Related Layer Commands Other commands related to layers include Modify Layer. you can use this command to move entities from one layer to another. but the layer itself will be removed. however.2. Instead.2. ( : 9 Delete Tool Layer This command enables you to delete a layer. and (3) commands to add certain identities to the Group. A brief description. Hint: If you do delete a layer which has information contained on it. be careful when using this command. (2) Group Manipulations. Therefore. please see Group Layers under the Group Menu Commands section. It simply limits the selected entities to a specific layer. For more information on the actual operation of this command. which requires input for each entity you selected. For more information on this command. This is a much easier method of changing the layer of a large number of entities in comparison to Modify Edit. Group Layers This command provides an easy method to limit a group to a specific number of layer(s). In fact. Modify Layer The Modify Layer command actually makes no changes to the Layers themselves.2. You will typically only want to use this command when you have an empty layer.

and rules. Contour/Criteria limits can automatically be adjusted to the peak values which occur on those entities in the Group (see View Options). When you invoke this command. please see the Viewing Your Model Section (Group Section) in the FEMAP Users Guide. If you choose to “always” evaluate. nodal output data is converted to elemental output data.. and rules to find the entities which are included.2. you should choose a descriptive title.. or enter the ID... It is similar to the Model Load Set and Model Constraint Set commands. Group Operations Evaluate. This can significantly decrease system performance. To activate a Group which already exists. Similarly.3. you can select a Group which will be used to limit your display to the portion of the model which is “in the Group”.. simply choose it from the list. 6. To create a new Group. You do not have to use the Group Operations Evaluate command. To deactivate all Groups. every time you use the group. Group Operations Evaluate Always. They do not add any new definitions to the current Group. You will not be able to define or edit a Group if it has not been activated using this command. and press OK. layers. whenever you are asked to select a Group. enter an ID which does not appear in the list of available sets (Groups). Then enter a Title. When this option is set for the active group. The process used for evaluation is described in the FEMAP Users Guide. You should use this command any time that you create or modify entities that should be selected in the current Group. and press OK.2. or activates an existing Group. 6. and vice versa based on the selected Group (see Create Output Convert).. Viewing Your Model How Groups are Used FEMAP Groups identify portions of your model. evaluates the active Group. .. you will see a check mark beside the command in the menu. This section will concentrate on the individual commands contained on the Group menu. along with the IDs.no additional input is required... With the View Select command (press the Model Data command button). but will automatically add new or modified entities to the group every time you use it. sets a Group to be evaluated every time it is used.. For more information on methodology and how to use Groups. Alt+F2 . As always. FEMAP will ask you to confirm that you really want to evaluate the active Group . FEMAP will reevaluate all clipping. layer options.. creates a new Group..1 Group Set. The titles are displayed. this Group also has an impact on postprocessing. . This command will use the Group clipping planes. All Group definition commands work with the active Group. . press Reset.3.2 Group Operations Menu The commands on this menu are used to manipulate a Group. In addition to simplifying your display.

FEMAP will ask you whether it is OK to renumber the active group when you renumber entities.. With this option there is no need to reevaluate the selected group to have the entities appear . it is the same as choosing the “None” option.. This means that if you have included Node 1 in the group.. or “None”. If you select No for the renumbering option..provides the capability to maintain the same entities in the group even when you renumber the entities. Group Operations Automatic Add.. you must use this command to make a new selection. you will not be able to graphically select nodes or other entities in that View. any attempt to reference that View will be significantly slower than if Evaluate Always was off. ( : 9 Note: You will be able to choose from the “Active” Group. In addition. . and you then renumber it to 50.don’t automatically evaluate. You do not need to turn on Evaluate Always for a group that you select for “Automatic Add”. If you choose “Select”. it will still remain in the group (i. it will be much faster if you do not. Group Operations Copy. FEMAP will change the Group Node ID entry from 1 to 50).. Note: If you are displaying a group where you have turned on Evaluate Always.. In fact. Any entity you make in the future with Node ID 1 will automatically be included in the group. You will typically want to have this option on Yes to prevent changes in your groups from renumbering.. If no group is active.they are added without the need for reevaluation. because the Group must be reevaluated. Node 1 will remain as the entry.automatically adds all newly created entities to the selected group. Select a Group.. and you will lose the new Node 50 (renumbered 1) from the group. When you invoke this command... The default is “None”. The default is Yes for this command. If you check the Evaluate . If you choose the “Active” option. if you want to switch to a different group. makes a new Group which is a copy of the active Group. Group Operations Renumber. . you must input the ID and Title of the Group that will be created. and choosing No .. . then you must also choose an existing group from the combo box. newly created entities will be added to whatever group is active at that time. or Automatic Add will be disabled. which means that new entities will not be added into any group. When you select this command. In this mode. In File Preferences. the View Autoplot Created/Modified Geometry preference must be on.Group Operations Menu  You can turn this option off by reselecting the command. All entities will be added to that group. You can change the active group using the Group Set command. .e.

or the other Group that you select. All clipping. To be selected in the resulting Group. the selections will be converted to ID rules. is similar to the Group Operations And command.. . You can also choose to Evaluate either Group prior to creating the new Group.. Again. but you can choose the ID of any nonexisting Group. the Groups will always be evaluated if they have not already been evaluated. The only difference is that the resulting Group contains all entities which are included in either the active Group. FEMAP will always evaluate it before the Group is copied. and you want to make sure that no entities. This command works with the Active group. you will force the Group to be reevaluated prior to being copied. In addition. just like for the other Group Operations commands.. the new Group is not a copy of the active Group. When to use Condense Condense is usually used when you have defined a Group using Clipping or other fairly general rules (like Nodes 1 to 10000). clipping. Point IDs. Group Operations Condense.... all of the entities which are selected in the active Group are used to define ID rules in the new Group. Node IDs. . layer. as well as a 2nd group that you select from the existing Group list. an entity must be included in both the active Group AND the other Group you select. Instead. None of the original rules. a condensed group will typically reevaluate faster than the group defined by clipping. The new ID rules (Coord Sys IDs. This evaluation must happen. . Group Operations Or. Group Operations And. Viewing Your Model option. In this case however. . If the active Group has not been evaluated since it was created or last modified. other than those which are currently selected. It does not matter if the original Group selected the entities by clipping or other types of rules.. and will occur no matter how you set the Evaluate option.. Condense will reduce these general selections to specific rules which will only include the currently selected entities.. The resulting Group is formed just like it was by the Group Condense command. in that it creates a new Group which selects the same entities as the active Group.. will be inadvertently included during future Group evaluations. and rule information in the original two Groups is reduced to “by ID” rules which select just the appropriate IDs. or layer information will be included in the new Group. is similar to Group Operations Copy. A new ID will automatically be assigned for the Group to Create.. etc.) will select all of the entities that were previously selected. You should also specify a descriptive Title. creates a new Group which selects all of the entities that are currently in two other selected Groups..

In this command however. If you just want to break based on changing materials. Group Operations Generate. since any combination of layers can be displayed. choose “Material ID”. The capabilities of this command are also used by the Model Output Extrapolate command to segment your model prior to extrapolation. Line and other types of elements will simply be ignored... is also similar to the Group Operations And command.. Other than the title. this will automatically put each material into one or more groups.. property and material features and discontinuities. but that are not included in both Groups. When used for output extrapolation. . their layers will also be updated so that each segment is on a separate layer. except that this command only works with the active Group. ( : 9 Add Layers If you turn this option on. ..Group Operations Menu  Group Operations Exclusive Or. you will be asked for the elements that you want to consider. you should only choose one type (Planar or Solid) at a time. will automatically create groups by segmenting your model based on geometric. . This can be useful if you want to display multiple segments simultaneously. Choose “None” to skip this type of checking when the model is being segmented. When you choose this command. This command only works with planar or solid elements.. In that case however no groups are created.. Group Operations Not. choose “Property ID”. not only will elements be placed into segmented groups.unless you chose multiple types... The new Group that is created will contain “by ID” rules which select all of the entities in your model that are not selected in the active Group. or the other Group that you select. .. these options recognize that stresses or other output are not continuous across different materials or other part/thickness boundaries. If you want to put elements with different properties into different groups. You must then decide how you want to segment your model. Since each property references a material. the resulting Group contains only those entities which are included in either the active Group.. the dialog box is just like the one for Group Operations Copy. Typically. is similar to the Group Operations And command. You will then see the following dialog box: The correct element type should be selected automatically based on the elements that you selected . Attribute Breaks Breaking your model into segments based on attributes allows you to find areas of differing thickness or material. ..

if you have a box structure. and FEMAP will segment based on those attributes. geometric breaks will automatically detect and segment each face of the box . a new segment will be formed. if you really want to break some portion of your model into multiple parts. . geometric breaks apply only to planar elements. FEMAP calculates the normal to the planar face for each element.even if all elements have identical attributes. These options really provide you a way to customize the way that FEMAP will segment your model. Complete Model Generated Groups Note: This command can create quite a few groups given a large model . When you choose to do geometric breaking. but all elements have the same property. For example. which can be used with either planar or solid elements. choose “None”. you can always set their color or layer prior to using this command. If they are not within that angle. It can also take quite a while to evaluate the entire model. If the normals of two adjoining elements are within the angle that you specify of being parallel.especially if you use geometric breaks with a small angle. For example. Viewing Your Model In addition to these basic attribute options. To ignore geometric breaks. then choose the appropriate option. they will be considered to be in the same segment (neglecting any attribute differences). Geometric breaks are very important for segmenting complex plate structures. you can also choose to formulate different groups based on changes in the Layer or Color that each element references. Geometric Breaks Unlike the attribute breaks.

... it simply assigns default titles to the groups that are generated.. You specify the number of layers of elements to “peel” off of the outside.. not the properties themselves. it is usually best to display each group. . ( : 9 Group Operations Generate Material.. You can also choose to create a group from the elements that remain after all peeling has been completed .e.will automatically create a group based on Solid geometry. except the groups are based upon the element type. .is similar to the Group Operations Generate Property command. . . You can create groups from the outer layers . the core elements.... regardless of their locations. Group Operations Peel. Group Operations Generate Solids.the ones that are “peeled”. and change the title (use Group Set) to something that will be more meaningful to you. Remember however.. You simply select the Solids you wish to group and FEMAP will create a single group containing the selected solids and there associated curves. Elements are “peeled” if they have one or more faces on the outer surface of the selected elements.. Similarly if you choose to peel multiple layers. All elements in the model referencing a particular property will be placed in the same group. lines and points. .. and the next layer is “peeled” from the remaining elements.. You simply select the properties you wish to consider and FEMAP will create separate groups containing elements that reference each property. will automatically create groups by segmenting your model based on properties. and no discontinuities will be considered. You have two choices as you group elements using this command. that only solid elements are considered for this command. Typically you will want to select the entire model. one at a time.i. Operations Generate Property. . This will result in one group for each layer that you choose. except you pick the particular properties for the groups.. . Initially.... not the properties themselves. After they are created. except the groups are generated based upon the materials of the elements (on their property cards). each layer is removed. is similar to the Group Operations Generate Property command. is used with solid elements to remove one or more layers from the outside of a model..Group Operations Menu  Hint: Since FEMAP has no way of knowing what the various segments of your model represent. This works very similar to Group Operations Generate. Group Operations Generate Elem Type.. you choose the elements that you want to “peel”..

this command is much faster. . Rather than manually going to each entity type and adding a rule that includes all IDs (1 to 99999999). Group Operations Contact Segment/Surface. Simply select the contact segments to include in the group. After creating these rules.. . the standard entity selection dialog box will appear. you can then go add additional rules to Remove or Exclude portions of your model. deletes all rules in the active Group. . you can use this command to automatically create all of those rules in the current group.. Viewing Your Model While it is somewhat difficult to visualize the result of this command the following picture attempts to show it First Layer (no center elements) Complete Model Second Layer (no center element) Remaining Core Group Operations Select Model.. you will be asked to confirm your desire to delete the rules before this command proceeds.. Group Operations Reset Rules.. When you are asked whether to create the rules. If you want to delete all of your rules... enables you to put Contact Segments into the group. .. When this command is used... You can selectively delete rules by choosing the appropriate Group Menu commands and deleting entries in the standard entity selection dialog boxes. You can also use the Group Contact command to select Contact Segments for the group... of all types. As for all delete commands. you must press Yes or the command will end. is a shortcut to create rules that will select your entire model.

for Screen and Volume clipping.. The Group Selection by Coordinate Clipping dialog box selects the clipping options. It is not necessary that all of the Nodes referenced by an Element are included . but the defaults will be relatively meaningless. For example. Nodal Loads are included if the Nodes where they are applied have been selected by clipping. Nodes.3 Group Clipping Menu The commands on this submenu are used to define the coordinate and plane clipping options for the active Group. for Plane clipping. ( : 9 Group Clipping Coordinate. Below. if they were defined using a different command.. the clipping planes that were previously active will remain active. you only need to include one of the Nodes to include the Elements. Elemental Loads are included only if the Elements where they are applied have been selected by clipping. allows you to quickly select portions of your model based on their coordinate values relative to a selected Coordinate System. Points. You can use this technique to edit one or more planes that you defined using Screen or Volume. FEMAP bases the selection of entities on coordinate locations. This implies that at least one of the Nodes referenced by those Elements has been included also. Between.just one. How Clipping is Evaluated When you specify either plane or coordinate clipping. Text that is positioned relative to your model is clipped in the same way. . Other entities are clipped based on the Points or Nodes that they reference. If you answer No. View positioned Text can not be selected via clipping. the command will continue.2.3.. Elements are included if any of the Nodes that they reference are included by clipping. . and Volume commands all control the same six clipping planes. Note: The Group Clipping Screen.choosing one will override previous plane selections. Plane.. or Outside of the selected Minimum and/or . You can independently specify both coordinate clipping and up to six clipping planes. They are not independent . FEMAP will therefore ask you to confirm that you want to turn off the previous clipping options.Group Clipping Menu  6. You can choose to clip Above. and Coordinate Systems are all clipped based on their location in your model. If you are trying to establish clipping planes to select Elements. When you choose No.

They are still defined relative to model coordinates . Between will clip or remove anything between the Minimum and Maximum. coordinate clipping will be turned off. Everything that has a radius which is smaller than the Maximum value that you specify will be included. To evaluate the clipping. Since all clipping is really done with Planes.. Although you can specify a convex polygon with the 4 Point method.which cannot change. Clipping Non-Planar Regions If you choose a cylindrical or spherical coordinate system. That means that if you rotate the View after you define the clipping planes. The 2 Point method defines a single clipping plane which passes through the two locations and which is perpendicular to the active View. just like the Rectangle method. Rectangle allows you to specify two opposite corners of a rectangular region. With this command you pick a series of locations. This approach insures that the same entities are always selected for the Group. or removed. no matter how you orient the View. With these options however.. if you wanted to select a cylindrical volume. the clipping region can be nonplanar. Finally. the planes will not rotate. the Group Selection by Screen Clipping dialog box will be displayed. . Group Clipping Screen. FEMAP will transform the entity coordinates into the system you select and compare them against the Minimum and/or Maximum values that you specify. You can choose between four possible methods to orient the clipping planes. Anything less than the Maximum will be included. anything which is above the Maximum will be clipped.hence the title Screen Clipping. Outside is the opposite.. you can specify an arbitrary polygon.. Anything less than the Minimum will be clipped. you could choose a cylindrical system and then clip Above an X (actually a radius for a cylindrical system) value. For example. it will not clip your model properly. When you choose Above. Although the orientation of the active View orients the clipping planes. allows you to quickly orient up to four (of the possible six) clipping planes. the planes are still defined relative to your model. you can select any existing Coordinate System. Viewing Your Model Maximum coordinates. Below is the opposite. they can only properly be com- . When you invoke the command. The Coordinate Value section allows you to select the coordinate direction that will control clipping. The sides of the rectangle are aligned with the sides of the window. Both the 3 Point and the 4 Point methods define clipping polygons. If you choose None. The clipping planes will be oriented to pass through those positions and be normal to the active View .

a convex region will be improperly clipped. . The Positive Side. You can choose which plane to define or update by selecting one of the option buttons from 1 to 6. For this command. you will see the Group Selection by Plane Clipping dialog box.. This edge clips the shaded area Clipping Polygon This area is inside the polygon. and why. move to the next location and press again. Choosing Inside does just the opposite. you will see lines which outline the region that you are defining. you can press Preview. or many others. is the side toward the plane normal direction. Preview will draw an outline around the clipping region. Choosing Outside.. If you type coordinates. The figure shows how. and will select all entities which are inside the region. this choice should be obvious. Y and Z coordinates. Only one plane can be positioned each time you use this command. they must always be relative to the active Coordinate system. Then. you should define the locations that you want to use to position the clipping plane or planes. . For the methods that define polygonal regions. Outside chooses the side of the plane indicated by the right-hand rule going from the first to the second point and then into the screen. If you are typing coordinates. you must choose whether to clip Inside or Outside the clipping region. When you choose Group Clipping Plane. Before invoking this command. If a plane is already active you will see the word “On” beside the option button. Simply move the cursor to the location you want and press the left mouse button. you can choose an active Coordinate System using the Tools Parameters command. For the 2 Point method. will clip or remove all entities which lie outside of the clipping region. or you just want to verify your final positions before pressing OK. enables you to independently position the six clipping planes... As you move the cursor around in your graphics window. Clipping the Positive Side . To complete the screen clipping specification. but is still clipped by the other edge After choosing a method. These lines can assist you in properly positioning the clipping planes. You must also choose whether to clip the Positive Side or Negative Side of the plane. the easiest way to define these positions is to use the graphics cursor to choose screen locations. ( : 9 Group Clipping Plane.Group Clipping Menu  bined to form non-convex regions. You can not choose an active system in this command. While you can always type X. the standard plane definition dialog boxes are used to position the planes.

you should use the Positive Side option. with all plane normals pointing outward.. Working with Multiple Clipping Planes By correctly choosing between the Positive Side and Negative Side options. if you want to select some region of your model using multiple planes. The 2 Point method defines a cubic volume. Before you press OK. turns off both coordinate clipping and plane clipping.. . Each coordinate defines a corner of the hexahedron. When you are trying to combine multiple planes to clip a more complex region. Then. Group Clipping Reset Clip. position the clipping planes around the periphery of the region you want to keep. If they are not. once for each corner. If you answer Yes to either of these questions. select the appropriate option button. This command will ask two questions. With the 8 Point method. As stated previously. There are two methods for defining the desired volume. aligned with the Global Rectangular coordinate system. You can choose any of the definition methods to orient the plane. For this method. Clipping Inside does just the opposite. when you press OK. the standard plane definition dialog box will be displayed. the associated clipping options will be turned off. You must specify the corners in the same order as you would for an 8-noded solid element . which you can select from the Group Selection by Volume Clipping dialog box. . you must also choose whether to clip Outside or Inside the volume. and press Reset.around the bottom face and then around the top face. all entities which are outside of the volume you define will be skipped. you can define a general hexahedron. The entities which are inside will be selected into the Group. you will not select the correct portion of your model. you must be certain that these orientations are properly aligned. it is quicker to use the Group Clipping Reset command. you can not create convex clipping regions. Group Clipping Volume. When you press OK.. the standard coordinate definition dialog box will be displayed twice... If you want to turn a particular plane off. automatically positions all six clipping planes to form a cubic (hexahedral) volume. Viewing Your Model will ignore all entities on the side toward the positive plane normal and include entities on the other side. . If you want to turn all planes off. In general. The first asks whether you wish to turn off all plane clipping. The two coordinates that you specify will define the diagonal of the clipping cube... The second asks whether to turn off coordinate clipping. If you clip Outside.. a 2-Point method or an 8-Point method. The standard coordinate definition dialog box is displayed eight times. you can clip entities on either side of a plane.

. or Layer).3. Points they reference. Curves which reference them. edit.2. Each entity will also have several methods available for including them in the group. You can select Points into your Group based upon ID. or any combination of these methods. edit. Outside will allow you to select entities that reference layers numbers which are less than (but not equal to) the minimum. or On Solid.. The Limit Group to Selected Layers dialog box specifies the allowable layers. or that reference layers which are greater than (but not equal to) the maximum. Definition Coordinate System. All layers are acceptable. Initially. Common methods to all entities include Group by ID. edit. Layer. . Color. or Type). while you can select Materials by methods on Property.. Solids which reference them or any combination of these methods. you must specify the Minimum and/or Maximum allowable layer.  6. but you will remove them from the Group if they are not on one of the active Layers. and delete the rules which will be used to select Points. Layer.4 Group Layers. defines the layers which can be referenced by entities which are included in the Group. and delete the rules which will be used to select Text. You can select Text into your Group using the common methods only (ID. and delete the rules which will be used to select Curves. and Layer. Group Curve Menu The commands on this submenu allow you to define. On Element. Color. They are separated into different sections based upon the type of entity to group.. Group Text Menu The commands on this submenu allow you to define. The Between option will enable inclusion of entities which reference the Minimum or Maximum layers (or anything in between). ( : 9 6.Group Layers. Group Point Menu The commands on this submenu allow you to define.5 Grouping Individual Entities The remaining commands involve adding individual entities to the group. ..2. Color. You can select Curves into your Group based on ID. you can select Curves by methods Using Point. If you choose one of the other options. On Surface. Surfaces which reference them.3.. Additional options will be available based upon the entity (i.. You can not automatically select entities using this command.e. Color. Please see the Group Section of the FEMAP Users Guide for more information on the available methods.

When you select ID . or any combination of these methods. Layer. Group Volume Menu The commands on this submenu allow you to define. and delete the rules which will be used to select Volumes. edit. This dialog box enables you to limit the selected Nodes to those that are constrained in any constraint set or a specific set as well specific DOFs. The Select Nodes with Constraint dialog box will appear. Color. Layer. You can select Volumes into your Group based on their ID. . The ID option has additional options under the Method area which you can use to limit the IDs to those nodes on a Free Edge. or any combination of these methods. and delete the rules which will be used to select Surfaces. Output Coordinate Systems. Constrained or Loaded. Curves they reference. and delete the rules which will be used to select coordinate systems. Group Solid Menu The commands on this submenu allow you to define. on a Free Face. Layer. Curves. and Volume/Solids from which they were created). edit. Solids which reference them. and delete the rules which will be used to select Volumes. If you enter the ID values. edit. These limitations only apply to graphical selection from the view. you must have performed a Free Edge or Free Face plot since your last View Regenerate. Surfaces. Layer. Type. or any combination of these methods. and no nodes will be selected. or do a Select All. Color. To use the Free Edge or Free Face options. You must graphical select the nodes for FEMAP to properly limit the node selection. defined at a Point or Node or any combination of these methods. Group Node Menu The commands on this submenu allow you to define. Group Coord Sys Menu The commands on this submenu allow you to define. You can select Nodes into your Group based on their ID. Color. You can select coordinate systems into your Group based on their ID. Definition Coordinate System. Curves they reference. Volumes which reference them. Geometric References (Points. Elements which reference them. FEMAP will include these entities into the group. You can select Solids into your Group based on their ID. no free edge or face lists will be present. Color. The predefined Global Coordinate Systems cannot be selected into a Group. Surfaces they reference. edit. Surfaces they reference. or any combination of these methods. If you have not. Viewing Your Model Group Surface Menu The commands on this submenu allow you to define. Layer. Definition Coordinate Systems.Constrained. You can select Surfaces into your Group based on their ID. Color. edit. and delete the rules which will be used to select Nodes.

You can select Properties into your Group based on their ID. Similar to the Group Node by ID. You can select Elements into your Group based on their ID. or any combination of these methods.Grouping Individual Entities  When you select loaded. the Element Type. Layer. Materials which they reference. Again. the Property Type. you can limit the ID selections to those elements that have a Free Edge. edit. change the method for the grouping to the appropriate ID method. You must select the type of load on the node for it to be selected in the group. Materials or Nodes they reference. the Select Entities with Load dialog box will appear. . Color. Properties. the Material Type. Hint: If you want to select all nodes that are loaded. you must graphical select the nodes for FEMAP to properly limit the node selection. Layer. and delete the rules which will be used to select Elements. and delete the rules which will be used to select Properties. or any combination of these methods. or a Load applied. Color. In addition. Geometric References (Points. You can select Materials into your Group based on their ID. Properties or Elements which reference them. ( : 9 Group Element Menu The commands on this submenu allow you to define. and then do a Box pick of the entire screen. edit. simply do a View Autoscale. or any combination of these methods. Layer. This will select all nodes that meet the criteria. the Element Shape. and Volume/Solids from which they were created). you can limit it to a specific load set and magnitude range. Group Material Menu The commands on this submenu allow you to define. Color. Elements which reference them. edit. or constrained (or on free edges or free faces). . and delete the rules which will be used to select Materials. Group Property Menu The commands on this submenu allow you to define. Curves. Free Face. Surfaces.

as always. When the Group is used for display or selecting entities. Viewing Your Model Group Load Menu The commands on this submenu allow you to define. but instead select the Nodes and Elements where the Loads are applied. only the Constraints from the active Constraint set are selected. If you say No. Group Contact Segment/Surface Menu The commands on this submenu allow you to define. edit. edit. you will be asked to verify that you want to delete the Group(s). .4 Deleting Groups You may also delete groups just like any other entity in FEMAP. When the Group is used for display or selecting entities. and then choose the Group or Groups you wish to delete. edit. the command is cancelled. and delete the rules which will be used to select Constraints. therefore Groups should never be Nondeletable. as always. As with any FEMAP Delete command. and include Loads which are applied to that portion of your model. You can include or exclude contact segments based upon ID. Since Constraints are defined in multiple sets. If you say Yes. There are no entities which depend on Groups. and delete the rules which will be used to select Contact Segments/Surfaces. Since Loads are defined in multiple sets. Group Constraint Menu The commands on this submenu allow you to define. Color. or Layer. and delete the rules which will be used to select Loads. 6. in all Sets. they are deleted. but instead select the Nodes where the Constraints are applied. only the Loads from the active Load set are selected. This allows you to choose a certain portion of your model and include Constraints which are applied to that portion of your model in all Sets. the commands on this menu really do not select the Loads. This allows you to choose a certain portion of your model.2. Simply select the Delete Group command. the commands on this menu really do not select the Constraints.

allows you to renumber by simply adding a constant value to each ID. Constant Offset. you will be prompted to enter the Groups to renumber. You will then see the Renumber TO dialog box.5 Renumbering Groups You may also renumber Groups similar to other renumbering options in FEMAP. When you invoke the Modify Renumber Groups command. .2. as well as to Verify Renumbering. The only orders available for groups are Original ID and Selection Order. All other options except Starting ID and Verify Renumbering are turned off when you select this option. You may also choose Ascending or Descending order. The final option.Renumbering Groups  6. ( : 9 .

 Viewing Your Model .

You can set the total number of commands which you can undo in the File Preferences Database command. but are used for viewing.1 Tools Undo. The final section involves the actual checking commands. These commands will also be explained in this section. . For convenience. These tools can be separated into three major areas based upon their functions and their placement in the Menu.1 Undo and Redo These commands provide a simple method of reverting backward. The commands under the Tools and List Menu will be explained more fully below.. 7. or if you want to review the effect of the changes.1. These tools range from summing forces to performing Free Edge and Free Face plots to visualize any gaps in the model. reporting.. Listing. and Viewing. will be explained more fully below. For further explanation on the general operation of the viewing commands. Section four are actually FEMAP Finite Element entities. based upon the type of Function to perform. and the Check Commands. while Viewing Tools will be briefly discussed. 7.7Modeling Tools FEMAP has an extensive array of tools for checking and manipulating your model. The next section includes Tools for Operating on your model. these sections of commands will be separated into two areas. Each of the above sections. You can repeatedly use Undo to backup multiple commands. Ctrl+Z . This is a very easy method to eliminate commands that have had unexpected results.1. They are Tools. or go forward one command.. The first section involves simply Undo and Redo of commands. This allows you to “back up” one command if you made a mistake. but are considered general Tools for your use when operating FEMAP.. The second is changing the Workplane. and inputting data. The FEMAP Tools Menu is separated into five major categories. The Tools Redo command will “undo the undo”. the Measuring commands. with their associated commands.1. removes the effect of the previous command. 7. The Tools Menu also contain commands which are not specifically designed for checking your model.1 Tools Menu The commands on the Tools Menu provide a wide variety of Tools for checking and operating on your model. or moving forward through the commands you just performed. please see the View Select and View Options sections of the Viewing Your Model Chapter.

If you execute any of these commands you will be unable to back-up past that point. or nothing is selected. Undo will erase all of those entities as a single command. Modeling Tools When you undo a command. and (3) Origin and Axes. They all write files. you can change Snap Options with the Snap Options button or turn the drawing of the Workplane on or off with Draw Workplane. Immediately following an Undo. (2) Move Plane. .. You may also change the Snap To options with this command. and then choose another real command.. the following dialog box will appear: These commands all involve locating the workplane. 7. but do not cause any loss of previous undo information. When you select this command. This command is only available following one or more Undo commands. They simply provide different methods to locate it. you can no longer use Redo to retrieve the undone commands. If you have undone one or more commands. just in reverse. These commands are separated into three major types: (1) Define Plane. The commands on the File menu. specifies the location. or make changes which are non-reversible. you will see a message in the Messages and Listings Window which tells you the command that you are undoing. If you are using the autorepeat feature of the Create commands to create multiple entities.. You can use Redo repeatedly up to the point where you are back to your last real (not Undo) command. . In addition. Ctrl+W or F2 . If you attempt to select something.1. Activate and Window commands cannot be undone. prior to being able to graphically select an entity from the screen .1. You must choose the command from the menu to be able to backup a single creation per undo.. and the View New. and a different entity is picked. .. size and orientation of the Workplane which is used for cursor selections or defining two-dimensional geometry. you may need to use View Redraw. Other changes which you make to resize or move a window will also not be undone.2 Tools Workplane. 7. The graphics windows will also be updated to show the effect of undoing the command. Ctrl+Shift+Z .2 Tools Redo.1.. goes forward one command following an Undo. then use View Redraw.even though the entity is displayed. You cannot undo back through the initialization of either the ACIS or Parasolid advanced geometry engines since their initialization also causes non-reversible changes to the database. It works identically to Undo.

the Workplane will be placed back at its original position. FEMAP will automatically align the Plane to the surface by orienting the Y Axis to the surface. Reverse the direction of the Normals (Reverse Direction). it is best to leave this option off so the default directions for Add or Remove material will be properly aligned. If you perform previous twice. you will see a Define Model Workplane dialog box. or provide an offset distance from the surface. When you select this method. or from the Workplane option on many of the Command Toolbars (those related to creating geometry). You can only backup one position with this command. You can still select a different method in this dialog box if you decide another method would be more convenient. and optionally a Point along the X Axis (Axis Point). For more information on the Standard Plane Definition dialog box. the Point for the origin of the Workplane Grid (At Point).Define Plane  Hint: You can also access this command from any dialog box (in a text box or drop-down list) by using the Ctrl+W shortcut keys. and then use the righthand rule convention to align the Z axis to complete the triad. In addition. If you plan to perform solid boolean operations such as Extrude. 7. . On Surface The On Surface method allows you to align the workplane to a particular surface.1. you can decide to force the surface to be in the first quadrant of the Workplane (First Quadrant). The only difference is the Global Plane method sets the default on the Plane Definition Dialog Box to the Global Plane method. It simply places the Workplane at its last previous location. 2 2 / 6 7 Previous The Previous method requires no input. Select Plane/Global Plane Both the Select Plane and Global Plane options use the Standard Plane Definition Dialog Box to define the Model Workplane. Input (or graphically select) the Surface ID. The First Quadrant option may also reverse the Normal direction.1 Define Plane These commands locate the Workplane in space. please see the FEMAP Users Guide under the common dialog box area.2.

Move Origin requires input of the location of the origin via the Standard Coordinate Definition Dialog box. Offset Distance This method allows you to both translate and rotate the Workplane with respect to its normal (Z direction). As always. and (3) Rotate. and the resulting axis may not be where you expected. X Offset and Y Offset. Offset Origin. If you do not. respectively). These offsets are in the Workplane X and Y directions. rotation is performed using a right-hand rule convention.3 Origin and Axes These commands do not change the “plane” associated with the workplane. FEMAP will project this point onto the Workplane. The Workplane will maintain the same rotational orientation. and then rotated about its normal by the rotation amount. The offset origin method offsets the origin of the Workplane from its current location. Modeling Tools 7. and a rotation value (in degrees). Move Origin These two commands move the origin of the Workplane. and the rotation angle. When you select this method. and Rotate is pure Rotation. and the resulting origin may not be where you expected.1.2. There are three available methods for this type of procedure: (1) Offset Distance.2 Move Plane The Move Plane methods allow you to define the location of the Workplane by translating or rotating the current workplane with a location input respect to its current location. FEMAP will project this vector onto the Workplane. Offset Distance involves both translation and rotation. Align Y Axis These methods allow you to align the X Axis or Y Axis to a vector which you define through the Standard Coordinate Definition dialog box. Align X Axis. The first two commands move the origin (Offset Origin and Move Origin). 7. You should typically select a vector that is in the current Workplane. Rotate This Method allows you to rotate the Workplane around an arbitrary vector. It will simply be moved to that coordinate. . You should typically select a location that is on the current Workplane. The only inputs required are the vector to serve as the axis of rotation (defined by using the Standard Vector Definition dialog box). while Move to Point is pure translation. but simply move the origin or the axes of the workplane within that plane. If you do not. Move to Point The Move to Point method simply translates the Workplane origin to a specified location. (2) Move to Point. Only two inputs are required. you will be required to input both a Z offset (in units of length). and the last two commands orient the X and Y axes (Align X Axis and Align Y Axis. The only input required is the coordinate location (via the Standard Coordinate Definition Dialog box). The Workplane will be translated along its normal by the translation amount.1. simply input a negative value.2. If you want to translate or rotate in the negative direction.

defines the graphics cursor snap mode. and the Ruler Labels.. or through the Workplane icon on the geometry sections of the Geometry. through the Quick Access command menu. (3) Workplane Size. Hint: You can access this command from any dialog box (in a text box or drop-down list) by using the Ctrl+T shortcut keys. which controls the frequency of labels on the Workplane. In addition. input a value for the X Grid Size and FEMAP will also use this for Y. but you must also specify a Grid Size. Each of these areas are explained more fully below.. The Snap To dialog box is separated into four major sections: (1) Grid and Ruler Spacing. Uniform and Nonuniform spacing also require input of the Divisions. For Uniform. The Divisions option specifies how many minor tic marks will be drawn between every major tic. the size and orientation of the snap grid and the grid display style... You cannot define nonuniform labeling. FEMAP uses this value for the Ruler Labels. The Ruler Labels value will be used for both grids. . or a Nonuniform spacing.2.. FEMAP will calculate a grid spacing based upon the model size and then use the Divisions value to further partition the grid. and (4) Snap To. set a Uniform spacing.4 Snap Options. 2 2 / 6 7 Grid and Ruler Spacing These options specify the spacing between snap grid locations.1. The Snap To dialog box sets these options. . Nonuniform requires the additional input of the Y Grid Size.Snap Options. (2) Grid Style.  7.. You can allow FEMAP to determine the spacing (Automatic). Automatic requires input only of the Divisions.

and you will receive a message which tells you that the grid is too dense for display. The Snap Grid is drawn as a rectangular pattern. Workplane Size This area controls the total size of the Workplane grid. the Quick Access menu. Ctrl+P (Point) or Ctrl+N (Node) shortcut keys. You will also have to turn on the option to Show Rulers under View Options. and even attach the Workplane directly to planar surfaces when the Workplane coincides with a planar surface. The display of the Snap Grid for an individual window can be turned on or off using the View Options command. If your workplane and grid is rotated relative to your graphics window. If the Snap Grid spacing is too small relative to the image displayed in a window. or it can be Invisible. as well as the drawing of the X and Y Rulers. Tools and View Style. Conversely it can be displayed as dots or lines and the snap mode can be set to snap to a Point. Hint: You can also set these modes from any dialog box by using the Ctrl+S (Off). These options are much more convenient when building a model than the manually scaling approach. and Adjust to Planar Surface options. or nearest Node. however. The Draw X and Y Ruler controls define whether the rulers are drawn. nearest Point. Even in these areas where the dots or lines are not drawn. Also. The style of display has no effect on whether or not the cursor snaps to a particular location. You can make the grid invisible and still snap to it. These options will allow FEMAP to automatically scale FEMAP based upon the model size. the dots or lines could completely fill the window. Grid Style Modeling Tools The Snap Grid can be displayed either as Dots or Lines. Please refer to the FEMAP Users Guide for more information on each of these Snap To methods. the grid may not completely cover the window display area. the cursor will still snap to the grid location (assuming you have the snap mode set). Node or screen location. or from the View Toolbar. . The size of that pattern is based on your model size and current view scale factors when using the automatic scaling. Ctrl+G (Snap Grid). Workplane and Rulers to see the Rulers. Snap To These options choose whether the graphics cursor will select locations which correspond to a screen location (Off). the grid will not be drawn. This can be very handy in instances when you are working on small sections of your model to define the Workplane size. you may manually define a Workplane which does not fill the screen. or will snap to the nearest Snap Grid location. In this case. It is often much easier. to select the Adjust to Model Size. The X From/To and Y From/To allow to manually scale the Workplane.

You must have the Parasolids and/or ACIS modelers to perform solid modeling operations.even when you are picking entities.. In this case. If you turn it off however. and they will be explained below. ZND( ). FEMAP will automatically choose the appropriate engine when importing geometry files. YPT( ) and ZPT( ) instead of the coordinate values. .ACIS ACIS. the location is only as accurate as the number of digits that are in the dialog box.Parasolid 3. There are five commands contained in this section. 7. FEMAP will use the full double-precision database coordinates of the selected Node or Point. or every time you select an entity from the graphics window. When this is on. In this case.1. or any other time you click in the graphics window. Full Precision This option controls how FEMAP will write graphically selected coordinates into your dialog boxes.3. The Standard engine uses internal FEMAP geometry to create models. Advanced Geometry . XPT( ). All other picks will work as if snap was off.1 Tools Advanced Geometry. one. 2 2 / 6 7 . the active snap mode will always be used .1. It only applies when you are snapping to Nodes or Points. This engine does not have solid modeling or advanced surface capability. FEMAP will only snap if you are trying to define a model coordinate location. If Full Precision is on. The only time you need to select the engine is if you combine an ACIS and a Parasolid part.Operational Tools  Coord Only This option controls whether FEMAP will use the snap mode only during coordinate definition. Depending upon the options you purchased with FEMAP. when you press OK. There are currently three options: 1. It will also default to the proper engine if you have only purchased one of the modeling engines. If you have selected one of these modules or FEMAP has activated one of them automatically.. 7.3 Operational Tools The next set of commands on the Tools Menu involve operational commands which provide access to different types of entities. the coordinate values are written to the dialog box.. two or three of these options may be applicable. Standard 2. Advanced Geometry . When Full Precision is off. as well as defining or modifying parameters.. zooming. selects the type of geometry engine to use for geometric modeling. or are creating a solid model inside of FEMAP. YND( ). you will see a check mark next to the Advanced Geometry command on the menu. FEMAP will use the equation functions XND( ). and need to export either an ACIS or Parasolid file to import to another program.

the Cursor Position dialog will always stay on top of all other windows. All you have to do is point at the button with your cursor. Menus and Toolbars.. alternately displays and removes the Cursor Position dialog box. the dialog can disappear behind other windows. or by selecting the command a second time.3.1. Arrow indicates that a button is used to access a second level menu Press Here to go back to previous menu .1..2 Tools Cursor Position. you will execute a command or macro (just like a program file but stored in the toolbox file)... This tool will show you the X.. under graphical selection.3.. You can close this dialog box either by choosing Close from it’s system menu. These coordinates are reported in the active coordinate system.Y. describes use of the Cursor Position Tool when you select coordinates with the graphics cursor. If you are snapping to the screen (no snapping) or to the Snap Grid. . The FEMAP Users Guide. This feature can be disabled using File Preferences. Whenever the Cursor Position dialog box is displayed.. The toolbox gives you quick. the coordinates will reflect the true location. and will therefore always be visible. Modeling Tools 7. alternately displays and removes the toolbox dialog box. graphical access to the commands that you use most. Icons can be confusing. If this option is checked. so FEMAP automatically displays a one line description of each button in the main window title bar. . If you turn this option off. 7.3 Tools Toolbox.Z coordinates of the graphics cursor as it moves around in the graphics window. this command will be displayed in the menu with a check mark beside it. If you are snapping to the closest Point or Node. the screen location which will be used to determine the closest entity will be shown. Just by clicking on one of the picture buttons in the toolbox. Always on Top You will find an option on the system menu of the Cursor Position dialog that is titled Always on Top..

 Most toolbox buttons execute commands. In the standard toolbox. if the toolbox is already open (on the screen). just like the menu items that display a submenu. If you want to review all of the parameters. . Hint: Making the Toolbox visible can significantly reduce the screen area for visualizing your model. will appear at the bottom of the toolbox. If you have multiple toolboxes. or set more than one or two.3. It is often easier to use the Command Toolbars as shortcuts to commands. FEMAP only refers to the preferences when you open a toolbox.Tools Parameters. So. You can create additional toolboxes or even change the standard toolbox.. the File Preferences command is used to select the toolbox that is displayed. labelled <<Menu. . however. 2 2 / 6 7 . some will switch to a “toolbox submenu”. these buttons have a small black arrow. All of the individual FEMAP model parameters can be set during creation or activation of an entity. When you switch to a toolbox submenu. FEMAP comes with a standard toolbox that implements many common commands.4 Tools Parameters. an extra button. Press this button when you want to go back to the previous menu.1. Refer to Appendix on Toolboxes for more information. . 7. allows you to set numerous model parameters simultaneously.. this command simplifies that task. you must close it and reopen it whenever you change your preferences. and only open the Toolbox when you are performing repeated operations which are not contained on the View or Command Toolbars. . . Simply changing the preferences will not select a new toolbox if it is already on your screen.

Whenever you create an entity. The conversion formula is: Unitnew = ( Unitold × Factormultiply ) + Factoradd This approach gives you great flexibility in your conversion. can be used to convert the entities (geometry. Reset will quickly set everything back to the default .0.0 and all add factors equal to 0. (or as an option when you choose OK). 7.. The conversion process uses a consistent methodology for converting all types of units. thereby eliminating many of the coincident nodes you would typically get in a multi-surface mesh. Active Sets are used to hold all entities which are created. For the entity sets. You also can globally scale and/or add a constant value to certain types of units with this command. . Whenever you select Calculate. loads and constraints are always created in the active load or constraint set. materials and properties) are referenced by new entities. and it is automatically incremented by the creation Increment for the next creation. Active entities (coordinate systems. coordinates are always specified in the active coordinate system..5 Tools Convert Units. positions. you can then make further modifications to the conversion factors. but provide a simple way of specifying the twenty-four actual conversion factors... you can set the Color.1.3. If necessary. Modeling Tools For all of the entities which are drawn in the graphics window.all multiplication factors equal to 1. For example.. Next ID is used as the default ID. The Base Factors are not directly used during a conversion. You may also change the Active Layer. All Nodes within this tolerance will be automatically merged. Next ID and creation Increment. for unit conversions. Invert will take all of the current conversion factors . you will set the add factors to zero. For example. or specify the Next ID and creation Increment.. the current values of the base factors are used to update the conversion factors. you can choose an Active Set. The only exception is for conversion of temperatures. Typically however. as well as specify a Merge Tolerance when meshing geometry.. properties.) in your current model to a different system of units.

this will invert them to become factors to do the opposite conversion. F=Force.  and “invert” them. M=Mass. For example. Unit Conversion Factors Calc By uses the Base Factors L=Length. if the factors were loaded to convert from SI to USCS. E=Energy. T=Temp ID 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Factor Length Area Inertia Force Moment Spring Spring Rot Pressure Calc By L L2 L4 F F*L F/L F F/L2 ID 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Factor DampingRot Mass Mass-Length Mass/Length Mass/Area Density Mass Inertia Temperature Calc By F*t M M*L M/L M/L2 M/L3 M*L2 T (mult & add) 1/T 2 2 / 6 7 Acceleration L/t2 Acceleration 1/t2 Rotation Thermal Expansion Thermal E/t*L*T Conductivity . t=Time.Tools Convert Units... The following table shows the method that “Calculate” uses to determine the conversion factors from the Base Factors.

Conversion Factor File Formats Using combinations of Load and Save is the easiest way to create and edit your own conversion factor files. This option will display the standard file access dialog box to allow you to choose the conversion factor file you want to use.. or even what system of units it was using. It takes the conversion factors that are currently in the dialog box and writes them to a new conversion factor file. The base “Add” factors are not used. These files are normal text files however.N LengthMultBase ForceMultBase TimeMultBase MassMultBase TemperatureMultBase EnergyMultBase ID Contents of Record in File LengthAddBase ForceAddBase TimeAddBase MassAddBase TemperatureAddBase EnergyAddBase ConversionFactorMult ConversionFactorAdd . The default filename extension is *. and you can edit and modify them with any text editor. There are several conversion factor files which are delivered with FEMAP. Note however. When you choose a file. Using Conversion Factor Files While you can input all of the base and/or conversion factors every time you want to use this command. Since this command is intended to convert units from one system of measurement to another. M=Mass. This insures that a consistent set of units is maintained. the conversion factors will be loaded from that file. T=Temp ID 10 11 Factor VelocityRot Damping Calc By 1/t F*t/L ID 22 23 24 Factor Calc By Specific Heat E/M*T Heat Gen E/t*L3 Rate Energy/Mass E/M Only the multiplication base factors are used in these calculations (other than for directly setting the Temperature conversion factor). Modeling Tools Unit Conversion Factors Calc By uses the Base Factors L=Length. E=Energy. choose Load. You can then review and change them to suit your needs. the conversion is applied to your entire model. that FEMAP makes no attempt (and really has no way) to determine whether your original model used a consistent set of units. The Save button has just the opposite results. t=Time. The format of these files is as follows: Conversion Factor File Formats Record 1 2 3 4 5 6 7. To use one of these files. it is much easier to use conversion factor files. F=Force.CF. or any conversion factor files which you create.

Note: The following rules must be followed for all conversion factor files: m No blank lines are allowed in conversion factor files.Entity Tools  The file is actually written and read in free-format and you must have one or more spaces between each number. but can also contain numbers (0 through 9). This means that Var_1. and underscore characters (_). m All factors must be separated by one or more spaces. or an equation which contains variables. These entities themselves are not used in FEA analysis. 2 2 / 6 7 Variable Names FEMAP variable names can be up to 20 characters in length. . Spaces are not allowed. The first six lines contain the base factors and must always be specified. 7. Refer to the FEMAP Users Guide for more details on specifying numerical input using variables. You can also specify one or more additional lines which directly update the conversion factors. but they must be unique within the first 5 characters.even if they are zero. but no specific columns or number of digits is required. they must first be created. including at the end of the file. viewing your model.1 Tools Variables Ctrl+L Variables are used in FEMAP to store a numerical value or an equation with your model. Throughout FEMAP. all reference the same variable. and placing text in your model. Differences between upper and lower case and underscores are ignored. 7. var_1. but are provided as easy methods of inputting variable values. Just put one or more spaces after the add factor and before any other text. m No factors may be skipped . and A1234_EXTRA all reference the same variable.4 Entity Tools The fourth section of the Tools menu is comprised of commands which create FEMAP entities. The conversion factor IDs are shown in the table above. m You can place comments at the end of each line in the file. you can specify a variable. Before you can use variables however. at any time a numerical value is required. VAR_1 and var1. The three commands in this section are explained in more detail below.1. Variables must start with a letter (A through Z).1. You must specify the ID of the conversion factor to be updated along with the factors. instead of a number. A12345. This means that A1234.4. but these are not required.

You can either enter the number of the color for the layer.This dialog box works just like the other set creation dialog boxes. If you want additional assistance when you are defining the equation. To make a new layer. If you are updating an existing variable.2 Tools Layers. you can either press Equation Editor.. To activate a Layer. The drop-down list is provided to show you a list of all variables which are currently defined. Press OK when you are satisfied with the variable definition. or to control display and entity selection (View Layers . 7. and updates existing variables. you will modify it. If it does not exist. In either case. If you are entering an equation. choose a color and press OK.. You simply enter the Variable Name.. . press Show Result. they can be used to control groups (Group Layers command).1. FEMAP will display the FEMAP equation editor. switch to the Value or Equation text box and define the data to be stored with the variable. please see the FEMAP Users Guide. or choose it by pressing the Palette button . it will be created. you can enter either a numerical value. If a variable with that name (or an equivalent name based on the rules specified above) already exists. or just type Ctrl+E. Modeling Tools Defining and Updating Variables The variable creation dialog box defines new variables. is used to define layers in your model. By themselves layers cannot be displayed. simply choose it from the list.. The value will be shown under the text box. After specifying a name. For more information on the equation editor. As the title implies. Once layers have been created and entities assigned to them. or an equation to be saved in the variable. rather. enter an ID that does not exist in the list of available layers. The title is limited to 25 characters. Title and Color. Then enter a title. other entities are placed on the layers that you create with this command. or enter its ID and press OK. you will notice that the text box was updated to reflect the current contents of the variable. you must always have some layer active. Unlike other sets. Layers have an ID. and you want to see its current value.4.

For more information on showing layers. Pressing Enter alone will choose OK . Font selection is limited to the entries shown in the drop-down list. Text can contain any number of lines. but only up to 256 characters per text entity. and enter the text.4. A second dialog box will be displayed if you have chosen to define a text pointer.. while the Border/ Pointer Color options set the color of the lines drawn for the border and pointer. After you choose all of the text options.  command). 7.the default command button. please see the Layers section of the Viewing your Model chapter in this manual.. The Color options set the color of the text...Tools Text. which will allow you to locate the text. lets you define text to annotate your model which will be displayed in one or more views. you will see either the standard coordinate definition dialog box (Model Positioned text) or the View Position dialog box (View Positioned text). This locates the tip of the pointer. text looks like the following: Border Text This is MultiLine text to be created Background Pointer 2 2 / 6 7 Note: You must always remember to use Ctrl+Enter to advance to the next line of text. .3 Tools Text. .1. You can optionally add a rectangular border/box around the text and a pointer which goes from the text to another location that you specify.. As displayed.. The Background Color fills the background of the text inside the border (only if the border is drawn).

This approach can be used to add multiple pointers from a single annotation. Justification Modeling Tools The justification options have two purposes. to the tip position. Visibility Text can either be visible in All Views. you will need to specify a set of coordinates to locate the tip of the pointer in addition to the coordinates you specified to position the text. or in a Single View. First. Top corner of the text. 7. justification specifies how the text will be located. Secondly however. but you could also specify a file and/or printer as well. It will be drawn from the text position. You should normally use this type of text for picture titles that you want to remain in the same spot. This type of entity will simply display as a pointer or vector. This location is completely independent of the model orientation or scaling within the view. Results of these commands are sent to the List Destination specified with the List Destination command. .relative to the View or relative to the Model. If the text is Left. Style These options control whether or not the text pointer and border will be drawn for this entity. the lines of text are justified based on the settings of these options when they are drawn. Top justified. mass properties. the location you specify will be in the middle of the text both horizontally and vertically. Position There are two ways to position text entities . If you choose the Single View option. If the text is H Center (horizontal centering) and V Center (vertical centering) justified. since it would not point to the same location as the model was scaled or rotated. This type of text is useful for labelling a model feature since it will move with the coordinates where it is defined.1. Model positioned text is located relative to model coordinates. Typically this will be the Messages and Lists window. or just to add vectors with arrowheads to your model. Text display can also be turned on or off in each view using the View Options command. that you specify. If you want a pointer. FEMAP will allow you to create a text entity which has no text. It is therefore displayed wherever those model coordinates are located in the view. angles between a center and two locations. length of curves. you must enter one or more characters of text. You can measure distances between two locations. you must identify an existing view for the display. relative to the location you specify. the location you specify will be the Left. Using Text to Create a Pointer Normally. View positioned text should rarely have a pointer. View positioned text will always appear at the same location in every view (based on a percentage of window size from the upper left corner).5 Measuring Tools The next few commands all involve measurements. If you turn on the pointer however. and section properties.

If you do want to measure the distance between Points or Nodes. Instead of reporting the value. FEMAP enters the result in the current field. This command will automatically repeat until you press Cancel. and the angular measurement is reported in a message. second endpoint 2 2 / 6 7 angle first endpoint origin The first location specified is the origin or center of the angle. . measures the linear distance between two locations. The angle is measured between the vectors formed by these endpoint locations and the origin of the angle. and FEMAP will execute this command. assuming you are measuring between XYZ locations (as opposed to Nodes or Points) the default “from” location for the second measurement will be the “to” location from the first measurement. 7.2 Tools Angles.1. This enables you to simply press OK and measure between a series of locations. The standard coordinate definition dialog boxes are used to define the three locations.... Then.. ..1 Tools Distance.  7.5. Instead of reporting the value..Tools Distance. FEMAP enters the result in the current field. Hint: This command is also available wherever an input of a angle is required. and FEMAP will execute this command. you can either snap the coordinates to one of those entities. This command works just like Tools Distance.. In addition.5. such as defining vectors. Hint: This command is also available wherever an input of a length is required. such as rotation commands. The locations do not have to exist as Points or Nodes.. Simply press Ctrl+D in the field where you need to input the distance. or choose either the On Node or On Point coordinate definition method. The distance and the global components of the vector between the two locations is reported in a message.. Simply press Ctrl+A in the field where you need to input the angle.. measures the angular distance between three locations. two additional “endpoint” locations must be chosen. . This command uses the standard coordinate definition dialog boxes to determine the two locations to measure between.1.

For splines.. Circle. After you press OK... as well as the total area of all chosen.. They do not have to be connected to one another.. For arcs and circles it is the arc length. you must select the elements to be checked using the standard entity selection dialog box.. It cannot be used to obtain the surface area of Boundary Surfaces or Standard Geometry Engine surfaces.. Surfaces are selected via the standard entity selection dialog box.1. center of gravity.... The total length along the curve between its endpoints. The only input required for this command are the surfaces. This command produces a listing in the following format: ID ID ID ID 1 4 13 14 Line Line Arc Circle Length Length Length Length Total Length = = = = = 0.... Tools Mass Properties Solid Properties.. surface area.. center of gravity. ID Line. you will be able to set further options which control the command.provides access to commands which will provide length and mass property information for both geometric entities. Tools Mass Properties Mesh. This command is only available for Parasolid or ACIS surfaces. Tools Mass Properties Measure Curves. Each of the commands available under this menu is explained below. .You can choose any curves in your model.3 Tools Mass Properties Menu. FEMAP will automatically compute the area of each surface. You can only select one solid at a time with this command. calculates the surface area of the selected surfaces. .. . You can also choose whether to have the mass properties for individual ele- .. You can choose a Coordinate System which will be used for the calculations. determines the mass. You select the curves that FEMAP will measure using the standard entity selection dialog box. . calculates and outputs the volume. as well as your finite element mesh.. show the type of curve being measured.88335 In the listing. Arc.806812 2. 1.5. For lines this is just the distance between the endpoints. Length is the ID of the curve being measured. Modeling Tools 7. and inertia of selected elements from your model. determines the length of selected curves.. . When you select this command.... Total Length Tools Mass Properties Surface Area. and moment of inertia for the solid selected. it is the length along the spline. is the sum of all the individual curve lengths.27473 4.80181 8.

Tools Mass Properties Menu. DOF Spring. Bending Only. on the line between the nodes None NonStructural Mass Length*NSM Length*NSM Length*NSM Link Beam Curved Beam None Length*NSM ArcLen*NSM Spring. Overall mass properties are always reported. Plot Only Area*Thickness*Density Shear Panel. both in global rectangular coordinates... and the coordinate system you choose. Gap.  ments reported. The following table shows the formulas used to calculate the mass and CG for each element type: Element Type Rod Bar Tube Structural Mass Length*Area*Density Length*Area*Density Length*Area*Density where Area=PI*(Do2-Di2)/4 None Length*Area*Density ArcLen*Area*Density where ArcLen is measured from the offset CG. Plane Strain Plate Area*AverageThickness* Density Laminate Area*(sum of Layer Thickness*Layer Density)) Axisymmetric Area*PI*Ravg2*Density Solid Volume*Density Mass Mass Mass Matrix Mass(Matrix[1. Membrane.1] only) Rigid None Stiffness None Matrix Slide Line None None Area*NSM Area*NSM Area*NSM None None None None None None None 2 2 / 6 7 .

Total Length (Line Elements only) = Total Area (Area Elements only) = Total Volume (All Elements) = The format of the detailed element mass listing shown above has been narrowed to fit in this manual.21732 0 Ixy= Iyz= Izx= NonStruct Total Mass > Elem Prop Matl Type 0. Inputs required for this command are the surface ID and the Y-Axis vector.32161 A 3 0. .2198E-3 1 1 1 PLATE 0.0085 0. no elemental inertia is added.687442 Y= -0. Y= 0.5.203387 0.203387 X= 0.612062 6..4 Tools Section Properties Menu.0067 Izz = 12. Center of Gravity in CSys 0 X= -0. 0. 9. 2. FEMAP will then internally mesh the surface and . 7.0545 Izz = 13. Mass Structural = NonStructural= Total Mass = Inertias about CSys Ixx = 12.1.. The first point selected in the Y-Axis (or orientation vector) will also define the origin. X= -0. Modeling Tools The mass properties report follows this sample format: Elem Len/Area/Vol 1 0. 2. or with a few large. 0.290452 A 2 0. high-mass elements. Izx= 0. 0.2198E-3 9. The inertia calculations are done based only on a lumped/point mass formulation. it contains the element volume and is followed by the letter “V”.. The mass and inertia report is written to the active List Destination.. Other than mass and mass matrix elements. For most finite element models however. Inertias about C.10155E-3 2 1 1 PLATE 0. provides access to commands which will calculate the section-properties for either a surface or a mesh.313259 0. 8.G.. . measure the cross-section properties of a selected surface. 0. Ixx = 12. The type of data listed in the Length/Area/Volume column depends on the element type.0936 Iyy = 11.24119E-3 Iyz= 0.1481 Structural 8. You will probably have to scroll to the right to see the full report width. it is relatively accurate.10155E-3 2.2 3 2 0 MASS Z= Z= Z= 0.687442 Y= -0. For Line Elements it contains the element length and will be followed by the letter “L”. For volume elements. For plane elements it contains the element area and is followed by the letter “A”. The inertia is calculated due to the offset of masses from the center of gravity and the center of the selected coordinate system...2 2.21732 0. This approximation is not very accurate for models with very few elements. Tools Section Properties Surface Properties.0019 Iyy = 10.12062E-2 in CSys 0 Ixy= 3.. with large numbers of small elements.

1 Tools Check Coincident Points...6. angle to principal axes. finds Points in your model which are close to or at the same location. Tools Check. like the measuring commands. FEMAP calculates the standard section properties such as area. This command is identical to the Tools Check Coincident Nodes command except that it works with Points. These tools provide quick and valuable commands to verify portions of your model. will send information to the List Destination. radius of gyration. and warping constant are output. FEMAP then calculates the cross-section properties of the mesh directly from the elements instead of creating an internal mesh as in the case of Tools Section Properties Surface Properties.1. . 7. principal moments of inertia. moments of inertia. is identical to Tools Section Properties Surface Properties except you choose elements instead of a surface. Tools Section Properties Mesh Properties.. . 2 2 / 6 7 7.. and shear area. contains a serious of commands which are very useful for checking your finite element model. In addition. A typical result is shown below: The result includes reference to the chosen orientation as well as the section properties.Checking Tools  use the Y-Axis vector and the Beam Cross-Section Generator to calculate the section properties. These commands. torsional constant. you can also merge these Points. Using this command.6 Checking Tools The last menu. You must still define the Y-Axis vector.. but you can use the List Destination command to change it to a printer and/or file.. Refer to that command for more information.. This command uses the same Beam Cross-Section Generator available under Model Property (type Beam) Shape. This destination is typically the Messages and Lists Window.1. The result is output to the List Destination.. .

but not removed.. you should check the Nodes you want to keep. A curve is considered to be coincident only if all of the points that define a curve are coincident to the points that define another curve of the same type. This lets you select the Nodes to be checked. 7. you will see the Check/Merge Coincident Nodes dialog box. If you press No. If you really want to eliminate the coincident Nodes which are found.. you will probably just want to check all Nodes and press No. When you press OK. Here you can specify a Maximum Distance to Merge. you can only select one set of curves. . Using this command. and then choose the Nodes you want to eliminate in the “merge” set. If you do not already know which Nodes in your model are coincident.otherwise the coincident curves are listed. If instead you know particular Nodes are coincident... You should always set this to a small number relative to your model size.6. Use of this command is similar to the Tools Check Coincident Nodes command. This will merge all Nodes. Modeling Tools 7.3 Tools Check Coincident Nodes. After you have selected all of the Nodes to be checked and/or merged. by checking “List Coincident Entities”) but not merged. . Those curves are then checked for coincidence against each other. a line that goes from point A to point B is coincident with a line that goes from point B to point A. the Nodes you chose to check will also be used as the Nodes to be merged. you can also merge these Curves. Points must be coincident within the “Maximum distance to Merge” for curves to be coincident. finds Curves in your model which are close to or at the same location. You must choose “Merge Coincident Entities” to actually remove any coincident curves from your model . Using this command. For example.6.. the standard entity selection dialog box will again be displayed so you can select the Nodes to be merged. you will see the standard entity selection dialog box. you will be asked whether or not you want to specify a second set of Nodes to be merged. When you invoke the command.1.1..2 Tools Check Coincident Curves. This command compares two sets or lists of Nodes to determine their coincidence. the coincident Nodes are listed (if requested. If you do not. press Yes. you can also merge these Nodes.. you must enable Merge Coincident Nodes. If you press Yes. Unlike that command however. Nodes whose difference in locations are less than this distance are considered to be coincident.. A curve will still be considered coincident if its points are coincident but reversed. The same merge options dialog is used for this command. finds Nodes in your model which are at the same location. .

If you select “Move Nodes Closer. is a good way to review the entities that will be merged. This precaution will prevent Nodes from being merged no matter how close together they are. If the perpendicular distance from a Node to the plane is larger than this distance. FEMAP will never merge Nodes that are used to define the same Element. Nodes which are out of plane are simply listed to the active List Destination. If you specify a distance which is too large. the Node is considered to be “out of the plane”. it is “in the plane”. Optionally. in a direction which is normal to the plane.1. which identifies the nodes that have been. These Nodes will still be reported as coincident.. all references to the Node being eliminated are updated to the other Node. after you press OK.6. by checking the final two options. The groups can be combined into a single group using the Group Operations Or command.4 Tools Check Planar. you can also move Nodes onto the plane. These too will still be identified. . Creating groups. you must choose the Nodes that you want to check for planarity. the plane will be determined from the three Nodes with the minimum IDs that are also not colinear. to insure you will merge the correct entities. You can specify a Max Allowable Distance from the Plane. they will be projected. The standard entity selection dialog box is used for this purpose. By default. choose Specify Plane Manually. A report.. Nodes which are used to define different corners of the same Element could be found as coincident and merged. nodal and permanent constraints on the two Nodes are merged or combined..”. or use them in other FEMAP commands. and added to the groups. Since this would create an invalid Element. Nodes which should not be coincident could be merged. If it is large enough..  In addition to listing however. If this option is set. or would be. Similarly. Otherwise. you can also place the coincident Nodes into Groups.. 7. If you want to control this plane more precisely. and added to the groups. determines whether Nodes are located on a selected plane. you will see the Check Planarity of Nodes dialog box. without merging.. Also by default. In addition. When Nodes are merged. FEMAP will not allow you to merge Nodes with different Output Coordinate Systems since their nodal degrees of freedom may not be aligned. onto the plane... the standard plane definition dialog box will be displayed 2 2 / 6 7 . After you make your selections. You can display the groups. merged is written to the active List Destination. When you invoke this command.Tools Check Planar.

and choose “Specify Plane Manually”... FEMAP looks at all of the nodes that you select to determine the “best fit” plane. If Check Elements with Different Types is selected. The perpendicular distances will be listed. a Beam would be considered coincident with a Bar if it had the same endpoints.. Select the Nodes to be projected. Other Uses for Check Planar While this command was intended to be used to check for the planarity of Nodes... you can also use this command. you will almost always want to specify the plane manually. Hint: When you are going to “Move Nodes” onto the plane. along with the perpendicular distance to the plane.. If you have nodes that are “out of plane”.. then specify a very small (or zero) Max Allowable Distance.6. using the standard entity selection dialog box. 7.. When “out of plane” Nodes are found. Here you are given three options which control the checking procedure. it has several other interesting applications..5 Tools Check Coincident Elem. and choose Specify Plane Manually. . the default plane will be the one that was automatically determined.. If . After you choose the Elements to check. in fact.. Select the Nodes that you want. they will. and you will project onto a skewed plane. FEMAP still chooses a plane. Define the desired plane. Do not select Move Nodes Closer.” so all nodes chosen will be within this distance from the plane. Modeling Tools so you can define the plane to be used. The selected Nodes will be projected onto the plane. elements are considered coincident even though they may have different element types.” and define the plane that you want. Projecting onto a Plane: If you need to project some portion of your model onto a plane.. Distance from a Plane to a Node: If you need to find the perpendicular distance from a plane to one or more Nodes in your model use this command. For example. In this case. specify a large “Max Allowable Distance. identifies Elements which are defined by the same Nodes and are therefore coincident. When you specify the plane manually. you will see the Check Coincident Element dialog box. You will then have a chance to review and change the definition. also select “Move Nodes Closer. they are listed. and uses it as the default for the plane definition dialogs.. If you do choose to specify your own plane. cause the plane to be rotated.1.

7. Taper. Any element which exceeds one of these limits for an enabled checking option will be listed to the active List Destination.. If you choose Check Mass Elements. Line and Other element types are simply ignored.Tools Check Distortion. The Beam would never coincide with the Bar. Then using the Check Element Distortions dialog box. You can then review these groups to update or delete the coincident elements. the coincident pairs can also be placed into groups. every Mass Element which references a Node which is also used by other Elements will be identified. In fact. This group can then be displayed or used for modifications to your model. You must first select the Elements to be checked. Each of the four checking options can be independently enabled or disabled. Mass Elements are ignored by this command.. If you select the Make Group with Distorted Elements option.  this option is not selected.1.6. only elements of the same type are considered to be coincident... Normally. Different Types or. a new group will be created that contains all of the elements that fail the check... checks the shape of selected elements. Internal Angles and Warping. four separate checks are included: Aspect Ratio. some care must be taken. ... You can identify Mass Elements which are coincident with each other by turning off either the. 2 2 / 6 7 . a triangular element will be considered to be coincident with a quadrilateral element as long as all three Nodes are also referenced by the quadrilateral.. Only Plane and Volume elements are checked by this command. you can control how the checking will proceed. This same comparison technique applies to all other shapes as well. If Check Elements with Different Shapes is also selected.6 Tools Check Distortion. You must also specify limit values for each of the enabled options. Coincident elements are identified in a report that is written to the active List Destination. In addition to just checking and listing coincident elements. because there will still only be two groups.. Different Shapes options. using the standard entity selection dialog box. If Check Elements with Different Shapes is selected. If more than two elements are coincident with each other. they will be included.

Again. For quadrilatAngle deviation from 90 degrees Angle deviation from 60 degrees . Only element corners are used. It is the same as the taper check used in NASTRAN. edges along all faces are considered.. is similar to aspect ratio checking.. midside nodes are ignored. Taper Checking. This check 3X looks at all element X edges to find the maximum and minimum lengths.. to X X the length of the shortest side. evaluates whether the included angles at the corners of an element face deviate from an optimal condition.. Modeling Tools Aspect Ratio Checking.. Aspect Ratio = 1 Aspect Ratio = 3 This check will help you to identify elements which have both very long and very short sides.. is based on the ratio of the length of the longest element side. Alternate Taper Checking.. It will identify elements which have trapezoidal faces. all faces are considered. Internal Angles Checking.. calculates the ratios of the sizes of triangles formed by quadrilateral element diagonals... Midside nodes of parabolic elements are simply ignored. . It formulates a ratio of the length of a X 2X X longest edge to a shortest edge. It will identify elements which have trapezoidal faces. Taper checking only considers ratios of edges which are opposite to each other on a face... Whereas aspect ratio checking looks at all edge X combinations. . For solid elements. no matter where they are located in the element. . For solid elements.. . Taper = 1 Taper = 2 Taper checking is only done on quadrilateral faces.... A4 A2 J i = Ai / 2 J a = (J1 + J2 + J3 + J4 ) / 4 Taper = max(Ji-Ja)/Ja A1 A3 Alternate taper checking is only done on quadrilateral faces.

FEMAP then takes the ratio of the longest to shortest value as the value to check for the collapse of the tetrahedral element. This check evaluates the maximum angle between the normals. Then after you press OK.1. FEMAP determines the desired element normal from the selected element with the minimum ID.. Tet Collapse. This check will identify elements which are skewed from a square or equilateral triangle..Tools Check Normals...7 Tools Check Normals.. This check only looks at quadrilateral faces. Then you can specify the checking options. If you wish to specify a particular normal. . Although similar.. evaluates the planarity of Warping calculated from No Warping 50% Warping element faces. By default. If the face is warped however. . Taper Checking will identify trapezoidal faces. the deviation is based on a 60 degree angle.. Warping Checking. . you should choose the Specify Normal Vector option. and identifies any elements where the angle exceeds the limit you specify. That is.. You must select the elements to be checked using the standard entity selection dialog box. the deviation is based on a 90 degree angle. A collapsed (flat) tetrahedral element will either prevent the solver code from running.  eral faces.6. or will give inaccurate results.. .. Other element types are ignored by this command. All of the this angle other checks evaluate parameters within the plane of the element faces. The default value is 10. The Internal Angles check will find both variations. For triangular faces.. Internally. the standard vector definition dialog box will be displayed so you can define the direction of the normal you want. then all triangles should be coplanar. the normals will not be in the same direction.. their normals will all point in the same direction. Longest Edge Shortest Height 2 2 / 6 7 7.. but will ignore a face which is a rhombus. If the face is planar. but this check evaluates “out of plane” parameters. examines a selected set of Plane elements to see if their normals all point in the same direction. This check computes the distance from the plane of each face of the tetrahedral element to the fourth node for that face.evaluates the tetrahedral elements in your model. this check divides the quadrilateral face into triangles..

. In this case the normals do. This approach can handle elements which are not perpendicular to the direction you specify. elements from a complex model which lie in multiple planes and in different orientations cannot always be checked at the same time. FEMAP adds 1. but which do not really constrain your model.1. It can be particularly difficult to align the normals of cylindrical or spherical geometries. point in different directions. produces a report (to the active List Destination) which can be used to evaluate whether a model is fully constrained.18533E-2 Z = 0. Obviously.. Modeling Tools All selected elements which have normals that point opposite the specified vector will be listed to the active List Destination. only the nodal constraints from the active constraint set will be used. Since this command uses the active constraint set. Z = Z = 0. and define a radial vector. Max Separation of Z Constraints X = 0. you should first define a cylindrical coordinate system with its Z axis pointing along the cylindrical axis. 2. Only nodes which are used to define elements are included in this calculation. The checking is based on the sign of the dot (or scalar) product of the desired direction with the current element normal. To calculate the Constraint Factors. Element normals are reversed in the same manner as the Modify Update Reverse command. all permanent constraints will be combined with the nodal constraints from the active constraint set.0 to the appropriate factor for each node that has a particular degree of freedom constrained. but you should still select elements which are somewhat coplanar.. since you are specifying a single direction. If you choose the Update/Reverse Element Normals option. This approach ignores constraints which are properly assigned to reference or orientation nodes. Z = 0. The same technique applies to spherical coordinate systems. To check a cylindrical geometry. Z = 0. 0.6. When you invoke this command. Y = 2.6108068 Max Separation of Y Constraints X = 0.. If you press Yes. those elements will be reversed. Y = 0. and should. The report will resemble the following: Constraint Factors for Set 1 Translation X = Rotation X = 2. If the output coordinate system of the node rotates the nodal degrees of freedom. If you press No. Then if you select that coordinate system. You can still use this command for those geometries by selecting a Coordinate System for the comparison. Max Separation of X Constraints X = 0. you will be asked whether to include Nodal Permanent Constraints in the calculations. 2. . instead of 1.0.8 Tools Check Constraints. You can then set to point either inward or outward based on the direction of the vector you specify. Y = Y = 0. you will have to invoke it multiple times if you have multiple constraint sets. Y = 0. the element normals will all be checked against the radial direction. 7. . the direction cosines of the constrained degrees of freedom are added.

2 2 / 6 7 7. if X constraints are separated in the Z direction. multiple translational constraints which are separated by some distance can usually better constrain a model than rotational constraints.6. and find that one or more of them are zero or significantly less than one.. FEMAP will ask this question for each load type.1. you must examine the “Max Separation” data. your model is probably not constrained in that direction. Nodal Moments and Elemental Pressures from the active Load Set are all used in this calculation. In this case however.. you will be asked to choose a location.. To determine if your model meets the necessary criteria. and whether the whole load set or only a partial model will be used for the summation.reviews loads in your model to determine if there are any coincident loads. and then use this command to combine these loads with nodal/elemental loads already created in your model. You can use the Model Load Expand command to permanently expand geometric loads to nodal/elemental loads. If X constraints are separated in the Y direction.6.. You will then be asked if you want to combine the loads. FEMAP will review the load sets and determine if there are any coincident loads. . It does not include the effect of enforced displacements or any other entities which might provide additional constraints.. you will constrain Z rotations. and more fully constrain the appropriate degree of freedom. 7.. a zero factor does not necessarily mean that the model is unconstrained in a rotational direction. Similarly.Tools Check Coincident Loads. All Nodal Forces. In fact.. Larger separation distances will be better able to resist motion. Similarly. whether to automatically expand any geometric loads. FEMAP will report the load type and Node/Element to the List Destination. . ... When you invoke this command. You can select the coordinate system for the calculation. you will constrain Y rotations.9 Tools Check Coincident Loads. Hint: This command is very useful when combining Geometric and Finite Element loads in the same model. the Rotation factors report the rotational constraints. You must always remember that this report only includes nodal and permanent constraints.. so you may actually combine Nodal Forces while not combining Elemental Pressures. The only initial input required for this command is the load set(s) you want to check.10 Tools Check Sum Forces. If you have coincident loads.1.  How to Use this Report If you review the Translation factors. This request uses the standard coordinate definition dialog boxes. The Sum Forces dialog box will then appear. checks the total forces about a selected location.

Nodal Moment MX = 0.206208 Z = 0. and the force couples produced by the Nodal Forces and Pressure Forces around the location you selected. FY = 0. Modeling Tools If Expand and Include Geometric Loads is turned off. 0. When computing total effective moment. 0. MZ = In the first section of this report. MY = 0. The Totals section of the report shows the location you selected. the entire load set is used. 0. The Partial Model option allows selection of specific elements and nodes to include in the summation. Summation of Forces. . Moments and Pressures for Set 1 Nodal Force FX = 46. all loads are simply added in global rectangular coordinates. The Pressure Force is determined by multiplying the Elemental Pressures you defined by the element face area. -2. FZ = 0. at the centroid of the face. FY = 0. The total Moments will include Nodal Moments. a report in the following format will be produced. Totals About Location Forces Moments X = FX = MX = -0. It will be written to the active List Destination. FY = 0. This force is then applied in the direction opposite the face normal.71259 0.283536 Y = 46. The total Forces will include both the Nodal Force and the Pressure Force. Pressure Force FX = 0. the location you specify will be used to find the force couples caused by the applied forces and pressures. When you press OK. 0. MY = FZ = MZ = FZ = 0. With this option Off. no geometric loads will be included.

Since FEMAP automatically aborts whenever you press a key or the left mouse button. Aborting a Listing Sometimes when listing information from your model you will decide that you have either requested too much output. 2 2 / 6 7 7.1 List Tools Variable. All variables are simply listed in the following format: Variable A X Y Z length radius Stored Value Defining Equation 23...1 List Tools Menu This menu contains the commands for listing information on the Entity Tools. FEMAP just “watches” the keyboard and mouse. When FEMAP is listing information.05 . The List Menus is separated into three major areas. Output). you can never press either of them before a listing is complete .. When FEMAP has completed the current command. Each command is discussed further below. Model.5 23.617 !a*cos(45) . these reports provide the information you need to fully understand and check your model. Geometry. Coupled with the many graphical options. or mouse button. the changing cursor shape will let you know that the listing has completed. The command is aborted whenever you press any key.70463 sqrt(sqr(!x)+sqr(!y)+sqr(!z)) 16. The List Destination command controls where reports and other listings will be written. Each of these commands are in fact a menu of commands for the different entities in each category. The last section simply contains the List Destination command..25 0. the graphics cursor will change to an hourglass behind a pointer. These are the actions that you have to do to choose the next command anyway.2 List Menu Commands The commands on the List Menu are used to produce reports of the entities and data in your model.2. and you have screen messages turned off. which are discussed in the Entity Tools section of this chapter. 7. This shape indicates that FEMAP is busy with your current command.05 2. Actually. the hourglass will disappear and the cursor will return to its normal pointer or crosshair shape. Rather than waiting for the listing to complete (which could take awhile. The top area contains menus similar to the Main Menu commands for FEMAP entities (Tools. .5 2.2.unless you want to abort. and could scroll the desired information out of the buffer).5 1. you can abort the listing.List Menu Commands  7.1.25 2. The second area contains listing commands for particular display (Group and View) or overall model information (Model Info).5 1. There are no options to specify and no way to limit the report. as well as reporting and interpreting results. If you are just listing information to a file. produces a report which describes all variables defined in your model. or that the needed information has already been listed. but the current command will be aborted automatically if you make a new selection.

2. ID 1 Justification H_Center Top Pointer Off Border On Layer 1 Colors Text 74 Border 124 Text Position (Screen) X= 50. and the defining Equation. . produces a report of selected text in your model. 7. Each of these commands are very similar.. One command is provided for each geometric entity type contained in FEMAP.369645 Y= 2.11226E-2 Pointer Position X= 0. Model positioned text lists X. Y and Z coordinates..the Value of the variable when it was stored.. . there are two items reported .3 List Text. Y= 2.2... Z= 0. When used in equations.. Exceeds Design Allowable! Visible in View 1 Font Helv 10pt Background 50 Visible in View 1 Font Tms Rmn 14pt Background 0 Z= 0. 7. You simply select the text entities that you want to list (using the standard entity selection dialog box). and a listing resembling the following sample will be produced. Note the differences between screen positioned text (ID 1) and model positioned text (ID 2).the title and layer color. They use a common dialog box which has some variations depending upon the type of entity being listed. Modeling Tools For each variable. Y= 0. All layers are simply listed in the following format: Layer Layer Layer Layer 1 2 3 4 Default Layer Base Plate Notes Top Assembly Color Color Color Color 124 10 124 124 For each layer.427732 Y= 0. This listing format simply reports the options which you defined in the Create Text command. produces a report which describes all layers defined in your model. . The text itself will be listed on as many lines as you defined in the text entity. the Value can be accessed by using “!variable_name”. There are no options to specify and no way to limit the report..116174 Text Peak Stress.2 List Tools Layers. 7. Text This is a View Title and Subtitle ID 2 Justification Right V_Center Pointer On Border On Layer 1 Colors Text 4 Border 4 Text Position X= -0. Text reports cannot be sorted.. Pointer Position (Screen) X= 0.2.1. and the Equation can be accessed by using “@variable_name”.1. there are two items reported . Screen positioned text lists X and Y positions in percentages of the view from the upper left corner.2 List Geometry Menu This menu contains command to list the different types of geometric entities.

24 1 0 3 0 1. You can also choose a Listing Coordinate System for Points. Sorting methods available include the common methods (see Common Listing Options above) and by Definition Coordinate System. where you simply choose if you want the list Ascending or Descending.2.. or Z).63669 -0.2 List Point. 0. Sort By: These options control the order of the listing. 1. 24 0. Choosing Selection Order will order the listing in the order that you selected the entities. Color is the point color.714612 0.530196 0. . X2. ID is the ID of the point. 24 1 0 6 0 1. The dialog box contains a Sort By section.5 1 0 2 0 1. Other common sorting methods include Color. 24 0. Some of the options may not be available for all entities. Sort Order (Ascending or Descending). and a Sort Order Section. Position (X. .25 1 0 In the listing. 0. Def CS is the ID of the Definition Coordinate System. and the fastest method. X1.2.2.25 1 0 5 0 -0. 24 0. 0.239276 0. simply by selecting them in that order. 7.. After selecting the points you want to list (using the standard entity selection dialog box). but the procedure is identical for all geometric entities. This option allows you to list the entities in any order.. X3 are the coordinates of the point.553248 0.Common Listing Options  7. relative to either the definition coordinate system. and Absolute Value of Position. By default. 0. or the listing coordinate system. 24 0. you select the Sort by method. The Point listing looks like the following: ID Def CS X1 X2 X3 Color MeshSize > Layer #Curve 2 2 / 6 7 _______________________________________________________________________ 1 0 0. Layer.1 Common Listing Options A common dialog box is used for the geometric listing commands. which determines the method of sorting.91421 0. and the Listing Coordinate System.25 1 0 4 0 -1. Y.2. produces a report of selected points in your model. is to list the entities in order of Ascending IDs (lowest ID to highest ID).. 0.

is the mesh biasing factor size which is assigned to this curve for boundary meshing. . and will include the type of B-Spline (Rational or NURB). 0 20 21 22 23 0 5. 0 10 8 0 2. 3 11 12 13 14 0 4.5 8 9 8 0 1. Modeling Tools MeshSize Layer #Curve is the mesh size which is assigned to this point for boundary surface meshing. this is the location of the center of curvature. and the Knot Values in the output listing.14771 1.98853 5 Arc 100 1 1. or by Minimum Point ID (points reference by the Curve). For other types of curves.37519 4 Line 100 1 1. For circles and arcs. is the mesh size which is assigned to this curve for boundary meshing. is the type of the curve. is the curve layer. by Type. 0 7 9 0 2. 0 15 16 17 18 0 6.3 List Curve.2. 7.14384 In the listing. MeshElem . and Z sort listing options use the location of the first point referenced by the curve. 19 7 Spln 100 1 0. 360. Y. The width of the sample listing shown above has been reduced to fit within the manual margins. the Number of Points. 4 7 10 0 1.2..Points ---> #Surface Length Radius Angle _________________________________________________________________________________ 1 Line 100 1 0. produces a report of selected curves in your model.002 6 Circ 100 1 0. ID Type Color Layer Bias is the ID of the curve.. After selecting the curves you want to list (using the standard entity selection dialog box).30573 182. Sorting methods available include the common methods (see Common Listing Options above).. is the point layer.0 if no size has been assigned. Advanced You will also see an Advanced option for Curves.37519 2 Line 100 1 2. The X. you select the Sort by method and Sort Order (Ascending or Descending). This will be blank if no size was assigned. The Curve listing looks like the following: ID Type Color Layer Bias MeshElem ---. This will be zero if no size has been assigned. is the curve color. you will have to scroll right in the Messages and Lists Window to see the end of this listing..98853 3 Line 100 1 0. it is the first endpoint. This will be 0. the Order. The Advanced option is only applicable for B-Splines.28319 1. You will notice that on many video adapters. indicates how many Curves reference this point.

produces a report of selected surfaces in your model. Y.. start. the number of surfaces which reference the curve. the listing will be sorted on the IDs of the curves that define the surfaces. If you choose Minimum Curve ID.. For splines. they are the control points.3 List Surface.only listed for arcs and circles. After selecting the surfaces you want to list (using the standard entity selection dialog box). the parametric direction of the curve is reversed compared to the curve’s alignment in the surface definition. The surface listing looks like the following: ID Type Color Divisions <-Curves ( R=Reversed ) -> Layer #Volume ________________________________________________________________________ 1 Bilinear 2 3 x 4 8 9 10 R 11 R 1 0 2 Revolve 2 8 x 4 5 12 R 13 1 0 3 Ruled 2 3 x 4 3 14 1 R 15 1 0 4 Revolve 2 4 x 4 17 16 R 18 R 4 1 0 5 Bezier 2 16 x 16 21 22 7 R 23 1 0 20 19 R 6 Coons 2 16 x 16 7 22 R 21 R 23 R 1 0 2 2 / 6 7 In the listing. the length of the curve. the number of volumes which reference the surface.. This is the arc length/perimeter for arcs and circles. are the number of surface divisions assigned for display purposes. You will notice that on many video adapters. and Z allow you to sort the listing based on the location of the parametric center of the surface. If an “R” follows the number. For lines. middle and endpoints. is the type of the surface. The width of the sample listing shown above has been reduced to fit within the manual margins. Sorting methods available include the common methods (see Common Listing Options above). are the IDs of the curves that define the surface. 7. For arcs and circles they are the center. is the surface color. the included angle . you select the Sort by method and Sort Order (Ascending or Descending).. you will have to scroll right in the Messages and Lists Window to see the end of this listing. ID Type Color Divisions Curves is the ID of the surface. . or by Minimum Curve ID (curves referenced by the Surface).  Points #Surface Length Radius Angle are the IDs of the points which are referenced by this curve.only listed for arcs and circles...2. the curve radius . is the surface layer. X. Layer #Volume . these are the endpoints. by Type.List Surface.

. Layer The width of the sample listing shown above has been reduced to fit within the manual margins.. After selecting the curves you want to list (using the standard entity selection dialog box). Three characters (“R” or “-”) follow each ID. you select the Sort by method and Sort Order (Ascending or Descending).. You will notice that on many video adapters. ID Type Color Surfaces is the ID of the volume.. if the surface forms the face of a solid. t and normal surface parametric directions. If you choose Minimum Surface ID. 7. by Type.3. Modeling Tools In addition. .1 List Volume.2 List Solid. or by Minimum Surface ID (surfaces reference by the Volume). is the volume layer.. The volume listing looks like the following: ID Type Color <-.simply requires input of the solids you want to list. and Z allow you to sort the listing based on the location of the parametric center of the volume.. . produces a report of selected volumes in your model. X. These correspond to the s.Surfaces ( R = Reversed Direction ) --> Layer ________________________________________________________________________ 1 Wedge 24580 8 --9 --7 --1 10 R-R 10 R-R --2 Brick 24580 13 --14 --11 --1 15 --R 12 --15 --R 3 Tetra 24580 16 --17 --18 --1 19 R------ In the listing.. is the volume color.2.. Sorting methods available include the common methods (see Common Listing Options above). . and the address of the face in the geometric engine database will be listed. 7. Engine (Parasolid or ACIS) and Address. An “R” indicates the parametric direction of the surface is reversed compared the surface’s alignment in the volume definition. you will have to scroll right in the Messages and Lists Window to see the end of this listing. Y. you will have to scroll right in the Messages and Lists Window to see the end of this listing.3. are the IDs of the surfaces that define the volume.2. You will notice that on many video adapters. the geometric engine (Parasolids or ACIS). List information for the solid includes the Name. the number of segments. The width of the sample listing shown above has been reduced to fit within the manual margins. the listing will be sorted on the IDs of the surfaces that define the volumes. is the type/shape of the volume.

or Z). You cannot list the predefined Global coordinate systems (0..2. where you choose Ascending or Descending.4. Position (X. Other common sorting methods include Color. is to list the entities in order of Ascending IDs (lowest ID to highest ID). Sort By: These options control the order of the listing. .. which determines the method of sorting. This option allows you to list the entities in any order. and the fastest method. you will see a dialog box which provides options to customize your listing.2 List Model Coord Sys.List Model Menu  7. but the procedure is identical.1 Common List Options Much like the geometry listing commands.2. By default. This menu is partitioned very much like the Model menu. Y. simply by selecting them in that order. 7.2. . Some of the options may not be available for all entities. Listing Coordinate System: If you select a Listing Coordinate System. If you leave the coordinate system blank (not 0. 2 2 / 6 7 7. The dialog box contains a Sort By section. except these commands simply list entities. produces a report of selected user-defined coordinate systems in your model.. After selecting the coordinate systems you want to list (using the standard entity selection dialog box). each coordinate system will be listed relative to its own definition coordinate system. a common dialog box is used for the Model Listing commands. but blank). Layer. all selected coordinate systems will be transformed and listed relative to this selected system. You can also choose a Listing Coordinate System for Points. and contains commands identical to those on the Model menu (see the Finite Element Modeling chapter in this manual for more information). They do not create new entities..4 List Model Menu This menu contains commands which will allow you to list information about your FEA entities. and Absolute Value of Position.4. Choosing Selection Order will order the listing in the order that you selected the Points. and a Sort Order Section. 1 or 2).

264032 0. Rotation is the rotation angles (in degrees) about the definition or listing coordinate system which orient the axes.181302 -0.0431 Z=-0. Coordinate System 4 .. Origin is the coordinates of the origin. 7.10288 Y=17.203598 -0. After selecting the Nodes you want to list (using the standard entity selection dialog box).281312 X=-178. The position sort methods (X. 46 -----1 0 0 0 11 0 0 0. The Coordinate System listing looks like the following: Coordinate System 3 . Y=0. Cylindrical or Spherical.223 Y=-1.232348 Y=30. Z=0. Materials (MT).2.332681 -0. Nodes (NO). and Z) use the coordinate system origin. 46 -----1 0 0 0 13 0 0 -0... Referenced indicates how many other Coordinate Systems (CS).036 Color 60 Layer 1 Referenced By CS=1 PT=0 NO=0 MT=0 PR=0 CN=0 LD=0 Referenced By CS=0 PT=0 NO=0 MT=0 PR=0 CN=0 LD=0 Color 60 Layer 1 In the listing.436533 0. . you can also list by the Definition Coordinate System. The Node listing looks like the following: ID Def CS Out CS X1 X2 X3 Color PermBC> Layer #Elem #Load #BC _____________________________________________________________________________ 1 0 0 -0. Type is the coordinate system type Rectangular.3 List Model Node. Modeling Tools Sort By: In addition to the common options (please see Common List Options section above).41189 0. Constraints (CN) and Loads (LD) reference this coordinate system.3929E-2 0. 46 -----1 0 0 0 5 0 0 -0.297476 7.64794 Z=-148. or the listing coordinate system. Color is the coordinate system color. Def CS is the ID of the Definition Coordinate System. Y. Properties (PR).315078 -0. 46 -----1 0 0 0 9 0 0 -0.Base System Type Def CS Origin Rotation Rect 0 X=0.264032 X=30. 46 -----1 0 0 0 .279874 0.117348 0. By Points (PT). Layer is the coordinate system layer. produces a report of selected Nodes in your model.225894 0. Z=-75. 46 -----1 0 0 0 7 0 0 0.159593 0.601993 0.4. These options are identical to those defined in the List Coordinate Systems command (see previous section).. you will see a dialog box which provides options to customize your listing. 46 -----1 0 0 0 3 0 0 0. relative to either the definition coordinate system.Secondary CSys Type Def CS Origin Rotation Sph 3 X=-0.

Release End 1 12---Nodes 3 8 Element 4 . or Minimum Node ID. #Elem.307293 Layer 1 12 0. The location of the center of the element will be used for the position sort (X. The next line lists the Property. 0. along with the ID. and Layer which are referenced by the Element. . Finally. You will notice that on many video adapters... you will have to scroll right in the Messages and Lists Window to see the end of this listing. . Color.. is the ID of the Definition Coordinate System.  In the listing.PLATE Property 1 Color 124 Nodes 9 5 6 Element 2 . Property ID.1 0.4. #BC reference this Node. and offsets) are then given. . X3 7. or the listing coordinate system. you must choose the method of sorting.4 List Model Element. ID Def CS Out CS X1. Y. In addition to the common options available (please see Common List Options section above). The numbers 1-6 are used to indicate constraints. After selecting the elements you want to list (using the standard entity selection dialog box). Additional element data (like orientation.2. all of the nodes are listed. Color is the Node color.951615 Nodes 8 12 Element 5 .PLATE Property 1 Color 124 Nodes 6 7 10 Element 3 . is the ID of the Nodal Output Coordinate System. relative to either the definition coordinate system.. PermBC are the six nodal permanent degrees of freedom. Layer is the Node layer. Offset Vector End 2 0. “-” indicates that the degree of freedom is unconstrained. you can also list by Element Type. End 2 -----Layer 1 0. X2. The Element type is listed on the first line.List Model Element. indicates how many Elements. Many other formats are also used for the other Element types.1 2 2 / 6 7 0. are the coordinates of the Node. but they all follow the conventions shown above. Loads and Constraints #Load. The width of the sample listing shown above has been reduced to fit within the manual margins.BEAM Property 2 Color 124 Orientation Vector -0. Element listings resemble the following: Element 1 . .BEAM Property 2 Color 124 Orientation Node 11 Offset Vector End 1 0. is the ID of the Node. releases.RIGID Property 2 Color 124 Nodes 16 15 11 Layer 1 10 Layer 1 Layer 1 0. and Z). produces a report of selected Elements in your model.

Material listings resemble the following: Material 1 .3 0. Alpha33 6.4. 0..6 List Model Property. . STRENGTH Tension 100000 Compress 100000 THERMAL Alpha 6. produces a report of selected Properties in your model.5E-6 K11 0. and aligned under each of the corresponding values will be a second line listing the function references. 0. 0. produces a report of selected Materials in your model. Following each of the lines of properties. K33 0. STRENGTH Tension 100000 Compress 100000 THERMAL Alpha11 6. 0 0. followed by the Type. . and Z) will not be available. and the position sort (X.89011E+6 G13 0. Alpha12 0. Alpha22 6..2967E+7 G12 9. Modeling Tools 7. you can also list by Property Type or Material ID.3 0.5E-6 K22 0. and they follow the conventions shown above. and Layer. 0.5E-6 K11 0. you must choose the method of sorting. STRENGTH Tension 100000 Compress 100000 THERMAL Alpha11 6. the Material values are listed in three major categories . .3 80000. Function Dependent Materials If you have defined materials which reference functions in your model. and Z) will not be available. The Material ID and Title are listed first. Properties which do not reference Materials. 0. 7.5E-6 K 0.283 Damping 0.E+7 G23 0. and the position sort (X. . the full function title will not be listed. but the ID and the beginning of the title will be shown. Similar formats are used for the other Material types.3 80000. 0. E2 3.STIFFNESS.Steel-2D Aniso Type 2D ANISOTROPIC Color 55 Layer 1 Density 0.. Y.2.. 0. Finally. 0. you must choose the method of sorting. STIFFNESS E1 3. Because of space constraints. Material 3 . . Material 4 . After selecting the properties you want to list (using the standard entity selection dialog box). Alpha22 6. Spec Heat 0. Y. .2967E+7 G22 3.283 Damping 0.E+7 G31 0. you can also list by Material Type.E+7 G12 0. In addition to the common options available (please see Common List Options section above). #Prop Ref Temp Nu Shear SpecHeat #Prop Ref Temp Nu12 Nu23 Nu31 Shear K12 K13 K23 #Prop Ref Temp G33 G23 Shear K12 K13 K23 0 0.283 Damping 0. STRENGTH and THERMAL. These categories directly correspond to the grouping of the data in the Create Material dialog boxes.E+7 G 0. After selecting the materials you want to list (using the standard entity selection dialog box). you will see additional lines of data mixed between those shown above.Steel Type ISOTROPIC Color 55 Layer 1 Density 0. 0. 0. STIFFNESS E 3. Color. 80000. STIFFNESS G11 3.Steel-3D Ortho Type 3D ORTHOTROPIC Color 55 Layer 1 Density 0. #Prop is the number of Properties which reference this Material.5E-6 K22 0.4. Spec Heat 0. 0 0. . 0. E3 3.5 List Model Material. In addition to the common options available (please see Common List Options section above).2. If you sort by Material ID.5E-6 K33 0.

You may also decide to list all loads of a certain type (the Select All option) or you will be asked to select the entities where Loads should be listed. all load types will be selected. and they follow the conventions shown above.. Layer 1 Material 1 Thickness 5. .W8x20 Wide Flange Type BEAM Color 110 Layer 1 Material 6 #Elem 0 End A Area 5. The Material or Coordinate System that the Property references is listed next. If you only want a specific load type. I21 0. and Layer. Tshear/T 0. ShearF.25# Lumped Mass Type MASS Color 110 Layer 1 CoordSys 0 #Elem 0 Mass. The Property ID and Title are listed first. These property values directly correspond to the data in the Model Property dialog boxes.22 I12 0.1" wall) Type TUBE Color 110 Layer 1 Material 6 #Elem 0 Outer Dia 1. I11 100. If you turn off all of a certain type. NS Mass/Len 0. 2 2 / 6 7 . X 0. Color. Layer 3 Material 3 Thickness 5.1" Dia Tube (. I1 69. Inertia. I32 0. Mass.4 I2 9. X 25. J 78.. Property 5 . produces a report of selected Loads in your model.Composite Plate Type LAMINATE Color 110 Layer 1 Material 6 #Elem 0 Failure Theory NONE Bond Shear Allowable 0. Property 4 . Offset. #Elem is the number of Elements which reference this Property. K1 0. followed by the Type. Z 0.List Model Load. I22 100.. I33 100. Y 25. Property listings resemble the following: Property 1 .  and Laminate Plates which reference multiple Materials. I31 0. turn off all other types.E-2 Angle -45. K2 0.25 Property 2 . will all sort as if their Material ID was zero.7 List Model Load. This requires entity selection dialog boxes for each of the types you requested Under Defined On (two for Node/ Elem). Inner Dia 0. Property 3 . Layer 2 Material 2 Thickness 5.89 ShearF. NS Mass/Area 0. Y 0.4.43 Z 1. . the entity selection dialog box for this type will not be displayed. Mass. Similar formats are used for the other Property types.8 NS Mass/Len 0.5 Top Fiber 0. 12I/T**3 0. Finally.. You can turn off certain types by deselecting those options.6 Recover Stresses At: Y 3.1/2" Plate Type PLATE Color 110 Layer 1 Material 6 #Elem 0 Thickness 0.E-2 Angle 0.25 Bot Fiber -0.25 NS Mass/Area 0. . By default. Listing Loads is slightly different than listing most other entities in that you must first select the sets to list You will see a dialog box which allows you to select the type of loads that you want to list.E-2 Angle 45.2. Z 25. Bottom Surf 0. the Property values are listed. 7.

Z 0. Moment X 0. 4 10 1 1 4. Phase 90. Y 0.Untitled Elemental Temperatures Element Color Layer Temperature 1 0 0 30. Load Set 1 . all types will be selected. 7.lowest to highest.. On Curve.4. Since there can be multiple Constraint sets in your model. and you have not chosen Select All. Y 0.Untitled Nodal Temperatures Node Color Layer Temperature 2 0 0 60. . If you select a load type.Translational X 2. In the sample above. Z 0. Y 2. . Rotational X Y Z Phase 0. or On Surface Constraints.. Z 0.E-2 Load Set 1 . you will be asked to select the entities where Constraints should be listed. All selected loads for each selected set are grouped together in the report. Phase 0. Load Set 1 .1 Z 5. The X.Untitled Elemental Pressures Element Color Layer Face ID Pressure 1 10 1 1 4. Load Sets are listed in order of their IDs . Load Set 1 . even though some are zero. Modeling Tools There are no sort options available for Load listings. Z 2. Load listings resemble the following: Load Set 1 .Untitled Nodal Forces and Moments Node Color Layer Def CS Force 2 10 1 0 X 7. .8 List Model Constraint. Load Set 1 . . Origin . .for Rotations X 0. If you select Nodal. you must first select the sets that you wish to list using the standard entity selection dialog box. 3 0 0 60. but no loads of that type exist in a set. produces a report of selected Constraints in your model. On Point. Y 0. By default. all body loads are enabled. Any body loads which are not activated for a specific Load Set are not listed. You will then see a dialog box which allows you to choose Model Based (Nodal Constraints and/or Constraint Equations) and/or Geometry Based constraints. and Z components listed for Nodal Loads are given in the Load Definition Coordinate System (Def CS).you cannot limit the report. Acceleration .Untitled Nodal Enforced Displacements Node Color Layer Def CS Translational 4 10 1 0 X Y 0.Untitled Body Loads Acceleration . a header identifying the load type is printed. Y. 0. Y 0. Z 0. but no loads are listed.Rotational X 0. . Default Temperature 75. . All Constraint Equations will be listed . Listing Constraints is similar to listing Loads.2.

Ramps Type: vs. or Property). this information is not written for these types of constraints. 6. In the listing. but no Constraints of that type exist in a set. other than to select the functions that you want to list using the standard entity selection dialog box.Sample Constraints Constraints Node ID 1 DOF 123456 CSys 0 Color Node ID 24 DOF 1---56 CSys 0 Color Node ID 30 DOF 1---56 CSys 0 Color Node ID 36 DOF 1---56 CSys 0 Color Node ID 42 DOF 1---56 CSys 0 Color Constraint Equations ID 1 Color 8312 Layer 1 Node 7 DOF 1 Coefficient 1.2 1. TZ. 2 2 / 6 7 7.  There are no sort options available for Constraint listings. 20. 4. 6.. 9. Node 13 DOF 1 Coefficient 1. 7. Output (Node... produces a report which shows all functions defined in your model. The remaining lines simply contain a list of all entities in the contact segment. Ref Node. 14.Simple Type: Dimensionless X Y 1.. a number indicates that the degree of freedom is constrained. 6.5 8... Unconstrained degrees of freedom are indicated by a dash (-). 2. 5. . Layer. 7. A sample list is shown below. Num Matl: 0 Num Load: 0 Num Matl: 0 Num Load: 0 .3 5.2. but no data will be listed. Element. you will see a header which identifies the type.. 22. The first line of the list will give the number and title of the contact segment.666 Function 2 . 120 120 120 120 120 Layer Layer Layer Layer Layer 1 1 1 1 1 The DOF numbers (1 to 6) correspond to the TX. .10 List Model Function. TY.. All selected Constraints for each selected set are grouped together in the report. 3.4. 16.4. 9. Function 1 . Time X Y 3. There are no options to specify. Constraint listings resemble the following: Constraint Set 1 .9 List Model Contact Segment. The CSys is the output coordinate system of the associated node. RX. If you select a Constraint type. All functions are listed in the following format. Curves.lowest to highest.5 10. Constraint Sets are listed in order of their IDs . The second line contains The Color. 6. 13.. 23. Node 19 DOF 1 Coefficient -1.List Model Contact Segment.2. Since geometry (Points. Surfaces) does not contain output coordinate systems.. RY and RZ degrees of freedom. 3. and whether the segment is Rigid. produces a report of selected Contact Segments in the model.

3326805 0. . Loads on Nodes 1 thru 2. Also listed are the XY data points. 0. this section can become very. lists all entities that are selected into the group. . depending upon how many are enabled. -1. 0. . clipping and layer options. the List Output Format command creates a report which lists the output report formats which have been defined in your model.Sample Group Limit Selection to Layers 1 thru 1 Clipping___________________________________________________________________ Clip Outside Plane Origin X Origin Y Origin Z Normal X Normal Y Normal Z +1 -0.9135512 -0. 7. These list the things that you have specified to define the group. For more information on these commands see the List section of the Postprocessing chapter of this model. 0. . . Similarly. The selection of these entities is based on all of the rules.6 List Group. there may be many additional Selected Entities subsections. -1. The different commands allow you to control the format of those reports. Here.2.3326805 0. up to 6 planes can be listed. In addition to the other reporting commands. . you can enable or disable certain portions of the report. Nodes Referencing Constraint Equations 1 thru 2. the type is reported along with the Number of Material and Load references to the function. List Output Query command lets you interactively retrieve output for selected Nodes and Elements. there may be many subsections.9135512 -0. For large models. . produces a report of selected Groups. +2 -0. . After selecting the Groups that you want to list using the standard entity selection dialog box. you will see the Group List Options dialog box. very long. Modeling Tools For each function. “List All Entities in Group” as the name implies.2.5 List Output Menu The commands on this submenu allow you to create reports of output data which is defined in your model. There is one subsection for each type of rule that you define. Rules______________________________________________________________________ Node IDs Option Start Stop Increment Add 1 2 1 Selected Entities__________________________________________________________ Nodes 1 thru 2. 7. Group listings resemble the following: Group 1 . . Nodes Referencing Constraints 1 thru 2. The Clipping and Rules options are normally selected. In the Rules section. depending upon your model and the group definition. . It should usually be disabled. In the Clipping section of the report. 0.

. . The options listed. .  7. 7. . Top=0.2. . Y -0.5 Z 0. . Z 1. FEMAP asks if you want to list detailed View options. Angle 0. To list Views. .7 List View. X -0. Title Bar=On Border=2 Mode=Draw Model Constraint Set Active Output Set 0 thru Output Set 0 Rotation Angles . Z 0. It simply produces a report in the following format: Filenames Model Scratch File Model Size Coordinate System Point Curve Surface Volume Text Node Element Material Property Load Set Constraint Set View Group Output Set Output Format Workplane Origin Workplane Normal Workplane X Axis Snap Model Extents Active Views 1 Untitled P:\~MOD392B. produces a report of selected Views from your model. Curve 1 Output Set 0 . X Spacing 1.8 List Model Info .5 0. . .: View 1 . Option Label Parameters Coordinate System Point . Background Color=0 Contour=None Group None Contour Vector 0 Z=0.Default XY View Window Left=0. You can choose No to get a quick list of what views you have defined. and numerous other model parameters.2. Due to the many View options. Erase=On Active 0 1 Y=0. you just select the ones that you want using the standard entity selection dialog box. Y 0. reports the model file. You will see that several sections have been abbreviated by ellipses (. Vec 0 Entity 0 Draw Off On On Label 1 1 0 Bottom=1.) in the sample listing. The Views do not have to be active to be listed.5 Y 0. Y 0. Right=1. There is no additional input required for this command.TMP 8192 bytes Min 2 2 / 6 7 Max Number Next 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 Active Color 60 24 100 2 62 74 46 124 55 110 1 1 1 X 0. Color Mode 1 0 0 Color 124 60 24 Deformed=None Load Set Deform Vector by X=0. listings can be quite long. .5 0. .List View. .5 . Z -0. size. all match the values that you chose in the various View commands. . . how the views are defined will also be listed . Scale 1. X 1. If you choose Yes. . X 0. Therefore. .5 0. . Y Spacing 1.

you can direct reports to your Printer. One exception is if you select a Printer destination. . 7. if you send reports to your Printer. .9 List Destination. listing headers/titles will only be listed at the beginning of the report. headers will be written at the top of each page. and set the number of lines larger than the number that will fit on a page. You must select at least one. By default. two or three simultaneous destinations. do not use the destination. you must use the Select File command button to choose a filename. They simply write their output to the screen. Unlike the other commands on this menu. You will notice that you can choose any one. Your destination choices remain in effect until you reset them. and select the Messages option. you must set the number of lines per page that you want. The Active Views section of the report lists the IDs of the Views which are active. Using the dialog box which this command displays. . leave FEMAP. and/or a File by choosing the appropriate options. Rather. Number and Active fields will be filled in as entities are created. the number will be reduced to fit on the page. If you choose Continuous.2. Modeling Tools The sample listing was produced from an empty model. you can simply use the File Print command. The Min. Again. reports are written to the Messages and Lists Window. this command does not produce any reports. If you select a File destination. the destination is also used for many of the commands on the Tools Check menu that also produce lengthy reports. Max. The number of lines per page is automatically determined from the printer settings you defined in Windows. but just report a single dimension or angle. Headers/Titles will be written at the beginning of every report and again after the specified number of lines to indicate the top of a “page”. If you choose Lines. In addition to the listing/report commands on this menu. The model checking commands that do not produce reports. Hint: If you need to print messages or listings that are already in the Messages and Lists Window. or start a new model. it controls where the reports will be written.

(4) Full Hidden Line. When performing any type of 2-D or 3-D complex meshing. which overlap.3.2 Hidden Line Mode The Hidden Line Modes sort all elements. Only entities which are visible (hidden lines removed) can be seen. as well as the Postprocessing section. Furthermore. This style will show you those gaps.3. (2) Features. Therefore. The result of this style is a plot which only shows color boundaries.View Style (View Select command)  7. (5) Free Edge.3. and then displays them from the back of the view. (3) Quick Hidden Line. and hide a surface below elements which share a common space. it will not be discussed in this section. This command is often followed by a Tools Check Coincident Nodes command to close these gaps.1 Features This style draws all entities and therefore is a relatively fast drawing method. Render mode is recommended for all complex 3-D shapes when Hidden Line is active. allow you to dynamically rotate a hidden line plot. The View Style section of the View Select command has six major types of drawings: (1) Draw Model. however. If you have assigned different colors to different properties or materials. and can be somewhat slower than the other drawing methods. 2 2 / 6 7 7. and (6) Free Face. 7. gaps will be contained in your model. surfaces which share the same space as elements may not be completely hidden. 7. The Draw Model option provides a good working mode. The Hidden Line removal options do require substantial calculations. Also. Lines of the same color. If Nodes were not properly merged from meshes at the intersection of these meshes. this option will provide a quick method of visualizing boundaries between properties/materials. Render mode will significantly increase your drawing speed. This provides a good visualization tool for complex 3-D models to determine the relative position of sections of your model. If either the drawing speed or hidden line removal is deemed to be inadequate. change to Render mode (by selecting the Render option at the bottom of the View Style section). It is especially important to use this style when you have formed a complex model from several surface meshes. but is not necessarily the best “checking” mode.3 Free Edge The Free Edge style finds and displays all element edges which do not join to another element. This style can quickly point-out holes or disconnections in your model. a brief explanation of the uses of this command for Checking your model is pertinent to this section. The View Select command is detailed more fully in the Viewing Your Model section. it is best to show the . The View Style can be changed to different types of drawing to rapidly check your model. alternately draw and erase themselves.3 View Style (View Select command) The last section of this chapter involves using the View Style to check your model. Quick Hidden Line and Full Hidden Line provide similar functions and will be explained together below.

 Modeling Tools model in Free Edge mode before running the analysis. you can also use the Free Face option to simulate a hidden line view. It can quickly point-out disconnections between solid elements. use the Fill. 7. except it finds and displays all element faces which do not join to another element. and can help find duplicate plate elements. It can also reduce the complexity of solid model plots. To remove backfaces. For Solid Element Models. Backfaces. and Hidden Option. In fact. instead of removing them. then go to the Free Edge and Face option and set the Free Edge Color to “Use View Color”.4 Free Face This style operates similarly to the Free Edge command. in the View Options command. This will remove the possibility of having unwanted gaps in your model. Finally. Choose the “Show All Faces” method to show hidden lines as a different color/style. . and choose one of the “Skip” methods.3. you can even use this mode to show hidden lines in a different line style (like dashed). choose the color and linestyle that you want to use.

you can simply import analysis results into FEMAP. Stresses. etc. as well as automatically recover results. Contour. Output Reporting (Output Listing) Each of these areas are discussed in the following section. If your current configuration or solver program does not allow this automatic recovery. simply select the File Import Analysis results command. Output Manipulation (Model Output Menu) 5.). If you choose an incorrect file. modifying options on these views. 8. which corresponds to your FEMAP current model. and XY Plots) 2. and press OK.e. . You will then be prompted for the name of the file. 8. You should be careful to choose the correct file. however. It simply involves obtaining the results from the analysis program. An output set is created for each analysis or each step of analysis contained in the results file. They are: 1. Specialized Postprocessing (Advanced Post command) 4. You will see a dialog box containing the different solver programs from which FEMAP can read results.8Postprocessing This chapter provides information related to postprocessing.1. the first section of this chapter will be a brief explanation of the overall Postprocessing procedure. and give you status messages about the information it is reading (i. you will most likely get a series of error messages.Postprocessing Category 3.Deformed.1 Reading Results FEMAP can now automatically launch many FEA solver programs. These commands can be separated into five major areas based upon their functionality and menu area. View Options . selecting appropriate views. FEMAP will read the file. Select the appropriate format. Postprocessing does not have its own menu on the FEMAP Main Menu. but there are specific commands related directly to Postprocessing. and manipulating and/or reporting output. Type of Views (View Select command . FEMAP will ask for confirmation to begin reading. Once you select the file to read. To read results into FEMAP. Displacements.1 Procedure The postprocessing procedure in FEMAP is relatively straightforward. You should always read a results file into the same FEMAP file from which it was generated. You will also notice that it will list the number of output sets created.

or to change styles. you can now begin to perform postprocessing tasks. Please refer to the Postprocessing View Options section of this chapter for more information on these details. When you choose this command. 8.1. It will be much easier to view your results than when drawing the entire model. 8. as well as many other aspects of the view. you may want to go back into View Select and change the Model Style to a Quick or Hidden Line style and also turn on Render Mode. Under Deformed and Contour Data.3 Changing Options (View Options) The View Options command enables you to control the many different aspects of your Views. The type of view is controlled under the View Select command. When you select this command. Hint: At this point. You can change the Contour/Criteria Levels. For a typical static stress analysis. if you have a solid model. You may even use the Model Data button to show only a specific group of elements or even change to an XY Plot. the Deformation Output Vector (you always want to select the Total Translation Vector when showing a Deform plot) and select an appropriate Stress Vector for the Contour Output Vector. You also may want to change to Render mode to allow dynamic rotation of your model while in the deformed and contour state. but the View Options command controls the particular details of each postprocessing view.1. The View Select command controls the overall type of view and data to be visualized. you will want to select the Output Set.2 Selecting Views After reading your results you will want to examine results visualizing. Besides changing view types. you may want to change the colors or levels of contours. Select Postprocessing. This is accomplished with the View Options command. FEMAP has a wide array of tools for this capability. or other details about the view itself. you will see a dialog box containing the type of View available (see Types of Views Section below to see the dialog box): The dialog box controls the type of view. your first selection will be to select Deform under Deformed Style and Contour under Contour Style. After pushing two OKs. Postprocessing Once FEMAP is finished reading the file. the Deformed Style. FEMAP will redraw the current view as a deformed and contour plot. you will have three categories from which to choose. These features will be explained in the View Types (View Select command) description contained later in this chapter. You can then hit the Deformed and Contour Data button to define the specific vectors to show. . and then select the appropriate Option you want to change. You can continue to go back into View Select and change the Deformed and Contour Data to show different contours.

XY plot of the selected output data or function. The View Select dialog box is divided into several sections.View Select. This dialog box appears below. the view will contain a 2D. Here you choose one option from each category to define the type of postprocessing display that you want to have. You can choose any one option from these two groups of styles. 1 * 3 . More information on these specific commands are provided later in this chapter. The Model Style and XY Style option buttons comprise the first section. Please see the View Select section under Viewing Your Model for more information on these styles. XY Styles are only available when you have output data available for postprocessing (or functions). Ctrl+S or F5 .4 Manipulating/Listing Output You may also want to create new output from the results you currently have (such as a safety margin calculation). This description will concentrate on the application of this command to postprocessing. using all of the other options you choose. but they will not be discussed here. If instead you choose an XY Style. or just list output above a certain value. while the Model Output menu contains functions for manipulating and creating new output. You can select both the type of display. and the model or postprocessing data which will be displayed.Manipulating/Listing Output  8. chooses what will be displayed in a view. 2 6 7 3 5 2 & ( 6 6 .2 Types of Views .) also apply to postprocessing. your model will be displayed in the view. All of the Model Style types (Draw Model. 8... etc. The settings of these options are ignored if you choose an XY style. Quick Hidden Line.. These options choose the method for display.1. The default settings (None-Model Only) are used to create a normal model display which does not use any output data for postprocessing. If you choose a model style. The second section of the dialog box consists of the Deformed Style and Contour Style option buttons. The List Model Output menu contains functions to list your output in various formats (you can even create your own)..

If you have a large complex model. just choose both a deformed and a contour style. you must choose one of the deformed or contour styles. Same as Deform. for example. Model Data. consists of the XY Data.2 Choosing Deformed and Contour Styles When you want to graphically postprocess model output. By separating these materials into different groups. The Select Model Data for View dialog box will then be displayed. Choosing None for either of these options disables that type of postprocessing. deformed by Nodal output data. They are described separately. you can examine results for each material separately. By pushing the Model Data button and selecting a group. 8. Also. You can quickly access this option through the Quick Access menu on the right mouse button (Model Data). located under the previous sections.2. the appropriate choice of these styles depends on the type of output data you want to postprocess and the results you need.1 Selecting Data for a Model Style You can control what portions of your model are displayed by pressing the Model Data command button. Deformed Style None Deform Output Data Type Will Display Typical Uses Modelling.2. you can limit your postprocessing view to a single group. and Deformed and Contour Data command buttons. Animation positions based on output data. Each of these buttons displays an additional dialog box which allows you to select the model or output data which will be used in the view. The following tables describe the deformed and contour styles. in addition to a model style. but animating. and you can change the Active Group by using the tray in the Status Bar at the right corner of the FEMAP Graphics Window for Groups. 8. Even more than the model styles. it can be very useful to examine the results in smaller groups. but the same information applies to combined displays. interpolated results of nodal contours across material boundaries may not be accurate when combined into one view. You will use None any time you just want to display your model. a Deformed Contour. You can limit the display of your view to a single group (Select or Active). Nodal Animate . Postprocessing The final section of the dialog box. Static display of displacements or eigenvectors Animated display of displacements or eigenvectors Model Only None Model. If you want to display a combined postprocessing view. This is especially valuable in large models.

eigenvectors or forces Visualization of deformation history from a transient analysis. Similar to Animate. 1 * 3 . Animation positions based on output data from multiple Output Sets Model with vectors Nodal representing direction and magnitude of output data.251E-3): Total Translation Output Set: NASTRAN Case 1 Arrow(4.Choosing Deformed and Contour Styles  Deformed Style Animate MultiSet Will Display Output Data Type Typical Uses Animated display of transient analysis results. Nodal Same as Animate. Vector Trace Deformed Style Vector/Trace Style Output Set: NASTRAN Case 1 Deformed(4.251E-3): Total Translation 2 6 7 3 5 2 & ( 6 6 . deployments or other motion with relative positions stored in multiple sets.Nodal MultiSet except will display trace lines connecting historical positions of nodes. Visualization of direction and magnitude of displacements.

nodal stresses. Beam Diagram IsoSurface Section Cut Vector Same as Contour.tude and direction of elemental centroid or mental stresses/strains. the outer surface . nodal displacements. Nodal Good for understanding For models with output distributions solid elements . Shows contours on any planar cut thru your model.. method. Contour of elemental loads.. elements Nodal will display contour areas or lines These are areas or lines of constant output value. Ends of Understanding variation Model. Conrior surfaces of contours show variations on stant output value.Isosurfaces show inside. much Elem ments. like 3D shear and bending moment diagrams. Criteria Model Only None Model. nodal position . Elem Like Contour. Model with vectors in Nodal Visualization of magnicontour colors at the or Ele. Criteria allows you to limit the display to portions of your model which have output values that meet a specific criterion. Nodal Understanding output For models with distribution on one or solid elements more arbitrary planes enhanced contouring inside your model.inteinside your model. Postprocessing Contour Style None Contour Will Display Output Data Type Typical Uses Modelling. except each element is colored based on a single output value for the element. elemental stresses. with conof output values along toured diagrams on Line the length of line eleline elements.

2335. 5918. 2335. 8705. 4724.219 -4.7 4804. 2733.6 3925. 7909.328 -7. 5122. 6714. 3131. 8307. 5288. 6316. 2334.9 4804.516 -4. 4724. 6316. 4325. 3927. 5520. 7511. 7511. 7113. 3131.4 4473.734 -8. 7113.3 8307. 1 * 3 . 2599. Output Set: NASTRAN Case 1 Criteria: Plate Top VonMises Stress Beam Diagram -5. 5918. 5520.55 -11.1 5903. 2733.031 12. Contour Style Output Set: NASTRAN Case 1 Contour: Plate Top VonMises Stress 8705.7 5903.4 7225.25 123456 Output Set: LOADING Contour: Beam End A Moment2 2 6 7 3 5 2 & ( 6 6 . Criteria Style 7672. 5122.3 7225. 3529.141 -9. 3927.109 -2.438 -9.406 -2.922 5. 2599.2 -7. 1.844 -10.813 -3. 8705. 6714.Choosing Deformed and Contour Styles  8705.625 -6.703 -1.374E-15 -0.5 3925. 3529. 4325. 7909.125 -5.

In fact. and you can only do IsoSurfaces/Section Cuts if you have solid elements. You can choose any type of output data for any style. . The table lists the type of data required for the style.you can only do Beam Diagrams if you have line elements. Postprocessing IsoSurfaces Section Cut Multiple Section Planes shown with a Free Edge Style The tables above list typical uses for the various postprocessing styles. The same applies to the listed output data types. The only restrictions are the obvious ones . FEMAP does not really limit you in any way.

choose the Output Vectors to be used for the Deformation or Contour styles. for example). you simply choose the contour data. This is useful for Animate and Animate MultiSet if you really just want to see “animated” contours on your undeformed model. or Trace Style along with one of the Contour Styles. press the Deformed and Contour Data command button. For Trace plots. Even if you change the deformation style (from Deform to Animate. choose the Output Set which contains the data that you want to postprocess. With this option selected you do not need to choose any data for deformation. the same output vector will automatically be used.Skip Deformation Option  but if you choose data of the opposite type (Nodal vs.2 Selecting Data for a Deformed or Contour Style When you choose any of the deformed or contour styles. you must also select output data to be used for that style. both output vectors must always be chosen from the same output set. If you forget to choose the appropriate output data. Elemental). This prevents you from completing the selection until all data is properly specified. you will receive a warning when you attempt to press OK. Then. unless you choose a different one. The Select PostProcessing Data dialog box will be displayed. FEMAP will automatically convert it prior to completing the display. these postprocessing styles do not select any default output data.1 Skip Deformation Option When you select either Animate.2. which use default model data. you have the option of choosing the Skip Deformation option. The vectors you choose from these drop-down lists will be used until you select a different vector. 1 * 3 .2. For combined deformation and contour displays. 8. it enables you to see the historical locations without “interference” from the deforming model. To select output data for both the deformed and contour styles. 8.2. there are only three or four basic selections required. Unlike the model styles. 2 6 7 3 5 2 & ( 6 6 . Refer to the Model Output Convert command for more information on this process.2. First. Animate MultiSet. Although this dialog box looks somewhat complex.

you can choose a Category other than Any Output. If you know that you want to select a specific type of output. This additional set is required since this style of animation uses data from multiple sets. otherwise they will not. You can also get to this dialog box by pressing Shift +F5. FEMAP will skip output sets based upon this increment. Working with Complex Output If you are postprocessing complex output. you have the opportunity to specify your own categories (up to 255). When you select a different Category. The first animation frame uses data from the original Output Set that you specified. you should also select a Final Output Set and the Output Set Increment. By default. and specify the category number to list this type of data. By default. Quickly Choosing Output Data In addition to using the View Select command. If you select an output set increment other than 1. Frames will only be generated for the sets where the selected Output Vector exists. you can choose the type that you want to select from the “Type” option. then one animation frame will be generated for each additional output set. the drop-down lists will only show output data of that type. You can choose Other. but you can review all other types by simply changing this option. Making it Easier to Select Output Data When you are trying to select output vectors for deformations and contours. If you do not specify a Final Output Set (or if you specify a nonexistent set). Just press the right mouse button while you are pointing inside any graphics window and choose Post Data. you will notice that the right side of the dialog box is continually updated. By scrolling through the list of available vectors. the lists will show element corner output. you can sometimes become overwhelmed by the amount of output data FEMAP lets you postprocess. Since element corner data is normally not directly selected for deformations or contours. it is usually best to leave this option unchecked. and the maximum and minimum values in the vector. The maximum and minimum values may also give you a good idea of what to expect before you actually see the data graphically. Postprocessing If you are using the Animate-MultiSet deformation style. if Data at Corners is checked. the drop-down lists contain all of the output vectors from the Output Set that you selected. and including the Final Output Set that you select. you can use this feature to quickly review your output data. FEMAP will generate one frame for every set with an ID greater than the original Output Set that you select. up to. Magnitude data will be shown. you can also access the PostProcessing Data dialog box directly from the Quick Access menu. like Stress. The values shown here tell you where the output was generated. This can result in hundreds of vectors. . Reviewing Your Output As you select output sets or vectors from the drop-down lists. If you create output data in FEMAP. Similarly.

(2) Data Conversion.Selecting Data for a Deformed or Contour Style  Contour Options The contour options dialog box allows access to the type of contour and data conversion to perform. The Select Contour Options dialog box appears.Contour Type). Nodal contouring simply averages all values at the nodes and cannot account for any discontinuities in material or geometry. This dialog box is separated into five major sections: (1) Contour Type. especially at material breaks. 2 6 7 3 5 2 & ( 6 6 . In addition. When you select this option. (3) Rendered Contours. All of these options can also be accessed through the View Options command (Category . When Nodal is selected. Note: Element contouring has the added feature that if you select No Averaging under Element Contour Discontinuities (discussed more fully below). the Other Options section will not be available. you can specify which discontinuities in the model to use in the contouring to obtain an accurate representation of the results. element contouring allows you to view both top and bottom stresses of plates on one plot. Nodal contouring should not be used across material boundaries or changes in properties such as plate thickness since averaging stresses across these areas results in inaccurate results at the interface. Contour Type This section allows you to pick from either Nodal or Elemental contouring.Postprocessing. The resulting graphics may not be as “smooth” as nodal contouring. Option . but it provides a more accurate representation of the results when discontinuities exist in the model. the pure data at the element centroid and corners is plotted without any manipulation. as well as an additional output vector (see Other Options below). (4) Element Contour Discontinuities. a relatively smooth contour will appear. and (5) Other Options. In addition. This provides a graphical representation of the pure data. 1 * 3 . This type of contouring is very useful for multiple material models as well as models with plates with that intersect at large angles or have varying thickness. although the results will not be accurate at material boundaries or property breaks. Each of these areas are discussed more fully below. Stresses will not be averaged across these values. If Elemental contouring is chosen.

corners. FEMAP will take an average of the surrounding values to obtain a result. The speed of the Color Levels option depends upon the ability of the graphics board to produce texture maps. and then FEMAP would linearly interpolate to produce the corresponding colors between locations. 300 and 400. but this can be significantly slower than the Continuous Colors depending upon your graphics card. of the pertinent surrounding locations. and then use this information to generate the display. and nodes to the actual continuous graphical representation. Hint: You can use the difference in Max and Average results to make a quick estimate of the fidelity of the model. . There are three options to convert the data: (1) Average. Postprocessing Data Conversion This section controls how FEMAP converts the results from pure data at element centroids. whereas Max or Min Value will just use the max or min value. FEMAP v6. If there is a large difference between these two contours.0 and beyond now provide support for Color Levels by producing a texture map. especially at locations that do not have sharp corners or breaks in the model. If elemental contours are On. If Average is on. The easiest way to understand the data conversion process is through an example. there will be four values associated with it for a given stress vector (either corner data or if Use Corner Data is off elemental centroidal data). If an interior node of a continuous mesh (no geometric or material breaks) is attached to four elements. such as Safety Factor or large compressive stresses. a Max conversion with 400. your FEA model may require a finer mesh. and a Min conversion of 100. respectively. The Min Value option should only be used when performing contours for vectors where the minimum values are actually the worst case. this option could be significantly slower. FEMAP will only average results at the specific node if there are no discontinuities as chosen by you under Elemental Contour Discontinuities. If these values are 100. If your graphics board supports acceleration of texture maps. an Average conversion would result in 250 at that node. Versions prior to v6. (2) Max Value. You can also choose to use any elemental corner data (if it has been recovered from the analysis program) or to skip it for any of these methods. the data conversion can significantly affect the results if there is a large gradient across adjacent elements.0 required continuous colors due to limitations in render mode. FEMAP will produce results at each node and centroid of the elements. 200. If the graphics board does not accelerate texture maps. this option will not be much slower than the Continuous Colors option. Thus. Rendered Contours This section allows you to choose between Continuous Colors and Color Levels for Render Mode. and (3) Min Value. This procedure would be used at all nodal locations to get the basis of the plot.

This can lead to a very discontinuous plot but is useful for certain models such as variable thickness plate models to speed the data conversion process. If Property is selected. both centroidal and corner data. you must also specify the options at the top of the PostProcessing Data dialog box. since only pure data is plotted. Displaying Section Cuts In addition to selecting the output vector for contouring. Valid discontinuities include Property. Simply select the DoubleSide Planar Contours option. contours for each element will be created without consideration to any connected elements. There are two types of Section Cut plots available. Material. when you want to display section cuts. If Angle is selected. For example. If Property is off. even if they contain the same property. If you select a standard Top or Bottom Plate Vector for contouring. Layers and Colors are also available since many users separate their model into specific key areas based upon layer or color. such as Plate Top Von Mises Stress. you can create averaged elemental contours. you do not want to average stresses of plates that intersect at right angles. 1 * 3 . Layer. If No Average is selected. you can select to use Materials as the break. and then select Solid Von Mises Stress for the Additional Output Vector to see these values contoured on the solids. You could select Plate Top Von Mises Stress for the original Contour Vector. If this option is not checked. Again. select Double-Sided to also view the Bottom Von Mises Stress. the material option will be grayed since Property is a more discrete choice than Material (a Material can be on Multiple Properties but typically a Property can only reference 1 Material). It makes a planar cut through your model. you must input a tolerance. When you rotate the model from top to bottom. This can be very important with plate models that have intersecting edges. You may also select an Additional Output Vector to contour. removing all elements on the 2 6 7 3 5 2 & ( 6 6 . It is also useful to obtain a graphical representation of the pure data. These are only available for the standard plate output vectors. and must therefore choose the type of discontinuities across which they do not want to average. you will see the stresses change from Top to Bottom stresses. you do not typically want to average across material or property boundaries. Color. or Angle. This is very useful if you have a combined Plate and Solid Model.Selecting Data for a Deformed or Contour Style  Elemental Contour Discontinuities This section controls averaging for elemental contouring. Other Options This section is also only available for Elemental Contours. The first. “Cut Model”. It is only available when Contour Type is Elemental. FEMAP can automatically contour both Top and Bottom Stresses on the same plot. In addition. does just what it says.

Hint: For other effects. Contour/Criteria Levels. and finally define the Number and Spacing for the sections. PostProcessing. and set # of Levels). you should use View Option to reduce the number of contours. and they take a long time to compute. While 16 or more contour levels are usually appropriate for contour and section cut plots. Then set Section Cut Edges to “Show Cut Edges”. use View Options. “Contour Sections”. . try these options: m If you just want to see contours on the cutting plane. To set up this type of Section Cut. To setup this type of plot. If you specify a positive number. and backfaces are filled with background. Choose a negative number if you want them along the negative normal. In addition. m If you want to see the element edges on the cutting plane. Contours are drawn on the cutting planes only. The front faces are simply drawn as outlines (or with a transparent fill pattern if you turn on element fill). IsoSurface plots are rarely meaningful with that many surfaces. Spacing is only used if Number is greater than one. The other type of Section Cut. Only the cutting planes will be displayed. choose 6 or less levels before computing IsoSurfaces (use View Option. all elements that cross the plane are cut. cutting planes do not actually cut. including on the cutting plane. choose the Tools and View Style category. and backfaces are filled. press the Define Section button to define the first cutting plane. allows you to pass one or more cutting planes through your model. this method makes all model elements transparent. In this mode. m Choose Free Edge Style to show just the outlines of your model along with the section cuts. and the Filled Edges option. It is the perpendicular distance between the planes. IsoSurfaces do not require any additional options to be chosen. just choose Cut Model. use View Options and turn off the display of elements. Rather than showing contours on the rest of your model. or remove any elements. Note: Before using View Select to choose an IsoSurface display. Front faces are transparent. All cut edges will be displayed in the Filled Edge View Color. the additional planes are located along the positive normal to the first plane that you defined. Normal contours are displayed over the entire model. As a general guideline. Displaying IsoSurfaces Unlike Section Cuts. The display mode of IsoSurfaces is much the same as the display of Contour Section planes . first choose the Contour Section option. they simply locate the contours. Postprocessing side of the plane toward the positive plane normal. then press the Define Section button to define the cutting plane.all elements are shown in a transparent mode so that you can see the IsoSurfaces inside.

Selecting Data for a Deformed or Contour Style 

It is often best to turn on Shading with IsoSurfaces - it helps to visualize the curvature of the surfaces. Alternatively, if you choose line contours (turn off the Filled Contour/Criteria Style), FEMAP will display the edges of the polygons that define the surface with no filling. This allows you to see through multiple surfaces, and can sometimes give a better understanding of the shape of the IsoSurface. You can also choose the Free Edge style to see just the element outlines with the IsoSurfaces.

Trace Locations...
... will enable you to select the nodes to use for the Deformed Style Trace plots. When you push this button, you will see the Trace Locations dialog box. You can choose to select all the nodes, a group of nodes, or a single node to use for the trace. All Nodes are chosen by default.

Contour Vectors...
... is used to define the output vector(s) to use for the Contour Vector Plots. You can define the output in any of four different methods Standard Vectors, Single Value, 2-D Components, or 3-D Components. You can display up to three Contour Vectors on the same plot. Typically you will want to select a Standard Vector since these Output Vectors contain data which was already calculated based upon their components. Examples of these type of vectors include Total Translation or Rotation for Nodal Data, Plate Top Major Stress for 2-D Plate Elements, and Solid Major Principal Stress for 3D Solid Elements. When Standard Vectors is selected, you only need to select one output for each value. The direction and magnitude of these vectors are automatically calculated by FEMAP to generate the Vector Contour Plot. You can generate up to three vectors for each plot. Thus, for Solid Principal Stresses you could pick Solid Major for Vector 1, Solid Intermediate for Vector 2, and Solid Minor for Vector three to see vectors for all 3 Principal stresses on one plot.

2 6 7 3 5 2 &a