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UNIT 4

RECRUITMENT

Unit Structure 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.# 4.4 4.( Overview Learning Outcomes Intro uction an !e"initions $ims o" Recruitment Recruitment %o&ic' T)e Recruitment %rocess 4.(.1 4.(.2 4.(.# 4.(.4 4.(.( 4.4.. 4./ 4.0 4.10 $&ternatives to Recruitment *actors to consi er w)en $ttracting %eo+&e Interna& Recruitment Sources E,terna& Recruitment Sources Recruiting In ivi ua&s

%erson S+eci"ication Recruitment Met)o s *actors In"&uencing Recruitment Internet Recruiting Summar'

4.0

O1ER1IE2

Following the activity of Human Resource Planning, are the activities of Recruitment and Selection. In this Unit, one very important function of Human Resource Management, that is, recruitment which is a process of attracting applicants to the organisation, will e ela orated and thoroughly discussed.

Unit 4

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4.1

LE$RNIN3 OUTCOMES

"y the end of this Unit, you should e a le to do the following# !. (. ). +. ,. -. /. $%plain your understanding of the term &recruitment'. State the aims of recruitment. *escri e the recruitment process. State the alternatives to recruitment. Identify the recruitment methods. .nalyse the factors influencing recruitment. $%plain Internet Recruitment.

4.2

INTRO!UCTION $N! !E*INITIONS

Recruitment of new employees in organisations is of utmost importance as recruits are considered as the in0ection of new lood in order to increase the life of organisations. However, mechanistic organisations may ecome, yet human resources will always remain the most important asset. It is therefore mandatory that organisations go a out the process of attracting the right 1uantity and 1uality of people with appropriate 1ualifications, s2ills and e%perience. In addition to these re1uirements, organisations must not overloo2 the legal aspects in recruitment practices, that is, due consideration must e given to women and disa led persons as well as no discrimination y reason of colour, creed, race, place of origin and political opinion should e%ist. It is very important, right from the very outset, to ma2e the distinction recruitment and selection. Recruitment is the first part of the process of filling a vacancy. It includes the process of finding potential candidates, from different sources, to carry out the tas2s and ma2ing contact with those candidates y attracting applications from them. etween

Unit 4

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7oe et al.. the process of locating potential individuals who might join an organisation and encouraging them to apply for e isting or anticipated job openings”.. the human resource planning activity. 4(889#(8(6 define recruitment as “. !5556. and influenced y.. $ctivit' 1 4i6 *iscuss the importance of recruitment in your organisation. the practice or activity carried on by the organisation with the primary purpose of identifying and attracting potential employees”. we shall concentrate on recruitment.Se&ection is that part of the recruitment process when the organisation decides who to employ after having assessed the candidates y various means. It is important to highlight that recruitment is an activity that is related to. Snell and "ohlander 4(88/#!/(6 define recruitment as “. while for the short:term.rmstrong. Recruitment can e defined as 3 “A process of attracting individuals on a timely basis. Selection will e dealt with in the ne%t unit.-.. For the sa2e of this unit. management may wish to go for recruitment. Unit 4 ) . in sufficient numbers and with appropriate qualifications and attitudes and encouraging them to apply for jobs in the organisations” 4. If the organisation identifies a la our shortage for the long:term. there are different alternatives to recruitment which will e discussed in details in section +.

4ii6 How does &recruitment' differ from . =he 2ey aims of recruitment are summarised as follows# ! ( ) .# $IMS O* RECRUITMENT =he effects of glo alisation and world economic recession have forced organisations to revisit their recruitment strategies.selection<.ttracting a group of potential candidates for e%isting vacancies. organisations have to optimise the use of their availa le human resources and o tain and retain the right 1uantity and 1uality of new employees. $nsure that fair means and processes are used for all recruitment activities. Unit 4 + . pro0ect a positive organisational image to those who come in contact with it. . In order to survive in this competitive environment. 4.ll recruitment activities should contri ute to the organisation<s goals and o 0ectives and thus.

>rganisations that compete for 0o applicants ased on pay do so through offering oth e%trinsic financial rewards as well as intrinsic rewards. it may e argued that e%ternal recruiting rings new lood. for e%ample. et al. It is a source of motivation for etter performance. in Mauritius itself.trinsic an Intrinsic Rewar characteristic for almost all applicants. have stringent policies which formally lay out the procedures Unit 4 . recruiting from outside the organisation ecomes inevita le since no suita le candidate is availa le from within. • E. (889# (((6. innovative ideas and greater peer respect in the organisation.6. • Em+&o'ment 5at52i&& %o&icies $mployment :at:will policies state that either an employer or an employee can terminate the employment relationship at any time. greater efficiency and effectiveness. . regardless of cause 47oe et al. (889#(8. .terna& Recruiting . However. some companies.n organisation<s recruitment policy outlines the o 0ectives of the recruitment process and provides guidelines as to how the recruitment process should e carried out 47el. policy of internal recruiting provides greater opportunities for the advancement of the organisation<s e%isting employees 47oe et al. .4. (889#(8)6. >rganisational recruitment policies may e characterised y a num er of factors as listed elow# • Interna& vs E. =his policy may e at the detriment of oth the employer and the employee and depending on the country in which the company is operating. However. such a policy may e in contradiction with the country<s la our legislation.t times.4 RECRUITMENT %OLIC4 . .g.mar2et leader< Pay is an important 0o approach to pay involves an organisation to remunerate its employees higher than the mar2et average and thus has a distinct advantage in recruiting 4e. paying higher rates for night shift wor2ers6.

For e%ample. the recruitment policy promotes the employment of diverse individuals so as to enrich the composition of the wor2force.to follow in case an employee wish to appeal against a decision to terminate his?her employment. However. In Mauritius. Harel Mallac among others. that do much image advertising to promote themselves as a good place to wor2. there are the Bonstitution. in Mauritius. at lower level.ct which guarantee the rights of the citiAens of Mauritius and the latter can go to Bourt in case they feel there has een discrimination of any sort in the recruitment process.ct and the $1ual >pportunity . Ireland "lyth @imited. (889#(8-6.I6. • %ersons 7 Organisation *it Some organisations follow a recruitment policy which provides for optimum fit etween the new employee and the organisation<s culture. Unit 4 - . Se% *iscrimination . • Em+&o'ment E6uit' $mployment $1uity policy serves to prevent discrimination in recruitment practices and provides e1ual opportunities to all citiAens of the country. • Image $ vertising >rganisations may have a policy of advertising to promote themselves as a good place of wor2 47oe et al. we have the "ritish . this is done usually in the private sector when high cali re officers are re1uired to manage a company. In Mauritius.merican Insurance 4". Such advertising is very important for organisations which do usiness within highly competitive la our mar2ets and they want to e an &employer of choice'.

Unit 4 / . 4ii6 Chat is the recruitment policy of your organisationD 4iii6 *iscuss the factors characterising recruitment policies in your organisation.$ctivit' 2 4i6 *iscuss the aims of recruitment in your organisation.

@ $7FIR>7M$7= Human Resource Planning .@ $7FIR>7M$7= I7=$R7.( T8E RECRUITMENT %ROCESS =he recruitment process stems from the Human Resource Planning stage.4. management has to ta2e necessary steps to ensure the timely supply of la our to fill the identified gap. $E=$R7.lternatives to Recruitment Recruitment Internal Sources $%ternal Sources Internal Methods $%ternal Methods Recruited Individuals Figure 4. =he recruitment process is illustrated in the following diagram.1 – The Recruitment Process Unit 4 9 . Chenever a shortage of human resource has een identified.

the first thing to consider is whether there are alternatives to recruitment. 2.. Pay pac2ets. 4. a source of motivation for most employees. =his alternative is used when e%isting employees are una le to do the 0o due to some specific reasons.2 *actors to Consi er w)en $ttracting %eo+&e.(. 3. However. =his alternative is relatively costly for organisations which have to e competitive and pro lems li2e lac2 of sense of elonging may crop up.1 $&ternatives to Recruitment >nce a shortage of employees has een identified.4. in fact. =emporary employees are very helpful in reducing the e%cess wor2load in an organisation. Subcontracting Su contracting involves an agreement with a specialised firm to perform the wor2 in part or in full upon payment as agreed y oth parties.(. the e%ternal service provider has a high level of commitment as regards to 1uality and timeliness in fulfilling the contract.. this alternative cannot e ta2en as a long:term solution ecause of issues li2e fatigue. In such a contract.. =he alternatives are listed hereunder#: 1. pace of wor2 and a su stantial overall decrease in output. 5 . Overtime >vertime is when the actual employees are as2ed to perform e%tra hours at wor2 at an agreed rate. Financia !onstraint " : Unit 4 Has any provision een made for in the udgetD Bost of Recruitment . Temporary Emp oyees =emporary employees are those employed for a specific 0o on a short:term contract. =his is.

=raining and development are already in place.# Interna& Recruitment Sources Fery often. a vacancy provides an opportunity to promote people from within the organisation.. field of specialisation. political opinion. etc.ge group. . #hat Types o$ !an%i%ates.(.- May e affected y the state of the national economy. !orporate )mage o$ the !ompany How people see the companyD 4. performances... place of origin. e%perience . e%pertise and attitude of the applicants. Recruitment cost may e high. =he applicants have a etter understanding of the organisation and its culture. s2ills. crisis. =he filling of vacancies proves to e cheaper and faster. !isa vantages • • • Unit 4 7o new talent is rought in the organisation. wea2nesses. !8 . are we in a recession.. Bonflict may occur amongst employees due to frustration. Internal recruitment sources present the organisation with a num er of oth advantages and disadvantages which are summarised elow# $ vantages • • • • =he organisation is familiar with the strengths. creed or se% and colour. that is. &ega Frame'or( Chat does the law sayD *iscrimination y reason of race.

4 E. Unit 4 e availa le to your !! . 4. However. =he appropriate and the most cost effective recruitment strategy must e adopted. "rings new lood. especially when several employees inside the organisation are in conflict to fill the vacancy. May lac2 cultural awareness of the organisation. !isa vantages • • • • @oss of time and productivity due to the new employees ad0usting to the organisation.( Recruiting In ivi ua&s If there are vacancies to e filled y newly recruited employees.(.terna& Recruitment Sources $%ternal recruitment sources are also eneficial to organisations and present new opportunities. $ vantages • • • Specialised upper level positions often re1uires that organisations loo2 for e%ternal resources since such s2ills may not e%ist internally. $%isting employees do not strive for promotion.(. $ctivit' # 4i6 Ma2e a list of the alternatives to recruitment that may organisation. talents and ideas in the organisation. Is very easily accepted. there might e draw ac2s as well. 7o guarantee against new employee leaving 1uic2ly for another 0o . efore the final decision to recruit is ta2en. all alternatives have to e considered.4.

relia ility Bircumstances# domestic circumstances.4ii6 *iscuss the advantages and disadvantages of internal and e%ternal recruitment in your organisation. wor2 e%perience General Intelligence# mental and reasoning a ilities Special . sta ility. 4i6 4ii6 4iii6 4iv6 4v6 4vi6 4vii6 Ro ger9s Seven %oint %&an Physi1ue# health. appearance . in methodological order.ttainments# general education. 4. Munro Fraser<s framewor2 1.ptitudes# Special specific s2ills to perform certain wor2s Interest# physical. social and intellectual interests *isposition# accepted as leaders. s2illed la our training.- %ERSON S%ECI*IC$TION =he person specification also 2nown as a recruitment specification defines the o 0ective assessment of the attri utes. family occupations Unit 4 !( . =he most popular methods are #: !. of the est suited employee for a particular 0o . =he Seven Point Plan y Professor Rodger (.

mental a ility for learning. training and wor2 e%perience. Unit 4 !) . $ctivit' 4 Crite down the person specification of the 0o that you do in your organisation.d0ustment# a ility to cope with different stressful situations and also with people. although shorter and simpler than the seven point plan. Innate a ilities# a ility to react with sharpness.2. relationship with colleagues and manner. . Motivation# goals set y the individual and the drive to achieve them successfully.c1uired 1ualifications# education. we can say that the five fold framewor2. emphasises more on the most important pedigree of the candidate<s career. "oth framewor2s cover nearly the same re1uirements and thus. provide a good framewor2 for interviewing. >f these two framewor2s. . 4i6 4ii6 4iii6 4iv6 4v6 Munro *raser9s *ive *o& *ramewor: Impact on others# physical appearance.

Hereunder is a list of methods that are most commonly used# : 1. Bareers e%hi ition f. %u. $ vertisement a.&ic an %rivate Em+&o'ment $gencies Pu lic $mployment agencies are those recruitment agencies owned y the state whose main o 0ectives are to recruit people to wor2 in state owned offices and Ministries as well as cater for the welfare and promotion of the employees. 0o fair is a recruiting method engaged y a group of employers with the aim of attracting and meeting potential employees in large num er at a specific place and time.4.. magaAines and periodicals . Private agencies are those agencies whose main o 0ective is to loo2 for 0o s for potential candidates and vice versa. =F H local =F channel d. these recruiting agencies aim at matching people with the 0o . Unit 4 !+ . it has to decide on the est way to attract them. Usually.in a short time and at very low cost. <o. Io fair attracts large num er of candidates from universities?IF=" .ny organisation would have li2ed to attract the & est suited' candidate and therefore.. *airs . Press : local newspapers. Posters H ill oards e. #. >pen days 2. Radio H private and pu lic local radio networ2s c. RECRUITMENT MET8O!S ..

Managers=Su+ervisors +ersona& contact In this recruitment method. the *isciplined Forces Services Bommission 4*FSB6. It is not advertised since it is 2nown that there are only a few people with these 1ualifications and where they are. @ocal Government Service Bommission 4@GSB6 and @a our >ffices around the island.. =his method is more convenient for students and less costly for employers.=hese fairs are organised y Universities or Government in order to provide information to potential employees and employers concerning the opportunities in the la our mar2et. Universities an Co&&eges Most universities and colleges have placement services for their students with the main o 0ective of providing them with on:the:0o training and also giving the students an opportunity to match their classroom ased learning and real life situations for a short period of time efore returning again to university. . Centres In Mauritius. we have the Pu lic Service Bommission 4PSB6.merica where there is a data ase of a particular group of professionals. Unit 4 !. 4. 8ea 8unting $gencies =his is done on a large scale in . allows students to visit virtual employer ooths and su mit their interest and BF online. . -. <o. which is an online event. Firtual 0o fair. (. the potential applicant<s strengths and wea2nesses as well as his?her ehaviour and attitude are 2nown to the manager and?or supervisor.

a roader pool of 0o see2ers can have access. e. T)e E&ectronic Recruiting =he growth of Information =echnology has opened new avenues for organisations trying to recruit talent. lawyers. students who do well on placement in organisations. Register 2ept y professional odies for their mem ers to provide recruitment and placement services.g. 0. • • Union=%ro"essiona& Re"erra&s Register of mem ers see2ing employment 2ept y Unions. engineer. accountants. have great opportunities of securing a 0o in the same organisations once their studies are over. =hese figures include those firms that use their homepage for 0o listings !"ource # "ociety for $uman %esources &anagement 'areer (ournal). $ctivit' ( 4i6 Chat recruitment procedures are used within your organisationD Unit 4 !- . doctors. /. Using the Internet for recruitment can ma2e the process more timely and cost effective and as such.In Mauritius. $ighty eight percent of HR professionals of the world<s largest firms use internet 0o postings to find potential employees and ninety si% percent 0o see2ers use them to find 0o s.

Recruitment Re*uirements It is important that the organisation./ *$CTORS IN*LUENCIN3 RECRUITMENT "oth internal and e%ternal factors influence an organisation<s recruitment practices. Organisationa Po icy >rganisational recruitment policies with regards to internal and e%ternal recruitment. Interna& *actors a. c. sets out realistic re1uirements for the potential Unit 4 !/ .. employment e1uity. through effective 0o 0o holder.4ii6 @ist some advantages and disadvantages of using the interenet as a recruitment method. 0o descriptions and 0o specifications. 4. etc.. The )mage o$ the Organisation "oth the pu lic image and that of the prospective employees will impact on the recruitment programme of the organisation. 1. analysis. b. will influence the nature of the organisation<s recruitment.

an intensive and multi:pronged recruitment programme would need to e implemented.nion Many countries have put in place legislations to address unfair recruitment practice. yet. 4In Mauritius. it has ecome an important and essential aid for recruiters. =rade Unions often participate in the recruitment process so as to ensure fairness. if there is an under:supply of s2ills within the la our mar2et.2. E.terna& *actors a +overnment an% Tra%e . In Mauritius.0 INTERNET RECRUITIN3 Internet is and will li2ely e a very effective recruiting and staffing tool. there is the $1ual opportunity . $ctivit' *iscuss the internal and e%ternal factors that influence recruitment in your organisation. For e%ample. . b &abour -ar(et !on%itions @a our mar2et conditions significantly impact on organisation<s choice of recruitment programme. 4. Unit 4 !9 .lthough internet recruiting has not replaced traditional recruiting. internet recruiting is not presently eing e%tensively used as a recruiting tool ut will eventually ecome an important tool in a near future.ct6.

It is not yet the first choice of most 0o see2ers. I@>. S. conducting ac2ground chec2s and other tests re1uired to assess the attitude and ehaviour of potential candidates. However. It does not replace the face to face interviews. for vacancies of international organisations. Response from applicants will e higher. It is perceived as eing for I= 0o s. It may reduce the recruitment cost. Bompared to other recruitment methods. • • • It may shorten the recruitment cycle time. internet recruitment is not a selection tool. It provides easy access to 0o information on demand to sta2eholders. $ vantages o" Internet Recruitment • • • • • • • 2. .*B6 online application is compulsory. it is important for progressive organisations to consider whether recruitment on the internet will offer competitive advantages. It reaches a wider range of potential applicants 4national and international6. 4United nations.lso. It gives an organisation a more up to date image. Unit 4 !5 . Fery often. !isa vantages o" Internet Recruitment Its use is still not widespread in Mauritius. internet recruitment is an innovative means of attracting a certain category of applicants and will e very e%tensively used in a near future. "esides. It provides glo al coverage (+ hours a day.Internet recruiting should not e treated as a stand alone HR tool ut should e rather treated as an integral part of the overall recruitment and selection strategy. 1. selection is also done online.

4i6 4ii6 Chy is Internet recruiting presently not so popular in MauritiusD *iscuss why Internet recruiting cannot ecome a stand alone process. 4.10 SUMM$R4 =his Unit on recruitment has e%plained in detail a very important aspect of $mployee Resourcing. policy. Particular emphasis has een laid on the aims. Internet recruiting has also een presented. Unit 4 (8 . process and methods of recruitment.$ctivit' .