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STRUCTURAL CONTROL AND HEALTH MONITORING

Struct. Control Health Monit. 2013; 20:890–902 Published online 3 May 2012 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). DOI: 10.1002/stc.1500

Semi-active vibration control device based on superelastic NiTi wires
F. P. Amarante dos Santos1,*,†, C. Cismaşiu1 and J. Pamies Teixeira2
Centro de Investigação em Estruturas e Construção–UNIC, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal 2 UNIDEMI–Unidade de Investigação e Desenvolvimento em Engenharia Mecânica e Industrial, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Quinta da Torre, 2829-516 Caparica, Portugal
1

SUMMARY The present paper presents a physical prototype that simulates the response of a single degree of freedom dynamic system, equipped with a novel semi-active vibration control device. This device comprises two superelastic NiTi elements working in phase opposition and aims to prevent deck unseating in simply supported bridges, during a seismic excitation. The special design of this device allows to avoid problems related to stress–relaxation phenomena and material degradation because of cyclic loading that have been observed in similar passive dissipation devices. The proposed design uses a strategy that permits the continuous adapting of the accumulated stress in the NiTi wires, on the basis of the response of the device to external excitations. Although unloaded, the NiTi elements remain strain/stress free, preventing stress–relaxation phenomena. With the occurrence of a dynamic excitation, a cumulative strain/stress process in the superelastic wires is initiated, enabling higher martensite transformation ratios and therefore increasing the damping capacities of the system while keeping the stresses in the wires inside a narrower superelastic window. The strain/stress accumulation in the superelastic wires is a direct result of the motion of the structure itself, with no need for external energy input. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Received 13 May 2011; Revised 9 January 2012; Accepted 12 March 2012
KEY WORDS: semi-active vibration control; energy dissipation systems; shape-memory alloys; superelasticity; seismic devices; unseating

1. INTRODUCTION Past earthquakes have shown that the damage induced in bridges can assume several different forms, depending, among others, on factors such as the ground motion itself, conditions depending on the building site, the adopted bridge structural solution, and its specific detailing provisions. Unseating of the bridge superstructure at in-span hinges, or at simple supports, is one of the most severe forms of bridge seismic damage, leading to possible catastrophic consequences. In the case of simply supported bridges, unseating brings about the toppling of the spans from their supports, causing the structure to collapse. Bridges with inadequate seat lengths or restraints are more prone to span unseating, requiring adequate seismic retrofitting to modify their dynamic response and control the deck displacement. This is traditionally achieved using restraining systems built up of steel cables that, if designed to remain elastic, lack the ability to dissipate energy and are responsible for the transmission of large seismic forces to other structural components. After yielding, these elements tend to accumulate plastic deformations in repeated loading cycles that can also result in unseating [1]. Several other unseating prevention devices for bridges have been presented in the past decades, namely fluid-viscous
*Correspondence to: F. P. Amarante dos Santos, Centro de Investigação em Estruturas e Construção–UNIC, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Quinta da Torre, 2829–516 Caparica, Portugal. † E-mail: fpas@fct.unl.pt

Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

This property enables the material to withstand large cyclic deformations (up to 8%). The device is subjected to a quasi-static harmonic displacement yielding the full extent of the martensitic transformation in the wires. Prestress enables the system to work at higher martensite transformation ratios and. To overcome the limitations presented by these devices. These energy dissipation capabilities can be enhanced by the introduction of an initial prestress in the SE wires. To avoid problems related to relaxation phenomena and cyclic loading. This high inherent damping. has led several authors to study the retrofit and rehabilitation of bridges using SMA restraining cables [1–6]. stress–relaxation occurs. Cu-based alloys. the residual strain increases with strain amplitude [16]. Their efficacy when used as seismic links has been confirmed.10]. with no need of external energy input. on the basis of the response of the device to external excitations. For this reason. hence. similar to stainless steel. Cumulative creep in NiTi alloys is related to dislocations and other lattice defects. For applications regarding the use of SMAs in bridge restrainers. NiTi also presents good fatigue properties. proposed in the present paper. Although unloaded. Moreover. generated at high stress during the preceding loading cycle [13.14]. 2. under the direct action of external ambient factors (i. one uses a simplified version of the physical prototype described in Section 3. decreasing the energy dissipation capabilities of the material. 20:890–902 DOI: 10. NiTi exhibits an excellent corrosion behavior. SMA-based seismic damping devices are aimed to concentrate the energy dissipation in controlled locations. Control Health Monit. and because of the repeated motion of the parent-martensite interface [15]. when compared with the moisture sensitive Cu-based alloys [17]. the original device was made of sets of prestressed wires working in phase opposition. enabling higher martensite transformation ratios and increasing the damping capacities of the system. have shown that with the same number of cycles. wet weather. [7].e. With the occurrence of a dynamic excitation. high corrosion resistance. preventing the stress–relaxation phenomena. Ltd. mitigating the degradation of the material because of cyclic loading.406 mm diameter NiTi Euroflex SE508 wires (EUROFLEX GmbH. As to increase its energy dissipation capabilities. without residual strains while developing a hysteretic loop. the device is able to limit the stresses in the wires inside a narrower SE window. they lack the capacity for re-centering. when the material ages at constant strain. as they reduce the relative hinge displacements at the abutments much more effectively than conventional steel cable restrainers [4–6]. leading to a stress step in the forward transformation plateau of the hysteretic cycle [9. 2. strain/stress starts to accumulate in the SE wires. in the coexistence domain.SEMI-ACTIVE VIBRATION CONTROL DEVICE BASED ON SUPERELASTIC NITI WIRES 891 dampers and metallic dampers [2]. and ferrous alloys. The cumulative strain/stress in the SE wires is a direct result of the motion of the structure itself. Although these devices are able to dissipate energy. Germany). The novel semi-active vibration control device. corresponding to the configuration presented in Figure 1(a). before the full stabilization of the SE hysteresis [11. which is a very important asset to control hinge opening in bridges during seismic actions. a unique class of metallic alloys that exhibit a peculiar thermo-mechanical property. and ductility [8]. AND CYCLIC LOADING IN NITI WIRES Shape-memory alloys in practical use are almost limited to three types: NiTi alloys.1002/stc . to exhibit higher damping [7.. the NiTi elements remain strain/stress free. 2013.1. called superelasticity. The evolution of the Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons. It is also known that SE elements exhibit permanent deformation because of progressive cumulative creep during cyclic loading. Wang et al.12]. Taking advantage of the superelastic (SE) effect. combined with repeatable re-centering capabilities and relatively high strength properties. Prestress in superelastic NiTi wires To analyze the influence of prestress on the dissipation capabilities of a SE control system comprising two NiTi restraining wires working in phase opposition. usually associated with similar passive control devices. PRESTRESS. on the basis of shape-memory alloys (SMAs) [1]. Struct. Pforzheim. decreasing the effectiveness of the original prestress. alternative solutions for seismic retrofitting of structures have been proposed. with a chemical composition of 51 at% Ni. NiTi is used in most of the SE-based civil engineering applications. originates from the NiTi-based passive dissipation device reported by Dolce et al. the proposed design uses a strategy that allows the continuous adapting of the accumulated strain in the SE wires. The device uses 0. This causes the net strain produced by a given structural oscillation to be reduced. direct rain). However. STRESS–RELAXATION.8].

the martensitic transformation changes the material from the parent phase. yielding ΔMs = ΔMf = À Δs/CCC.2. PAMIES TEIXEIRA 36 Pre-stress F [N] 36 24 12 0 −12 [mm] F [N] 24 12 0 NiTi SE508 −12 −24 −36 −20 −15 −10 −5 F −24 20 −36 −20 −15 −10 −5 36 0 5 10 [mm] 0 5 10 15 15 20 (b) Pre-stress = 0 36 24 F [N] (c) Pre-stress = 50 MPa 24 12 0 −12 [mm] F [N] NiTi SE508 12 0 −12 Pre-stress −24 −36 −20 −15 −10 −5 0 5 10 −24 20 −36 −20 −15 −10 −5 0 5 10 [mm] 15 15 20 (a) Device (d) Pre-stress = 100 MPa (e) Pre-stress = 200 MPa Figure 1. Being a first-order phase transition. As = À15  C. The first two (with Ms > Mf) indicate the temperatures at which the forward transformation starts and finishes. Figure 1(c). (d). a hightemperature phase called austenite. (c) prestress = 50 MPa. In SMAs. the Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons. In the stressfree state. The transformation temperatures of the Euroflex SE508 NiTi wires are Mf = À45  C. P. Control Health Monit. resulting boxforce-displacement diagrams and the shape of the corresponding SE hysteresis is presented in Figure 1(b)–(e). which remains in the material once the applied constraint is removed. the atoms are cooperatively rearranged into a different crystalline structure with identical chemical composition. with an equivalent viscous damping of about 10%. in its coexistence phase. (d) prestress = 100 MPa. through a displacive distortion process [19]. the critical stress to induce martensite decreases by a certain amount (Δs). 20:890–902 DOI: 10. to a low-temperature phase called martensite. parent and product phases coexist during the phase transformation [20]. Influence of prestress on superelastic hysteresis: (a) device. Hence. C. The equivalent viscous damping associated with the SE hysteresis obtained for a prestress of 200 MPa is 23%. During this transformation. the variation of the transformations temperatures Ms and Mf can be expressed as a function of Δs. where ED is the energy dissipated in a cycle of harmonic vibrations and ES0 is the maximum strain energy [18]. 2. The last two (with As < Af) are the temperatures at which the inverse transformation starts and finishes. and (e) prestress = 200 MPa. the equivalent viscous damping gradually increases as the hysteresis changes from two distinct SE areas to a single hysteretic curve. respectively. Stress–relaxation in shape-memory alloys Superelasticity is a property associated with a diffusionless phase transformation in solids called martensitic transformation. The behavior of the system with no prestress is represented in Figure 1(b). Struct. CISMAŞIU AND J. When an SE alloy is submitted to a given constraint (stress or strain).1002/stc . where the NiTi wires enable the development of a full tension/compression SE hysteresis. and Af = À5  C. The capacity of a given system to mitigate vibrations is usually evaluated through the equivalent viscous damping. (b) prestress = 0. Ms = À35  C. Af being the temperature above which the martensite becomes completely unstable [15]. By using the Clausius–Clapeyron coefficient (CCC). defined as zeq ¼ ED =ð4pES0 Þ . This decrease is due to residual stresses that promote the formation of martensite. 2013. which translates the relation between temperature and the critical stress to induce the martensitic transformation. the SE damping available in the system has doubled. an SMA is characterized by four transformation temperatures: Ms and Mf during cooling and As and Af during heating. AMARANTE DOS SANTOS.892 F. as the prestress in the wires increases from 0 to 200 MPa. When the NiTi wires are prestressed. and (e). Ltd. These residual stresses are a function of the intensity of the constraint and of its duration [10]. This means that by prestressing the NiTi wires.

If. consisting of 60 consecutive loading cycles. The tests are carried out using a Zwick/Roell Z050 (Zwick GmbH & Co.250% 6 7 8 0 720 600 480 [%] 0 1 1 2 3 4 5 = 0. after a certain period of time. 20:890–902 DOI: 10. the martensitic transformation slowly continues to develop. the SE hysteresis deviates from the original path. In Cu-based alloys. and Mt.3. Figure 2 represents the simplified stress–temperature phase diagram path associated with aging at constant strain in the coexistence domain. and strain tends to increase. 2. a 2. Control Health Monit.067% 60 [%] 240 120 60 0 1 1 2 3 4 5 = 0. If an SE cycle is interrupted after describing the first initial path (o-a-b). 2013.333%/s. a set of auto balanced compressive forces develops within the SE specimen. A region.SEMI-ACTIVE VIBRATION CONTROL DEVICE BASED ON SUPERELASTIC NITI WIRES 893 Á À f i transformation temperatures increase when an SE alloy ages under loading Ms > Ms and Mff > Mfi . Germany) testing machine. 720 600 480 360 240 120 0 1 = 0. Ltd.5 MPaKÀ 1. where only detweened martensite exists.333% 6 7 8 720 600 480 360 240 120 0 60 360 60 240 120 [%] [%] 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Figure 3. One can also identify the two transformation strips. Ulm. variations of Ms are easier to obtain and have been reported to reach about 15% [21]. causing the stress to decrease. ranging from quasi-static conditions up to a strain rate of 0.1002/stc . the coexistence domain where all phases can coexist. respectively. Estimates of the time constants and amplitudes of changes in the transformation temperatures for NiTi SE alloys are very difficult to obtain because of the large time scales involved in the aging process. KG. The stress step reduction is a function of time and austenitic fraction of the material during aging. The CCC of the Euroflex SE508 NiTi wires is 6. given the smaller time scales involved. a stress step occurs. Struct. performed at ambient temperature (’20  C) and with four different strain rates. Cyclic loading in NiTi alloys To evaluate the stabilization process. Because the strain is blocked. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons. where only austenite exists. Figure 2. the mechanical tensile cycle is continued. dA region. Aging under constant strain in the coexistence zone: phase diagram path and correspondent hysteresis. together with the variation in the corresponding isothermal hysteresis. If the material ages at constant strain in the coexistence domain. and the resulting stress–strain diagrams are presented in Figure 3.008% 720 600 480 360 1 = 0. Cyclic tensile tests at increasing strain rates: stress–strain diagrams. for the direct and inverse transformations.[M] and [A]. Three major regions can be identified in the stress–temperature phase diagram: Md region.40 mm diameter Euroflex SE508 NiTi wire sample is subjected to an experimental program. leading to the stress–relaxation of the material.

the supports are locked.1002/stc .333%/s [%] 9. the slip deformations increase the density of dislocations within the crystal structure. and (c) equivalent viscous damping. These dislocations obstruct the formation of martensite in a way similar to strain hardening in plasticity. locked or unlocked. if the stress in a given wire reaches one of these values. changes of these parameters increase with the strain rate. The semi-active system bounds the stresses in the SE wires between an upper and a lower stress limit. It can be seen that the variation of these parameters with the number of cycles is rather important. As a consequence. it momentarily unlocks the wire through a controlled velocity process and without introducing additional forces into the system. As a consequence. the starting point of the stress–strain diagrams tends to drift away from the origin because of cumulative creep deformation. Ltd. the level of the reverse transformation stresses changes very little. This drifting is explained by the accumulation of slip deformations during stress-induced transformation. the corresponding support is unlocked until the displacement of the mass is reversed. restraining the SE wires. The proposed semi-active device uses a control strategy that allows the continuous adapting of the accumulated stress in the wires.8 1. while keeping the stress in the wires inside a prescribed SE window. 20:890–902 DOI: 10.894 F. when compensating for excessively low stresses. on the basis of the response of the device to external excitations.333%/s 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 [MPa] 10.008%/s 0. The key parameters defining the extent of the hysteretic loop. which increase during the first cycles and tend to stabilize with saturation. Influence of cycling on superelasticity: (a) cumulative creep.6 0. to mitigate the degradation of the material because of cyclic loading but guaranteeing a minimal threshold to their stress level. By default. or to decrease them. independently.0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 (a) (b) (c) Figure 4. the net accumulated stress in the SE wires is positive. 2013.0 1. are quantified and plotted in Figure 4. Conversely. CISMAŞIU AND J. The objective of the proposed semi-active control device is to limit the hinge opening during a dynamic event. If the system needs to compensate for an excessively low or high stress in a given wire. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons. the variation of the critical stress needed to induce martensite (Δs). The two wire supports can assume.067%/s 0. an asymptotic behavior is observed.333%/s Cycles 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 5. meaning that they tend to gradually stabilize.0 0.1. PHYSICAL PROTOTYPE 3. During the dynamic oscillations. namely the cumulative creep deformation (ep). and the equivalent viscous damping (xeq).008%/s 0. as a consequence. PAMIES TEIXEIRA It can be seen that during the cyclic loading.067%/s 0.0 6.008%/s 0. AMARANTE DOS SANTOS. limiting aging problems. decrease the critical stress needed to induce martensite [13]. It can also be seen that. Struct. (b) critical stress to induce martensite. As the strain is self-adjusting.2 0.0 7. P. As in 0 0. Control Health Monit.250%/s 0. the width and size of the hysteretic loop is significantly reduced upon cycling [9] as well as the damping capabilities of the material. As the number of cycles continues to grow. As the compensation for lower stresses is larger and usually more frequent than the compensation for higher stresses.250%/s 0. The process of unlocking and subsequent locking of an SE wire allows the system either to increase their cumulative stress. resulting in residual strains.4 0.2 Cycles [%] 0 0.250%/s 0. C. The slip deformations induce internal stresses that can assist the formation of stress-induced martensite and. 3. General description of the prototype The physical prototype presented in this section simulates the response of a single degree of freedom dynamic system.067%/s 0. the slope of the strain–stress curve increases during loading [13].0 0.0 8. for a given number of cycles. the wires are strain/stress-free when not subjected to a dynamic excitation. equipped with a novel semi-active vibration control device made up of two SE NiTi wire elements working in phase opposition. However. two configurations. The stress in the SE wires is adjusted by controlling the displacements of the wires at their supports. when compensating for excessively high stresses.

with RHP 618/8 bearings (ARN Trading Ltd t/a AHR International.SEMI-ACTIVE VIBRATION CONTROL DEVICE BASED ON SUPERELASTIC NITI WIRES 895 an active control system. The bars are rigidly connected to a shake-table by means of four brackets. The prototype is used to simulate the dynamic response of a simple supported bridge with SE restraining cables in the deck–abutment interfaces. As the control forces act as to oppose the motion of the structural system. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons. The rails are fixed to a set of bars that also support both of the linear actuators through thick end plates. The base of the MMM (10 Â 20 Â 20 Â 30 cm) is made of steel and can accommodate a series of additional steel plates. The load cells clamp the SE wires into thin aluminum plates. For the system to be able to continuously read and adjust the stress values in the SE wires. This displacement and the corresponding acceleration are monitored by a Solartron DC25 (Solartron Metrology. Its kernel elements are shown in Figure 6. Control Health Monit. which are fixed by two metallic pins. 20:890–902 DOI: 10. they promote the global stability of the structure [22–26]. The design and manufacturing of the physical prototype was carried out using an educational version of SolidWorks. one for each SE wire. each wire is equipped with a load cell and a linear actuator placed at opposite endings of the wire. The MMM is provided with a set of four steel beveled shape wheels. St Albans. as in a passive control system. which accommodates the load cells. the contact area between the two pieces is minimized. General design concept for the physical prototype. as illustrated in Figure 5. The moving mass module (MMM). United Kingdom) long-stroke linear variable differential transformer displacement transducer and an accelerometer. with different dimensions and weights. is mounted on rails. 2013. Simple supported bridge with a superelastic restraining system. which are laterally fixed Deck Abutment Abutment Superelastic restrainer cables Superelastic restrainer cables Figure 5. Linear actuator Moving mass module Pin Load cell Wedged rail End plate Beveled wheel Bracket Clamp Bar Figure 6. 3.1002/stc . enabling the displacement of the module in the direction of the dynamic loading. Ltd. As the angle presented by the wedge-shaped rails is wider than the one shown by beveled wheels. Description of the miniature load cells To cope with the limited dimensions of the MMM. a controller monitors the feedback measurements and generates appropriate command signals for the device and.2. with wedge-shaped rails. the control forces are developed as a result of the motion of the structure itself. Struct. The linear actuators comprise a clamping device that constrains the movement of the remaining extremity of the SE wires. UK) and is mounted on a set of two 40 Â 10 Â 300 mm aluminum bars. Bognor Regis. with no need of external energy input. reducing the mechanical friction developed in this interface. two miniature load cells were designed.

This FE model enables not only to define the positioning of the T-rosettes on the force sensor but also to calibrate the thickness of the aluminum plate to obtain an adequate signal from the bridge. 20:890–902 DOI: 10.896 F. Finite element simulation of the aluminum plate: (a) strain field and (b) displacement field. CISMAŞIU AND J. with one on the maximum strain zone of the plate and the other on the minimum strain zone. respectively. This bridge configuration is usually called a full-bridge because it has four active strain gauges. The maximum displacement in the plate along the wire’s axis yielded 0. In this particular case. Control Health Monit. The other two acts as Poisson gauges and are mounted transversely to the principal axis of strain. Canonsburg. (a) Strain field (b) Displacement field Figure 8. Inc.25 me. An Finite element (FE) model of the force sensor was analyzed in ANSYS (ANSYS. To achieve this purpose. The Wheatstone-bridge configuration is used to help the measurement of small variations in the resistance that the four strain gauges produce. Pennsylvania. AMARANTE DOS SANTOS. To build this bridge. Figure 7 represents a schematic drawing showing the position of the two T-rosettes on the force sensor. the strain to be measured has to be transferred faultlessly and free of loss. two are mounted in the direction of the bending strain. In this circuit diagram. Ltd. T-rosette 1 T-rosette 2 R 1 (− ) R 4 (+ ) R 2 (+ R 3 (− ) ) R 4 (+ ) R 1 (− ) V EX + − + V CH − Aluminum plate R 2 (+ ) R 3 (− ) Figure 7. together with the corresponding full-bridge circuit diagram. USA) to obtain the strain field corresponding to the loading of the SE wire. These aluminum plates are equipped with a set of four strain gauges disposed in a Wheatstone-bridge configuration to enable accurate force readings. The force used in the FE simulation corresponds to a stress level of about 300 MPa in a NiTi SE508 wire with 0. To guarantee that the strain gauge is able to perform its task properly.013 mm. PAMIES TEIXEIRA to the MMM. two HBM T-rosettes with two measuring grids. and a special cyanoacrilate cold curing adhesive (Z70) was used to guarantee the required bonding between the strain gauge and the plate. The corresponding strain field in the longitudinal direction of the plate and the displacements along the direction of the SE wire is presented in Figure 8(a) and (b).5/350.406 mm diameter. Schematics of the load cell. The resulting dimensions for the aluminum plate were 60 Â 17 Â 2 mm. Struct. Full-bridge circuit diagram. adjacent to the other two strain gauges. VCH is the measured voltage of the signal and VEX is the excitation voltage.1002/stc .. The maximum absolute strain in the plate yields 0. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons. The surface of the metal was first cleaned. model 1-XY13-1. an intimate connection is required between the strain gauge and the aluminum plate. P. were used. corresponding to a stress of about 18 MPa. C. 2013. corresponding to a change in the specimen’s strain field. which corresponds to half of the maximum stress associated with the loading plateau.

and the corresponding force setpoints. was used to create. To calibrate the force-sensor VI. which correspond to the unlocked and locked support conditions. 2013. strain readings associated with reference weights were scaled and offset. The controller transfer function Gc(s) comprehends three terms.3. Description of the linear actuators Two Bosh Rexroth EMC 32-12Â5 L100 OF01 precision rolled ball screw actuators were used to adjust the stress level in the SE wires. A virtual instrument (VI) was created using a LabView framework. ranging from zero to 6 V. and position control. The linear actuator modules are supported by two aluminum plates. They are built up of two main components that when pressed together constrain the SE wire from moving. The differential gap existing between the force thresholds that activate the PID controller. A special clamping system was designed. 20:890–902 DOI: 10. model SGMAH-02AAA61D-OY. Description of the control system The control system of the physical prototype is presented next. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons. They are coupled with two SIGMA II Omron-Yaskawa cylindrical servo-motors (Bosch Rexroth AG. These bars also accommodate the rails for the MMM. By using an averaging process. which corresponds to the highest allowable rotating speed for continuous operation (3000 rpm). 3. yielding the desired force readings. load bearing aluminum Bosch-Rexroth 30 Â 30 strut profiles weighing 0. allowing the connection of SE the wires to the linear actuators. edit. The implemented controller. Struct. The controller chooses the setpoint depending on the force level in the SE wire at a given instant.1002/stc .SEMI-ACTIVE VIBRATION CONTROL DEVICE BASED ON SUPERELASTIC NITI WIRES 897 The strain gauges were connected to a National Instruments SCXI-1520 8-Channel Universal Strain Gage Input Module (National Instruments Corporation. allowing for analog and pulse inputs for speed.80 kg/m. and derivative control actions. enabling the signal acquisition from the force sensor and. corresponding to the upper and lower force limits defined for SE wire. combining proportional. works as an anticipatory feature of the system. torque. The clamps are cylindrical-shaped elements made of steel. measuring 135 Â 80 Â 20 mm. It provides the controller with a reference force input while the force in the SE wire is still approaching this value. Texas. as illustrated in Figure 9. the high and low PID thresholds. Control Health Monit. Physical prototype. each one associated with the corresponding control action. Texas. respectively. Ltd. Germany). USA. The Bosch-Rexroth profiles are fixed on the top stage of the Quanser Shake-Table II. the controller sets the PID-OFF state. This state is activated above or below the two prescribed force thresholds. where a view of the complete prototype is shown. longitudinal indentation that helps to fix the wire into place. One of these pieces displays a narrow. Lohr am Main. The control variable of the system is the analog voltage level for the servo-drive’s speed reference. A SIGMA-II Omron-Yaskawa SGDH-02AE-OY servo-drive is used to control the servo-motor. USA). Austin. can assume two possible states: PID-OFF and PID-ON. once calibrated. Between these two force delimiters. A DAQ Assistant Express VI (National Instruments Corporation. Two different setpoints are possible for PID-ON state. a sample compression of the data points was performed to attenuate the noise derived from the readings. using NI-DAQmx Software). These plates are rigidly fixed to a pair of 720 mm long.4. and run the analog input corresponding to the voltage measurement task. integral. Austin. with 20 mm diameter. Figure 9. 3.

Ki. is the analog speed reference input for the servo-drive. Ti = Kp/Ki is the integral time. 2013. Struct. the process variable. delimiting the effective SE window. U(s). C. H(s). which measures the output variable to make it comparable with the reference input signal. resulting in the feedback stress signal. Each of these controllers has two reference stress inputs. CISMAŞIU AND J. corresponding to Kp. Ltd. which is the reference input stress. The controlled process is defined by the transfer function Gcp(s). Kp. Block diagram of the superelastic vibration control system with two restraining elements. and Td = Kd /Kp is the derivative time. PAMIES TEIXEIRA   Ki 1 þ Td s Gc ðsÞ ¼ Kp þ þ Kd s ¼ Kp 1 þ s Ti s (1) where s is a complex variable. the PID gains. and Kd are constants called gains. The output signal of the controller. R(s). The PID gains consist of a cluster of three values. yielding the actuating error signal E(s). and the output range. corresponds to the force-sensor. The over-travel limit function is used to prevent the SE wire from failure by limiting the maximum allowing stress to a prescribed value. P. Ti. on the basis of a basic PID algorithm. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons. The implementation was performed using the LabView PID Control Toolset Applications.1002/stc . Control Health Monit.898 F. and yield a reference speed output Figure 10. The main controller is divided into two independent controllers. the stress output signal C(s) is fed back to the summing point. B(s). having as main inputs the setpoint. where it is compared with the reference stress input R(s). AMARANTE DOS SANTOS. each one responsible for one of the SE wires. B(s). and Td. Being a closed-loop control system. 20:890–902 DOI: 10. The resulting block diagram is presented in Figure 10. The feedback-path transfer function.

Control Health Monit. yielding a good compromise between quick response and adequate stability margins [28]. For the proposed prototype. This is translated by a linear CONTROL-OFF CONTROL-ON Setpoint high PID threshold high PID threshold low Setpoint low Force 30 25 20 PID-ON PID-OFF 15 10 Accumulated force PID-ON 5 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Figure 11. 20:890–902 DOI: 10. the system rapidly starts to compensate for low stresses in the SE wires. resulting in a gap of 2%. which corresponds to a decay of 25% on the transient response in one period. to meet given performance specifications. a tuning algorithm based on the Ziegler–Nichols [27] stability boundary rule was implemented. 2013. In spite of this anticipatory feature of the controller. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons. At the beginning of the dynamic loading. To improve the performance of the controller. When the mathematical model of the process cannot be easily obtained.1002/stc . In this tuning method. Struct. using a shake-table. also limiting the force which is transmitted to the supports. 4. an analytical approach to this tuning is not possible. When the controller is switched off and the SE wires work alternately. the constants Kp. a small overshoot is observed for both the upper and lower stress limits. To analyze the response of the system to the external excitation. The force accumulation in the SE wires enhances the damping capability of the system because the extent of the martensitic transformation is increased.30 and the ultimate period Pu = 0. the force values in the SE wires are delimited by the two reference stress inputs. the control system is switched off. This can be seen in the corresponding force-displacement diagram depicted in Figure 12. and the PID threshold limits are set to 13% and 24% of the maximum force. To obtain a quarter decay ratio. and Td in Eq. the PID gains were set to Kp = 0.35. As the stresses induced in the SE wires are in phase opposition. These values correspond to the low and high setpoints of the PID controller. (1) have to be adequately tuned. they remain in their austenitic form. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS To assess the performance of the proposed control system. Ti.7 s. The low and high setpoints of the PID controller are set to 11% and 22% of the maximum force (Fmax = 60 N).SEMI-ACTIVE VIBRATION CONTROL DEVICE BASED ON SUPERELASTIC NITI WIRES 899 for the corresponding servo-drive. Ku. and Td = 0. respectively. Ti = 0. Force time history in one of the superelastic wires.084. After the controller is switched on. respectively. the SE wires are stress/ strain-free. at which the output of the loop starts to oscillate. as it tries to accommodate the displacement introduced by the external excitation. U(s) = U1(s) + U2(s). Ltd. During the controlled phase. the corresponding linear actuator shifts in the same direction. the force time history in one of the SE wires is presented in Figure 11. and the corresponding force readings are shifted upwards. The corresponding period of oscillation. the wires are strained alternately. and experimental approaches have to be used. the Ki and Kd gains are first set to zero. In the design process of a control loop.18. When the MMM starts to move. the ultimate gain yields Ku = 0. The global output signal from the controller comprehends the reference speeds for both servo-drives. Pu is called the ultimate period. and the Kp gain is increased until it reaches the ultimate gain. When the MMM moves in one direction and the stress in one of the SE wires decreases below a given threshold. the physical prototype is subjected to a harmonic excitation with a frequency of 1 Hz and an amplitude of 5 cm. and during the first 10 s of the experiment.

The design of the semi-active vibration control device is based on two main guidelines: 1.1002/stc Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons. during which the slope of the line representing the force-displacement relation becomes steeper because both of the austenitic SE wires start contributing to the system’s stiffness. 20:890–902 DOI: 10. Acceleration time history. When the external excitation ceases to exist. The shifting of the center of the loop to the negative displacement region means that the system has sustained a rigid-body movement to the left. as monitored during the experimental test.4 ¨ CONTROL-ON 0. the acceleration rapidly tends to zero. This increase is represented in Figure 12 by step 1. 2. P. For low stress levels in the wires. The acceleration time history of the MMM. is shown in Figure 13. C. as they begin to accumulate force. After this initial stiffening. a process of stress accumulation enables higher martensite ratios and therefore higher dissipation capabilities.4 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Figure 13. AMARANTE DOS SANTOS. a stress relieve process prevents Struct. as the SE wires continue to accumulate force.3 -0.2 0. PAMIES TEIXEIRA 20 Initial cycle 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 -5 0 2 1 Final cycle [mm] 5 10 15 Figure 12.900 F. Control of the stress levels in the SE wires during the dynamic excitation. 5. . Control Health Monit.1 -0. CONTROL-OFF 0. relation between the total force yielded by the system and the corresponding displacements of the MMM. In the case of high stress levels.2 -0. with respect to its original position.3 0.1 0 -0. This process is described by step 2 and leads to the appearance of a stabilized SE hysteretic loop. the initial cycle in Figure 12. the overall stiffness of the system is increased. SE wires are stress-free until the beginning of the dynamic excitation to prevent stress–relaxation. 2013. Force-displacement diagram evolution. which is consistent with the additional damping provided to the system by the SE wires. the acceleration levels in the MMM are decreased when the control system is switched on. CISMAŞIU AND J. CONCLUSIONS A physical prototype that simulates the response of a controlled single degree of freedom dynamic system allows to illustrate the potential of a novel semi-active vibration control device on the basis of SE NiTi wires. When the control system is switched on and the SE wires start working simultaneously. Ltd. stress-induced martensite starts to develop and the system becomes gradually more flexible. According to this register.

Ltd. Carreras G.1002/stc . 8(4):191–198. This means that the actuators have to be able to sustain the forces developed in the SE wires during the dynamic loading. 14:S287–S292. Struct. Several considerations regarding this type of control systems are made. DesRoches R. Fatigue analysis of shape memory alloys: energy approach. are considerable high. Wayman CM (eds. 1998. DOI:10. Cardone D. Casciati F. Moumni Z. in the force flow path. Marzi A. enabling the development of a wide SE hysteretic loop and also controls their maximum force and decreases the acceleration of the MMM. 20:890–902 DOI: 10. undesirable to a restraining mechanism. Yawny A. DesRoches R. 18. 12. Thermomechanical properties of CuAlBe and NiTi observations for dampers in family houses. Torra V. Martorell F. Prentice-Hall. Lovey FC. Johnson R. Engineering Structures 2002. 2013.1088/0964-1726/17/3/035018 4. 91(3):991–998. 7. Fatigue laboratory tests toward the design of SMA porticobraces. To assess the performances of the proposed semi-active vibration control device. Smart Materials and Structures 2007. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 2007. Wang X. Saiidi MS. Transportation Research Board. Shape memory materials. DesRoches R. Metastable effects on martensitic transformation in SMA. 6. The integration of the control algorithms into the prototype is also addressed. Lam T. Delemont M. Isalgue A. Isalgue A. 2001. 16. Otsuka K. are implemented using a LabView platform. 3. 9. Application of shape memory alloys in seismic rehabilitation of bridges. Phase transformation behavior of pseudoelastic NiTi shape memory alloys under large strain. Smart Materials and Structures 2005. 88(2):537–548. 24:325–332. DesRoches R. Lovey FC. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 2008. Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics 2000. Part VI. Technical Report NCHRP-91. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 2005. The control algorithms. 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