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Unit Structure 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.# 4.4 4.( Overview Learning Outcomes Intro uction an !e"initions $ims o" Recruitment Recruitment %o&ic' T)e Recruitment %rocess 4.(.1 4.(.2 4.(.# 4.(.4 4.(.( 4.4.. 4./ 4.0 4.10 $&ternatives to Recruitment *actors to consi er w)en $ttracting %eo+&e Interna& Recruitment Sources E,terna& Recruitment Sources Recruiting In ivi ua&s

%erson S+eci"ication Recruitment Met)o s *actors In"&uencing Recruitment Internet Recruiting Summar'



Following the activity of Human Resource Planning, are the activities of Recruitment and Selection. In this Unit, one very important function of Human Resource Management, that is, recruitment which is a process of attracting applicants to the organisation, will e ela orated and thoroughly discussed.

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"y the end of this Unit, you should e a le to do the following# !. (. ). +. ,. -. /. $%plain your understanding of the term &recruitment'. State the aims of recruitment. *escri e the recruitment process. State the alternatives to recruitment. Identify the recruitment methods. .nalyse the factors influencing recruitment. $%plain Internet Recruitment.



Recruitment of new employees in organisations is of utmost importance as recruits are considered as the in0ection of new lood in order to increase the life of organisations. However, mechanistic organisations may ecome, yet human resources will always remain the most important asset. It is therefore mandatory that organisations go a out the process of attracting the right 1uantity and 1uality of people with appropriate 1ualifications, s2ills and e%perience. In addition to these re1uirements, organisations must not overloo2 the legal aspects in recruitment practices, that is, due consideration must e given to women and disa led persons as well as no discrimination y reason of colour, creed, race, place of origin and political opinion should e%ist. It is very important, right from the very outset, to ma2e the distinction recruitment and selection. Recruitment is the first part of the process of filling a vacancy. It includes the process of finding potential candidates, from different sources, to carry out the tas2s and ma2ing contact with those candidates y attracting applications from them. etween

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Se&ection is that part of the recruitment process when the organisation decides who to employ after having assessed the candidates y various means. For the sa2e of this unit, we shall concentrate on recruitment. Selection will e dealt with in the ne%t unit. Recruitment can e defined as 3 A process of attracting individuals on a timely basis, in sufficient numbers and with appropriate qualifications and attitudes and encouraging them to apply for jobs in the organisations 4.rmstrong, !5556. 7oe et al. 4(889#(8(6 define recruitment as ... the practice or activity carried on by the organisation with the primary purpose of identifying and attracting potential employees. Snell and "ohlander 4(88/#!/(6 define recruitment as ... the process of locating potential individuals who might join an organisation and encouraging them to apply for e isting or anticipated job openings. It is important to highlight that recruitment is an activity that is related to, and influenced y, the human resource planning activity. If the organisation identifies a la our shortage for the long:term, management may wish to go for recruitment, while for the short:term, there are different alternatives to recruitment which will e discussed in details in section +.-. $ctivit' 1 4i6 *iscuss the importance of recruitment in your organisation.

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4ii6 How does &recruitment' differ from ;selection<.



=he effects of glo alisation and world economic recession have forced organisations to revisit their recruitment strategies. In order to survive in this competitive environment, organisations have to optimise the use of their availa le human resources and o tain and retain the right 1uantity and 1uality of new employees. =he 2ey aims of recruitment are summarised as follows# ! ( ) .ttracting a group of potential candidates for e%isting vacancies. $nsure that fair means and processes are used for all recruitment activities. .ll recruitment activities should contri ute to the organisation<s goals and o 0ectives and thus, pro0ect a positive organisational image to those who come in contact with it.

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.n organisation<s recruitment policy outlines the o 0ectives of the recruitment process and provides guidelines as to how the recruitment process should e carried out 47el. et al, (889# (((6. >rganisational recruitment policies may e characterised y a num er of factors as listed elow# Interna& vs E,terna& Recruiting

. policy of internal recruiting provides greater opportunities for the advancement of the organisation<s e%isting employees 47oe et al, (889#(8)6. It is a source of motivation for etter performance, greater efficiency and effectiveness. However, it may e argued that e%ternal recruiting rings new lood, innovative ideas and greater peer respect in the organisation. .t times, recruiting from outside the organisation ecomes inevita le since no suita le candidate is availa le from within. E,trinsic an Intrinsic Rewar characteristic for almost all applicants. . ;mar2et leader<

Pay is an important 0o

approach to pay involves an organisation to remunerate its employees higher than the mar2et average and thus has a distinct advantage in recruiting 4e.g. paying higher rates for night shift wor2ers6. >rganisations that compete for 0o applicants ased on pay do so through offering oth e%trinsic financial rewards as well as intrinsic rewards. Em+&o'ment 5at52i&& %o&icies

$mployment :at:will policies state that either an employer or an employee can terminate the employment relationship at any time, regardless of cause 47oe et al, (889#(8,6. =his policy may e at the detriment of oth the employer and the employee and

depending on the country in which the company is operating, for e%ample, in Mauritius itself, such a policy may e in contradiction with the country<s la our legislation. However, some companies, have stringent policies which formally lay out the procedures
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to follow in case an employee wish to appeal against a decision to terminate his?her employment. Image $ vertising

>rganisations may have a policy of advertising to promote themselves as a good place of wor2 47oe et al, (889#(8-6. Such advertising is very important for organisations which do usiness within highly competitive la our mar2ets and they want to e an &employer of choice'. For e%ample, in Mauritius, we have the "ritish .merican Insurance 4".I6, Ireland "lyth @imited, Harel Mallac among others, that do much image advertising to promote themselves as a good place to wor2. Em+&o'ment E6uit'

$mployment $1uity policy serves to prevent discrimination in recruitment practices and provides e1ual opportunities to all citiAens of the country. In Mauritius, there are the Bonstitution, Se% *iscrimination .ct and the $1ual >pportunity .ct which guarantee the rights of the citiAens of Mauritius and the latter can go to Bourt in case they feel there has een discrimination of any sort in the recruitment process. %ersons 7 Organisation *it

Some organisations follow a recruitment policy which provides for optimum fit etween the new employee and the organisation<s culture. In Mauritius, this is done usually in the private sector when high cali re officers are re1uired to manage a company. However, at lower level, the recruitment policy promotes the employment of diverse individuals so as to enrich the composition of the wor2force.

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$ctivit' 2 4i6 *iscuss the aims of recruitment in your organisation.


Chat is the recruitment policy of your organisationD


*iscuss the factors characterising recruitment policies in your organisation.

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=he recruitment process stems from the Human Resource Planning stage. Chenever a shortage of human resource has een identified, management has to ta2e necessary steps to ensure the timely supply of la our to fill the identified gap. =he recruitment process is illustrated in the following diagram. $E=$R7.@ $7FIR>7M$7= I7=$R7.@ $7FIR>7M$7=

Human Resource Planning

.lternatives to Recruitment


Internal Sources

$%ternal Sources

Internal Methods

$%ternal Methods

Recruited Individuals

Figure 4.1 The Recruitment Process

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4.(.1 $&ternatives to Recruitment

>nce a shortage of employees has een identified, the first thing to consider is whether there are alternatives to recruitment. =he alternatives are listed hereunder#: 1. Overtime >vertime is when the actual employees are as2ed to perform e%tra hours at wor2 at an agreed rate. =his is, in fact, a source of motivation for most employees. However, this alternative cannot e ta2en as a long:term solution ecause of issues li2e fatigue, pace of wor2 and a su stantial overall decrease in output.

2. Subcontracting Su contracting involves an agreement with a specialised firm to perform the wor2 in part or in full upon payment as agreed y oth parties. In such a contract, the e%ternal service provider has a high level of commitment as regards to 1uality and timeliness in fulfilling the contract. =his alternative is relatively costly for organisations which have to e competitive and pro lems li2e lac2 of sense of elonging may crop up. 3. Temporary Emp oyees =emporary employees are those employed for a specific 0o on a short:term contract. =his alternative is used when e%isting employees are una le to do the 0o due to some specific reasons. =emporary employees are very helpful in reducing the e%cess wor2load in an organisation.

4.(.2 *actors to Consi er w)en $ttracting %eo+&e.

Financia !onstraint " :
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Has any provision een made for in the udgetD Bost of Recruitment , Pay pac2ets.... 5


e affected

y the state of the national economy, that is, are we in a

recession, crisis, etc... #hat Types o$ !an%i%ates. .ge group, field of specialisation, e%perience ...

&ega Frame'or( Chat does the law sayD *iscrimination y reason of race, place of origin, political opinion, creed or se% and colour. !orporate )mage o$ the !ompany How people see the companyD

4.(.# Interna& Recruitment Sources

Fery often, a vacancy provides an opportunity to promote people from within the organisation. Internal recruitment sources present the organisation with a num er of oth advantages and disadvantages which are summarised elow# $ vantages =he organisation is familiar with the strengths, wea2nesses, performances, s2ills, e%pertise and attitude of the applicants. =he applicants have a etter understanding of the organisation and its culture. =he filling of vacancies proves to e cheaper and faster. =raining and development are already in place.

!isa vantages
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7o new talent is rought in the organisation. Bonflict may occur amongst employees due to frustration. Recruitment cost may e high. !8

4.(.4 E,terna& Recruitment Sources

$%ternal recruitment sources are also eneficial to organisations and present new

opportunities. However, there might e draw ac2s as well. $ vantages Specialised upper level positions often re1uires that organisations loo2 for e%ternal resources since such s2ills may not e%ist internally. "rings new lood, talents and ideas in the organisation. Is very easily accepted, especially when several employees inside the organisation are in conflict to fill the vacancy. !isa vantages @oss of time and productivity due to the new employees ad0usting to the organisation. May lac2 cultural awareness of the organisation. 7o guarantee against new employee leaving 1uic2ly for another 0o . $%isting employees do not strive for promotion.

4.(.( Recruiting In ivi ua&s

If there are vacancies to e filled y newly recruited employees, all alternatives have to e considered, efore the final decision to recruit is ta2en. =he appropriate and the most cost effective recruitment strategy must e adopted. $ctivit' # 4i6 Ma2e a list of the alternatives to recruitment that may organisation.
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e availa le to your



*iscuss the advantages and disadvantages of internal and e%ternal recruitment in your organisation.



=he person specification also 2nown as a recruitment specification defines the o 0ective assessment of the attri utes, in methodological order, of the est suited employee for a particular 0o . =he most popular methods are #: !. =he Seven Point Plan y Professor Rodger (. Munro Fraser<s framewor2 1. 4i6 4ii6 4iii6 4iv6 4v6 4vi6 4vii6 Ro ger9s Seven %oint %&an Physi1ue# health, appearance .ttainments# general education, s2illed la our training, wor2 e%perience General Intelligence# mental and reasoning a ilities Special .ptitudes# Special specific s2ills to perform certain wor2s Interest# physical, social and intellectual interests *isposition# accepted as leaders, sta ility, relia ility Bircumstances# domestic circumstances, family occupations

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2. 4i6 4ii6 4iii6 4iv6 4v6

Munro *raser9s *ive *o& *ramewor: Impact on others# physical appearance, relationship with colleagues and manner. .c1uired 1ualifications# education, training and wor2 e%perience. Innate a ilities# a ility to react with sharpness, mental a ility for learning. Motivation# goals set y the individual and the drive to achieve them successfully. .d0ustment# a ility to cope with different stressful situations and also with people.

>f these two framewor2s, we can say that the five fold framewor2, although shorter and simpler than the seven point plan, emphasises more on the most important pedigree of the candidate<s career. "oth framewor2s cover nearly the same re1uirements and thus, provide a good framewor2 for interviewing.

$ctivit' 4 Crite down the person specification of the 0o that you do in your organisation.

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.ny organisation would have li2ed to attract the & est suited' candidate and therefore, it has to decide on the est way to attract them. Hereunder is a list of methods that are most commonly used# : 1. $ vertisement a. Press : local newspapers, magaAines and periodicals . Radio H private and pu lic local radio networ2s c. =F H local =F channel d. Posters H ill oards e. Bareers e%hi ition f. >pen days 2. %u;&ic an %rivate Em+&o'ment $gencies

Pu lic $mployment agencies are those recruitment agencies owned y the state whose main o 0ectives are to recruit people to wor2 in state owned offices and Ministries as well as cater for the welfare and promotion of the employees. Private agencies are those agencies whose main o 0ective is to loo2 for 0o s for potential candidates and vice versa. Usually, these recruiting agencies aim at matching people with the 0o . #. <o; *airs

. 0o fair is a recruiting method engaged y a group of employers with the aim of attracting and meeting potential employees in large num er at a specific place and time. Io fair attracts large num er of candidates from universities?IF=" a short time and at very low cost.
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=hese fairs are organised y Universities or Government in order to provide information to potential employees and employers concerning the opportunities in the la our mar2et. Firtual 0o fair, which is an online event, allows students to visit virtual employer ooths and su mit their interest and BF online. =his method is more convenient for students and less costly for employers. 4. 8ea 8unting $gencies

=his is done on a large scale in .merica where there is a data ase of a particular group of professionals. It is not advertised since it is 2nown that there are only a few people with these 1ualifications and where they are. (. <o; Centres

In Mauritius, we have the Pu lic Service Bommission 4PSB6, the *isciplined Forces Services Bommission 4*FSB6, @ocal Government Service Bommission 4@GSB6 and @a our >ffices around the island. -. Managers=Su+ervisors +ersona& contact

In this recruitment method, the potential applicant<s strengths and wea2nesses as well as his?her ehaviour and attitude are 2nown to the manager and?or supervisor. .. Universities an Co&&eges

Most universities and colleges have placement services for their students with the main o 0ective of providing them with on:the:0o training and also giving the students an opportunity to match their classroom ased learning and real life situations for a short period of time efore returning again to university.

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In Mauritius, students who do well on placement in organisations, have great opportunities of securing a 0o in the same organisations once their studies are over. /. T)e E&ectronic Recruiting

=he growth of Information =echnology has opened new avenues for organisations trying to recruit talent. $ighty eight percent of HR professionals of the world<s largest firms use internet 0o postings to find potential employees and ninety si% percent 0o see2ers use them to find 0o s. =hese figures include those firms that use their homepage for 0o listings !"ource # "ociety for $uman %esources &anagement 'areer (ournal). Using the Internet for recruitment can ma2e the process more timely and cost effective and as such, a roader pool of 0o see2ers can have access. 0. Union=%ro"essiona& Re"erra&s Register of mem ers see2ing employment 2ept y Unions. Register 2ept y professional odies for their mem ers to provide recruitment and placement services, e.g. lawyers, doctors, accountants, engineer. $ctivit' ( 4i6 Chat recruitment procedures are used within your organisationD

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@ist some advantages and disadvantages of using the interenet as a recruitment method.



"oth internal and e%ternal factors influence an organisation<s recruitment practices. 1. Interna& *actors a. Organisationa Po icy >rganisational recruitment policies with regards to internal and e%ternal recruitment, employment e1uity, etc... will influence the nature of the organisation<s recruitment. b. The )mage o$ the Organisation "oth the pu lic image and that of the prospective employees will impact on the recruitment programme of the organisation. c. Recruitment Re*uirements It is important that the organisation, through effective 0o 0o holder. analysis, 0o descriptions and 0o specifications, sets out realistic re1uirements for the potential

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E,terna& *actors

+overnment an% Tra%e ,nion Many countries have put in place legislations to address unfair recruitment practice, 4In Mauritius, there is the $1ual opportunity .ct6. =rade Unions often participate in the recruitment process so as to ensure fairness.

&abour -ar(et !on%itions @a our mar2et conditions significantly impact on organisation<s choice of recruitment programme. For e%ample, if there is an under:supply of s2ills within the la our mar2et, an intensive and multi:pronged recruitment programme would need to e implemented.

$ctivit' *iscuss the internal and e%ternal factors that influence recruitment in your organisation.



Internet is and will li2ely e a very effective recruiting and staffing tool. .lthough internet recruiting has not replaced traditional recruiting, yet, it has ecome an important and essential aid for recruiters. In Mauritius, internet recruiting is not presently eing e%tensively used as a recruiting tool ut will eventually ecome an important tool in a near future.

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Internet recruiting should not e treated as a stand alone HR tool ut should e rather treated as an integral part of the overall recruitment and selection strategy. Bompared to other recruitment methods, internet recruitment is not a selection tool. It does not replace the face to face interviews, conducting ac2ground chec2s and other tests re1uired to assess the attitude and ehaviour of potential candidates. However, internet recruitment is an innovative means of attracting a certain category of applicants and will e very e%tensively used in a near future. .lso, it is important for progressive organisations to consider whether recruitment on the internet will offer competitive advantages. "esides, for vacancies of international organisations, 4United nations, I@>, S.*B6 online application is compulsory. Fery often, selection is also done online. 1. $ vantages o" Internet Recruitment


It may shorten the recruitment cycle time. It may reduce the recruitment cost. It reaches a wider range of potential applicants 4national and international6. Response from applicants will e higher. It gives an organisation a more up to date image. It provides glo al coverage (+ hours a day. It provides easy access to 0o information on demand to sta2eholders. !isa vantages o" Internet Recruitment Its use is still not widespread in Mauritius. It is perceived as eing for I= 0o s. It is not yet the first choice of most 0o see2ers.

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$ctivit' . 4i6 4ii6 Chy is Internet recruiting presently not so popular in MauritiusD *iscuss why Internet recruiting cannot ecome a stand alone process.

4.10 SUMM$R4
=his Unit on recruitment has e%plained in detail a very important aspect of $mployee Resourcing. Particular emphasis has een laid on the aims, policy, process and methods of recruitment. Internet recruiting has also een presented.

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