5 views

Uploaded by bkmmizan

A friendly introduction to MATLAB.

save

- NESTbrochure-2010
- Basics of Matlab
- Matlab and Simulink
- MATH15L Coursewares
- DSP Lab Manual 15EC57
- R Programming Tutorial
- Syllabus for IIT-JEE
- Jee
- Honors Project
- matlab questions
- Working with Vectors and Matrices.pdf
- CS Matlab review guide
- Joseph V. Tranquillo-MATLAB for Engineering and the Life Sciences (Synthesis Lectures on Engineering) -Morgan & Claypool Publishers (2011).pdf
- ECE2026-Lab00-2015F
- matlab
- Defense Technical Paper
- READ_ME_MMB_1_2
- C++ With Matlab
- ISI_M.S
- MfLab Keynote
- Matlab Primer 3
- Mat Class All
- BAB08 - The Math Operations Library
- MATLAB_primer.pdf
- Matlab Primer
- Lecture 06
- SCILAB Edited
- 13 Matrices
- 2013 Math 201 a Robbins
- A tutorial onModels.plasma.drift Diffusion
- Series_Resonance_using_OrCAD.pdf
- DSP lab - EEE312_BUET.pdf
- Acdc.magnetic Brakemodel
- Thesis
- Lab6 Series Resonant
- Models.semicond.gaas Pin Photodiode
- Models.plasma.drift Diffusion Tutorial
- Radio FrequencyCorrugatedantenna
- models.acdc.magnetic_brake.pdf
- Models.rf.Bowtie Antenna Optimization
- Patch Antenna by Com Sol
- Models.plasma.drift Diffusion Tutorial
- Models.rf.Spiral Slot Antenna
- Models acdc Spiral Inductor using comsol
- Models.rf.Parabolic Reflector
- HFSS Patch Antenna
- ConPaper on A simple Model for Estimating Solar Radiation on Horizontal Surfaces
- Orcad_9-2Primer
- Models.semicond.pn Diode Circuit
- nphoton.2010.186
- Paper on Microstrip Antenna

You are on page 1of 11

**UNITED INTERNATIONAL UNIVERSITY (UIU)
**

Dept. Of Electrical & Electronic Engineering (EEE)

Course: EEE 110, Title: Simulation Laboratory

Lab Sheet 1

Introduction to MATLAB

What is MATLAB:

MATLAB stands for MATrix LABoratory .MATLAB is a software package for computation in

engineering, science, and applied mathematics. It offers a powerful programming language, excellent

graphics, and a wide range of expert knowledge. MATLAB is published by and a trademark of The

MathWorks, Inc.

Standard Windows :

When the MATLAB program starts, the following window opens which contains four smaller

windows .These windows are default and can be switched on or off if necessary.

Command

window

Command

History window

Current Directory &

Workspace window

Figure 1.1 : The default view of MATLAB desktop

2

Four most used MATLAB Windows

Command

Window

This is where you type and execute commands

Workspace

Window

This shows current variables and allows to edit variables by opening array editor (double

click), to load variables from files and to clear variables.

Current

Directory

window

This shows current directory and MATLAB files in current folder, provides with a handy

way to change folders and to load files.

History window This shows previously executed commands. Commands can be re-executed by double-

clicking.

Working on the command window :

(A)Using MATLAB as a calculator

You can use “command window” part for various calculations as if you would use a calculator: Type

expressions containing numbers, parenthesis and mathematical operations and press “Enter” to get the result.

Example :

>>2^sqrt(9)

ans =

8

>> a = 1. 2;

>> b=2. 3;

>> c=4. 5;

>> d=4;

>> a^3+sqr t ( b*d) - 4*c

ans =

- 13. 2388

Note the semicolon after each variable assignment. If you omit the semicolon, then MATLAB echoes back on

the screen the variable value.

(B)Assigning Values to Variables

To create a variable just use it on the left hand side of an equal sign. The following examples show how to

assign values to variables, x and y.

>>x=5

x =

5

>>y =log(2)

y =

0.6931

>>z =10;

<nothing is displayed. Why? Because of the semicolon used. But be confirmed that, a value of 10 is stored in

the variable z but does not display. >

Note that :

(1) You can use who command to list the currently active variables. For the preceding session this results in

>>who

Your variables are:

ans x y z

(2) Use clear command to delete variables from computer memory

>>clear x

3

>>x

??? Undefined function or variable 'x'.

(3) Suppress intermediate output with Semicolon.

MATLAB will print the result of every assignment operation unless the expression on the right hand side is

terminated with a semicolon.

(C)List of useful commands for managing variables :

Command Outcome

clear Removes all variables from memory.

clear x y z Removes only variables x,y,z from the memory .

who Displays a list the variables currently in the memory.

whos Displays a list the variables currently in the memory and their size together with

information about their bytes and class.

(D)Two important command to ensure fairness and readability

Command Outcome

clc Clears contents on the command window ensuring blank working environment

% If used before any line or statement, program ignores the line or statement.

So used to insert any comment in the program.

(E)Predefined variables :

A number of frequently used variables are already defined when MATLAB is started. Some

of the predefined variables are :

Predefined

Variables

Meaning

ans A variable that has the value of the last expression that has not assigned to a specific

variable. If the user does not assign the value of an expression to a variable, MATLAB

automatically stores the result in ans .

pi Value of the number t .

eps The smallest difference between two numbers. It’s value is 2.2204e-016 .

inf Used for infinity.

i or j Defined as 1 ÷

NaN Stands for Not-a-Number.Used when MATLAB cannot determine a valid numeric

value.For example 0/0.

(F)Complex numbers :

MATLAB also supports complex numbers. The imaginary number is denoted with the symbol i or j, assuming

that you did not use these symbols anywhere in your program (that is very important!). Try the following:

>>z =3 +4i % note that you do not need the ‘*’ after 4

>>conj(z) % computes the conjugate of z

>>angle(z) % computes the phase of z

>>real(z) % computes the real part of z

>>imag(z) % computes the imaginary part of z

>>abs(z) % computes the magnitude of z

4

(G)Elementary Math functions used in MATLAB:

Function Description Example

sqrt(x) Square root >>sqrt(16)

ans =

4

exp(x) Exponential (e

x

) >>exp(3)

ans =

20.0855

abs(x) Absolute value >>abs(-4)

ans =

4

>>abs(3+4j)

ans =

5

log(x) Natural logarithm (Base e ) >>log(1000)

ans =

6.9078

log10(x) Base 10 logarithm . >>log10(1000)

ans =

3

factorial(x) The factorial function x!

(x must be a positive integer.)

>>factorial(5)

ans =

120

sin(x) Sine of angle x (x in radians) >>sin(pi/6)

ans =

0.5000

cos(x) cosine of angle x (x in radians) >>cos(pi/4)

ans =

0.7071

tan(x) Tangent of angle x (x in radians) >>tan(pi/3)

ans =

1.7321

tand(x) Cotangent of angle x (x in degree) >>tand(60)

ans =

1.7321

asin(x) Inverse sine of x >>asin(sqrt(3)/2)

ans =

1.0472

(Note that result is in radians)

round(x) Round to the nearest integer >>round(17/5)

5

ans =

3

ceil(x) Round towards infinity. >>ceil(11/5)

ans =

3

floor(x) Round towards minus infinity. >>floor(9/4)

ans =

2

rem(x,y) Returns the remainder after x is divided

by y.

>>rem(13,5)

ans =

3

sign(x) Signum function.

Returns 1 if x>0

Returns -1 if x<0

>>sign(-5)

ans =

-1

(H)Creating Vectors and Matrices

The array or matrix is a fundamental form that uses to store and manipulate data.

Unlike C programming language , array index starts from 1 in MATLAB instead of 0 in C programming.

To create a matrix In MATLAB, use the brackets. Numbers (or variables) inside the brackets can be separated

by commas, spaces, or semicolons, where commas and spaces are row separators; semicolons are column

separators. For example,

>>a=[2,5,7]

a =

2 5 7

>>b=[3,4,a]

b =

3 4 2 5 7

>>c=[2 3;4 5]

c =

2 3

4 5

(I)Colon Operator

MATLAB colon operator is a compact way to create vectors. For example,

>>A=1:0.1:1.5

A =

1.0000 1.1000 1.2000 1.3000 1.4000 1.5000

Where 0.1 is the increment, if omitted, it is assumed to be one.

>>B =1:5

B =

1 2 3 4 5

(J)Create some basic matrices using MATLAB built-in functions: ones, zeros, eye

6

Commands Description Example

zeros(m,n) A matrix of dimension m×n having all elements 0

>>zeros(3,4)

ans =

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0

ones(m,n) A matrix of dimension m×n having all elements 1

>>ones(3,4)

ans =

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

1 1 1 1

eye(n) An identity matrix of dimension n×n

>>eye(4)

ans =

1 0 0 0

0 1 0 0

0 0 1 0

0 0 0 1

(K)Determine size of a matrix

Command Description

Example

size(x) Determines size of the matrix

>>x=[1 2 3;4 5 6;7 8 9]

x =

1 2 3

4 5 6

7 8 9

>>size(x)

ans =

3 3

(L)Addressing Vectors or Matrices:

Command Meaning Example when

A =

1 3 5 7 9 11

2 4 6 8 10 12

3 6 9 12 15 18

4 8 12 16 20 24

5 10 15 20 25 30

A(:,n) Refers to the elements in the rows of column n of the matrix

A

>>B=A(:,3)

B =

5

6

9

12

15

A(n,:) Refers to the elements in all the columns of row n of

the matrix A.

>>C=A(2,:)

C =

2 4 6 8 10 12

A(:,m:n) Refers to the elements in all the rows between columns m

and n of the matrix A

>>E=A(:,2:4)

E =

3 5 7

4 6 8

6 9 12

8 12 16

10 15 20

7

A(m:n,:) Refers to the elements in all the columns between rows

m and n of the matrix A.

>>D=A(2:4,:)

D =

2 4 6 8 10 12

3 6 9 12 15 18

4 8 12 16 20 24

A(m:n,p:q) Refers to the elements in rows m trough n and columns

p through q of the matrix A.

>>F=A(1:3,2:4)

F =

3 5 7

4 6 8

6 9 12

(M) Generation of random numbers :

Command Description Example

rand Generates a single random number between 0 and 1 >>rand

ans =

0.2311

rand(1,n) Generates an n elements row vector of random

numbers between 0 and 1

>>a=rand (1,4)

a =

0.6068 0.4860 0.8913 0.7621

rand(n) Generates an n×n matrix of random numbers

between 0 and 1

>>b=rand(3)

b =

0.4568 0.4447 0.9218

0.0158 0.6154 0.7382

0.8214 0.7919 0.1763

rand(m,n) Generates an m×n matrix of random numbers

between 0 and 1

>>c=rand(2,4)

c =

0.4568 0.4447 0.9218 0.3529

0.0158 0.6154 0.7382 0.9533

randperm(n) Generates a row vector with n elements that are

random permutation of integers 1 through n .

randperm(8)

ans =

8 2 7 4 3 6 5 1

Mathematical operations on Arrays

(A)Addition and Subtraction of Arrays :

Mathematical Review:

If

(

¸

(

¸

=

23 22 21

13 12 11

A A A

A A A

A and

(

¸

(

¸

=

23 22 21

13 12 11

B B B

B B B

B

Then ,

(

¸

(

¸

+ + +

+ + +

= +

B A B A B A

B A B A B A

B A

23 23 22 22 21 21

13 13 12 12 11 11

And,

(

¸

(

¸

÷ ÷ ÷

÷ ÷ ÷

= ÷

B A B A B A

B A B A B A

B A

23 23 22 22 21 21

13 13 12 12 11 11

MATLAB Example :

>>A=[1 2 3;4 5 6];

>>B=[8 9 10;11 12 13];

>>A+B

ans =

9 11 13

15 17 19

>>A-B

ans =

8

-7 -7 -7

-7 -7 -7

(B) Array Multiplications :

Mathematical Review :

If

(

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

=

43 42 41

33 32 31

23 22 21

13 12 11

A A A

A A A

A A A

A A A

A

and

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

=

32 31

22 21

12 11

B B

B B

B B

B

Be sure that, number of columns of Matrix A is equal to number of rows of Matrix B .Otherwise multiplication

is not defined.

Then,

(

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

=

43 42 41

33 32 31

23 22 21

13 12 11

A A A

A A A

A A A

A A A

AB

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

32 31

22 21

12 11

B B

B B

B B

=

(

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

+ + + +

+ + + +

+ + + +

+ + + +

32 43 22 42 12 41 31 43 21 42 11 41

32 33 22 32 12 31 31 33 21 32 11 31

32 23 22 22 12 21 31 23 21 22 11 21

32 13 22 12 12 11 31 13 21 12 11 11

B A B A B A B A B A B A

B A B A B A B A B A B A

B A B A B A B A B A B A

B A B A B A B A B A B A

A numerical example :

A=

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

8 2 5

1 6 2

3 4 1

and B=

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

6 2

3 1

4 5

Then,

= AB

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

8 2 5

1 6 2

3 4 1

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

6 2

3 1

4 5

=

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

+ + + +

+ + + +

+ + + +

8.6 2.3 5.4 8.2 2.1 5.5

1.6 6.3 2.4 1.2 6.1 2.5

3.6 4.3 1.4 2 . 3 1 . 4 5 . 1

=

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

74 43

32 18

34 15

MATLAB Example :

>>A=[1 4 3;2 6 1;5 2 8];

>>B=[5 4;1 3;2 6];

>>A*B

ans =

15 34

18 32

43 74

(C) Inverse of a Matrix

MATLAB Example :

>>A=[2 1 4;4 1 8;2 -1 3];

>>inv(A)

ans =

5.5000 -3.5000 2.0000

9

2.0000 -1.0000 0

-3.0000 2.0000 -1.0000

Note: The Command >>A^-1 will have the same effect.

(D)Left Division and right Division

Command Name Meaning Example

A\B Left Division A

-1

B >>A=[1 2 3;4 5 6;7 8 9];

>>B=[10 11 12;13 14 15;16 17 18];

>>A\B % Left division

ans =

-20.0000 -17.0000 -18.0000

33.0000 26.0000 27.0000

-12.0000 -8.0000 -8.0000

A/B Right Division AB

-1

>>A/B % right division

ans =

1.0000 3.0000 -3.0000

1.0000 2.0000 -2.0000

0.5000 2.0000 -1.5000

(E)Element-By-Element Operations (Very Very Important)

If two matrices are

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

=

33 32 31

23 22 21

13 12 11

A A A

A A A

A A A

A and

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

=

33 32 31

23 22 21

13 12 11

B B B

B B B

B B B

B

Then, observe the following operation :

Command Meaning Outcome

A.*B Multiplies

every element

of A with

corresponding

element of B

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

=

33 33 32 32 31 31

23 23 22 22 21 21

13 13 12 12 11 11

B A B A B A

B A B A B A

B A B A B A

B * . A

A./B Divides every

element of A

by

corresponding

element of B

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

=

33 33 32 32 31 31

23 23 22 22 21 21

13 13 12 12 11 11

B / A /B A /B A

B / A /B A /B A

B / A /B A /B A

B / . A

A.^n Every

element of A

is raised by a

power n.

(

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

=

n

33

n

32

n

31

n

23

n

22

n

21

n

13

n

12

n

11

A A A

A A A

A A A

n .^ A

Note: Observe carefully difference between using dot and not using dot.

(F)Built in functions for analyzing arrays :

Function Description Example

mean(A) Returns mean value of the elements of vector A. >>A=[5 9 2 4];

>>mean(A)

10

ans =

5

c =max(A) Returns maximum value of the elements of vector A >>c=max(A)

c =

9

[d n] =max(A) Returns maximum value of the elements of vector A and

also return it’s position.

>>A=[5 9 2 4];

>>[d n] =max(A)

d =

9

n =

2

c=min(A) Returns minimum value of the elements of vector A >>A=[3 4 5 7 -5 10];

>>c=min(A)

c =

-5

[d n]=min(A) Returns maximum value of the elements of vector A and

also return it’s position.

>>A=[3 4 5 7 -5 10];

>>[d n]=min(A)

d =

-5

n =

5

sum(A) Returns the sum of the vector A. >>A=[5 9 2 4];

>>sum(A)

ans =

20

sort(A) Arranges the elements of vector A in ascending order. >>A=[5 9 2 4];

>>sort(A)

ans =

2 4 5 9

median(A) Returns the median value of the elements of vector A. >>A=[5 9 2 4];

>>median(A)

ans =

4.5000

std(A) Returns the standard deviation of the elements of vector A. >>A=[5 9 2 4];

>>std(A)

ans =

2.9439

det(A) Returns the determinant of matrix A.

A must be square matrix.

>>A=[2 4 6;6 9 1;0 2 7];

>>det(A)

ans =

26

dot(a,b) Returns the scalar or dot product of two vectors a and b. >>a=[1 2 3];

>>b=[3 4 5];

>>dot(a,b)

ans =

26

cross(a,b) Returns the scalar or dot product of two vectors a and b. >>a=[1 2 3];

>>b=[3 4 5];

>>cross(a,b)

ans =

-2 4 -2

11

Report : [Submit as lab report in the next session.]

Q1. Use MATLAB to determine how many elements are in the array

cos(0.1):0.02:log10(105) .

Use MATLAB to find the 25

th

element.

Q2. The table 1.1 gives the speed of an aircraft on each leg of a certain trip and the time

spent on each leg . Compute the km traveled on each leg and the sum of km traveled

by all four legs.

Legs

1 2 3 4

Speed (Km/hr) 200 250 400 300

Time(Hr) 2 5 3 4

Table 1.1

Q3. Write MATLAB Command to evaluate the following :

W 10 W , 87 . 60 , 10 R , 5 I , 255 V for ,

W R I cos VI

cos VI

Efficiency

c

0

c

2

= = u = = =

+ + u

u

=

Q4. Use matrix operations to solve the following system of linear equations :

0 z 3 y 10 x 6

4 z 2 y 8 x 2

8 z 6 y 2 x 4

= + +

= + +

= + ÷

[Hints : AX=B

Where, A=

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

3 10 6

2 8 2

6 2 - 4

and, B=

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

0

4

8

Q5. Create the following matrix C :

(

(

(

¸

(

¸

=

35 28 21 14 7

15 12 9 6 3

10 8 6 4 2

C

Use the matrix C to:

Create a six element column vector named A that contains the elements of the 2

nd

and 3rd column of C.

Lab Sheet prepared by:

B.K.M. Mizanur Rahman

Assistant Professor , Department of EEE,

United International University.

Last update : Spring 2013

The easiest and best way to learn MATLAB is to use MATLAB.

- NESTbrochure-2010Uploaded byNaveenGoyal
- Basics of MatlabUploaded byRishabh Gupta
- Matlab and SimulinkUploaded byOnur Kımıllı
- MATH15L CoursewaresUploaded byPaolo Gochingco
- DSP Lab Manual 15EC57Uploaded byKrishnaveni Dhulipala
- R Programming TutorialUploaded byKabira Kabira
- Syllabus for IIT-JEEUploaded byJaun Kahan
- JeeUploaded byAanand Nayyar
- Honors ProjectUploaded byawh4904
- matlab questionsUploaded byBandaru Vasantha
- Working with Vectors and Matrices.pdfUploaded byMauricio Lagos Rogers
- CS Matlab review guideUploaded bypookdook
- Joseph V. Tranquillo-MATLAB for Engineering and the Life Sciences (Synthesis Lectures on Engineering) -Morgan & Claypool Publishers (2011).pdfUploaded byAbdalmoedAlaiashy
- ECE2026-Lab00-2015FUploaded byOmnipotentEntity
- matlabUploaded byTigabu Yaya
- Defense Technical PaperUploaded byIsaac Ace Docto Villarez
- READ_ME_MMB_1_2Uploaded byAlejandro Granda Sandoval
- C++ With MatlabUploaded byPengyuan Yao
- ISI_M.SUploaded byapi-26401608
- MfLab KeynoteUploaded byjaspreetsingh1243
- Matlab Primer 3Uploaded bykarmowelding
- Mat Class AllUploaded byLaura Riontino
- BAB08 - The Math Operations LibraryUploaded bycakMAD69
- MATLAB_primer.pdfUploaded byLichicienta
- Matlab PrimerUploaded byWilliam Chun
- Lecture 06Uploaded byAlejoldm
- SCILAB EditedUploaded byRama Sugavanam
- 13 MatricesUploaded bytamleduc1810dn
- 2013 Math 201 a RobbinsUploaded byMehmed Duhovic

- A tutorial onModels.plasma.drift DiffusionUploaded bybkmmizan
- Series_Resonance_using_OrCAD.pdfUploaded bybkmmizan
- DSP lab - EEE312_BUET.pdfUploaded bybkmmizan
- Acdc.magnetic BrakemodelUploaded bybkmmizan
- ThesisUploaded bybkmmizan
- Lab6 Series ResonantUploaded bybkmmizan
- Models.semicond.gaas Pin PhotodiodeUploaded bybkmmizan
- Models.plasma.drift Diffusion TutorialUploaded bybkmmizan
- Radio FrequencyCorrugatedantennaUploaded bybkmmizan
- models.acdc.magnetic_brake.pdfUploaded bybkmmizan
- Models.rf.Bowtie Antenna OptimizationUploaded bybkmmizan
- Patch Antenna by Com SolUploaded bybkmmizan
- Models.plasma.drift Diffusion TutorialUploaded bybkmmizan
- Models.rf.Spiral Slot AntennaUploaded bybkmmizan
- Models acdc Spiral Inductor using comsolUploaded bybkmmizan
- Models.rf.Parabolic ReflectorUploaded bybkmmizan
- HFSS Patch AntennaUploaded bybkmmizan
- ConPaper on A simple Model for Estimating Solar Radiation on Horizontal SurfacesUploaded bybkmmizan
- Orcad_9-2PrimerUploaded bybkmmizan
- Models.semicond.pn Diode CircuitUploaded bybkmmizan
- nphoton.2010.186Uploaded bybkmmizan
- Paper on Microstrip AntennaUploaded bybkmmizan