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THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY
FOUNDED BY JAMES LOEB,
EDITED BY
fT. E. PAGE,
C.H., LITT.D.

LL.D.

fK CAPPS,
'-,.

ph.d., ix.d.
l.h.d.

fW. H.

D.

ROUSE,

litt.d.

A.

POST,

E. H.

WARMINGTON,

m.a., f.r.hist.soc.

HIPPOCRATES
VOL. IV

HERACLEITUS
ON THE UNIVERSE

:,£«.•

^

>,

COS, THE

PLANE TREE.

REPRODUCED FROM A PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN BV MISS M.HENRV

HIPPOCRATES
WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY

W.
8T.

H.

S.

JONES,

Litt.D.

CATHARINE'S COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE

VOL

IV

HERACLEITUS
ON THE UNIVERSE

LONDON

WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD
CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS

HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS
MCMLIX

TO

F.

M. R.

First printed 1931 Reprinted 1931, 1943, 1953, 1959

Printed in Great Britain

CONTENTS
HIPPOCRATES
PAGE

the plane tree
PREFACE
INTRODUCTION

Frontispiece
Vli

jx

NATURE OF MAN
REGIMEN IN HEALTH

1

43
61

HUMOURS
APHORISMS

97

REGIMEN
REGIMEN
REGIMEN

I

223 297 367
42]

II

III

DREAMS

HERACLEITUS
ON THE UNIVERSE
449

vn . 6. for help in preparing the index. I wish to thank my pupil. V. 64. The readings of Urb. as also are many from the manuscripts M. Poole. Holkhamensis and Caius -|£. M. This book completes Hippocrates. S. A. W. . however carefully done. the perhaps not the greater number of them rule 1 have tried to follow is to record only those readings that are intrinsically interesting and those The readings that seriously affect the meaning. has taken all The work . C. J. V. Mr. 64 are here printed for the first time. I am sure that there are some errors in the notes in this volume. W. A. recorded by my predecessors are often wrongly transcribed knowing by experience the risk of mistakes in collations.PREFACE the Loeb translation of of preparing the volume my leisure for over five years. the most laborious part being the collation of the manuscripts Urb. H. I have not quoted all the variants.

.

are oracular it when suits affects an ix . with their ambiguous or doubtful replies. Much of the Phaedrus and of the Symposium.INTRODUCTION I INTENTIONAL OBSCURITY WRITINGS IN ANCIENT To a modern it appears somewhat strange that a writer should be intentionally obscure. knowing that neither critics nor readers will tolerate obscurity of any kind. or hearer. which was followed most closely by those writers who affected an oracular style. that set the fashion. They were to a great extent the result of an effort to create an atmosphere congenial to So Plato. and a great part of the Timaeus. and authors tried to satisfy this appetite . was not always averse to being mystified. his purpose be transparently clear. It was probably who was imitated in later dramatists. almost unnatural obscurity when he wishes to attune his readers' mind to truths that transcend human understanding. An author wishes to be easily understood. this for puzzles. The difficulties of Pindar and of the choral odes of Aeschylus. the oracles. who can religion and religious mystery. the Number in the Republic. were not entirely or even mainly due to the struggle of lofty thought seeking to find adequate expression in an as yet inadequate by medium. But in ancient times the public taste was different the reader.

the " tradition condemned by Jesus in the Gospels. thus escaping to a great extent the dangers into all sorts of abnormalities The unoccupied mind that come when the mind is insufficiently fed. but only . bizarre or morbid. lyric poetry. and Lycophron is a warning example of its folly when carried to extremes. " out of many. at any rate the choral lyric. In Alexandrine times obscure writing became one of the fads of literary pedants. and the elaborate dogmas expounded at tedious length by the early Fathers. A tendency to idle speculation is the only serious fault that can be found with Greek mentality indulgence . to be found in the restless activity of the Greek mind. broods. but before books and other forms of mental recreation became common men were led and extravagances. on the other hand. in intentional obscurity is perhaps a fault. taking their colour from the difficulty of their subject. were to some extent at least caused by active brains being deIt is a tribute to the prived of suitable material.INTRODUCTION utterances rather than reasoned argument. which never had enough material to occupy The modern has perhaps too much to it fully. seems to have been particularly prone to it. often becoming fanciTo quote but two instances ful. But prose remained comparatively free from intentional obscurity . which appears all the more curious when we remember how fond the Greeks were of clear-cut The reason is probably outlines in all forms of art. think about. genius of the Greeks that they found so much healthy occupation in applying thought to everyday things. There must have been something tality to in Greek men- account for the persistence of this curious habit.

ought at least to for be clear. however disjointed or Their obviunconnected. . one . As has been said above. though not closely so. but it was kept up by the Greeks' love of solving puzzles. This explanation. of having some- thing really brains. are severely practical. to Nutriment . and in the various lists of symptoms. Yet hasty writing and for the natural obscurity of all abbreviated notes. in the introduction to Decorum." This thinker adopted the oracular style when expounding his philosophical system. suggest an explanation of them. It is a series of notes which. there remains in Humours a large residue of passages in which the difficulties appear to be intentional. seem to detect the characteristics to which I refer Chapter I. but the reason for their difficulties may well be due to a desire to keep secret the ritual or liturgy of a guild Decorum.INTRODUCTION a slight and venial one. The fact that these passages 1 are sometimes written in a rather lofty style seems to Humours is akin. Precepts and ham are in a class by themselves. This work has nothing to do with secret societies. that certain (probably late) tracts in the Corpus are intentionally difficult. oracular responses seem to have started the fashion of purposely hiding thought. it is aphoristic after the manner of Heracleitus " the dark. xi . however. difficult with which to exercise their It has already been pointed out. ously utilitarian purpose makes their obscurity all the more difficult to understand a text-book. might suppose. will not apply to the obscure passages in Humours. and certain later thinkers 1 when we have made allowances I chiefly in etc.

But Heracleitean obscurity is sadly out of in a work entirely free from philosophy. succeeds in producing a not altogether incongruous result. and commentators upon it were numerous. for Humours is often referred to. and the modern place by it. realising. who was a really great reader is repelled appear to scientific thinker. or compiler. however. of Aphorisms. It is interesting to note that the author. and keeping the lofty style appropriate to it. makes no use of intentional obscurity. Perhaps it was thought that a "dark" subject required a "dark" medium of The writer of Nutriment. have been attracted. The ancients. how unsuitable it is in a work intended to instruct medical students and practising physicians. consciously or unconsciously. while adopting the oracular aphorism as a medium of expression. striving to wed Heracleiteanism and physiology. whether Heracleitean or other. who was expression. xil .INTRODUCTION followed his example.

66. 142.II THE FORM AND CONSTRUCTION OF CERTAIN HIPPOCRATIC WORKS the Hippocratic Collection are Many books in " not strictly " books at all they consist of separate pieces written continuously without any internal bond of union.1 and by Airs Waters Places. has been very much neglected seem to make. perhaps unconsciously. I. divided The scholars who have devoted themselves to the study of Nature of Man Humours. we have discussed the curious features presented by Epidemics I and III. in Volume I. being at best compilations.. and the disjointed fragments of which it is composed can in not a few places be traced to other works in the Corpus. pp. 2 Vol. works. xiii . 2 The aphoristic . exhibit a looseness of texture which makes additions and interpolations not only easy to insert but also difficult to detect. I. They suppose the present form of the book to be due to a compiler. 141. Humours has scarcely any texture at all. and the whole has been variously by commentators from Galen onwards. probably because of its hopeless obscurity. — — 1 Vol. Already. Nature of Man and Regimen in Health appear as one work in our MSS. p. a more than doubtful assumption.

Positive evidence to support the hypothesis is very slight. In the library of the medical school at Cos there were doubtless many rough drafts of essays. Take. fragments from lost works. and quotations written out merely because a reader happened to find them interesting." and the ninth chapter is a fragment from the beginning of Affections. and the high honour in which the Hippocratic school was held would give it a dignity to which it was not not entitled by its intrinsic value. course these remarks are mere guess-work. printed book goes through a fixed routine." as they be called. scribes would copy the roll. which is apt to make us forget that a papyrus roll may well have been a chance collection of unconnected fragments. possible that the "conglomerates. fragment. for instance. It is. which xiv Of . but the reader feels that at the end of the seventh chapter there is an abrupt break in the description For the eighth chapter is of regimen for athletes. are really the result of an accident. There are seven chapters of good advice The subject is on the preservation of health. a fragment from the beginning of the second book of Diseases. lecture notes. however. or perhaps from that of the longest Later on. Regimen in Health. but it should be noticed that a work in the Corpus often ends with a fragment taken from another work. treated in an orderly and logical manner. Some tidy but fact A over-intelligent library-keeper might fasten together enough of these to make a roll of convenient size. giving it a title taken perhaps from the subject of the first.INTRODUCTION who may quite acted on some definite purpose. and gives some symptoms of "diseases arising from the brain.

added the two fragments. . Is it possible for such a conglomerate to be the result of design ? What author or editor could be so stupid as to complete an incomplete work by such unsuitable additions ? What particular kind of accident is responsible nobody could say for certain. (2) (3) These fragments are taken from the beginnings of other works in the Corpus. It must be remembered that the parts of a book that get detached most easily. Nature of Man is similar in construction. This unfinished work has two short fragments tacked on to it. are the beginning and the end. whether the books be a roll or composed of leaves. .INTRODUCTION insists efforts to on the importance of health and of making recover from illnesses. but the fragments added to the main piece are longer Regimen in Health. Suppose that the end of Regimen in Health was lost and the beginnings of copies of Diseases II and of Affections became detached surely it is not unreasonable to suppose that a librarian preserved the latter by adding them to the former. and the first quite unconnected. but it is at least likely that some librarian. These places are also the most convenient for making additions. with the subject matter of the first seven chapters . Here Regimen in : Health ends. Several points need careful consideration (1) — and is Regimen in Health proper ends abruptly apparently unfinished . xv . in fact. the second of which is but slightly connected. is itself one of them. and not an author.

beginning with ai Se vovcroi yivovrai. The tenth chapter briefly postulates a relationship between " of the the virulence of a disease and the "strength Then comes the famous part in which it arises. the first to the effect that knowing the cause of a disease enables the physician to forecast better its history. an unfulfilled promise in ttjv 8e TrepioBov avris which Fredrich would delete as an 2 This chapter has two references to passages that are not extant.oi kcu 7rdAat e'prjTai. passage dealing with the veins. which Aristotle in Historia Animalium III. and the rest of the chapter. /ecu irepwBi. The eighth x chapter deals with the relation between the seasons and diseases. in the case of patients of thirty-five years or more. After three sentences a complete break occurs. the second insisting upon the necessity of the patient's The fourteenth co-operation in effecting a cure. The ninth chapter 2 begins with the cure of diseases by their opposites. from xvi It Nature of Man consists of sections taken works now lost. of "pus" in The thirteenth chapter consputa. . and warrep p. and a fresh start is made. Incidentally it may be noted that the part of this section is paraphrased in Menon's and attributed to Hippocrates. these cross-references are easily explained. The twelfth chapter deals with the cause. tains two unconnected remarks. ojairep p-oi Tri^paarai. 15 1 There is j>paaw rwv ij/iepeW. which end with the relation between these humours and the four seasons.INTRODUCTION First we have seven chapters treating of the four humours. 3 attributes to Poly bus. is concerned with a classification of diseases into (1) those arising from regimen and (2) those caused by the atmosphere. first Iatrica VII. urine or stools. interpolation. about 50 lines.

chapter contains a very brief classification of fevers. Chapter 1 I. c. " quidam . deal with p. but here the disiccta membra are even more incongruous and disordered. An analysis of the work may prove useful. sums up his " Vir opinion in these words quidam. <f>vcr. 1. It requires a special pleader. The humours. perhaps a physician." l There is nothing unreasonable in " medicus assigning the collection of extracts to licet. to prevent their getting lost. if any effort was made to put them in order it was a very unsuccessful effort. 11) de pure (12) de urina (14) de febribus (15) de diaeta (1-7) de capitis doloribus (8) principium sanandi (9) et haec quidem duo capita addidit fort. biased by a subconscious conviction that a Greek book must be an artistic whole. an excellent scholar and a keen student of Hippocrates. irepl <f>vffws divert or C. attendant. quod initia librorum ei carorum erant. 13) dissertationes de venis (c. medicus vide: composuit res memoria complures de origine morborum et curatione sententias (77. Yet Fredrich. avOp. The sections are not "arranged". in usum suum collegit et dignas : . a physician is perhaps as likely a person But "composuit" does not in the least describe the work of the collector.. 2. Fredrich. ix. 10. It is a far more likely hypothesis to suppose that fragments of papyrus were fastened together by someone. de libro avOpdirov pseudippocrateo. . and how to them when abnormal. xvii . ix. 15. perhaps a library as a librarian. A similar problem faces us when we examine Humours.INTRODUCTION The last chapter deals with deposits in urine. to maintain that this aggregate follows any logical plan.

Chapter V. Epi. IV. or The Chapter XX. 3. congenital. 5. 23.INTRODUCTION A mass of detail the physician Chapters II-IV. IV. . 20. Chapter VII. . Chapters XIII-XVIII. Chapter XII. their relation to diseases. Various rules about evacuations. 1. I. 27 and 50. 9 . etc. VI. 7. Complexions. 23. . 20. Aph. 7. rains. Quotation from Epidemics VI. 33 Epi. which are due to districts. VII. 48 Aph. 7 7. I. 61. 3. VI. The proper treatment at paroxysms and crises. 31. and their influence on health and disease. IV. Epi. IV. Chapter VI. Prognostic II. . There are many quotations or paraphrases from various Hippocratic treatises. . Seasons. 8. 7. xviii . Chapter X. 1. Chapter VIII. Aph. The analogy between animals and Chapter IX. 7' 1 7. . 9 Chapter X. . etc. I. 1. Psychic symptoms and the relation between mind and body. IV.. Humours and constitutions generally . II. 6. 21. IV. I. climate. Aph. dealing chiefly with abscessions and fluxes. Chapter XI. VI. What should be averted and what encouraged. Prorrhetic 39 Joints 53. fashion of diseases. should notice when examining a patient. . winds. Chapter III. IV. 7 Epi. Chapter Chapter Chapter 22. Abscessions. VI. 32 Epi. Epi. plants. 24.9. External remedies. How to find the Kcn-ao-rao-is of a disease. Aph. Epi. IV. Aph. 19. Chapter XIX.

Epi. Epi. . 1. 5. 3. V. 7 Aph. Waters. 5. . I. 19 20 21 22 23 24. Places 9. Aph.5. 61. IV. Aph. 1.7. III. 3. Chapter XX. 4 . Epi. I. 6. 50. other : quoted — words the following passages are Aph.9. Some parts of the book read just like lecture notes. . VI. In all there are thirty-five borrowed passages. 1. 4. How and why the xix . 27. or heads of discourse to be expanded orally by a teacher or lecturer. 9. ^irs. VI. 23 to 4. 5. 21 and Chapter XV. 4. It is indeed hard to believe that the lists in Chapters II. 32 33. impossible to analyse what is itself in many places an analysis. £jji. I. 6. Waters. Epi. 7. and 9. III. to 4. Epi. 1. 4. III. II. III. . III. Epi. 1 Prognostic II. 8. /fp£. IV. 20 31 . . 8 II. 8. I. 1. Chapter XIV. 48. In 3. Places 7 and 9. Prorrhetic 39. Airs. 1. . 6. Epi. III. 23. in fact. 3. IX are not either such notes or else memoranda made by a student for his own guidance.INTRODUCTION Chapter XII. 1. is by no means adequate a careful reader will note many omissions of details. Chapter XIII. 5. analysis The of . Aph. . 21. 3. VII. Humours given above It is. . IV. . Joints 53. 5. Aph.

and that A linguistic literary writers were occasionally so. deprived of one of his most powerful weapons. that a faulty expression is probably due to the carelessness of a scribe. or writers. perhaps the xx . while similar in character to the rest of the book. Demosthenes may be due.INTRODUCTION other parts were added it is impossible to say. The textual critic. Humours is not only inartistic but also often ungrammatical. error in the text of. is forced to pause and think. these jotshow us that the Greek writers were some- inaccuracy of Demosthenes himself. end of an ancient scrap-book are the places where additions are most easily made. Neither Humours nor Nature of Man must be judged by the canons used in appreciating literature. These words may well have been the title. They are not literary compositions. is separated from it by the words aKCTrrea ravra. of the memoranda which we assume form the basis of the whole work. The writer. Even the greatest artists are not infallible. The first chapter. but to the times inaccurate or inelegant in speech. In conclusion. tings Not intended for publication. the beginning and last. as it were. it should be remembered that a papyrus roll could contain no foot-notes. say. If the scientists were often slipshod. The last chapter is obviously a fragment added to the end of the roll by somebody who did not wish it to be lost. wrote down rough notes without thinking of syntactical structure. with which the second chapter begins. not to the mistake of a scribe. and only the first chapters of Nature of Man are artistically written. with the possible exception of the first chapter and the As has already been said.

one stating that either wind may accompany drought. and the author concludes his remarks at fxaWov. No author annotated his own works he worked any necessary annotations into the text itself. But this explanation of irrelevant passages must not be pushed too far. This special case brings in (1) the question of droughts and (2) the humours. however. and these might consist of illustrative As one reads Humours passages from other works. is required. So there are apparently four notes. xxi . the influence of south winds and of north winds on health. . It cannot account for the of many amorphous construction Hippocratic treatises. yap nal tovto). Between the two notes is inserted a remark (Siac^epet yap kol raAAa ovTw fJ-tya. So two fresh notes are added. which is almost certainly due to the welding together of detached or separate fragments of various sizes in order to preserve them in book form. the connection of which is very obscure. or it may mean that other things beside winds influence the character of diseases. good subject is A to deal with a special case. and the other that humours vary with season and district. The example occurs in Chapter XIV. one at least of which is a note added to the first note. Some note.INTRODUCTION marginal notes did not come into general use before the age of the scholiasts. the conviction grows that many of its apparently irrelevant passages are really notes of this type. It may refer to the effects of winds (as in the translation).

or almost The hypotheses of early Greek entirely. . and of making sure that they square with theory. and it was not until Aristotle xxii . brilliant guesses no doubt.Ill SCIENCE AND IMAGINATION progress of scientific thought depends upon One is the collection of facts by observation and experiment the other is constructive imagination. vigorous. perhaps because of its very quickness. indeed. was always ready with explanations. to collect an adequate amount of evidence This fault for the framing of useful hypotheses. was not altogether a bad thing . and the Greek mind was so exuberant that it shirked this necessary discipline. but related to the facts of experience only in the most casual way. but guesses mar all but the very best work in the Hippocratic Corpus. But imagination needs progress is to be possible. proved too laborious. which frames hypotheses to interThe Greek genius. but it was too impatient. the constructive imagination needs to be developed by practice if The two factors. Experiment was entirely. Medicine. also training and education. thought are mere guesses. alert and pret these facts. The drudgery of collecting facts. did usually insist on the collection and classification of phenomena. neglected.

but The unscientific in the modern sense of the term. and the Greeks' having the same word for both is a sign that the discipline necessary for accurate science was not appreciated. can prove that the soul never really dies if we admit Plato's In the Phaedu this proof is elaborated. So a Greek philosophical system is likely to contain many details. 2o<£ia is almost equally ambiguous. completing the work of Plato. and demanded artistic detail. however few were the certain facts that he could use in its construction. because of the limitations of the human intellect." Now the arts demand much more imagination and freedom of thought than do the sciences. laid the foundations of biology that the importance of collecting sufficient evidence It is interesting in this connection to note that the arts were distinguished from the sciences only riyyv) it when Greek thought was past can mean either "art" inclines more zenith. slightly derogatory sense xxiii . specialised meaning to iTncrry/xr] before there is a word approximately equivalent to our "science" without any additional notion of "art. Greek imagination was not only luxuriant it was A also picturesque. The word or "science/' though towards the former. Greek philosopher felt bound to paint a complete picture when he formulated a theory. theory cannot be finished. The reason. gave a new. a myth is added to fill up the ugly gap. sometimes in a its ("knack"). and we have to wait until Aristotle. . for instance.INTRODUCTION and Theophrastus was fully realised. not indeed incongruous. but Ideas. Greek love of a completed picture is well illustrated When a by the "myths" of Plato's dialogues.

although following a different philosophic system. They portray truth. they try to express reality by a mass of detail which does not Provided strictly correspond with objective fact. too much scientific method. guise. or what the writers consider to be truth. Darwin's Origin of Species. translated in Volume I. We must realise that they are in part works of imagination. Granted that the soul exists in the next world. are similar in character. that he produces the general impression he desires. An important principle of interpretation follows. using the language of Heracleitus. xxiv . Nutriment. A Greek theory cannot always be treated like a truly scientific account. the writer is not over-careful about the patches of colour that make up the whole.INTRODUCTION there is an inevitable hiatus in the account. a sine qua non of scientific reasoning. what sort of a life does it pass there ? This cannot be told by reason. Conformity with experience. a treatise translated similation. allusive and metaphorical. often figurative. What is true of Nutriment and Regimen is a fortiori true of the fragments of Heracleitus in this volume. We must not expect of them too much consistency. is an attempt to apply the principles of Heracleitus. in the present volume. so that an imaginary story is added for the sake of completeness. The medical treatises of the Hippocratic Collection sometimes contain a philosophic element. is not to be demanded of works in which imagination plays a large part. in an allegorical Nobody would interpret Revelation as one would Like a modern futurist picture. to the problems of food and its asParts of Regimen. too much conformity with experience.

like most style that is largely poetical. a prose poet. but he cannot help being at the same time an artist. He is a philosopher and a scientist. failed to confine himself to a single role. Greek writers. xxv . and a religious reformer.INTRODUCTION They attempt to explain the material universe in a Heracleitus.

3 Animal. the passage in Chapter IX that begins with at Se vovaoi ylvovrai. cit. II. 1 It is clear that in Galen's time the book had the form it lias now. If Nature of Man had been known as a unity. manuscripts. pp. position. IX-XV and XVI to the end. but we do not know when that form was first received. III. 9 foil. dividing it into three main parts Chapters I-VIII. or rather paraphrases. it is strange that there is here ascribed one part to Polybus and another part to Hippocrates.r. 34. which has given a name to the whole comOn the other hand. the Anonymus 4 quotes. and to the same Polybus is ascribed 3 in the Anonymus Londinensis a part of the first section. 33. pp. 3. Aristotle 2 refers to the description of the veins in Chapter XI. work : 1 See Villaret's discussion of Galen xv. Diels. pp. (op. latrica. latrica. ascribing it to Polybus. 11. IV are 1 Chapters 10. 2 Hist. and prefaces the quotation with aAAa yap en <f>r)aiv 'l7T7TOi<pdrr]s K. 4-6). 111. xxvi . 15. the son-in-law of Hippocrates. . and referred to. See Diels.IV NATURE OF MAN Nature of Man and Regimen in Health formed one in ancient times and are joined together in our Galen comments on the whole work.e. XIX VII.

pp. Littre himself is See Littre. is mentioned in such a way as to show that his doctrines were not yet forgotten or out of date.epea>i>. pp. c. some years later. Finally.C. than the rise of Sophistic rhetoric.INTRODUCTION Galen to is convinced that the first section is referred 1 by Plato in the famous passage in the Phaedrus. 298. 297. xxxiii-xxxv. and not later than (say) 400 B. I. 2 It should be noted in passing that neither the first section nor the second is complete. and that the whole work. and perhaps put together by a librarian or Aristotle and Menon may be referring book-dealer. In Chapter I Melissus the Eleatic. 3 VIII ri)v Se nepioSov avns (ppdcrw r))v tu>v y/j. and throughout the first eight chapters the influence We ought then to postuof Empedocles is strong. Most of our difficulties disappear if we look upon Nature of Man and Regimen in Health as a chance collection of fragments. The former contains an unfulfilled promise. should be assigned to Hippocrates himself. to the complete works from which the extant fragments were taken. 2 : 1 4 IX : &-<Tirep /*oj irtcppacrTat k<x\ krepooBi and Siairep fioi Ka\ waAai etpwrai. varying in size and completeness. not to Nature oj Man.. in fact. See Vol. pointing to a time when proseform had already received careful attention. in spite of Aristotle. We must now consider the internal evidence. I.C.. Vol. convinced that the Ph aedrus passage refers. xxvii . who flourished about 440 B. even a superficial reader will notice the general likeness of the first section of Nature of Man 270 C-E. late for the first section a date not earlier than 440 The style is b. 3 the latter back references 4 to a discussion of regimen no longer extant. 346. but to Ancient Medicine. clear and forcible.

that is. The main interest of Nature of Man lies in the Empedoclean doctrine contained in the first eight chapters. in Plato's — — Timaeus and in Aristotle's Physics. There was something vital in the philosophy of Empedocles. It is their Kpacns that produces a healthy body. during a period of an eclectic revival of the older philosophies.). The four humours are not the four elements of Empedocles. when men grew fussy and followed elaborate rules in order to ward off diseases and keep themselves fit.c. foil.INTRODUCTION to Ancient Medicine. with its theory of " elements/' is nearer akin to Empedocles than it is to atomism. 1 and the whole argument implies that they are elemental and in themselves unchangeable. Modern chemistry. referred to medicine in the by Plato in his polemic against " " about their health Republic. modified but not essentially changed. The main portion belongs to that period. and as a basis of physics it reappears. xxviii . The number of elements may be four or four hundred the number — 1 Chapter IV. It is difficult to resist the conclusion that they were written at approximately the same time. It is not unreasonable to suppose that its date falls within the first quarter of the fourth century b. The smaller fragments that follow show no reliable clues as to their date. except the similarity of the section on veins to Sacred Disease (VI. but they are analogous and perform analogous functions. Regimen in Health ends in two fragments from other treatises in the Corpus II and irzpl naOwv either -irtpi vovcrwv stray strips of papyrus added by chance or the result of repeated wrong division of works written as though one treatise were the continuation of the preceding.

though minor. 1894. Gottingae. remains constant. and V. 66. striking. Nature of Man is a. influence upon its author. 3 ffippokratische Untersuchungen. Kpacris essential factor. and published further research five years later. In particular. Gottingae. 1911. XXIX . but sometimes give a preferable reading. Villaret. on its composition. Berlin. 3 More recently an excellent edition was published as a doctoral thesis by Villaret.). The chief manuscripts are A. whether it is or combination. De libro Trepi <pv(Tws &vdpdnrov pseudippocrateo scripsit Carolus Fredrich. 1 Modern scholars have found the treatise more attractive than most of the others in the Hippocratic Carl Fredrich 2 wrote a doctoral thesis Collection. 2 Between Empedocles and Nature of Man came Philistion. 13 foil. The first shows its usual superiority in most cases where the manuscripts differ. instance of perennial vitality in the thought of Empedocles.INTRODUCTION is immaterial —but the called fxi^c. there are several omissions in A almost certainly due to careless M MV copying. 4 Galen has given us a full and interesting commentary. 1899 (pp. 4 Hippocratis Do Natura Hominis scripsit Oskar Villaret. 1 who probably exerted some p..

one is tempted to suppose that the ancient Humours has suffered a similar fate. XIX. 2 by Humours critics 1 commentaries supposed to be genuine contains the mention of Zeuxis and Glaucias. Airapri. avaa/xSs. name.HUMOURS This work is perhaps the most puzzling in the It is Hippocratic Collection. alperai and <pvaa in Nachmanson's edition of Erotian. which recent German scholarship maintains are a Byzantine comhowever. There are three Galenic commentaries. But there can be no doubt that our Humours was the work known to Erotian that pilation containing. 35. 2 See e. Zeuxis and Heracleides of Tarentum. 1 As the genuine Galenic commentary has been replaced by a forgery. and it was familiar to Glaucias. now lost. which Galen actually did write. wivu<8e<Ti. to Hippocrates See Galen. Humours attracted great and continued attention. One of the passages in the extant is attributed XXX . but only a few of the old it. obviously a scrap-book of the crudest sort. then ancient.g. under ireiracr/dSs. or parts of it. certain passages from the commentary. it has no literary qualities and it is obscure to a Yet in ancient times degree. Apparently Bacchius worked on it.

uncritical librarian. 2 popularity of Humours in ancient times may to its be due in part very difficulty it was. See Littre. 1 .INTRODUCTION 1 Its true genesis is a matter of doubt have already suggested that it may be a haphazard collection of fragments put together by a careful but himself. nobody can doubt the value of such lists at a time when pathology had not yet been systematised and treatment was still Catalogues. " En lisant ce Cf. the remainder are chiefly concerned with the treatment and the prevention of disease. on s'explique " difficilement la faveur dont il a joue dans Tantiquite. 369 livre. This is a refreshing change from the somewhat arid but otherwise similar The . 2 : 1 xxxi . lecture-notes II—V. in continuous riddle. are the catalogues or lists which appear in Chapters Are they heads of discourses. identical with other passages in the Corpus. 369. I. as it were. Particularly interesting propositions in Apkoris?ns. a challenge to the ingenuity of an ingenious people. Littre. by enumerating the possibilities. Vol. If we omit those portions that are background. made by a professor to facilitate his instruction of a medical class. pp. A riddle provokes many answers. lacking in breadth and thoroughness. and Humours is a But it has merits of its own. but however doubtful their origin. 370. widened the outlook of the practitioner and made it less unlikely that favourable opportunities would be overlooked. . I. addition to the provoking nature of its problems it is more utilitarian than many of the treatises in the Prognosis is for once in the Hippocratic Corpus. or are they analyses made by a student attending such a class ? The reader inclines to this view or to that according to his mood at the time.

Littre has very little to say about it. Ermerins leaves whole chapters untranslated. The lated both of these chief manuscripts are A and M. and probably taken from the opening sentence and given to the whole scrap-book by some ignorant first . and his translation is often both unintelligible and unfaithful. and {ew modern scholars have paid any serious attention to the work.wv. with a brief remark in Latin that they are hopeless. The true nucleus seems to be the catalogues beginning <rK€7TT€a TaDra (Chapter the name was II). After the sentences there is little mention of the humours indeed Nature of Man is the only Hippocratic work that deserves to be called irepl ^u/x. The librarian. I have coland also the Caius manuscript f-!p XXXli . The first edition came out in 1555.INTRODUCTION title of the book is deceptive.

Hippocrates.VI APHORISMS This cratic is the best Collection. and Latin. known work From the in the whole Hippoit earliest times has been regarded with a reverence almost religious. s.v. (hip. p." The most lavish praise has been bestowed upon the collection Suidas ." Yet it must be confessed that a modern reader finds Aphorisms disappointing the promise of its . occupy ten pages in the edition of Littre. tators include Meletius. 232 Latin. The Greek manuscripts are more numerous than those containing any other work. dvOpMTrivrjv vTTtpfSaivovai the nineteenth century it physicians' Bible. 1 Hebrew and xxxiii vol. since the time dignified There are 140 Greek MSS. Syriac Hebrew.. "The titles alone." says " Adams. iv. 1845.) B . See further Pauly-Wissowa. Its authority was unquestioned until the breakdown of the Hippocratic tradition. and as late as has been called " the cri'vecriv. 40 1 Besides Galen. says. and still more in that of Kiihn. 70 Arabic. 16. Stephanus of Athens and Theophilus. The proopening is scarcely fulfilled. 1 Editions abound in almost every modern language. while there are translations into Arabic. positions are not arranged after any definite system. " and the seven "sections into which. the ancient commenSyriac.

aphoristic works to find greater favour with students than monographs. they have been grouped. interesting information. carried all the authority of a great name. is essentially true. dealing with most sides of medical. text-books in the shape of essays.INTRODUCTION of Galen. such as Celsus and Aretaeus. but why should Aphorisms be so much preferred before Coan Prenotions and Prorrhetic I. that Hippocrates composed it in his old age as a summary of his vast experience. for sheer utility the later compilers ot medical works. with certain reservations. In this argument there is much truth the aphorism is naturally popular with minds of a certain type at a particular stage of We might therefore expect the their development. might be supposed far superior in meeting the needs of the . and until comparatively modern times authority exerted an in all regions of thought. Then again it is a very comprehensive work. and therefore not easily committed to memory by dull medical students. if not of surgical practice. are somewhat While containing much accurate and arbitrary. but a few reasons The problem must remain somewhat of a puzzle. general practitioner. The ancient testimony in favour of the Hippocratic overwhelming influence The tradition is xxxiv . or even before the Cnidian books. may be suggested why Aphorisms In the first place it enjoyed so long a vogue. Aphorisms is not useful enough to account for its astounding popularity. and there is no reason to doubt that this tradition. with their short and clear rules for diagnosis and treatment ? Moreover. Why did it thrust Regimen in Acute Diseases and It may be Prognostic into comparative obscurity ? urged that these are treatises.

it can be shown that the order ia an alphabetical one. Many new ones were probably added from the store of his personal experience.INTRODUCTION authorship of Aphorisms is overwhelming. including Coan Prenotions. So it may represent a collection of aphor- isms made by Hippocrates from the vast number current either in literature or in tradition. Nutriment. 2 1 XXXV . II. One proposition is sometimes a natural sequel to another. pp. Aphorisms. The various propositions are grouped according to subject. Yet very many of the propositions obviously belong to the mass of medical aphorisms traditionally current in the schools of ancient Greece. with slight differences of form. 319. and so finds its final place. Prorrhetic I. for instance. pp. dealing with fevers being classed together. arrangement would be ideal for reference. In the case of one aphoristic book. depending on key-words. for instance. 318. Dentition and parts of Epidemics. and several seem to be old aphorisms corrected and improved. xx-xxix. and so contented himself with an arrangement of the propositions. as a book of aphorisms is more akin to a dictionary than to a text-book. Perhaps the writer did not see any reason for arranging the sections in any particular order. Dentition. those. has 68 propositions found in Coan 1 Prenotions. See my Hippocrates. Sometimes the same aphorism appears twice. but a close inspection fails to detect any such order in Aphorisms. and points an intimate connection between the collection and Hippocrates himself. 2 How the groups of propositions are themselves An alphabetical arranged it is difficult to say. See Vol II. These have come down to us in at least to a number of collections.

it may be the favourite Finally. xxvii-lxxiii) Sc ravTa pvtrai. II. We seem to have here points to observe in fevers. xxxvi . iv. See Vol. It means. the best 1 Ancient commentaries were numerous and careful. v (twice). IV. m Here we have obviously an author's "pet" word. xxviii and xxix. xxi closes with of Hippocrates fevers himself. Perhaps most sections were never finished. irvptrdicri Se ravra (ytVerai).INTRODUCTION aphorism few details may be noticed here." the compiler's note to mark the end of a section. not to the proposition in which it occurs (lxxiii). The first section shows a fondness for the adjective o-<£uAepo9. and many such additions are suspected in Aphorisms. (IV. VIII.C. occuring where it does. and was placed by him in a position of A prominence to mark the importance to the physician of the truths that are contained in it. The first is certainly from the hand of the "great" Hippocrates. " These are but to the whole section. I have generally noted these. In an earlier volume I have given reasons for sup1 posing that Aphorisms was written about 415 B. (four times). p. 2 The first edition appeared in 1488. (which seems to be a title). Again. 1845. pp. See Pauly-Wissowa. which occurs in I. and so received no note to mark their beginning or their end. and likewise those passages which occur again in other parts of the Hippocratic Corpus. 6epfxr) Aphoristic works invite interpellation. and V. the section on ends with the sentence iv This appears to apply. 2. possibly a misplaced title belonging to the long aphorism that follows. and. 2 now extant being those of Galen and Theophilus. xiii begins with npo's tous ikXtftopow.

The texts of Ermerins and Reinhold I refer to under the abbreviations " Erm. and the same applies to much of V and M. a tenth or eleventh century manuscript in the among other things. M and Urbinas 64 (referred to in notes as " Urb. German translation published to which I am very much indebted. many of which are so closely related to either V or that few of the readings of the latter were unknown to Littre. although he could not know their authority. Littre relied on and the Paris manuscripts." I have myself collated all the chief manuscripts containing Aphorisms. V. do not think that its readings have been noted 1 before. the text of I Aphorisms with the commentary of Theophilus. S."). The Adam's second volume contains a good English translation with an excellent commentary. last is Vatican. They are C '.INTRODUCTION the last was Beck's in 1907. C M 1 They bear a strong resemblance to those of Littre's and the two manuscripts are probably closely related. xxxvn . containing." and " Rein. F.

as it is in our manuscript 6. book. though a special pleader might argue that they are not all by the same hand. 543 V. though The second to it. A. he makes several references 1 it. the last section (7repi Ivvttvlwv) having no separate title in that manuscript. The three (or four) books are evidently closely connected in subject. is not an enthusiastic admirer. 455 XVII . 455. They are discussed by Fredrich. 2 VI. 473. but the first is entirely divorced from his way of thinking. xxxviii . some copies began with XwpiW Se Oeatv and The first others with SitiW Se kcu TrofxaTOiv BvvafiLv. 473. They deal with what the author calls his "discovery" . 2 There were apparently two editions. one beginning of the with Book I and the other with Book II latter. 214 XVIII. 1 The . : . 881 VI. 3 Galen. 541. 473. VI. chief passages are . of these editions was called irepi <pi'o-eo)s avOpw-rrov kou 3 In Galen's time the 8iaiV?7?. he says. 496. the second -rrepl StaiV^s. A 8.VII REGIMEN I The lonff work called Regimen attracted little Erotian does not mention attention in early times. XV. whole work was divided up into three parts. might reasonably be considered worthy of Hippocrates. and Galen. Diels and the writer in Pauly-Wissowa.

This attempt to explain physiological processes by the difficulties. The work may be thus ness in the 1 The author complains of want of comprehensivework of his predecessors (Chap. being due to the fashion of But it is also parti v imitating oracular responses. xxxix . I).r. caused by the author's carelessness . after setting forth the subject that the author intends to treat.s vovoovs fgeuprj/jLevai elai ra>v P-tj TrpooTTeXd^etv K. one may learn from symptoms which of the two factors of health. the parts do not in every case fit exactly into their places. rrpoKa. and to take precautions is against the diseases that may spring from such excess.TaXapfidveii' re vyei-qv. in excess. goes on to discuss the nature of man and of the universe of which man forms a part. The first book. ijv re oi ttovoi emx parecooi.INTRODUCTION (evprjfia). koX d>s %pr) €KaoTa e£aKeiodcu. It is a great mistake for an interpreter to insist on making all the detail harmonise analysed. See especially III. -qv re to cito. 1 (lxvii) . how. food and exercise. twv ttovcov. for a philosopher was sometimes inconsistent with himself. while the second book gives the characteristics of various foods and exercises. wore to. There is always a danger of over-systematisation in explaining ancient philosophy . that is. 1 This thesis is developed in the third book (with Dreams). dXXa ydp al htayv<Lmcs epioiye irnKpareovTODv iv rat ow/xari.e. principles of philosophic physics explains why scholars have found irepi Stairrjs I interesting in spite of its amazing It has is been pointed out already that the difficulty partly intentional. exactly. tcov oitcdv. the details are sometimes blurred because they are not regarded as essential to the main argument.

otherDiet must contain all the " parts The taking in of wise there could be no growth.INTRODUCTION Correct dieting presupposes a knowledge of physioHealth is due to the correct correspondence between food and exercise (Chap. These elements are continually encroaching one on the other. VI). All things are composed of two different but complementary elements. and a swaying from one opposite to the other (Chap. II). One implies the other (Chap. V). Man. " of man. Fire. and the resulting growth and evacuation. The SiW/ais of fire is to cause motion. . water. death. and separating of these elements that are in- accurately termed birth. are like the up-and-down motions of sawing a log. nutriment. and there " " " and rejecting the like " parts joining like parts . xl . decay and change (Chap. IV). that of water is to logy. III). there is All nature is in a state of constant flux a perpetual swinging of the pendulum. however. but neither ever completely masters the other (Chap. nourish. consists of fire and is a give and take in his case also. fire and water. These elements are themselves logically capable of analysis into (a) (b) — the hot and dry (fire) the cold and the moist (water). unlike (Chap. VII). How the elements behave in the processes of there is no real birth and generation and growth . and It is the mingling water some dryness from fire. has some moisture from water. both body and soul.

(1) Male from man and male from woman men. Males (inclining to fire) and females (inclining to water) generate offspring that are male or female according to the predominance of the male or female element. XXVI). the apparent opposites are merely different aspects of the same thing (Chap. XI-XXIV). helps to feed the body. XXXI). : brilliant (2) (3) Male from man mastering female from woman brave men.INTRODUCTION decay. Female from man mastering male from woman brazen women. and the body helps to feed the soul (Chap. The soul of man. XXV). : : of twins (Chap. Female from woman mastering male from man bold but modest women. (4) Female from both (5) (6) man and woman lovely women. The processes of the arts and crafts are copies of those of the universe and of the nature of man. Male from woman mastering female from man : : : hermaphrodites. Superfetation (Chap. a blend of fire and water. but only increase and diminution (Chap- VIII-X). The various constitutions of man due to the character of the water and fire of which the body is The following combinations are composed. The development of the embryo (Chap. XXX). considered : The generation — xli .

do to is a The in the soul (Chap. . takes an unproved postulate and builds upon it the very a detailed theory of health and disease fault attacked by the author of Ancient Medicine. however. that Dr. What regimen change or cannot. effect XXXV). and worked out his scheme without any bias due to the supposed effects of fire and water. XXXII). strongest . The intelligence relation (sensitiveness) fire of the soul in to the blend of can. (3) (4) (5) (6) and densest water densest water and finest fire moistest fire and densest water strongest fire and finest water rarest fire and driest water (Chap. he would have achieved a more useful result without in the least weakening his boasted evprj/xa. exercise and regimen generally. It should be noticed. This defect tends to vitiate the very sensible observations in the second and third books dealing with Had foods. XXXIV). He — — (Book xlii 1) and again in Chapters LXV1I and LXIX . Sex and the composition of the body (Chap. drinks. . weakness of the writer's thesis plain to all.INTRODUCTION (1) finest fire (2") and fire rarest water . the writer confined himself to these. Peck maintains that the evp^jua was just this point the expression of health-factors in their fire-and-water values enables a man accurately to adjust the proBut in Chapter II portion of food to exercises. XXXVI). and water (Chap. XXXIII). The composition of the body at the various ages (Chap. .

INTRODUCTION is clearly identified with to tell beforehand.fx. The philosophic position is that of an intelligent and progressive eclectic. who combines. A xliii . resemblance between the account of generation and that given in the treatise Trepl yovfjs.fidveiv ttjv vyeirjv. The mere equation of exercise with fire and of food with water does not. has shown a close resembance between the account of the soul and certain parts of Plato's Timaeug. in Chapters (Book III) the "discovery" TrpoSiayi/wcrts. shows strong Pythagorean influence. and want of nourishment by a "moist" diet.Ta\a. by symptoms. The perpetual flux of Heracleitus and his harmony through oppo" sition the four " opposites of Empedocles the brilliant theory of change elaborated by Anaxagoras all these are worked up into a system that appears like the creation of a Recent criticism 1 single mind. . not yet published. But in spite of this inherent fault the theory is worked out most cleverly. Especially the doctoral thesis of A. . the results reached by his predecessors. fire and — parts 1 woven together. the discovery are discussed. 3 Vet there is no patchwork effect. and perhaps other places also. Peck. so skilfully are the . how LXX- water come in only in so far as want of exercise is supplemented by warmth. C 71 B-79 B 81 E-86 A (diseases of the body) 86 B-87 B (diseases of the soul depending on Peck notices also a bodily condition) . LXXXV. whether food or exercise is in excess. 8 E. and by so doing When the details of TrpoKa. L. : . and it is interesting to note that Chapter VIII. 91 (the seed). instead of merely adding together. carry the author very far. 2 The latter may be from Pythagorean sources. the dualism of fire) ( water.g. 8 See especially 37 B. and could not.

and then is (at least partly) evacuated. then it retires and the steam condenses to water. Here " give and " If it is take continually and clearly illustrated. Any abnormality. any disproportion between the incomings and the outgoings. so to say. any grit in the machinery. as distinct from mere quantitative increase or decrease. but hastens on to the application of this general theory to living bodies. : — . but when the writer proceeds to explain growth he becomes xliv . is identified with change." nor is the fire ever completely quenched. sets water in motion and turns it to steam . but pre" " of the two. in fact. But there are limits to this advance and retirement the water is never completely " mastered. The various things of this world. and change with biological. Fire advances. . the dry and the moist (6) water contains the cold. and represent. were not for the entering in of certain nourishment and the going out of excreta and secreta. including animals. organised growth. Both body and soul contain fire and water. The sumably soul is the more fiery fire is regarded as the cause of the circulation of food. causes growth. the animal would die. results in disease. which enters the body. are all the result of this alternate swaying. These elements (whether they are regarded as limited in amount is not quite clear) contain the four traditional opposites (a) fire contains the hot. So far the picture is fairly clear. the moist and the dry. Life. The writer gives a few details. various stages in a never-ending process.INTRODUCTION The writer's theory becomes a little plainer if we look upon the universe as the mutual and alternating encroachment upon each other of fire and water.

as in Chapter VII growth is said to imply the " existence of all the "parts of the body in the foods What are these parts? Are they that nourish it. Even in Galen's time there was no manner of agreement among students. one attunement of oxygen and hydrogen produces water. xlv ." 1 Water and fire. and rose from daisy ? No clear answer is given. As a modern chemist might say. that makes blood " breed true. who made it one of Dr. but was developed of the pillars of his system. another attunement hydrogen peroxide. what is it that causes specific differences." and have a permanent existence as a specific substance ? In general terms. and fxepea /xtpeuiv to those that differentiate one " part" of the body from another. however. but in Chapter VIII it seems to be implied that it is all a matter of " attunement. become one thing. another thing. horse from man. Some indeed attributed 7r€pt Stair's to Hippocrates himself others.INTRODUCTION It is obviously not quantitative increase obscure. 2 The name of the author will probably never be known to us. Peek thinks that the crucial passage is the first part Chapter VI. 2 (ap/xovirj) was Pythagorean by Heracleitus. . not mechanical mixture. considered the writer to be Philistion. in fact. or so. separating for ever blood from marrow. if they attain one attunement. the blood. Exact proportions in favourable conditions produce. what differentiates the proportion of fire and water which makes up blood from the same proportion before it is blood ? What is it. etc. only. if another attunement. but chemical change. 1 This doctrine of attunement in origin. where o\a oXcev may refer to the chemical attunements (if I may so call them) that differentiate species from species. of Anaxagoras ? If how do they become fixtures. flesh and marrow.

goras. p. Zeller to the period One may be fairly certain that the date of comall the lines of B. 6 1 See Galen. fasser hat zweifellos nach Heraclit." 3 See Republic. or Phaon..c. He must. however. 406 B-D. Das weist auf das Ende des f iinften Jahrhunderts. 302). " who lived at Fredrich assigns it to a " Compilator the end of the. close affinities to Philistion. op. scholars are equally uncertain in their opinions. 473. VI. and XV. nach und ist ein vielleicht etwas jiingerer Zeitgenosse eines Archelaos. (Littre. ' ' — — 223: " Der VerAnaxagoras gelebt xlvi . are really conclusive.C. Plato and the author of irepl yovrjs. 4 Epidemics. fifth century B. pp. A 9 Pheresometimes cydes is mentioned as one to whom the work was ascribed. 2 See Eippokratische Untersuchungen. V. were it not for the weight of ancient authority against that view. but the general conclusion suggested a health by Books II and III is that the author was expert.INTRODUCTION 1 Modern Ariston. or Euryphon." and not a professional doctor. Kratylos und Herodikos von Selymbria. or Philetas. Diocles. 455.C. Teichmiiller would assign the work to the period between Heracleitus and Anaxabetween 420 and 380 b. 2 Peck does not but sees assign the treatise to any particular author. have belonged to that school of 3 "health-faddists" of whom Plato speaks in such work owes to the terms. 6 But see Fredrich. VI. 217-221. In XVIII. cit." more than is yet generally conceded. Perhaps disparaging — — Herodicus of Selymbria " who killed fever-patients 4 by excessive exercise. I may add that it is somewhat difficult to decide whether the author was a No passages can be quoted that practising physician or not. Littre would attribute it to Hippocrates himself. position is not far from 400 evidence point to that date but the author cannot be identified with any certainty or even probability.

The first book of Regimen has attracted many modern scholars. Bernays. notably Ancient Medicine. However much they may differ in scope and detail. pp. unless you have an accident or an epidemic characteristic of all that Upon it If you do fall ill. XXIV Bywater included Chapters Ephesii 1 in his Heracliti reliquiae. 81-230. in many places reconstructing the text. both to preserve health and to heal diseases. were regarded as of " Live a secondary importance only. Regimen in Acute Diseases and Regimen in Health. Berlin. xlvii . proper regimen will give occurs. Feuchtersleben. in Band 46. in his Hippokratische 2 H. « 6 45." said the Greek doctor. The great importance attached to regimen in this treatise is is best in Greek medicine. Schuster. and a great part of the text ing papers appeared in his Herakleitos von Ephesos* Several other less important contributions are mentioned in the article Hippokrates (16) in Pauly-Wissowa." It is not surprising that Regimen has close affinities to other works in the Corpus. ICarl Fredrich has fully discussed the work. 1909.INTRODUCTION One more point remains to be noticed. " and you are not likely to fall ill. Diels has published two interestUntersuchu?igen. pp. E. and these chiefly purges.g. Pp. Zeller and Gomperz. the physician relied. of which he had only a few. all these works are written under the conviction that medicine is merely a branch of dietetics. 125-150. Hippokratische Forschungen I in Band and Hip2wkratische Forschungen II and III 267-285. 3 in Henries. Drugs. Teichmuller. healthy life. 1877. 5 1 But 2 3 Oxford. you the best chance of recovery.

Peck for allowing me to read it at my leisure. Forschungen. A. L. although the manuscript itself is of the tenth century. 1 this See Diels. 137. xlviii . in its relation to Greek philosophic thought. p. 1 A very interesting manuscript. text. Readings from manuscript are occasionally given by Littre. where both 6 and M go astray.INTRODUCTION these are superseded by a masterly discussion of the whole of the first book.D. which unfortunately I have been unable to collate. and for discussing with me difficult points of interpretation. lat. all yet published. which may have been made in the sixth century. and I must express my gratitude to Dr. Paris. It is the manuscript referred to by Littre as K\ almost certainly gives the right reading in Chapter XXXVI. submitted by Dr. 1. The chief manuscripts are 6 and M. 7027. Hipp. both of which have been specially collated for this edition of the There is an old Latin translation. Peck This work is not in 1928 for the degree of Ph.

7re/3toSos. as are Regimen I. Precepts and Decorum. These stare one in the face. and cannot be overlooked but the greater part of Regimen is full of concealed The last three books It is very uneasy. L. of Suva/^is. for instance. a subtle danger in translating both yv/xvdaia and 7rovoi by "exercises" . traps. into which even an experienced translator The Greek is somewhat curious. in Regimen. Again. a semi-technical sense. Synonyms present an equal difficulty. and many other words.VIII REGIMEN II— IV of Regimen leave the translator not that they are full of mysterious puzzles. difficult to apprehend. and a temptation exists to apply the strict rules of criticism and interpretation that are applied to Plato and Demosthenes. be. . airoKpLais." while to suggest in an English translation the right amount of effort or fatigue implied in 7rovos is past the ability xlix There may . Even after a study of Dr. The result is often to force on the original a meaning that makes indifferent sense. but it is just as dangerous to discriminate between them by rendering the former "gymnastics. Peck's Pseudo-Hippocrates Philosophies one is in great doubt as to the meaning. A. the writer is fond of using common words in may fall unawares.

and into every decision enters a disquieting amount of guess-work. when our best manuscript presents a l-eading at variance with the received canons of Greek grammar or of Greek idiom. indeed. "the nipping of a disease in the bud. but nothing but praise is due to the man who first conceived the idea of anticipating disease. Does it always imply. dXXd XPV irpoOvfjLtio-Oai is his preventive medicine oft-repeated slogan. not over-careful in style. details to the general purpose of the work. of meeting it half-way. His merit is all the greater when we remember that the most famous Hippocratic works know nothing of 7rpoSiayj/wo-is but only of . was the father of fatal hold. one of his favourite words. which of the two is to be preferred (1) a slipshod expression in a very faithful manuscript or (2) a more elegant and accurate : expression in manuscripts presenting every appearance of having been emended by zealous editors or scribes ? Each case has to be decided on its merits.INTRODUCTION of the present translator. It is pleasant to turn from these troublesome. in fact. as Littre and Ermerins indicate by their translations. 1 . Even a casual reader will be worried by the author's use of 7rpoo-ayu>. and of attempting to check it before it can get a The author. attacks with justice the hypochondriacism that turns life into a lingering death. but I have felt most disquieting doubts when so rendering the simple verb without the addition of Kara /xixpov or e£ A similar uncertainty perplexes the mind oAiyov. at any rate. In the case of a second-rate writer." Plato. if minor. which is a justification and exposition of TrpoSidyvaxris. a gradual increase? Such a progression is certainly signified by the phrase «'k irpocray(x>yr)s.

hand. knew the ordinary zymotic diseases. or to appreciate the value of the prescriptions in the third book for undoing the mischief caused by excess of food or by excess of exercise. drinks. the course can be cut short. volume would be required to do even moderate and even a full discussion li . exercises and so forth. It would be beyond the scope of the present edition to discuss in detail the qualities assigned in the second book to foods. but he had not the experience required to prevent an outbreak of epidemic disease. By taking care in good time many a patient suffering from a cold has prevented a fatal bronchitis or pneumonia . some diseases must run their course with but completely aborted when once they have been definitely introduced into the human system. does not go far enough. The author of Regimen says " No. can never be Typhoid and measles. or any Greek of the classical period. In fact 7rpo8tayvw(ji?. The Greek altogether is far better." In this view there is a large element of truth. for example. and assume that every disease must take its course. while marking an advance. A lengthy to prevent it justice to these questions. but had he done so he could never have understood (nobody could understand before Pasteur) why the evp-qfxa was inapplicable to at least one large class of maladies. if any. It is more than doubtful whether the author of Regimen. similar many a "weak-chested" person has 7rpoyv<ocris. had experience enough to outline a course of regimen designed to preserve in ordinary circumstances a fair standard of health. : On the other precautions kept away consumption. modification.INTRODUCTION They take a fatalistic view. by slight. To abort a disease is good . and the severity of the disease mitigated.

calendars and dreams almanacs have made star-lore quite unnecessary for most people. to contemplate the heavens carefully and continuously. that to dream about them. unless he be an portion of the book. But the ancients were forced. Dreams contains the first occurrence in classical of at least I can discover no earlier one literature a supposed connection between the heavenly bodies and the fates of individual human lives. is not clearly defined we are not told that these bodies actually interfere with But it is definitely stated the course of events. Regimen is the only book in the Hippocratic Corpus that lays any emphasis on prayer to the gods. The connection. One or the fourth book. to the in certain cases of possibility of there being ti Oeiov illness. a passing reference in Prognostic. two details. Chapter I. knows or cares little about the stars. lii . at any rate to see certain — — . and we need not be surprised that celestial phenomena figured largely in their dreams. astronomer. moon and stars entered largely into their conscious and subconscious life. means To a modern it is indeed health or a risk of illness. strange that dreams of this sort occupy so large a But a modern.INTRODUCTION could lead only to the unsatisfactory conclusion that the author has twisted facts wholesale to make them The same remarks reply to square with his theory. There indeed. however. the compass. while Chapter VI of Decorum appears to regard the gods as the cause of cures in medicine and is. The sun. call for a passing notice because of their intrinsic interest. in which they behave in certain ways. sometimes called Dreams. deleted by modern editors. indeed. Clocks and watches. by the very exigencies of existence.

It is interesting to note that a reader (possibly a reviser or even the original scribe) of the MS. A mention should be made of the importance attached to walking as a means of attaining health or of preserving it. sary to point out how wise this advice is. wovot represent except breathing exercises and the like ? And even modern hydropathy must confess that the Russian bath has a very near relative in the The avaKov<fna/xa trvpia. are recommended constantly. Yet i-pt^is in the fifth century before Christ was both popular and long- M deities. but a raising of the body from the prone position by using the arms. and walks after It is unnecesdinner.INTRODUCTION But to surgery. I have not tried to distinguish between atria and alra indeed regularly prefers the former word . Unconsciously we are in the and 6 the latter.g. the doctor being only the means. as strangely in There are many features of Regimen that strike us modern. and how well it agrees with the best modern methods of training." although 1 See e. Early-morning walks. a well-known form of exercise. Chapters lxxxviii and xc. 9 tried to erase the names of heathen established. Even after violent exercise a walk is prescribed many cases. habit of putting massage among newly-discovered methods of therapeutics. possibly or perhaps probably to avoid stiffness and to allow the body to cool slowly. 1 in . the author of Regimen prayer seems to be an integral 1 part of many prescriptions. " was certainly not " relief (new Liddell and Scott). What can <f>u)vf}<. While translating both by "food " I am aware that farinaceous foods are usually meant. Similarly I have rendered o^a by "meats.

other words.INTRODUCTION fish is included under the term. the puzzle remains that the Greeks placed KapTrrol Spopoi in one class and the straight course in another. special Few expressions in Regimen are more common than rpoyos (or rpo^os. Any attempt to be pedantically accurate. as the name suggests. seems to me. as it is spelt in our manuscripts) and kcl/jltttol Spo/zoi. in to the starting-point? . Regimen contains many passages in which occurs the same difficulty as that which is to be found so Do the plurals of often in Epidemics I and ///. round the Kapirrrip Was the Kap/n-ros S/jopos. One present or two technical terms of the gymnasium difficulties. the generic word for a type of track of which the 8iav\os was a specific instance ? Whichever answer we see fit to give. although why a straight quarter of a mile should differ essentially from two hundred and twenty yards there and then back is indeed a curious enigma. Yet our dictionaries and books of reference either neglect them or describe them in a most uncertain Sometimes i-po^os is assumed to be a mere way. It " bent " track but what was the is obviously a Was it a zig-zag? Or was it nature of the bend? a turning. equivalent of Spopos. make out the rpoxo% to be a round track. followed by Littre and Ermerins. ttoXvs and " ? TrepiTraToi ttoXXoI oA/yos refer to size or frequency? mean "many walks" or it Does "long walks liv The same answer. the old translators. results in more confusion being introduced than that which is removed. besides being awkward. a view perhaps derived from such passages as Euripides Medea 46 and Hippolytus 1133. should . The Ka/A7TTos Spopos is even more perplexing.

is referred to. In the great majority of cases size. lxi. 7roAAot and 6\iyoi should be translated by "long" and "short. not frequency. unless the general sense is against this interpretation. lv ." I. and.INTRODUCTION I gave in the General Introduction to Vol. be given as p.

In my first volume of the Loeb lxvi-cxxviii. Heiberg. pp. but not c + ° » (3) yivecrOai not yiyveaBai . (4) various rules for v e<f>e\Kv<rTiKov . I. (5) aureoi. in 6k- should be (2) e -f- € contract. who edited the first volume of Hippocrates in the Heiberg indeed does Corpus Medicorum Graecorum. Vol. are our primary I am somewhat dubious about the rules authorities for spelling given by Kiihlwein in the Prolegomena to the Teubner edition of Hippocrates. prolonged study of the manuscripts has made about some of these principles. the pseudo-ionisms (6) avv not £vv. L. 0.. series I accepted without question the following principles for determining the orthography of the — C Hippocratic Corpus: (1) — That the pronominal forms avoided . are to be avoided . etc.IX THE MANUSCRIPTS AND DIALECT OF THE HIPPOCRATIC COLLECTION A careful reader will observe that whereas I have not materially changed my opinion of the relative value of our manuscripts— A. and my doubts appear to be shared by I. A me feel very doubtful lvi .

of various degrees of ability. which which I always contract. in short. uncertain. and I have printed in every case crvv. and ought rule. The conviction that I expressed in the preceding volumes. doubtful. and indiscriminate carelessness to the scribes and copyists. were perfectly at home in a dialect obviously artificial. to be narrowed to a rigid " for v 1^\kv<ttik6v. nor has yiyvea8ai. c I I -f.INTRODUCTION is not follow strictly any of these rules my own view that two are correct and the others more or less . As not. For the pronominal rarely contract to ev. made even more confusing by greater carelessness on the part of many generations of scribes. The pseudo-ionisms have very little The form £w is very authority. we cannot determine exactly the Ionic of the Hippocratic collection the most we can do is to observe tendencies. lvii . but it is not to use the only a tendency. In brief. kept up simply out of respect for tradition. that at some period or periods the manu. that those scholars are mistaken attribute strict uniformity to the authors. I think. being confident that no Hippocratic writer ever wrote $vv. The case is much the same with forms case. Kiihlewein's " rules are so complicated that they can scarcely have followed by the not over-careful writers whose are contained in the Corpus. who It is very hard to be convinced that all the writers.o. Surely a more probable supposition is that our manuscripts exhibit a slight but varying carelessness on the part of the writers. and with c -f. however. follow usually the best MS.e. authority in each 6k- There is a tendency for our earliest manuscripts forms. I been works believe. and living at various times and (apparently) at various places. without.

has grown stronger with prolonged study.INTRODUCTION scripts were copied with but slight regard for verbal accuracy. lviii . I think. In my critical notes I have quoted in full the readings of our chief manuscripts in places which put. my contention beyond all reasonable doubt.

who is said by the Coans to have taught under its shade.DESCRIPTION OF PLANE TREE (Frontispiece) This ancient plane tree stands in the agora of the town of Cos. crates (4th century b.c. years old. and it is connected in local tradition with Hippocrates. where he gives a long list of ancient trees. being supported by marble columns from the site of the temple of Asclepios the bark has now grown over them so that Hermothey seem to be a natural part of the tree. There is no reason to doubt that it is more than 2500 tree. ov TLvpvirvXov iroXirjTai Kwot yaXneiov OyJkolv vtto 7rAaTavu>. many of them older than this. Alexander the Great must have stood beneath this and Paul of Tarsus. Sir George Birdwood said as much.) mentions a plane tree as a landmark of Cos chief : : otada Sc kou rov dotSov. to name but two of the host of historical persons who have passed that way. lix . 1906. in a letter to The Times of August 16. The branches spread over the whole market-place.

.

HIPPOCRATES NATURE OF MAN .

fiev dp.apTvpid tg ical reKfirjpia. o oe vowp.r) piev yap tj) avrfj irdvTes Xpeovrai. Xeyovai Be ov Tavrd' dXXa t?}? p. ovre Trvp.evroi 5 p.oi ovk opOw? yivooa/ceiv oi 10 TavTa 6 XeyovTe?' yvcop. 6 ti eari. ovt dXXo ovSev 6 ti I.7) 4 ev rq> avOpcoircp' dXXa (pavepov icmv evebv Tolai ravra Xeyeiv irapirj^i. 6 be Trvp. LittrS.<fii (frvaios e'<? p.ev ti<.ev top ernXoyov tov avrbv iroikovrai 7 yvoop. ovre yap to iTTiTijSeios oBe 6 Xoyos a/coveiv irapLtrav rjepa Xeyco top avOpanrov elvai. ovre vBwp. yL o oe yrjv.rj<i 9 8 (<paai re yap ev ti elvai. tovtoi p. (pdaKwv rjepa tovto elvai to ev T€ ical to irdv. BrjXov oti ovde T&) 1 avOpunrtiris ai>T7?j A : 2 A avQpaiirlvqs : : : ouT€7js a<plicei : 8 * afrjra Ivthv A AV A : M abrer) V. ovre yrjv. 0<xTt? rrj<. i(p-fjKei %v 4hv M. ical tovto elvai to ev t€ /cat 10 to ttclv) Kara Be rd 6v6p.ev ovk irjTpi/crjv d(f)i]/cei.nEPI $Y2I02 ANGPOnOY ' ovv elwQev dicoveiv XeyovTcov 1 t^? avO pwireir)? irpoa core pu> rj 2 3 ooov ai/Trj<. oiroTe Be yvcopurj ttj avTrj 12 irpoa20 y^peovTai.evoiai ho/ceovai p. Xeyovai 6° ov Ta avTa. nivTOi . a iaTiv ovBev.ara ov% op-oXoyeovaiv Xeyei 6" avTOiv 6 p. MV : MV. icai eTuXeyei e/cacrTO? ecovTov Xoya> p. (3ovXo/j. 6 Se MV". Galen mentions both readings and prefers iv i6v.

earth while each appends to his own account evidence and proofs that amount to nothing. or anything else that is not an obvious constituent of a man such accounts I leave to those that care to give them. irpotevTat 8 10 A MV omit. who give them have not in my opinion correct knowledge. A : iroiiovrai MV A : -noievvTcu Villaret. The fact that. . For I do not say at all that a man is air. another calls it fire. For while adopting the same idea they do not give the same account. omits rb eV re Kal. M -yi/w/xT/i . another. water. the nature of man beyond its relations to medicine will not find the present account of any interest. Those. Though they add the same appendix to their idea saying that " what is " is a unity. and that this is both unity and the all yet they are not agreed as to its name. and another.6 5e vSwp : iirSre 5e yvdijXT) T7) avrrj on fi\v yap rfji aurefji Torres : 8rt fiev yap ttj abr4t) yvwjxri iravTes V. One of them asserts that this one and the all is air. however. or fire. 9 t* A MV : t€ A. they do not give the same account. 12 : 11 b 5e vSoop- A MV. 6 Oe irvp <5 5e irvp. • 7 toSto re : A : ra. or water.NATURE OF MAN He who is accustomed to hear speakers discuss I. while adopting the same idea. roiaZra MV. shows that their knowledge — — . or earth.

. aXXa irore pev ovros eiriKparel.i)$ 30 alel rwv irpr^ypdrayv irape^eiv rov Xoyov rov ewvrov. .oi rd elprjpeva. 1 yvoirj 8 yivdtOKOvaiv avrolaiv avrikeyovaiv fiaXtara irapayev6p. A MV. Ka\ rb : Kalrot : A ftlv . 6 ri €fcao~ros avrwv ftouXerai ovo- avdpwirov. rov 8e MeXtcrcrof opOois yivaxTfcetv dpcpl II. 6 7 The rotograph shows rpus. irore Be ovros. elirep i-niKpareovra iovra yivoocr/cei teal opOws diro^atverai.eiriXoyov he iz 12 Troieovrai /cal ouroi iravres rov avrov ev yap elvai (paaiv. in correcting hand A has written cc over the o of tvavrlov. aiird. . 35 \6yov opdovv. /caiTOi hitcaiov iari rev (pdvra i(bef.riEPi orsios ANepnnoT av rohe ris 2 avrd. has emended rpels to rpis. . rpels. ol 8' avrwv ^oXi]v (paaiv elvai rov rives <j)Xeyp. Be IrjrpSiv ol pev rives Xeyovaiv d>$ wvdpwnos 11 alpid iariv. MV. eviot Be 1 A omits A abra. aX\ avroi ip.evos 3 ol avrol avSpes 7T/30? yap aWrj\ov<> avriXeyovres 5 ovheirore ru>v avrcov evavriov^ a/cpoarewv rpls 6 avrbs irepiylverai iv rq> \oyrp. Both M and V have A reads r6re 8 iirippveloa fivelcra.a.ol ye So/ceovaiv ol rotovroi dvOpwrroi ewvrovs 10 /earafldXXeiv iv rolaiv bvopaai rcov \6ywv avroiv viro dcrvveairjs. A : rwibe rts M : r65e tij 3 * A &vSpes : &vdpaiiroi MV. 5 Littre says that a later hand in A . twv Tlepl puev ovv rovrcov dp/cel p. . Wilamowitz and Villaret read ovSiv for ovSe 2 and omit V : T«5e {r68e in another hand) rls tis r65e Littre. t^t« 5« t< re 5e.dXiara rj yXwacra iirippvelaa' 9 8 7rpo9 rov o)(Xov. ttotc 3 Se 6 a> av rvyri p. with one MS.

have flourished about 440 He is eternal. After ovtoi MV have tv yap A at/j. A : <r<pas avTovs MV. if his knowledge be knowledge of reality and if he set it forth correctly. like the metaphysicians. is blood.C. too is i. B. now another. giving it the name that severally they is I a man A philosopher of the Eleatic School. For they say that a man is a unity. at fault. VOL. infinite. 1 II. So M avTol MV. Yet it is right that a man who claims correct knowledge about the facts should maintain his own argument victorious always. margin). . but now one is victor. Physicians. the same man never wins in the discussion three times in succession. Now about these men I have said enough. has povvov. IV. avrol ewvTols . and establish the theory of Melissus." who appears to maintained that Being 9 rbv (pvaavTa (altered to <pT\oavTa) A : rbv (pavra M : rb (pdi'Ta 10 V.-n. Diels' conjecture would give the meaning "by words opposed to their thesis itself. a few that he phlegm. The best way to realise this is to he present at their debates. invariable and a The disputants unity. and I will turn to Some of them say that physicians. all add the same appendix. Given the same debaters and the same audience. now he who happens to have the most glib tongue in the face of the crowd.NATURE OF MAN.a : V alnSiv) avrlouriv 6v6/uacri rc£ \6ycf> ai>T$.) . t«. referred to in the text "established the theory of Melissus" by showing how many difficulties are involved in equating Being with any one of the four elements. (in Diels conjectures (for iv Tolaiv II 12 13 . others that he is bile. But in my opinion such men by their lack of understanding overthrow themselves in the words of their very discussions. (HIP.

vtto AMV tov v<p' '6tov Littre after Galen. 7 ^v av 8 v<p' ov 9 i6v av MV. Kal f-rjpabvrjTai Kal 20 TLKTCf ware nroXXal p. ' 1' V.rjBe ylveaOai nravroiov. rrjv IBerjv 10 1 abrSiv f&ovKtrai ovo/xdcras r^8e\7)aev 6vofJ. e/xol Be ovBe ravra Sokcc wBe e^eiv* ol ovv 5 TrXetaroi roiavTci iiva Kal c iyyvrara tovtcov airocpaivovrai. dfyw Be kycoye Kal ^v^rjvypaivt^rai. : A M : 3 4 After ylveodai MV MV A : have ifiol 5' Kal.e\av Kal rravrolov.ev IBeat tG>v voarjpdrwv.7)Bev.IIEPI 1 OYSIOS AN0PQIIOY pLeraWdaaeiv ttjv IBerjv Kal dvayKa^opevov vtto re tov deppov 2 fulcra?. dWrjXcov irapd cf)vaiv 6epp.' p.a eveov <palverac povvov ev to5 dvdpdiTtp' elKo<i yap elvai piav riva coprjv.aivr)ral re rai. rbv (pdaKovra alp. el ev rjv ' ibvOpwrTOS. ifnol Se ovSev ti (altered to toi by another hand) Boxen So/ce'ei TavTa ovtws ^x etv 4/j. Tivd tov eviavrov r) tt)9 r)XiKlrj<i t?}<? rj coprjv tov dvOpcoTTov. Kal yiveaOai 3 y\vKV Kal iriKpov Kal \evKov Kal p. ev fj alp. : ol fikv ovv After koX : : : MV have ?. '6ti. dvdyKi] Kal to eariv loopevov ev ev elvar vvv he iroWd' a. ovBcttot av i)\yeev ovoe yap av i]V v<p otov° akyrjaeiev ev eoov 9 el 6° ovv Kal dXy/jaeiev. : MV . Kal tovto tt]v Bvvapuiv. Kal dWo p. perhaps rightly. iya) Be <fir)pi. iroWa yap orav vrr tm adypart eveovra.ol ovSh Tavra uSe «x 6 "' M : 8 01 oil SoKtei rat/ra diSe 6 6 ovv A A A ?x 6 in.a elvav povvov tov dvdpwrrov. 2 have %v After tovto 46v. idv Littre with one MS.aaai aiirfwv ovofxaaai r)0e\r]o~ev aviiwv V. vovaow. 10 Kal tov yjrv^pov. BeiKvveiv avrbv p-q pueraX- Xdaaovra aXA. Ermerins reads f. ttoWtj Be Kal 77 t'^crf? eariv.v MV.

n. bitter. SeiKvvtiv 10 A fifraWaffaovra . 1 heing constrained by the hot and the cold. is who asserts that man 1 By "power" (Svva/xis) is probably meant the sum total of a thing's characteristics or qualities. But as a matter of fact cures are many. . which. wish to give it this changes its form and its power. Villaret has fi^re reads aurb (sc.uTj5fc elvai Ermerins airly /rr)T6 aAaffffovTa ri/v IBblP urire. But I require of him blood and nothing else. p. pp. and becomes sweet. if not identical with them . but I hold that if man were a unity he would never feel pain. by cooling. htjt€ yiv6fx(vov. For it is only natural that there should be healing of them is manifold. . in which obviously blood is the only constituent of man. For in the body are many constituents." i. the cure too would have to be one. rb al/xa) fit) utTaXXaaattv. by heating. Taylor (Varia Socratica. a season of the year or a season of human life. Most physicians then maintain views like these. 229) thinks that this " there are many substances in which phrase must mean disease arises. 338. and to point out a time. by drying or by wetting one another contrary to nature.NATURE OF MAN. as there would be nothing from which a unity could suffer pain.e." has aTjita fx6vov e~lvat rbu avdpwnov ko. And even if he were to suffer.1 &\\o . 7 . makes it likely that in the medical writers Svvafxis is often used with ISerj or (pvats to form a tautological phrase meaning " real essence. 339. to point out a man when he does not change his form or assume every quality. probably rightly. engender diseases so that both the forms 2 of diseases are many and the . . however. black and so on. E. white. See Vol. But in my opinion these views also are incorrect." 2 A. I. disease is not necessarily " diseased state of the blood. Recent research.

Littre i(p' with Galen would read (oovrov. 9eppr)$. teal avarf/cas teal tnro(j)ava). real real yepovros.rj rb Oeppov ru> T0 ^Vpov T<?> vypu) perpiws irpos rrv XPV Ka eyovra '' 1 eliths yap avroi fs nva (paivriTcu- iv eavrui ihv 6 (corrected to ecrriv nva.r) eirecra ovB\ iav iovra pio-yrjrai teal rrjv avrrjv 6 ovB' dv ravra r\pZv Bvvapiv. ianv. Villaret brackets rbv and rrjv. av^erai re dvdyter) (pBirei III. ev y iov n 5 yevvrjaeiev. which avrb iv ewvrwt eveiv. except that it has ibv for evebv without has fiiav V '6ri agrees with M.rj rivi puiyOelr] p. teal irepl rov ^oXtjv (fcdo-teovros eivai. Wpoirov c\<§> pev ovv rrjv yeveoiv yiveo~6ai pt) 6p.no e'<£' eaurov iveov 1 ra avra Be 2 Xeyw zeal irepl rov (pda/eovros (p\eyp.a eivai rov 30 avOpeoTTOi'. in reading : Villaret reads icp'euivrov iSv. followed by 8 n also written over an erasure. a>prj<. del ra avra iovra teal teal 4 o/xoto)?. teal 7rd\tv. iyco p. 6 It also omits has yewai with av written over at.6(f)v\a evos' 7tgk yap av . for which Galen reads to avra. The text is Littre's.ari. I give Littre's text. teal Kara rov vop. 2 3 fiiav ye nva and with Foes '6 After (pAey/xa A has /x6vov written underneath the line. t% ^rv^p?]<i re/cpL7]pia irape^oi. yevva.6q>v\a : A MV : : A ^ 8 .) uipjjv iv j] iar\v (with elicbs yap tlvai A elxbs yap elvai fxiav rtva wp-qi/ iv i)i (paiverai tbpyv in margin). avvreXeoiro. koX viov eovro? iov<Ti]<.ev yap diroBeL^a). rrjv (pvaiv.ov /cat Kara. So Van der Linden and Fredrich. a av (prjcrco tov dvdpcoTrov 3 3 elvai. 4 Ta avra ofxoia i6vra A el ravra iovra Ofxoia MV.IIEPI d>T2I02 iv f) AN0PQIIOY (palverat ai. but I suggest that the true reading is Hirov 8' av 6/j. ael and bfxoiws. ravra. earlv erased. el p. 5 eiretra ovbe av 8' iav (with '6 over elf irov el) eweira ovb" iav Littre inel ovb" iav Wilamowitz. Bi a? eteaarov 37 iv tw aa>p. io-rlv. who follows certain later MSS. el p. M.

1 translate. yivva oii5' av fila avvrtkcono.'tcryT)Tai ttjv outV i'x oVTa awTeAeoiTo. we : shall get no result. one season in ii. and possess the same qualities nor would there be 3 Moreover." 3 The translation of the emendation which I propose will be " And when the copulating partners are not of the same kind. obtilv av tiretra Se."_ 2 This strange phrase apparently means " in name as well as in essence. av ovtoi tj/j-iv £uvTcAeotro. constituent. to received opinion. generation will not take any offspring. Villaret has . and we should "in which the real element appears in its proper form. Probably Villaret's reading is correct.-m." or rather "as much in essence as they are in name. elr' oi>5' iav . III.1 c6vra jjfuv /j. Galen explains Kara v6/xov to mean "according real entities." ko.iV.NATURE OF MAN. Now in the first place generation cannot take How could a unity generate. . if the combination of hot with cold and of dry place that man I what . and to him who says I for is bile. forth the necessary causes whv each constituent grows or decreases in the body. . Ermerins would read ^vvafxtv yevvciv. 1 which blood-in-itself appears as the sole My remarks apply also to him who says that man is only phlegm. place from a unity. and do not possess the same generating qualities. 8vvap. my part will prove that declare to he the constituents of a man are. or whether the season be I will also bring evidence. 2 according to both convention and nature. without copulating ? Again. always alike the same it makes no difference whether the man be young or old. and set cold or hot. there is no generation unless the copulating partners be of the same kind. ovS' ." People agree in giving certain names to the conThese names correspond to stituents of the human body. yivva . . cav .

.• dXyei 1 rov rcXrjdeo^. d'neywpyjaevJ' lo 06 acop.ei /cal a\Xa ddrepov Oarepov irpoe^ei f) vearepov. /cal rraXiv ye .€va £9 rb avrb 66ev rrep 29 reXevra Kara rd avvearq e/caarov. t% 777369 dXXijXa elvai rbv p. : ylverat A.OLcos rrdvra' avvlararai re yap avrcov 97 cfrvais dirb rovrcov rcov 7rpoeipr)p.IIEPI OTSIOS ANGPQnOT icrcos./3aXXo3 rrjv yeveaw e^eiv rrjv hvvap.iv iv ra> oltjv acop^ari. dvdy/crj dva^copetv 20 rekevTOivros 69 rrjv ecovrov (pvatv e/caarov. curb rtov x rov dadelo")(yp6repov ov/c av Mare 7rco? yeveo~i<. dU' e/caorov rcov avp.dXiara.a rov avvpcoirov e%ei ev ecovrco alp. 2 rjv prj rv^J] .eva ?. /cal elpr)p. /cal rcov aXXcov rrdvrcov yiveral re o/ioio)? rrdvra /cai reXevra 6p. he orav rov- For IffxvpSrfpoi' 1 3 yevvarai MV A reads Icrxvpiv. /cal ravr iarlv avrco r) cfavais rov crcoparos. KaX&s eyovra dvdy/crj TOivvv. ical hid ravra dXyei ical vyiaivei. yevoiro. tV A: rivet MV. iarlv 17 (f)vai<. rov aooparo<i rod dvd pdnrov rb re vypov 7rpo? to vypbv /cal rb jjrjpbv irpbs rb ^rjpbv /cal rb deppov 777569 to deppubv /cal rb yfrv^pbv roiavri) Be ical rcov I^ghov 777)09 ro yjrvxpov.evcov e'9 dvQpwnov. tt}? (f>vaio<. e^rj ravra rr)? 777)69 aXXr/Xa ical 6 hvvdpios /cal /cprjcrios /cal 7 pdXiara fj.ep. evos rv yevvr\dr\vai. aWrjXa rroXv 10 et/co9 ei. 10 .€Vcov rrdvrcov. ore ovS" drrb /cal rb irXeiovcov rrjs yevvarai. vyialvet puev ovv /cal p. p/r) ev /cpijaio*. evravda ovv IV. orav perpcax. roiavrr\<i VTrapyovar]^ /cal rcov ciXXcov drrdvrwv /cal t»)? rov dvQpdnrov.a /cal cf)Xeypa /cal %oX?]v i^avOrjv /cal p.iyp. rrep 4 avve/3dXero.e\aivav.

or an alternative reading for reKivra is rh alr6. m. man of necessity is not one. and when they are perfectly mingled. but each of the components contributing to generation has in the body the power it contributed. dry to dry. and of all other All things are born in a like way. and through these he feels pain or enjoys health. ends in that from which it was composed. For the nature of them things die in a like way. Pain is avaxvpeeiv A : airox^P^iv MV. each component must return to its own nature when the body of a man dies. Such too is the nature of animals. since such is the nature both of all other things and of man. moist to moist. Wherefore how is it likely for a thing to be generated from one. that too is whither it departs. yellow bile and black bile . when generation does not take place from more than one unless they chance to be mutually — well-tempered ? Therefore. 4vrav8a ovv k<x\ airexupv '*'' reads like a gloss. according to what. has been So said.NATURE OF MAN. these make up the nature of his body. with moist be not tempered and equal should the one constituent be much in excess of the other. 4 5 omits Kpj]<rios Kal. 7 6 A MV tjv and A has el above the line r- IT .\i<rra in a corrector's hand. hot to hot and cold to cold. Now he enjoys the most perfect health when these elements are duly proportioned to one another in respect of compounding. IV. power and bulk. Again. is composed of all those things I have mentioned above.-iv. have After na. phlegm. and the stronger be much stronger than the weaker. and each thing. and all things. The body of man has in itself blood.

dXXd Kal ev6a av / koX eVt%f#i7.iT\dp €vov oSvv-ijv re Kal ttovov irapkyeiv. ovtc T V X ei P i tyavovTi optota BokcI elvat . ov fj. koX tovtcov irpcoTov fxev KaTa vdpov tc\ bvopaTa hiiopiaOat <pr)pl Kal ov&evl ayj&v to avTo ovopta elvat. dirocpavetv alel 5 TavTa eovTa 8rj ical 6 KaTa voptov /cal KaTa (f>vaiv (prjpi elrai alpa teal cpXeyp. airocpavrjvai oi out of but the rotograph only shows that et is A (Littre says 12 .6vov tovto rb x w P lnv voaephv ylveTai..eida'raaiv Kal ttjv aTTOKpiaiv diro twv aXXtov. and omit ffrri Kal. Ei7rov S77. r\v T av irdXiv ecrco iroirjaTjTai ttjv /cevooaiv koX ttjv p. 1 A V M MV : : MV 4 5 eln&v Se A eTirop 5t? ol MV. orav tovtwv ti ywpiadfj Kal i(j) ov p. 8 ovTe Kal %oXt)v ^avdrjv omits $ t). 3 v7r€pTrip. ttw? tji %oX^. rolcri ywpicrQri iv tw 2 crvpTraaiv. perhaps rightly. evOev re i^eaTr/ ical evda virepeftaXev. xpcopaTa opota (patveTat irpoaopcopeva. oBvvrjv Trape^ei rj Kevcoais. cov ovtg to. margin.iv KaTa tcl 20 elprjpeva. iroXXrj aino) dvdyKt) BnrXrjv tt)v ohvvipj Trapk)(j£. ^uniTaaiv 3 have tvdev t« e^eoTquev The reading is that of A. Keywpladat. teal yap orav ti tovtcov e%a> tov acoparos eicpvr} irXeov tov €7rnroXd£ovTO<. airocpavelval airo<pavuv alel. V. omits.6vov tovto to ywp'iov ev&ev k-nlvoaov ylveadai. avdyKT] ecovrov i^earr] ctttj yap. 2 jracr.eXawav. eiretto KaTa (f)i>o~iv t<z9 I8ea<.iv A. ovt€ to alpa 7 ovtc ttjv %oXr]v tw <f>XeypaTi.a 10 Kal p. yap av ioiKOTa TavTa elrj dXXrp\oicrtv. Kal ovt€ to cf)Xeypa ovSev eotKevat tco a'tptaTi. with eXrj $ in has tfjj ^ in the text. 4 a av (f)7]crG) tov avdpcoiTov elvat.IIEPI OYEIOE AN0POnOT 1 ->) twv 10 ti creofiari irXeov fir} eXacraov Kal prj KeKpr/pevov 17 crrfj.

and another in the place flooded. blood being quite unlike bile. blood.a (sic) M. written over some mark.NATURE OF MAN. 9. 6 Se tlvai A 5' ehat 5rj ehat Littr& : 7 8 ™ : MV : : a'1/xa.-v. when their colours appear not alike to the sight nor does their touch seem alike to the hand ? For they are . How could they be like one another. of an element flows out of the body than is necessary to get rid of superfluity. because of the In fact when more excess. of these elements is in defect or excess. in the body without being compounded with all the others. on a thorough erasure) a. one in the place left. and that ot is. bile being quite unlike phlegm. First I assert that the names of these according to convention are separated. the man certainly must. 1 These constituents are. phlegm being quite unlike blood. 13 . the shifting and the separation from other elements. but the place where it stands in a flood must. Now I promised to show that what are according to me the constituents of man remain always the same. apparently. according to both convention and nature. I hold.Ti 7] o/uoia 5e (oil xo^V A rip al/j.iro<paivtiv alel MV. phlegm. suffer from a double pain. felt iv. and that none of them has the same name as the others furthermore. it be to an inward part that there takes place the emptying. that according to nature their essential forms are separated. If. on the other hand. not only must the or is when one isolated place which it left become diseased. V. cause pain and distress. the emptying causes pain. above the line) 8o*c«? A. 1 See p. For when an element is isolated and stands by itself. according to what has been said. yellow bile and black bile.

. r) ear rovrwv areprjOf} rcov avyyeyovorcov. oaa eyd) (f>rjpi re teal airoheticvvpu. teal rjv 8iSq><i cfydppiaKov 6 Kara ravra ri %o\i]V dyei.aKov 6 /cal n pekaiva KaOaiperai. fie%pi av hvvarhs Kai vvtcra ical %eifia)vo<. dXX? eKaarov avrcov e%ei hvvap. 1 yvoir)<. ovre ofiotox. ravra rrdvra eariv. ore roaovrov StrfWa/CTai dWt')Xwv rr)v I8ei]v re Kai rrjv Bvpa/Jbiv. /cat fjv eXfcos 4 rronqaei depeos. as Littre saj^s) A: %v yap tivi SlSas MV. on ov% ev vhwp 'iv eariv. ovre vypd. A £<ttl MV : vSoop IV re ko\ 2 ei yap n Solrjs (not 8i5oirjy.IIEPI OTSI02 AN0PMIOY yap eariv. teal ravra aoi rrdvra rcdaav /cal r)p. VI. avyyeyove Se ravra rd elprjpeva' 7T<y? yap ov avyyeyove irpwrov fiev cpavepos eariv ibvdpwrros eywv ev ecovrw ravra rrdvra aiel 5 eo)<> av %ff> eireira Se yeyovev e'£ dvdpcoirov ravra rrdvra eyovros. 01 Se \eyovre<i obs ev eariv covdpcoiro'. pvyaerai avra> alpa. Se 2 yoX^v pekaivav dyer rpwarjs avTOV rov aoofiaros ri ware yeveadai. ev rf/aiv virepKaOdpaeai. 14 .vt6v ravrof itTTiv Littre after Galen. avdyfcr) roivvv. hoKeovai poi ravrr) rfj yvoopbrj ^pijaffai' 6 opeovre<i rovs rrivovras rd (frdppatca Kai a7roWvpevov<. epelrai aoi yo\r). ovre "^rv^pd. rov<i fiev j(o\r)v ifii1 : vSwp tv fan v8<vp to. 3 i)v &io(p<.atcov 6 ri (f>\eypa dyei. eirrep fir) rrvp re Kai Oeppd %r)pd. fir] ev avrd elvai. &' av roiaSe. .epr)v %o\?) <f)dpp.iv re Kai (pvaiv rrjv ecovrov' r)v yap rivi 20 SiS(W9 avdpdiTTW (pdpp. epelrai aoi (f)\eypa. r} to rrvevpa eX/ceiv 30 36 av rivos 69 ecovrov /cal rrdXiv peOievat. red parrral re ev dv0pu>7r(p ravra rrdvra eyovri.

: ISeip xpV<^6ai AV KtxpyvQo. nor cold. he will vomit you bile. so long as a man lives he manifestly has all these elements then he is born out of a human always in him being having all these elements. And if you wound a man's body so as to cause a wound. and is nursed in a human being having them all.NATURE OF MAN. so long as the man can draw breath in and then breathe it out again. 3 4 x°^V (\ieos ai'el /UeAaij'a KaQaiperai 6 6 M A : : rpav/xa &c2 V : MV (in M over an erasure). They see those who drink drugs and die through excessive purgings vomiting. Since then they are so different from one another in essential form and in power. 15 . A : X'O^-V iJ-tKatvav KaQaipei MV. he will vomit you phlegm if you give him one which withdraws bile. nor moist. Similarly too black bile is purged away if you give a medicine which withdraws black bile. I mean those elements I have mentioned with proofs. but that each of them has its own nature. man a medicine . Congenital with him (how should they not be so?) are the elements already mentioned. or until he is deprived of one of the elements congenital with him. If you were to give a which withdraws phlegm. they cannot be one.-vi. blood will flow from him. both in winter and in summer. A. VI. And you will find all these things happen on any day and on any night. From the following evidence you may know that these elements are not all one. First. not equally warm.1 M. if fire and water are not one. following line of thought. v. Those who assert that man is composed of one element seem to me to have been influenced by the its power and own . nor dry.

IIEPI $YEIOS AN0PQIIOY tovto Be e/caarov evopiiaav eivai top dvdpwirov. 6 ti /caOaipopievov elBov avrov aTroOavovra' Kai oi to 0VTa<i> Tov<i Be rivas (pXeypa. &>? yap to. ^avOijv. tov (pXeypaTOS 16 . eXKei eKaoTov to koto <j)vcriv avTtp evebv ev Tr) yfj. irpSiTOv pev ^oX^v epei. avrcov alfxa 10 eivai tov civd pwirov rfj avrfj yvdipirj tou? dvopeovres ci7roa(f>a^op.dXio~Ta fj twv ev tw acopaTi eveovTiov.' dXX* oiroTav ttitj Tt9 (frcippa/cov 6 ti %o\t)v ayei.aKa dyrj.ev ovv TrXeiaTov tovtov eXXKvaev e<? ecovTO. vnepicaddpo-eaiv ovBeis ttco diredave yoXrjV piovvov Ka9ap9ei<. 1 Ka'iTOi to pev irpGiTov 2 ev rfjcriv Xoyoiaiv. to. eireiTa Be eXKei Kai TaXXa' toiovtov Be ti Kai Ta <pdpp.a epeovcri KaOapov. eireiTa Be %oXr)v 3 KaOapov. irpSiTov pev dyei o av avru) KaTa (pvcnv p. erreiTa Be pAXaivav. TeXevToovTes Be Kai alp. (pvopevd Te Kai arreipopeva. irotei ev tw crwpaTr oaa dv -^oXrjv rrpwrov piev dKprjTeaTaTTjv eKaOrjpe ^oXtjv. eireiTa Be Kai (pXeypa' kireiTa Be eirl tovtoiciv epeovai ^oXrjv pieXaivav avayrca^opevoi. OTav eaeXOrj e? to arwpia. avTa Be irao-yowi 20 Kai inro twv (pappaKOiv twv to (pXeypa dybvTwv irpcoTOv pev yap <f)Xeypa epeovaiv. Kai to alpa peov etc rod acoparos. evi Be Kai o£u 30 Kai iriKpov Kai yXvKV Kai dXpvpbv Kai travTolov TTpwrov p.€Vou<. (pdppaKov. tovto vopii^ovcriv eivai T-qv ^v^rjv tw avOpoura' Kai papTvpioiai toutoicti irdvTes %peovTai ev roicri <f)dvre<. TeXevT wvTes Be alpia to yap ical ev T&Be dwoOvrjaKovaiv. onoTav e? Trjv yr)v eXOrj. eireira Be Kai TaXXa eXKei T€ Kai KaOaipei. eireiTa Be pepnypevrjv Kai to. 6 ti av rj avTcp KaTa qbvcuv pdXicna. y^pkovrai' 9pa>7rov<.

then yellow bile. and then it draws and purges the other constituents. draw each that constituent of the earth which is nearest akin to it— these are the acid.vayKa. They see men who are cut 1 bleeding from the body. First they vomit phlegm. then phlegm also. and finally they vomit also pure blood. in others phlegm then they think that the man is composed of that one thing from the purging of which they saw him die. 1 2 8 "have their throat cut. and For when the finally pure blood. he first vomits bile. then bile that is mixed.(6fj. in vi. Yet first. when they enter it. Such is the evidence they all use in their discussions. nobody yet in excessive purgings has vomited bile alone when he died. the salt and so on first the plant draws to itself mostly that element which is most akin to it. Such too is the action of drugs in the body. For just as things that are sown and grow in the earth. . and then it draws the other constituents also. then black. the sweet. The same experiences happen to those who drink drugs which withdraw phlegm.evoi : MV A omits. KaiToi rb jaiv irpairov a. — 1 Literally. Afterwards under stress men vomit after these black bile. it first withdraws that constituent of the body which is most akin to itself. whereon they die." TOlaVTT) A. *7 . and so they think that blood composes the soul of a man.NATURE OF MAN. drug enters the body. the bitter. some cases bile. Those that withdraw bile first evacuate absolutely pure bile. But when a man has drunk a drug which withdraws bile.ev MV. Those too who say that man is composed of blood use the same line of thought. A : Ka\ irpwrov /j.

a yjrv^poTaTOVy el OeXois 3 4 yfravaai (pXeypaTos /cal %oXr}<. eveovrwv. 18 .€Ta ^oXr/v peXaivav baa be (Sir) ep^erai. yvoLrjS av rolaBc oi dvOpwnoi TTTvovai /cal aTTopLvaaovTai $XeypbaTcaBeaTaTov tov j^eipLotvos.aTa Xevfcd 6 yiverai pudXiara ravTqv ttjv wpyjv. Av^eTai Be ev rat avdpwTTtp to <pXeypa tov ^eip-hivof tovto yap tw yecputidvi Kara (fivaiv earl pdXiara tcov ev rq> awpart.d\io~Ta twv iv ra) : tovto yap twi x ft a ^ vi ffiifiaTi iviSvTwv xf/iiXpoTaTov icrriv Kara <pvo~iv fxahiara tuiv tv twi aibfxaTi ive6vTo>v ^vxp^Tarov tovto yap to> ^ei/Ua^i paXiaia Kara <pvo~iv tSiv yap iffTi M : 4v t£ adp-aTt 4v(6vtu>v \pvxpdTaT6v iffTi V. dyei. erreira Be 2 TeKpijpiov Be tovtov. Kal ra vBara iiriytvejai. irdvra yp-v^poTarov ebv to 7T/30? <f>Xeypa <f>ai. to (pXeypta ert pevei icryypbv ev tS> acopari.d\iara dyerac p. deppbrepa 10 /cal yiverac. . Kal to alpa av^erai' rd re yap 8 yfrvy^ea efjavcei.6ra. Kal rd olB}jp.eva vtto tt}? /3ir)<. yjrv^poraTov yap eariv. /cal at/xaTO?. to puev (f)\eyp. dvayKa£op.IIEPI <f)dpfjLa/ca OTSIOS ANGPnnOY jrpwrov aev aKptfreaTaTOV to (pXeypa pepiypevov Kal toIglv cnroafya1 Te %0/xevoiai to alpa pel irpcorov deppuoraTov 40 /cal ipvdporaTOV.' dXX o/xa>? TavTa. to oti (£>Xeyp. Kal TaXXa voarjpara (f>Xeypa7 TcoBea. to Be 20 alp. tov Be r)po<.a 1 Kara ravra alfia frel 9 av^erai vtto re rcov opfipoov to irpwrov 6epp.Tov A A : to ai/xa pe'ei irpu>Tov piv QepixOTCLTOV 2 MV.a evpi'jcreis yfrv^poTaTOV eov /cairoi yXia5 Xporarov eari teal (Sir) p.u>v TrXr/pol to o~G>p. eireira Be pel (pXeyparwBeo-repov 41 real ^o\a>Bearepov. tovto yap tu> x ei P-& VL Kara tpvo'iv //.veTai vtto tt/s cjivcrios t?}? ecovrov.a (pXeyparos. VII. oti Be 6 yeip.

And when men are cut. from Galen and notes in Foes. omits Kal juera 6 7 MV a'1/j. Those that withdraw phlegm first withdraw absolutely pure phlegm. \evKa A: A rb <p\4y/j. fx\v la-^upSrepov M fJ-eTa 5e A. That winter fills the body with phlegm you can learn from the It is in winter that the sputum following evidence. re i£adei MV. And yet it is the most viscid. and the rains blood increases. being the coldest constituent of the body. Phlegm increases in a man in winter. you phlegm the coldest. and then it flows with more phlegm and bile mixed with it. come on. and cold is that will find . 8 l£aveUi. 1 the blood that flows is at first very hot and very red." 3 e4\ois A : 4Q4\o<s 4 5 A ert M : edeAets (-ois ?) V.aros.a iarlv : : : rb <p\€y/xa : effri /xev : A A 19 . bile and blood. while the blood accordingly increases phlegm still 1 Literally " have their throats cut. phlegm shows itself the coldest element by reason of its own nature. And in spring too remains strong in the body. for is phlegm.NATURE OF MAN. and after black bile requires most force for its evacuation. la-xyphv rb <pA4y/j.-vii. diseases generally phlegmatic. closest akin to winter. and nasal discharge of men is fullest of phlegm at this season mostly swellings become white. 3 omits Kara ToCra.a «tj fiev rh (pAeyfta loxvp&Ttpov V tri /ueVej laxvpbv Littre. \(VK6rara MV. But things that are moved by force become hotter under the stress of the force. and then phlegm that is mixed. VII. vi. while the For the cold relaxes. Yet in spite of all this. A proof that phlegm is very if you touch phlegm.

Kal ev yvolrjs Trfai (papp^aKOTTOcrirjcri %oA. Te ^oX. inro he Tr)<.?.r)pepi(ov' Kara <f)vaiv yap avTqy ravrd eo~Ti pdXiaTa tov eviavTov' vypov re yap earl Kal Oeppov. KaTe\ei to afapia Kal to <f)0ivo~ h' av Toiahe' oi dvQpunroi avTavTTjv Ttjv oipr]v %oXr)v epueovcn.IIEPI OTZIOE ANQP^nOT Kal virb to)v 0epp. cpdivoTrcopov OTav he -ty-vyo pAvr) yeipLGdv KaTa\apL/3dvr/. bXiyt) yiveTai.ev 2 alpa oXiyov yiveTai. 20 . evavTiov yap aVTOV TO (pOlVOTTWpOV TTj (f>VO~€l £(TTtP' t) he %oX. ttotc pev 7tot€ 8 he eXdoo-(i). 9 piepo? Kal KaTa to alfxara A : al/ua MV. tjj eo~Tiv ecovTOv' evavTit) yap 4 cpvaei €o~tIv i) wpr/.&>SecrTaTa KadaipovTai. doQeveo-TaTov avTOv 40 Oeppt.. Kal iie twv 1 pel avTOtai.t) tov TrXelaTT) 6 tc Kal la^vpoTuTrj r) eo~Tiv. &pr/<. ^rjpjj Te eovcra Kal to he alpa tov (pOtvoTrcopov eXd^iaTov amo yiveTai ev t&> dvOpdnrcp.7]. irepua50 Tapev7]<. hfjXov he Kal Tolai irvpeTolai Kal TOiai ^pcopaai to he (pXeypa tt}<> Bepeirj^ 3 TOiv dv0p(O7ra>v. Kal f) %o\t/ atpeTai ev tw awpiaTi Kal irapaTeivei e? to tydivoiroypov' ev he t&> (pdivo- 30 Trcopq) to p.dXiaTa vtto tc twv hvaevTepiwv d\lo~KOVTai. €%ei pev ovv raOra irdvTa alel 7 to awpia tov avOpdoTrov. Kal OeppioTaToi pivwv to alpa eicri Kal epvdpoi' tov be 6epeo<i to tc alpa iayyei en. ToptaTot. Kal to <p\eypa av^eTai irdXiv vtto 5 Te twv veTOiv tov TrXi]6eos Kal 6 t<Z)V vvktwv tov pi7)Keo<. fypov tc yap eo~Ti to (frdivoTTwpov Kal yfrv^eiv i'lhr) dp^eTai tov dvdpayirov' t) he pueXaiva %oA. yvoirjs 8' av Tolahe' oi dvOpwiroi tov r/pos Kal tov Oepeos p. 1 irXeio) eKacna Kara yiveTai avTa katvTwv.») ttjv Oepeirjv irwpov.

for autumn is dry and begins from this point to chill him.NATURE OF MAN. : r6re . before ruv vvktuv. through the showers and the hot days. and by hemorrhage from the nose. bile being chilled becomes small in quantity. and when they take purges It is plain too from the discharges are most bilious. read virb A : . tJt« A. During this season men vomit bile without an emetic. still strong. MV. summer phlegm is at its weakest. vnb A . All these elements then are always comprised in the body of a man. autumn blood becomes least in man. being dry and warm. and phlegm increases again because of the abundance of rain and the length of the nights. It is chiefly in the truth from the following facts. You may learn this truth from the following facts. In autumn blood becomes small in quantity. spring and summer that men are attacked by dysenteries. It is black bile which in autumn is greatest and strongest. vn. For these conditions of the year are most akin to the nature of You can learn blood. For the season is But in its nature. but as the year goes round they become now greater and now less. But in fevers and from the complexions of men. opposed to When winter comes on. . records a reading rr)s Qepeos Ofpelrjs. o«l . spring being moist and warm. toC Btpeos A: tt/s flepnjs M: T7Js dtptirft V. and they And in summer blood is are then hottest and red. Kara fitpos rt nal 21 . while bile prevails in the body during the summer season and during autumn. 8 ' irort MV A. as autumn is opposed to its nature. . each in turn and rov diptos ttjv Oepir\v M: rr]t> Oepttijv V. 2 : A 3 Littre * ~- toicra A : : "yap iari MV. a-irb 6 ' MV atdta iroTt MV. until and bile rises in the body and extends autumn.

S)vo<i \tfyetv.covo<. tov Be rjpos vypoTaTa.?. irpooTov /xev r) izavOij. layvec 6° iv too iviavTco Tore p.ara. VIII. 22 . totc Be to cap.e\dvTaTa. TrpoaBeyeadai yPV eaeadai avTcov' oaa Be cpdivoTrcopiva voarjixaTa. ttjv aTrdWa^tv yap A : Ho-irep MV. tovtcov coBe iyovToov.oov /xd\io~Ta. av^eTai. tov Be 0epeo<. avTcov iv irepioBco rjpepecov diraWdaaeTai' oaa ttjv Be TrepLoBov avris (fipdaoo ttjv toov i)p. totc Be to alp. oca jjbapTvpiov Be fiev toov 7 cpdiveiv. dX. 6t 1 jueiVeiei' A : fievrjiev TouTecov M : fifvt'i rovrtaiv V. Holkhamensis 282 reads ^vu.IIEPI ©TSIOS ANGPOnOT x 6 iviavros fiere^ei fiev 7ras co? yap <pvaiv. tov Be (pdivoiroopov p.e\aiva KaXeop^evrj. ovk t% av BvvaiTO %r)v covdpcoTTOs.eiTai aoi tov /xev xei/Aoovos <p\eyp. irdvToov teal toov 6epp. oaa oaa fj/q voarfpiaTcov %eip. totc Be to cpdivoTrcopov' ovtoo Be /cat ev tu> avOpcorrop Tore puev to <p\eyp. 6 tS> avTw aacpeararov. 'Oc^etXet ovv.ev 6 %€ip. depeos Be Oepeos av^eTai. Tcavv avTrj<i avdyKr/q iravra avveo~T)]Ke re fcal rpetyerai vir a\M)K(xiv ovtoo oe /cat et tl etc tov av60 Opcoirov ifcXiiroi tovtcov toov avyyeyovoTcov. tovtcov tov r/pos (pdivoircopov 1 &>s Be r/pos ylveTai voar)p. ov yap av pueiveie tovtcov 2 ovBev ovBeva ypovov dvev irdvTcov toov 3 iveovTcov iv rcoBe ra> koct/xo). yeip.cov /cal toov ^rvypcov ical toov ^r/poov /cal toov vypcov.a. eireiTa B r) p. but according to Littr6 C has /xtrej. totc Be r) %oA.. tot€ Be to 6epo<i.a70 TooBeaTaTa. el OeXois Bovvai to ai)To (pdppiaKOV Terpdicis tov dv9poo7T(p eviavTov. ep.epecov.V el ev tl ye av acpaviaOeirj'* airb yap iicX'tiroi.a lo-yyei. 71 j(o\coBeaTaTa.

the moistest in the spring. 23 . and such summer ought to cease in the winter. he will vomit. the man could not live. and the blackest in the autumn. you will find. expect their departure in autumn. For just as every year participates in every element. sometimes blood. the most phlegmatic matter in the winter. A MV. the most bilious in the summer. When diseases arise in spring. according to vii.NATURE OF MAN. the hot. (pdiveiy A : MV. in as increase as these things are so. the dry and the moist none in fact of these elements would last for a moment without all the that — things exist in this universe. sometimes the summer and sometimes the autumn.-vm. In the year sometimes the winter is most powerful. its nature. clearest proof is that if you will give the same man to drink the same drug four times in the year. and then what is called black bile. with the exception of those which do not change in a period of days the period — speak of afterwards. Now. Such diseases as arise in autumn must have their of days I shall 3 %v ti vir' ye : A ott' : * acpaviadelr) B MV ev tl : MV. k-hyeiv • 7 fle'AoisAV: «0«=AoisM: ideKeis LittrS. first The yellow. if any of these congenital elements were to fail. but if one were to fail all would disappear. acpauiaOri A. for by reason of the same necessity all things are constructed and nourished by one another even so. such diseases the winter ought to cease in the as increase in the summer. sometimes the spring. sometimes bile. VIII. the cold. So too in man sometimes phlegm is — powerful.

ILtBevat Be yprj koX rdBe irpb<i i/eelvois' oaa oaa oaa 7r\r)(Tfjiov7] tlkt€1 voatjpara. at Be vovaoi yivovrai.ev. Kal yvvatKOiv Kal dvBptov bpoiws. (f>avepbv yap Brj oti Ta ye BtatTiyxaTa etcdaTov 7 dirTerai ttuvtcov 20 rjpoiv ovk alrtd eaTiv.eaTi Be tovto o dva'nveop. avrb deleted by Wilamowitz. Kal to. Bel top 5 koX irirpbv evavTiov laraaOai roiat Ka9eareS>at 6 voar)jxaai Kal elBeat Kal wpyai /cal rjXtKLrjai. Kal TaXeXvfieva avvrelveiv 10 ovtco yap av pboXiara to Kap.a IIEPI OT2I0S ANGPOnOT 10 <wpa? B av t<z<? dvdyKrj tijv dirdXXa^iv yeveaOat' 6 ravTas vTrepfiaXXy 1 voarj/ua.evov. rrjv Be BidyvcoTTvevptaros. £' 4 oaa irajpirj t^Tai. ovToo xph IfftrBni vphs MV: xph ovrais luaOat A. to Be avpurav yvwvat. elBevat yprj &>? 2 Kal rbv IrjTpbv ovtw eviavcrtov avTO eabp. Kevwaiq IrJTat. ravra ra\aiirwpifj : M 24 . avvreivovra Xveiv. 282: vvepfid\ri virepfraKy V.ev dirb t5)V BiaiTrjpaTcov. at Be dirb tov lijrat. Be dirb TaXanra)pir)<.oi Bo/cel elvai. at p. TrXr/a povt] irjTat. Kal twv tv\v 1 Kara tov avrov ypovov. 2 3 * vrep&dWy A and Hoik. o iaayopevot ^cbp.vov dvairavoiTO. dpyli]<.ev virb voai]paro<i evb<. 3 Td voa/jpara eo? etcdarov tovtcov Xph trjaOai layyovTOs ev tw (TcofiaTi Kara ttjv wpijv rrjv avrS) n 14 Kara §vaiv eovaav fxaXiara. ytveTai. yiveTai. dvdiravat<i vtt TaXairiKrerai. oo~a 5e virepreprj apylr) voaiifiara ri/cret. Be dirb Kevu>ato<.ev. r\ re Xr)ai<i tovto p. ttoXXoI dv6 pwrrot dXiaKWVTat airily yprj dvartOevat tovt<p 6 Tt KotvoTarov iart teat ptdXtaTa avTw irdvTes xpeopeOa. aiv xprj e/carepov wBe iroteladai' orav p. IX. ore ye Kal tcov vovaos r) e^? veoyrepwv Kal twv irpeafivrepoyv.

both younger and older. The physician too must treat diseases with the conviction that each of them is powerful in the body according to the season which is most conformable to it. Furthermore. Whenever a disease passes these you may know that it will last a year. matter. as women. those due to exercise are cured by rest. and those due to To know the whole idleness are cured by exercise. or rather paraphrased. in other cases from the air tinction by the inspiration of which we live. departure in spring. 25 . those who drink wine as is men much as as This passage quoted. the cause should be assigned to that which is most common. IX. of seasons and of ages . by one disease at the same time. For it is clear that the regimen of breathe in. one must know that diseases due to repletion are cured by evacuation. and those due to evacuation are cured by repletion . of constitutions. 8' vir' apylris yoffrt/aara t/«t€toi raAanrccpir] Irjrai MV. Ibiriai A.NATURE OF MAN. in opinion. For in this way the diseased part would rest most. the physician must set himself against the established character of diseases. vm. each of us is not the cause. some cases from regimen.-ix. The disbetween the two should be made in the Whenever many men are attacked following way. and This it is which we which we all use most. in my Diseases 1 arise. Anonymus Londinensis VII. 6 KaOfaTfSxri elSeffj 6 i MV A : MV : : Ka0e<rT7jK<5crt A. 8t« yt 3t« t« MV. in the 15. constitutes treatment. and this. he must relax what is tense and make tense what is relaxed. limits. since the disease attacks all in much 1 turn. larai A : bi<6oa.

a. 1 on rovro voarjprjv rovrov %pr) n rbv Kara rovs al>TOvs XP^ vovi A. 10 rovro alribv ian.. Kal rcov iroWd raXaiircopeovrcov Kal rwv bXlya' ovk av ovv rd ye Siairijp-ara atria eurj. . : MV 8 iic tSiv StaiT7)/j. 4 * A omits u*v iroTf . .ara atria ecrriv. rd ov evbs i7ri8rjp.drcov p-era^oXf]. icai crKe-fydp. /cal rfi rcov 8iairi]/u. n °k XPV a ^ a as Idttrf ' says) A. toairep fioi /cal rcov rjXi/ciwv Kal rtov oopecov /cat 8 vovcrcov ev re rfj (fiap/ia/ceiy 9 orav he voirpoarpeireaOai Kal ev rfj Stairy. 26 .Tooi' fi.evov rov dvOpcoTvov rrjv 4 rrjv re rjXiKirjv Kal to etSo? /cal rrjv 6opi]v <f)vcriv rrXeiw. MSS.ard Kara rbv avrbv %/odt'oi'... irore 5e MV : Tck u-\v . orav Ziaircofievoi 7rdvra<. Oepaireirjv ^pi) Troieladai evavnovfievov vovcrov. rrore Se rrpoanOevra. . irore. dXX o avairveo^iev.IIEPI <J>TSIOE AN0PQIIOY Oayprjaaofievcov Kal rS>v vc) porroreovra>v. SfjXov on 8iairijp. r/ ra 3 avrcov' a Bel KarapaOovra ev ye r) /xerafidXXeiv. virb rfj<. oocrirep p-oi 7re(ppaarai rfj Trpofydaei 2 /cal erepwOi. twv ai]fjbaro<. rporrovs oi dvdpwnoi dXiaKoyvrai orav 8e at vovcroi yivwv- rai TravToSairal 30 on rd teal Btar)jp. ov/c ye %pi)cr9ai eiwOev tovOpanros eirirr]heid oi ecrnv rj irdvra. avrrjs vovcrov.eTa&o\fi Littre with many late jSoAf..\ . /cat rwv fxd^av eaOiovrwv teal rcov aprov airevpevcov. to 5e A.Tcov : MV . T7)v t% 8f)\ov yap or i oleri hiaiTrjjjLacnv.a. n rov eVeo? 40 7ret. : elwdrj xP^ ff ^ at ( fiera^aWfiu. Kara rbv avrbv xP^vov /xeTa^aWetv A t£i/ SitirrifxarcDV yueratt) rwv diatTTj/j. 3 Wilamowitz deletes ' ko. rrpbs etcacrra r<av elhewv /cal 6 irdXai eipiyrai.tt] KaOearijKr]. Kal SrjXov riva drroKpicriv eyov dvlei.. rr/v uepa5 d^aipeovra.T]V icai tj}? iroieiadai. . 1 SrjXov eanv atria eKacrra eKaaroiai. fiev 7 vovcrov rbv rpoirov. xpw# a elaiOev'M'V T7)v <pvotv.

and that the treatment carried out should be that opposed to the cause of the disease. who eat barley cake as much on bread. is not suited to him. physique. ' A 27 . as I have already said. age. teetotallers.. a. /cal SrjAov '6ti tovto voaripyv Tiva awSKpttriv ix° v a.NATURE OF MAN. : A e/cacrras MV. and that this is charged with some unhealthy exhalation. it is exercise clear that in each case the particular regimen is the cause. or the greater part.ir6KpL(jiv *X 0V hv etr)' tovtov 5e? V. But when an epidemic of one disease is prevalent. those as those who live ix. from Villaret keeps the reading of Kad«rTrjK-p. But when diseases of all sorts occur at one and the same time. when no matter what regimen they have followed all men are attacked by the same disease.ao'iv V.oj' '6ti M Trjffi SiaiTriinacriv /cal H^Xou tovto i? A M M : rrjai <papixa. '< 6 Littr6. For it is clear that.Kelr\ai V. sometimes taking away and sometimes adding. This one should learn and change. and should be by change of regimen. season. it is plain that the cause is not regimen but what we breathe. either all. the season of the year and the fashion of the disease. and so making changes in drugging or in regimen to the several conditions of age. as has been set forth by me elsewhere also. During this period these suit 6 7 8 MV omit e/catTTo /col. those who take much as well as those who take little. (pap/^aKiricTi '6ti ttj (papfiaKtiri 9 A : : rrjcri tt) chaiTrj A: 10 11 StjA. putting a full stop at ei?. For regimen could not be the cause. tovtov &v elrf StjKovSti V. and carry out treatment only after examination of the patient's constitution. € ^r?» Srj\ov en tovto StjAov Xpb A voai)p))v t)]v aiz6Kpicnv *x ov av : /cal '6ti voar]pi)v Tiva airSKpifftv €%a>v tovtov xph M: /cal StjXov oti tovto voaT)pr\v Tiva. or some one part. of the regimen the patient is wont to use. : : Toicri SiatT-fifj. physique and disease.

' Oaa he rcov voa7]p. fi-qSev Littre. vecorepov ri yeveaOai iv tm acop. : {fraiTorr) {evoraTTj farm V. line): ws ixe-rafiaKt} 3re ye M MV ouSevAMV: crd/xa tail) A: nira.fi6. on 1 ra p. olavv elcodei xpT]o~0at.era[3dXXovra 8 e? hvvap. rcov re crniwv d(paipeovra real rwv ttotcjv. 3 4 6 6 ' 2 MV.eXecov laxypordrov Troveop. ^aXe7rcu at aTroXvo-ies yivovrai. rcov re xoypiaiv tou? roTrovs p.eraye ovk acrid eari T/79 vovaov.acnv ovrw xprjo~$ai.vpordrov.iv. tear oXiyov rjv yap piera/3d\rj rr)<. to he 2 ical via/Ad opav. iv olatv av r) vovaos icadecrrrjicrj. 7 irpoprjOeiaOai. av airo rcov dcrOevecrrepcov 14 eVi ra la^yporepa 1 St.JIEPI OTSIOS ANGPnnOY %povov Ta? Trapaive&ias TToieladat rolaiv dv50 Opcoiroicn TOidaSe' SdWecv.ev hiairrjpara p.rj p. ravra n he 12 yap rjv avrov puevrj evOa av rov rdv dvdyicr]. Tcr^ea)<? rrjv hiairav. A: is : : aoyKSrHTov M (ws above the V. A : '6t( aoyKdrarop tvoyxdraTov V.evov. 07ra)<i ecrrac a>? aoyKorarov dadeveararov. ) 3 dXXa XP 7 ore ye 60 4 (f>atverai T0 *°' t fAcv hiairi')p.driov yiverai aTrb o~cop. <rw/ua ealot A : jU6Ta/8aA7} |era>TOTT) tffrai M MV: A ctJho : &n'j? Littrd. iclvhvvos ical enro p. ovhev 5 dhiiceovra rov dvQpwrrov' tov he Trvev/xaTOf 6Va>9 r) pvo~i<.Wfiv ore A. rcov pueXecov heivorard icrriv ical oaa 6"' repov. p. 28 .a irovelcrdai' /cat rjv irri n rcov aauevearepcov acpiicrjrai airo rov icryvpo- X.eTa/3o\r)<.aro<i 9 %py%bi€V 01 66 dvOpoiiTou rov 10 rov lo")(. ical ra croopara Xeirrvvovra' ovrco yap av r/Kicrra ttoXXov re koX ttvkvov rov irvevp.aro<. drcav to o~cop.ari. a>? iXa^o-rrj e? to awpba ealr) 6 ical a>? ^evoordrrj. dp^rjrai.

oOeveo-Tfpwv. 10 11 12 13 tov ireeu/xaros irv^Vfiaros MV. parts to stronger parts. For if the change of regimen be sudden. and the body should be reduced.ef /j. by diminishing their usual food and drink gradually. 29 . are the recommendations that should be made to They should not change their regimen. ix. V omits from d^>i«rjTai to c. need of deep and frequent breathing. but rather take care tnat. air abrov tov A. and also from a source as far removed as possible the place should be moved as far as possible from that in which the disease is epidemic. o. but be used in this way when it manishould regimen Then care should festly does no harm to a patient.-x. patients. the riddance of it proves difficult. must be in pain while should the disease move from a stronger part to one of the weaker parts. the most healthy members of the body.tto rov : raCra 5e A. their body be as thin and as weak as possible. I follow 8 9 J u€Ta/3aA\oi'Ta MV A : : /xtTa^aWovras A. toCto : V. as the strongest limb in it feels pain. 1 it is easier to get rid of " Galen and Littre" in taking " the strongest parts to be those which are naturally. i.NATURE OF MAN. But when diseases move from weaker . : : nev /xevrj yuei/ei fj. the whole body.o-divtoTtj)(jiv V. Those diseases are most dangerous which arise For should the in the strongest 1 part of the body. X. for such reduction will minimise the . as it is not the cause of their disease.4vt) MV MV A M hci tSiv acrBfyfo-Tepuiv ti ti above the l* line after iirl) M A : eirl tSiv afrdeveo-Ttuov ti (with : «ir( ti twv 6. disease remain where it began. there is a risk that from the change too some disturbance will take place in the body.e. be taken that inspiration be of the lightest. constitutionally.

(£A. robv op^uov.IIEPI eXdr). virb rbv pia^bv : a.ovo<.oirKara<i.ewv eiri* robv acbvpobv ra e^co /cal e? rd<. reacrapa ^evyed ecrriv ev tw o~obp.e/3oTO/ua<? ra? to) vobrw /cal roicriv robs iroBas acpij/cei. Bel ovv ras <fi\e/3orop. 30 .ev dirb robv Be^iobv e? to dpiarepd. ecrcoOev.ari. /cal ev p.la<. dirb 7 rrjs /ceepctkrjs Trapa ra (bra Bid rov av%evos. eireira o-vp.(pepovrai e? rov irXevpiova zeal dcpi/cveovrai rj p. 5 Bet ovv eVi tow dXyijfidrcov robv ev 10 loyLoioiv dirb robv lyvvwv iroielcrOai kclI dirb robv 6 al K erepai (f}\e/3e<.ev avrobv dirb -n}? /ce<£aA.epeo<i. rroieiadai irpb<. oBvva? rd<. layyos dva- XI. dirb robv yfrocbv /cal acpvpobv €%(D0ev. ical Bia robv lyvvwv etc rov ecrwOev 9 Bid robv ra eireira eirl /cvi)p.r/9 ornaOev Bid rov av^evof. rj Be dirb robv dpiaree/e rov ir\evp. 2 3 e^ooOev irapa rr/v pdyjiv evOev re /cal evOev irapa ra Icryia d<pif<veirai /cal e? tcl a/ceXea. e? rovs op^ias zeal 8 e? tovs p. eawOev irapa r?]v pdyjiv e/earepoodev (pepovcri Trapa t<z? yjr6a<.evai. dirb robv lyvvwv /cal dirb robv acpvpobv al Be rplrai 0\e/3e? etc robv /epordeficov 20 oia rov av%evos viro ra<i o)p. At ira^yrarai robv cf)\e/3obv wBe irefyv/cacriv.ewv p. eireira Bid robv /cvr)p. above the line) vaph (M has Fredrich reads 4s for iraph.ev Be^iif d<fii/cveirai /cal e? rbv o-irXrjva /cal pebv 1 ra Befjia rbv veebpov. al o~<f>ayiriBes /ca\eop. virb yap Xobaerai 1 prjlBias ra emppeovra. AM M M V.Troit\ril£eTUL A airaWaffffeTtxt MV : : ai'aKaxrerai Littr^ from a note 2 3 of Galen. i/c /cal rov irXev/xovos n virb rbv fia^bv e'9 e'<? rj p. ra<. acfrvpa ra eacoOev /cal robs iroBas. rj Be dirb robv dpiarepebv e? ra Be^id. 10 OYSIOS AN0P^nOT t?)<» evXvrobrepd ecrriv.ripov$.

pair extends from behind the head through the neck.. 5 M«« MV : a(pi K rj A. A. the the right the left side. side of the spine internally testicles and thighs. </>Ae/?es ex° vaiv «« <p\f&€S anb A Fredrich brackets etc.NATURE OF MAN. Accordingly. : : t^wdev MV MV. and on either side of the spine externally reaches to the loins and legs. head by the ears through the neck. One nature. and are called They stretch right and left by the jugular veins. as the strength of the stronger part will easily consume the humours that flow into them. e'/c MV : (p\efcs Littre\ MV : MV M : 3i . and finally through the shanks to the ankles on the inside and to the feet.-xi them. The thickest of the veins have the following There are four pairs in the hody. and the one on the left the The right one reaches from the lungs under right. then along the loins to the on the inside through the hollow of the knee. XI. The third pair of veins passes from the temples through the neck under the shoulder-blades. u}/j.on\a. behind the knee or at the The other pair of veins extend from the ankle.Tas A omits t/ 5e Inrb . then one on they meet in the lungs and reach. and then stretches through the shanks to the outside of the ankles and to the feet. So bleeding for pains in the back and loins should be made on the outside. irapa w/j.Tovs A. and the left one to the right from the lungs under 4 6 MA : xa\ 7 8 • 10 11 xoUeadai A. irKev/xovos. bleeding should be performed in the hollow of the knee and in the ankles on the inner side.. to counteract pains in the loins and testicles. the breast both to the spleen and to the kidneys. x.oir\o..

al he reraprat dirb tov epvnpoadev t% reecf)aX7)<. irax^at iSe exovfftif ovtod TrepvKaffiv A. 1 tirena 8e £ir\ A : 2 3 4 : iraxtiTarat MV. ev9a dv al 60 ohvvai p.iroXXai tc r) Tpocpr) tco acopuaTi epyeTai. eireiTa he Sid tcov Tnfyecov £<.€Ta/3oXrj yzeicTTa yivono peydXr) e%airivri<.IIEPI OTSIOS AN0PDnOT real e? to rjTrap zeal e? tov veeppov. zeal to edos p.aOt]zccoai 8 yiveadai zeal to alpa crvXXeyecrOar ovtco yap dv 77 T€ p.p'xpv avrai dpupoTepai.ev e? tov trir\f)va dcpiteveiTai. A ^irtira virtp : MV. tcov cTTrjdecov zeal tcov irrj-^ecov dvco e'9 -m? crvyteal hid tcov {Spayibvcov tov zeaTcoOev e? Ta? piacr^dXas. zeal ere tcov rr\evpecov dvcodev rj p.a 7rdp. teal al pev irayeai 2 tcov 40 cf)\e/3cov cohe tcoi\tr)<. eireiTa he virep t?}? yacrTpos e? to alholov TeXevTcocriv dpupoTepai.«<? cbs TTpocrcoTaTco Tap-veiv dirb tcov y^copicov. 32 . elal he teal d-rrb 4 Trjs zeal <£\e/3e? nravTolai. 1) he e? to rjirap. t«? 7 ovv iroieladai zeaTa tovtovs <pXe/3oTopia<. ira/U7roAA. eirena dirb tcov hazeTvXcov irdXiv hid Kapnrds. zeal e? dXXijXas hiahihoaaiv T6 ecrcooev e£co zeai ai e^cotJev ecrco. 3 ky^ovcriv.. p.ep. tovs zeapirovs teal rovs hazeTvXovs.€Ta9 dv cocne pirjzeeTi e<? to avTO ^copiov o'TrjcTai'i at 54 avXXeyeaOai. roy? Xoyovs' iiriTrjheveiv he %pr) t<z? to//.epeo<. TeXevTCocri he e\ tov a.7rds. he zeal dirb tcov irayeicov cf>Xe/3cov e? ttjv 5 zcoiXirjv icai to aXXo acopa teal drrb tcov e£co G zeal a7ro tcov ecrco. zeal tcov ocpOaXficbv 30 vtto tov avyeva ical ra? zeXijihas.al MV : TroAoi (sic) A irafiiro\al M : V. hi cov cf)epovcri dva to acop. eirena he errl 1 tcov f3pa%iovcov dvcodev e? Ta<? crvy/eap.

then back from the fingers they go through the ball of the hand and the forearm upwards to the elbow. and from the ribs above one reaches to the spleen and the other to the liver.a8r]TiK6cri with : A has xp'h- fj. begin at the front of the head and eyes. In this way the change will be least sudden and violent.a87)Kacri in margin A : /j. under the neck and collar-bones. and finally both pass over the belly to Such is the arrangement of the the privy parts. and you will change the habit so that the blood no longer collects in the same place. 33 . the inside ones outside and the outside ones inside. From the belly too extend over the thick veins. body very many veins of all sorts.e/j.t/jad^Kaai fx€/j.e/j. then through the forearms to the wrists and fingers. Bleeding then should be practised according to these principles.a8r)Kic(Ti Littre.las f/.NATURE OF MAN. the breast both to the liver and to the kidneys. 5 M 6 i^iCTUTccv : A : «|a)TaTo)i : (with -toltwi ual awb rHiv deleted) (with 5ia r£a> V. After <p\e&oTo/j. xi. . Veins too lead from the thick veins to the belly and to the rest of the body both from the outside and from the inside they communicate with one another. and through the upper arm on the under side to the armpit. 5ta5i8oi/(riv A 8ia8t56a<Tiv half erased) M : OtSSaffiv 7 8 MV • V. by which nourishment comes to the body. The habit should be cultivated of cutting as far as possible from the places where the pains are wont to occur and the blood to collect. : |U€ToffT^(Ttos A /xeraairiarat MV : ^sToffT7)(rais Littre. The fourth pair both of them ending at the anus. passing on the upper part of the arms to the elbows.

a-)(e&6v ti olbv irep iv tS> crcbp.aTi av ivfi 7 tolovtov ical to 8iaxd>pr)p. eireira 10 8e if^aveOevTas tcov ttovcov aapiccodrjvai p. ibvTas.evov e^eiv to crobpa to re irpob virdpyov teal to iirirpa^ev. ical 6 pel Sid tcov cpXefttbv. 34 .ev Trapaxpr]pa 8ia(pevyovaiv.a yiveTai' d tb yap Trj<i 68ov KaTavTeo^ ioven]?. 1 ical olaiv vtto to ovpov ttvov vcpio~Ta2 tcli ttoXXov arep 68vvtj i iovat.. ovx "o~TaTai 8 ttoXvv xpbvov iv o~Ti]6ea icrpvfj.ovoelv. 4 ical (piXoirbvov^ tc?» Ta\ac7ropov<i re yevkaOai ical aojpari ipydra<i ver)vlcricov<. Tovroiai Trdcnv enrb rod avrov ra voarjpara yiverai' dvdytcrj yap tovtov<. Oaoi ttvov ttoXXov tttvovolv drep irvpetov ibvTes. venepov 8e peTa ttjv vovaov XP° V(P Tij/ceTai to aSbpua.r) bp. pevyr/Tai. to p.aX6aicfi crap/cl ical ttoXv 8iacpepovo-p t% TrpoT€pr}<i. tw ivTepco.ev ovv 6pp. ical ocrois ra i vTToyjuipripaTa alparu>8ea obairep iv 3 piycn ical xpbvid iaTiv iovcri irevTe rfjac. ical 8iaicpiveTai' es arep irvptTOV 46vTfS (according to Littr6). ical XP® V0V ivavXi^bp-evov ttoXvv ev ra> crTijdei.dXiaTa e? t?)^ rjv p.IIEPI ' 0T2I0S AN0PanOT XII. /cal ttoXXov 8ia/ceicpip.}]crr] Ti>xj]y IxwpoeiSes' 20 fcoi\ir)v tt]v tcaTco. 8vaevT6- teal rpi7)KOvra irecov icai yepaiTepoiai. ware p. dvdvTeo<i iovo~r)<. oltri vttottvov yiveTai' 8' dv e? ra are yap t/)? tca0dpcrio<. 2 1 AV : : are irvperov i6vros M : i6vros iovai AV : iovariv M iova-qs Littr^.. fj av evpvxcoplr)<i p. Karaai'jTTeTat ical olcri o° av e? ttjv kvcttiv i£eylverai Trvoei8e<i. vtto ttjs deppoT7]TO<. tov x w P^ 0V tovto 9 icat Oeppov teal Xevtcbv yiveTai.. brav ovv vbcnjpd ti icaTaXd/3r} tous out&j 8ia/cetpevov<.

Such as expectorate much pus without fever. Accord- a disease seizes men in such a condition. the stools become like the matter shut up in the body. body. years or older. at first they escape. ive-q : : $lv ever/ Vo-rarai A TcxeTOt MV.v). When the flux is to the chest the patients suffer suppuration. pii A £e«i M Littr6. but after the disease the body in time wastes and serous matter flows through the Now if veins wherever it finds the broadest passage. because as when very the passage slopes downwards the matter cannot remain long in the intestine. bladder. all these are For these patients must have been in their youth hardworking. being thirty-five ill from the same cause. and separates itself 3 (crriv. xn. • tovtq Ka\ dep/j-bv koI 35 . the flux be to the lower bowel. pain. MV A AV : : : V. and there must be a wide difference between the previous condition and the hypertrophied condition of their . Siappeei V. or whose stools as in dysentery. omitted by A. iovffi A : & (on : i<rri ?) vioicrtv iodfftv M : & veotaiv iovffi 4 5 6 7 8 re yeveffdcu dfioKoyfeiv : evfi MV ytyevvodai A b^ovo^iv M (in margin &ixoKoyia.NATURE OF MAN. during a long period. so that there ingly is no longer harmony. diligent and industrious afterwards when delivered from their labours they must have put on soft flesh very different from their former flesh. because since the purging is along an upward passage and abides a long time in the chest it rots and turns When the matter empties itself into the to pus. or have a thick sediment of pus in the urine without remain stained with blood. owing to the warmth of the place the matter becomes hot and white. XII.

irevTeKaiTeaaapaKovd^fiepof oaot B" av Trjv tbpijv TavTrjv VTrepftdXXcoaiv. tt)v vovaov 6 irapaayov ev tw 1 crco/xaTt.ev ev ttj o>pr].epe(ov. 49 yfjrai biv9pa>Tro<i. Karappeov irpos einreretav. 40 6o~ov ttj TrpcoTT) to)v r)fj.apaivea0ai to adfia. ecovTOV. palverai. fiev apaiorarov i^Lararat on to?" 6 dvdpwnos tt) irpdiTy twv T09 etTTLV avro<. 6 r)v p.bv elvai' orav Be ap-^rjTai 2 p.a4 elvai. Toacvrov 0ep/xoTepo<. evtavTW Kel/xevoi. irXelaToi p. roaovTov dvayKt) yjrv^poTepov vytees Be yiyvovrai avTop-aTOt ol ovtco Bia- y dv dpgwvrai 5 TrjKeadai.6Tepos MV avdymi ^vxp^Tepoy MV ^vxpAtcltov avdyKy A. rolat Be dvBpdatv ov ylvovTat XlOot Bid rrjv ev jap %pr) elBevat. b Br) irvov KaXeiTat. yjrvxpoTepov ylverar Kal Kara tovtov tov Xoyov. ylverat. dfj.epea)v OepfioraBe vardrr] ^jrv^pora- ai'dyKi] yap avgavo/xevov Kal yaspeov to awpta 7rpo? filrjv 6epp. &pxVTM fiapalveadai : MV : lip at : 36 . "Qaa t&v voarj/xaTcov eg oXiyov ylverat. 8ep/j. Kal oacov al Trpocf) dates evyvcoarot.epe(ov trXelaTov avgerat 6 3 dvdpwnos. Bep/j-SraTos A. Tavra Be dafyaXeaTaTa eaTi irpoayopeveadar tt)v Be trjaiv Xprj iroielaOai tt}? avTov 1 evavTiovptevov 8 rfj irpocjidaei vovaov ovto) yap av Xvoito to A.IIEPI OTEIOS ANGPOnOT x Kal to 30 ava>. ^rv^poTrjTa tov acofiaro?.rj tl erepov KaKOvp- XIII. rfj r)p. oaov TrXelarov Karap. Be Kal ol Xldot TOtat iraiBtotat Bed ttjv Oep/moTrfTa tov ywplov re tovtov Kal tov oXov aco/maTOS. to Be ylvovrat nrayyTCLTOv Karco.<piararai : icplffTarat 2 3 4 MV far dep/xalvfadai A. avTopLaroi vyiees ylvovrai. Kal ttj varaTrj t(ov i)p.

the first day of his existence and coldest on the last. are those the history of which can be foretold with the greatest The patient himself must bring about a certainty. Such of them as exceed this period. decaying most. out. last day. Littr£ yap rrjv <TcL<fj. Villaret reads. recover spontaneously in a year. Galen mentions readings with 45 and 40. 6 7 has it in the margin. Diseases which arise soon after their origin.NATURE OF MAN.art napaa-xbu alrbv A rififpeoof. iv. For it must be that the body is hot which grows and progresses with force but when the body begins to Jt is decay with an easy decline it grows cooler. for in this way will be removed that which caused the disease in the body. 5 A omits rfaeffdai and has 5 re Kal rj^epeoov. 8 ovrco M A : says that C has irapa<Tx<^v. omits vyiees ylvovrai and A M : MV. (hip. cure by combating the cause of the disease. of this place and of the whole body. The finest part becomes scum on the top. Svolv ical fj. he is proportionally cooler. avrioov \voi rb vovaov ovrw r^v yap irapexov r & (Tai/J-ari : ovrta yap hv \voito rb ry\v vovctov irapacrxbv iv r<2 awfiari hu \voi ro vovffov rS> 4i> V. XIII.) D . Most patients in the condition described above recover their health spontaneously forty-five days from the day on which they began to waste. on account of this that a man. . while the thickest sinks to the bottom and is called Stones too form in children because of the heat pus. growing most on his first day. 37 VOL. but in men stones do not form because of the coldness of the For you must know that a man is warmest on body. xii. should no other illness occur. and whose cause is clearly known. is on his proportionally hotter then . reaaapaKovra.-xm.

oaa> a. ravra 8e diro twv vecppcov el8evai XPV ^ovra teal diro dpOpitikwv 3 oaoLcn 8e teaOapbv to ovpov.epivb<> pberd e\a^'crTft) rcov ^0X7}? yiverai.IIEPI OYSIOS ANGPiinOT rj XIV. teal diraXXdaaerai rayiara dXXoov.arii5(a.el8ea 8e crcpewv earl reaaapa.7ro iXdaaovos <ylverai ^0X779. 38 . teal on e^ei dvdtravaiv to awpia.epivb<.ara.(paiverai 4 ev ru> ovprffiari. tovtokji apyjiv 777)09 rrj 0Xe/3l rfi Traye'ir). pa/cporepos 8e cart tov avvb^ov. Oi irXeiGTOt Twv irvperwv ytvovrai drrb twv ^oXr)?. dXXore 8e ical aXXore olov irirvpa ep. \povov 8ia^rv%bpbevov 6 8e 10 are vtto ttoXXov tov Oeppuov deppiaivopievov.arco8ea 2 ra ovpy')p. tov avvoyov diro 7rXeiarr)<. MV. are ov Ta^e'w? itepayevTcov tcov ete (pvpLara 8te7rw]aev. o rpiraios real rerapralos. <pvo'itivgs fidroyv. ^0X1)9 Ta? tepiaia? ev to yap aoypia ov ^povep rzoielrai' ov8eva avvT^teerai ra^eea. ev 8e ra> avvo^w ovte ava1 2 e{ 5>v \el8ovrai omifc fiovvov MV A : and 4k tov ttvov olrives e|«o 6\i$ovrai insert fxiv after alfn. olcrt 10 apa/epd 14 rpi"%oei8ea avve^epyerai. teal €7T€ira 8e. XV. (ipb(pr}p. teat ovv avvo%o<. teal avrotaiv eari avvo)(o<i icai. tovtwv 8e rj kvgtls -^rcopia. tca\eopievos <yiverai arro irXetari]^ d/eprjreardrrj<i. tovtoioi 8e al cp\ef3e<i 7T€7rovi]teacnv' olcn 8e ev T(p ovpi'ipLdTL Travel iovTi aap/aa 6\if3ovTat 1 rrjv tevartv. ircopoi avverpdeprjcrav e%a) e'9 tov ttvov. %&>/9t9 ev rfjaiv oSvprjac r ytvopuevcov rfjaiv aTroteetepi- fxevrjaiv puev ovopuara 8 teal dpKpr/p. 8id rrjs 0Xe/3o9 avv tw ovpat 8e puovvov alp. Ola i ejevero 8e -^rafi/jioeiSea vcplcrraTat tt/v irSipot ev Tolcriv ovpoiai.

For since the body has no time to cool it wastes away rapidly. and its crises occur after the shortest interval. the patients suffer from psoriasis of the bladder. 1 That specific diseases * A omits Kal anb apBpiTiK&v. The four kinds of fevers are those now recognised as malarial. apart from fevers which accompany certain and various wounds. you must know that these symptoms result from the When the urine kidneys and arthritic complaints. xiv. Patients whose urine contains a deposit of . being warmed by the great heat. There are four them. proportionately to the lesser quantity of bile from which it comes moreover the body has a breathing space. and ceases quicker than any other. is. since the tumours do not break quickly. Most continued. with suppuration then. Now what quotidian. apart from those that arise in distinctly 1 Their names are the continued. the tertian and the quartan. &A\ot€ 5« Kal aWore olov &Koiov el ir'iTvpa Kal &AA.NATURE OF MAN. 39 . The quotidian next to the continued comes from the most abundant bile.ot«- Trlrvpa tfupalvtrai iirHpalvtrai A: &\\ore MV. the separate pains. from the pus there grow out pieces of chalk. is clear.-xv. but from time to time as it were bran appears in it. fevers come from bile. sand or chalk suffer at first from tumours near the thick vein. Those whose urine is merely blood-stained have suffered in the veins. and there are passed with it small pieces of flesh like hair. though it is longer than the sorts of XV. is called the continued fever comes from the most abundant and the purest bile. which are pressed outside through the vein into the bladder with the urine. whereas in the continued there is . When the urine is thick. XIV.

yiveTav 6aa> Be irXeiova ^povov iv rS> Tpnaiw rj iv tw dp. 30 yvcoarj Be T(p8e.epos tov T?i<i ^0X779 tt}? ti]v Qeppao-'nqv TTapeyovo~r)<$. Te x Bia-^rv^ecdai to acopa irXeov peTeypvaw irpoayiveTai Be avTolcnv dirb pLeXaivr]*. fj Te wprj p. 'Xpr) twv copecov. oi Be dXXa Kara tov avrov yap %o\7/ twj' iv tS> crcopaTi iveovTcov /cal yypwv yXi- Ta? eBpas j^povMOTaTas iroieiTat.(f>6ivo7rd)pov paXiara oi dvQ pwTroi aXiaKOVTai vtto twv TerapTaicov teal iv Tjj rjXiKtrj tjj diro nrevTe teal e'lKoaiv 3 irewv e? ra 7revT€ koX TeacrapaKOVTa. %pov loot e pot Be elo't T(ov TpiTaicov. rjv Tl KaKOvpyfjTat wvOpcoTTOS. ^oA.? iXdaaovo<. ev elBevai pi] y^pbviov iabpevov tov irvpeTov. : 40 ptj aXXo 1 2 3 4 TOV Tf A rod 8e MV.ere^ovai rod peXay^oXtKOv. outo? 6 TrvpeTos tov Terapraioi rd puev Xoyov.IIEPI OTSIOS AN0PQIIOY iraverai ovBeva ^povov.^ 7) Be i'jXikltj avry o^poTaTov. Teo-crapdnovra MV. to Te TTtptcraov A: t! irepio~o~hv (e]3 Kal) Ti t« Kal ju A A : e?Ko<riv : M MV.779 to 2 tovto Kal BvaaTraXXaKTov peXaiva 7rtspiG-a6v dpfyrjpepivov iariv. vtto pbe\aLVT]<i ^oXfj<i KaTe^erai pbdXio~Ta cpOivoTrcopivi) '6o~oi rracrecov rcov rfXiKioyv.epivov.dXio~Ta e£to T?)<f iraaecov wprj<. : TreVre /cal rpiriKOvra V. 6 Be TpiTaios paKporepos k(TTi tov api<prip. roaovTw xpovLWTepo'. oaw eXaaaov peTeyovcri p. teal airo %oA.. 40 . 6° dv dXwatv TauT?.(f)r)pepiva) to acopa dvairave20 rat.? KaX T779 r)XiKLT]<i vtto TCTapTacov.?. otl oi TeTapTaloi irvpeTol p.

and that which sticks fast the longest. and between the ages of twenty-five and forty-five. 1 This age is that which of all ages is most under the mastery of black all bile. "forty-two. the longer this fever is than the quotidian. is no breathing space at all. because it is mostly in are attacked by quartans. It is from black bile that this excessive obstinacy arises." 41 . Such as are attacked by a quartan fever outside and this age you may be this period sure will not suffer from a long fever. 1 victim of With the reading of A.NATURE OF MAN. The longer the breathing space enjoyed by the body the tertian than in the case of the quotidian. unless the patient be the another malady as well. will Hereby you know in the atrabilious autumn that men that quartan fevers participate element. xv. but they are protracted than the tertians in so far as their The quartans more portion is less of the bile that causes heat. For black the bile is the most viscous of the humours in body. just as is seasons which most under autumn is the season of its mastery. The tertian than the quotidian and is the result of in the case of longer less bile. are in general similar. while the intervals are greater in which the body cools.

.

REGIMEN IN HEALTH .

Kal rolat atriotat ptaXaKcorepotat ypfjaOat Kal eXdaaoat. rod Be 6epeo<. : 5iaxpV&&& MV. Kal €K twp otttwp irdvra i(p8a 2 tou iroteladat. A iroieetv Kal vhap4<rrepov MV.i] 4 p. Kal Xaydvoiatp i]Brj yprjadat ttiv6pcoTro<. Kal ra 6\jra Kara top avrov Xoyop dcpatpelp. r/pos oXtyot*. co? vBapeaTaTotat Kal irXeiaTOtatP. Xaydpotat Be co? eXaytarotatyp^aOat ravrrjp rrjp toprjV ovtq) yap dp ptdXtara to awpa ^ijpop re orav Be to eap erctXapftdvr}. oVft)? e? rrjv depirjv KaTaaTijaeTat Tola't re aniotat ptaXOaKolat irdai 3 Kal Totatp otyotatp e<pdolat Kal Xaydpofi wpolai Kal ecpOolar Kal Tolat rropaaip..rj 7] peydXi] 20 i^a7rlvi]<. 1 2 J Trot*e<r9ar Kal u5ape<rTaTOP A 1 : : ^Stj \p?ia6ai .evos ua\aK(DT^poia t ypdivLivos V. A M : 44 . rfj re p>d£r} 5 Kal t& ttotw vBapel Kal iroXXa> Kal pxtXaKrj Tola iv o^roiat ecpdolat irdat' Bel yap ypfjaOat Xpciip. y^poapuevw.a ypr) rrXeov rroielaOat Kal vBapeararop 1 Kal rear oXtyop. aW' 07r&>9 p.a oIpop a>? aKpijTeaTatop. Kal top aprov d<paipeopra pd^av irpooTiQevai. Tot"? IBicora^ cjBe 1 XPV BtairaaOai' rod pep irXelara. eivai Be to irbp.nEPI AIAITH2 YHEINHS I. rore 7r6p. /uoAaK&)T«po«rt xP^yievos /xa\6aKoI(Ti traai xp^M. rd Be atria dprop Kal rd oijra orrrd rrdpra. eirj Kal depptov.evo<.era/3oXr) ear at Kara piKphp p. irlpeiv 6° yeipoipo ? eaOieip &>9 a>? 10 eXdyiara.

For one must use these. in be prepared for summer by taking all foods soft.REGIMEN IN HEALTH to order his regimen in the following way. 4 1 teal fj. whose business does not require.g. (okws above line in Villaret omits 45 . it When dry make . the drink diluted and copious. . with all meats roasted during this season take as few vegetables as possible.}] fieyaKt} another hand) ko\ '6kws onus and reads sotw for iarai. . Drinks should be as diluted and as copious as possible. the change to be slight. and food should be bread. when it is eating when order that a spring comes man may By "layman" (ISk&tijs) in this passage is meant the ordinary. and the meats in all cases boiled. gradual and not sudden. In summer the barley-cake to be soft. and hot.. as does that. normal person. a few vegetables. : M A : ical '6ko>s ^ ^ fieydA-r) /teyaArj V. meats boiled. taking them all boiled instead of roasted. of the professional athlete. * Here V has TfitcptaBai. increase drink and very diluted. for so will the body be most . I The layman x ought and spring comes. taking a little at a time use softer foods and less in quantity substitute for bread barley-cake on the same principle diminish meats. In winter eat as much as possible and drink as little as possible drink should be wine as undiluted as possible. . special diet and exercise. e. and vegetables raw or boiled.

Bet ovv Totatv eTriTrjBevptaaiv dXe^aaOat. Trj vypoTeprj BiatTrj yprjadai to irXelov tov y^povov Ta yap acopaTa TotavTa Kal Total veotat tcov inrdpyet ^rjpd eovTa. orav 6epos 17. Kal to. Te Kal it poaeaTaXpevovs tovs Kal TTvppovs Kal peXava<. acopaTa KavpaTcoBea Kal avxp7]pd. Te iropaatv dKprjTeaTaTotai Kal oXtyoiat Kal Totat atTiotatv &)? irXeiaTotai tc Kal ^pOTaTotatv ovtco yap dv Kal vytatvoi ptdXiaTa Kal ptycpt] 39 r\Kio-Ta' r) yap coptj -^rvypv Te Kal vypt). fivTepov? tco ^rjpoTepcp Tpoirco yprj to irXeov tov Xpovov Btdyetv Ta yap acbptara 1 ev TavTrj 1 ' tt} to %p. evavTta iroteovTa <-k ev Be e'9 tov yetptcova. acopaTa Treirtjyev. Totai Be elBeat Total aapKcoBeat Kal ptaXaKotat Kal ipvOpotat avptcpepet tov TrXetaTOv %povov tov evtavTOV £i]poTepoiai Total BtatTrjpaat %pr)a- KaTao-TTjcrat tov depeos tco cp0tvo7rcopcp to. II. coarrep Ik tov yetptcovos e? to rip. 1 % 30 7rpocTTi0ec<. tcov ptev atTicov dcpatpecov. Kal irapeyerat to. Kara Be top avTOV \6yov. tco Be ttotco ovtco Be Kal to. 07r&)<? o Te yetpcov 2 ayados eaTat Kal cov8pcoTro<.a\9aKcoTepotai Te Kal vypo10 Tepotat yprjaOat Totat BtaiTijpaatv i) yap r)\t/cir) 3 to 1)9 Be itpea ^rjprj. ovrw (nal M) ex tov iipos els [is M] x rb Qepos /caTa<rT7]creTa! ecus rb Hap 4k tov x* /*® 1 *' ovtus iK tov e if-tovos is MV : 46 . ptev 6at' vypr) yap Be aTpvcpvovs i) cpvat<. BtayprjaeTat Total. Be ttotcl iXaaaco Kal uKpr/TeaTepa. acoptaTcov avptcpepet p.IIEPI AIAITHS THEINHS TovTOtatv. to. tcov etBecov tovtcov. 6Va)? to acopta yp-v^pbv Kal fiaXaKOv yevrjTar i) yap topi] depptrj Te Kal ^tjptj. atTta nrXeco irotevptevov Kal $ji]poTepa Kal Ta o^fra Kara \6yov. ovtco ck tov ypos e? to Oepos «arao-Ti/aeTai.

for this age is dry. whether ruddy or dark. II. 8 Kcd to craj/uara irein^yev (ireirriye M): Triirr)yev sti A. i. For the season is hot and dry. Accordingly these conditions must be counteracted by way of living. For in this way he will be most healthy and least chilly. In some respects the reading of preferable. soft and red. as the season is cold and wet. for the bodies of such are constitutionally dry. that the body may become cold and soft. On the same principle the change from spring to summer will be prepared for in like manner to that from winter to spring. find it beneficial to adopt a rather dry regimen for the greater part of the year. A omits ayadi>s here. and possibly the whole from oirws t€ x e '/i <*» to ^poraTotcnv should be deleted as a gloss. by lessening food and increasing drink. The sentence which follows seems a rather idle repetition of the preceding. For the nature of these physiques is moist. and meats too similar. except for the use of ews. summer. and makes bodies burning and parched. so that the winter may be healthy and a man may take his drink neat and scanty and his food as abundant and as dry as possible. rb 64pos Karaffrriffai A.REGIMEN IN HEALTH. In autumn make food more abundant and drier. Those that are lean and sinewy.-ii. Similarly. while drinks should be smaller and less diluted. Those with physiques that are fleshy. should adopt a moister regimen for the greater part of the time. and young bodies are firm. Young people also do well to adopt a softer and moister regimen. by opposing opposites prepare for the change from summer to winter. Older people should have a drier kind of diet for the greater part of the time. ^s A is 1 '6 / MV 47 .

dXiaTa vyialvoiev.ao~ t /cat iriova 10 epnrnrXalvTO' cr/cXrjpoKoiTelv paXia^ av 14 TTOielaOai. /cal toIcti cririoicriv imxeipelv Be %pr) ttoXXoIcti %pr)a0ai tov $epeos. T)<rvxa-loTepov 7]a-uxa-irepov AV and Holkhamensis 282 This oAiyfo-Tepov Caius 50 and (according to Littre) C. KCU TIjV . eXaioiuvea.r) Bid Kavparos ra 68oc7Topfj.cbvo<i eXdaaoai. ra^iwi XPy> toO Be Oepeos vcru^fj.ev aap/cwheas Qacraov z oBonropelv. tow? Be tcr%foi>9 i)o-vxalrepov. IV. aadpLaivovTas Trco/coTa^ /cal fir] dve^vypuevovi <rr]<rdfioi$ i) teal irpoTre- olvov KeKpiipevov pr) acpoBpa tyvxpov. Toi)? Be 7ra%ea9 XPV> °croi fiovXovTcu XeirToi yeveaPai. 6epeo<. toi>? aTpvcfrvovs ^PV p. 5 1 2 3 r).Bel 2 Be toi"? p.&pT)V KCU TO el'Bea vypd 1 /ecu Bel ovv €0O<> Tt}V i)XikL}]V /ecu KCU 18 ra 8iaiTijp. Tas TaXanra>pia<. eXa^crTiov dXovrelv /cal /cal yvpvbv TrepnraTelv baov oiov tc baoi Be fSovXovTai Xctttol eovTef koX povocnTelv ovtm yap av irayees yevecrdai.IIEPI rjXi/dr) 7T/905 AIAITHS TriEINHS [lakda/ca Kai yfrvxpd. vi)o~Tia<i pLrjoepurjv TaKaiiru>pii)v M: 48 omitted bj' A. r)v p. and omits dSoiiroprj to Qacraov.aTa iroielcrdai tv)v ^copi]v evavrtovpevov rolai KaOunapevoiai /ecu OdXirecn kcu ^eifjLbxxLW ovtg) yap dv p. vr)cTTia<i eovTas irotelaOai dirdaa^. III. r)p(pieadai Be tov Be Xprj rov puev ')(£ipaivo<i icaOapd i/xdrta.dXXov XoveaOau twv crapKcoBecov. oyjra 4 Kai /cal rd Se cr/cevd^eiv toIgiv aXXoicri e'ffTW tois TOLOVTOTpoiroiar dirb ical t'jBva p. Kai oBonropelv tov pev %eipi(ovo<. tu re aXXa iroielv Tavaima Kai /ceivois. ku\ rh idos Ka\ A tV x^PV reads vjA/ou for Kav/xaros : . 9 \ovrpolcn tov Be %eip.

them also be rich. lie on a hard bed. and counteract the For in this way will the prevailing heat or cold. : A: vr\arias H7i8e/jir)v TaXanrooplrjv 7roie'e<r0oi Littre vqffrtirjv u-qSe/ni-qi' Kai TaAanrwp'niv Troiee&Bat (with Kal above the line) -v on an erasure) ^Se ixir\v t/f)(TT(i' (M vr\aiiv with final TToitfcrdai MV.REGIMEN for bodies at this in fixing habit. n." 4 5 Villaret omits 5e. So Fleshy people should work faster. refrain from bathing.-iv. and walk lightly clad as much as is Thin people who wish to become fat possible. and agreement of C with a MS. and physique. curious difference between Holkhamensis and C (both copies of V). thin people slower. land. and the lean should bathe more than the fleshy. and in particular they should never undertake exertion when fasting. For so the appetite will be satisfied with a minimum. hamensis were copied by the same scribe from V. of a totally different As both C and Holkclass. Walking should be rapid in winter and slow in summer. less in winter. III. should do the opposite of these things. and things of that sort. and take their food while they are panting and before they have cooled. best health be enjoyed. age are moist and soft and cold. but soak them in oil in summer. it looks as though C had been "edited. season. They should take only one full meal a day. 49 . cannot be due to mere chance. In winter wear unoiled cloaks. regimen pay attention to age. Bathe frequently in summer. sweet spices. drinking beforehand diluted wine that is not very cold. Their meats should be seasoned with Let sesame. IN HEALTH. Fat people who wish to become thin should always fast when they undertake exertion. unless it be under a burning heat. IV.

rolat Be ^r/porepotai ical rrpocrecrraXptevotcn /cal daOevearepotai Xnrapcorepa ical Tra^vrepa' eart Be rS>v Kara/cXva ptdroav Xfrrapd /cat Tcayea epe/3ii'0cov ra vBwp diro rcov yaXd/crcov /cal 2 drro ecpOov /cal rcov aXXcov rotovrcov Xerrra Be /cal 20 OdXacraa. 10 repov to awfia.epr]<.. dXptt] tou? Be epterovs coBe XPV rroietcrdar baot ptev rcov dvOpcorrcov 7ra%ee? etal /cal ptrj icryyol? vrjcrrte^ epteovrcov Bpaptovre<. Be ep-erotai XPV Kai T0 ^(Tl /cara/cXvo'fiaaLToio-i t?)? KotXirjs wBe ^prjadar e£ ptr)va<i rovs XeinepLvovs eptelv. /cal ev rfj yaarpl arpocpof Bet ovv to aoipta ^rv-^etv /cal to. rj oBoiiropijcravres Bia rd^eo^ Kara ptecrov rjp. KpdnPr) MV and Holkhamensis 282 KpduSriv C (according to Littre). Totcri. 1 rcov x w P iwv pberewpi^opteva /cdrco vndyetv ano rovrcov. irapayku/v /cal aXas rrapaftdXXcov. this is a case where this MS.nEPI AIAITHS YriEINHS V. %oei'.ard)8ri<. eo"T&) Be ra KaraicXvap^ara roiai ptev Tra^vrepotcri /cal uyporepoiatv dXptvpoorepa /cal Xeirrorepa. ical ra voo-rjp.aat /cal ^oXoyBeo'- yap eoprj /cavp. Kai tovto eiarierco. rolcrt /cara/cXvap. 50 . o£o<. irtverco Be to vpcorov r)o~v)£atTepov. ev vBaro<.ai ytvovrai. ovtos yap 6 xpovos (pXeyp. aTrb oi Be Xe-rrrorepot ical dadevea: 2 A aX^T) A : iK : MV.aTcoSearepos rod deptvov.ara y'tverai 7repc rrjv /cecpaXijv /cal to ywpiov rovro to urrep twv (ppevwv brav Be XpfjaBai. 7] rj OdXiros. /cat dXptvpd ra roiaura. /cal 6e.' earco Be fjpttKOTvXtov vcracoTrov rerptptptevrj<. /cal j3apvrrjr€<i ev rf/ 6o~<f)vl ical ev roiai yovvaat. If Littre has correctly collated C.pp. 6V&)9 av pteXXjj r/Btarov eaecrOai. enetra B' cttI 1 Bdaaov. differs from V and the Holkham MS.

for the season is burning. pouring in vinegar and adding salt. for those inclined let to dryness. Let the emetic consist of half a cotyle of hyssop compounded with a chous 1 of water.REGIMEN IN HEALTH. feverishness comes on and colic in the belly. and let the patient drink this. in such a way as to make the mixture as agreeable as possible.^ i<rx"oi. or boiled with chick-peas or similar things. leanness and weakness water them be rather greasy and thick. V. salt clysters are made of things like brine and sea-water. thick clysters are prepared from milk. dose of 6 pints seems A heroic. v. for this period engenders more phlegm than does the summer. A omits Kal /j. Thinner and weaker people should partake of food 1 If the chous contained 12 cotylae or 5$ pints it is plain that the prescription gives the proportions of the mixture rather than the size of the dose. Thin. and in it occur the diseases that attack the head and the region above the diaphragm. Use emetics during the six winter months. 5? . Men who are fat and not thin should take an emetic fasting after running or walking quickly in the middle of the day. and the humours that rise must be drawn downwards from these regions. Emetics and clysters for the bowels should be used thus. Emetics should be employed thus. For people inclined to fatness and moistness let the clysters be rather salt and thin. Greasy. heaviness is felt in the loins and knees. But when the weather is hot use clysters. the body bilious. and then more quickly. So the body must be cooled. Let him drink it quietly at first.

VI. atcprjTov eaOierco. iroWov.€tva> 77/30? Kuorpocf)ia<?.. olvovs rpels iriveiv hthbvat avarrjpbv Kal yXvKvv Kal 6%vv. zeal ptr] mverw ern ra> atria fMrjh' airb rov atriov.ol rjaaov eiriXd^wai. )(pi]a6ai Kal o^Jrotai irdvra<. rj Kal KOiXtas eyovaiv vypd<.aat rjp. irotetaOat tou? epterov. r) hid irevreKaiheKa' ol he irav rovvavriov iroteovaiv. apueivov ecpetjfi<. fr}$ iravrohairoiai eadieiv. eireira he avnpi%a<. iriveiv hiaaovs Kal rpiaaov^ oaoi he p/i) dve/xeovai ra atria. a\~\! emayeru) baov heKa ardhta hteXOeiv. rovrotat iraai av^epei iroXXaKi<.aX0aKOrrjra rcov aapKwv.r)vb<. dvepietv baot<i he eirir?']heiov atria. r\ baoiaiv at KOtXiai ovk evhte^ohot. Kal oivov<. rovrov he hthbvai. Kal fiei^ova yivrjrai Kal evxpocbrepa. p.eprj<. o? ijKtara cftvaav irape^ei' rrjv yaarepa he 2 ravra iroielv. his e^e/ielv. irpdrov ptev aKpyrearepov re Kal tear okiyov kcu hid iroXkov Xpovov. Kal rd iro/xara aKprirearepa t«? varepa<. 52 .erecopiet Kai birwi ot re airaap. eireira he vhapearepov re kcu Odaaov Kal Kara. rovrotat he iraai rovvavriov rovrov 49 rd rov rpoirov avpu^epei iroietv. oari<. 10 11 ra? he yvvaiKas xprj hiairaaOai ra> ^iporepw rcav rpbircov Kal yap rd atria rd 3 ^rjpd eirirr/heibrepa 7roo? rrjv p. he el'coOe rov p. ev 40 hvalv rjfieprjcri pbdWov. Kal /3pcop. rpoirow.IIEPI AIAITHL TriEINHS airiwv iroieiaOcoaav rov efieTOv repot airo 30 rpbrrov roibvhe' Xovadfievos depixw irpomerta eiretra atria iravroharrd KorvXrjv.rj TJrvYpov iravrdiraai. Ta he 1 iraihia ^PV T/* vrjiria /3pe%eti> ev depptw vhart iroXvv %povov. Kal Ta? 4 dp. eaKevaaptevoiai. Kal iriveiv hihovai vhapea rbv dtvov Kal p.

and such that will least swell the belly and cause flatulence. partaking of all sorts of food and of meats prepared in every way. and less diluted drinks are better for the womb and for pregnancy. give him to drink a mixture of three wines. quickly and in larger quantities. Those who do not vomit up their food. before the emetic in the following way.Tpo<tlas. but the other one must be very and V. and be given to drink their wine well diluted and not altogether cold. or have loose bowels. and taken in small sips at long intervals. 2 A omits 5e. 3 A omits to. VI. then more diluted. all these profit by eating several times a day. Women should use a regimen of a rather dry character. going back to the archetype of AM 53 . After bathing in hot water let the patient first drink a then let him take food of all cotyle of neat wine sorts without drinking either during or after the meal. inferior MSS. Infants should be washed in warm water for a long time. sweet and acid. more . slightly altering reads ffKii)Ti>o<plas and MV two <TKia. dry. Littre's reading certainly seems correct. Those who benefit from vomiting up their food. though the usual custom is just the contrary. but after waiting time enough to walk ten stades. 1 A omits 5e. 4 A Kvorpo<plas Littre. and that they may become bigger and of a better colour. old. He who is in the habit of taking an emetic twice a month will find it better to do so on two successive days than once every fortnight. and by drinking two or three sorts of wine. all these profit by acting in exactly the opposite way to this. v.REGIMEN IN HEALTH. This must be done that they may be less subject to convulsions. or whose bowels do not easily excrete. for food that is dry is more adapted to the softness of their flesh.. first rather neat.-vi.

5 0Vl(^ re P ai y'wovTai koi xP pdXXov. to TcXr)6o<i tcov Be TovTOiai tcl gut'io. acopudTbiv.Kp.nEPI AIAITHS THEINHS VII.evov<.oov.aXio~Ta. dpaiOTepa ' 1 crvvicrr^ro is omitted by A. Kper^cpayelv./3dvovTai tcov eari Be avTt) p. rpe-yeiv jL 1 Kara yjrvxos- oaoi KOiricocnv ~ etc tcov Bpop. ical d.ev i<f>' i) ctitloov ogerj. koX tcov ctitloov Toiaiv r)pucreai XpijcrOaL' Br)Xov yap ov BvvaTai oco-Te o-vvOdXireiv Br) otl r) koiXltj irecraeadai. Tou? yv/jLva£o/xevov<.i] xPVO'Ococrav vtto 3 tovtov tov XP° V0V 0VT(0 l a P av pccXia-Ta 20 awddXTTOiTO r) KOtXir].xPV'ro vX ei l ™ vo<. (fivcris TpeireTai r) eKaTepa.va%op. v7roX^PVP' aTa aiTcoBea kcu aireTTTa. Trepnrarelv pev okiya. iv Be Tolcrt. tcov (pvatos ylveTai Be 6 t/jo7TO? outo? t?7? Biappoir)^ acopaTcov Tolai -rrvKVoaapKoicn p.(3avovo~i. 54 . TaXanrwpLas Xpovov eve^ir) to.rj eXaaaco tov Tp'tTov pepeos. tov Be Oepeos iroXXa Be Be p. apTo? ecrTco ical tu iroTa efo7TTOTaTO?. Ka* iraXateiv TpeX eLV KCU ira\a£eiv. )].d£ei oXiyov TOiovTOTpoirotat tcov tcov elBecov koX 4 Kat Ta? koX 30 BaavTepa ttjv dvayKOcpaytrjv Se^eTat. yvp. tovtov? rraXaleiv XPV' 00 0L Be iraXaiovTes koTriwai. ical koX TrepnraToicn eXa^to-m. t?}? at yap c£Xe/3e? v7rapxovo-r]<i TOiavTrj^' irvKVcoOelcrai tcov ecriovTcov teal ovk dvTiXap. iv o'tvco evTedpvppevoq. TOUTOf? Tpex eiv XPV' outgo yap av raXaiK07TIC0VTI TOV (TCO/iaTO? BcadeppatvoiTo TTCOpicOV TOO avviaT&To l koX BiavcnTavoiTO puiXicna. /cat OTrocrovs 10 teal to. Biappoiai Xap. oTav avaytcafy}Tai cov0pco7ro<. koI tcov Ictiovtcov eiuKpa' anloov 2 To'it). a/cpr)T€<TTaTa anro tov aniov puovoaiTeZv Be XPV p. TOVTOLcrl tc tcov yvpuvaaicov dcfraipelv p.

running ought to wrestle . This kind of diarrhoea attacks mostly persons of close flesh. baked bread crumbled into wine. Such as are attacked by diarrhoea when training. Athletes in training should in winter both run in summer they should wrestle but little . 55 . brace and refresh best the part of the body suffering from fatigue. whose stools consist of undigested food. vn. . and their drink should be as undiluted and as little as possible. at all. Littre with slight authority reads K^t^ayi-^v eating. At this time they should take only one meal each day. Physiques of a less firm flesh way and inclined to be hairy are more capable of forcible feeding and of fatigue. and enable them to deal with whatever enters them. VII. this they will warm. and their good condition is of 2 Before crnloiv A has iai6vT<ov. generate the heat necessary to digest the quantity The food of such should be wellof their food. and in bodies of such a sort a good condition is at its best only for a while.idAicrra. for the veins when closely contracted cannot take in the food that enters. a practice which will give the bowels the greatest heat. such as are fatigued by For by taking exercise in wrestling ought to run. 3 A omits vir6. should reduce their training by at least one-third and their food by For it is plain that their bowels cannot one-half. when a man of such a constitution is compelled to eat meat." 6 4 "meat- For fxaWou A lias /.REGIMEN and wrestle and not run IN HEALTH. walking instead a good deal Such as are fatigued after their in the cool. to the good or to the bad. and they ought not to walk after food. This kind of constitution is apt sharply to turn in either direction.

Kal yjruXpoTrjTOS ov Suvarai to ttXtjOos twv ctltlcov Karaireaaeiv. vdpKT) TrpcoTOv layei rrjv KecfraXijv. Kal ra viroxovhpia pberewpi^eTat avTolcrtv ttj cb$ direTTTcov tcov ctltlcov eovTcov. Kal oaoi ra ania avepevyovTai rfj varepair). 07T&>? at cf)Xe/3e<i at hia 50 tcov airXdyxycov irecpv/cutai fir) KarareU'covTai 2 TrXrfpevfievaf iic yap tcov toiovtcov Ta ts cpvfiaTa avpufiepei avairaveadaL yprjo~dai o rt eXd^iaTOV 52 yivomai Kal ol irupeToi. rijs rr}? fiXevva. tivos raXaiir copies. he ohvvai yivovrat tcov airXdyxycov i) eic yvpLvax aii)<i i) et. VIII. i) eaopeovTL he j3Xd. iroXv Kal XevKov. hrjXov tovtov tov xpovov yap hi) on 1) 40 KoiXirj vtto aa$eveL7)<. tovtolctl tcov ts ctltlcov Kal /cat tov olvov tcov TaXaLircopiecov dcpaipelv. eaT av eiKoaiv rjftipas irapeXdr}' Kal Kal OajAivd.<pepei. icai tov olvov atcpijrecrTepov ttlvovtcov icai toIctl Kal irXeico. aXXi)*. into gitlomtlv eXdcraoai ^prjcrOai. 56 . iropLart.IIEPI AIAITHS TriEINHS avrolaiv at eve^iai. Kal ovpel eirl evvea tovto Trdo-%ec Kal i]v /xev 3 i<f> ffftepas 4 payfj KaTa ra? plvas i) KaTa tcl coTa vhcop rj Kal d7raXXdacT€Tai vovaov.TTTeTai ol avyij. Olatv al vovaoi curb tov eyxecpdXov ylvovTai. oiat ttlvovtcov vhapea re Kal on -^rvypoTaTOv. e<? to aoypa ecreXObv irXelarov ovpov hid^ei. o-Tpayyovp'irjs iravsTar ovpel he (ittovco<. tovtolctl he dairotai. rovToicri Kadevheiv fiev irXelova tcl %povov aup. y TaXXa irda^ei oaa arpayyovpirf outo? €K 10 Tr)<i K6cpaXf)<i 1 7) ohvvT] eKXetirei tco dvOpcoirco. A has yvfjLvaataii'. bcrovs he ci^rai Xafxfidvovcri.iv XPV avTCov (TwpiaTa. he aXXr) TaXaLircopir) avayKaXfi.

Such as throw up their food the whose hypochondria are swollen because of the undigested food. if water mucus break out at the nostrils or ears. after. vii. A omits fx*v. VIII. f) 57 . tumours and fevers arise. and at such times partake of For it is plain that their bellies are too cold to digest the quantity of food. His headache disappears. and they should drink more wine and less diluted. but his vision is impaired. but apart from this their bodies should be subjected to fatigue. are benefited by prolonging day their sleep.REGIMEN longer duration. this lasts nine days. 1 Chapter VIII II. the illness ceases and there is no more strangury. at first a numbness seizes the head and there is frequent passing of urine with the other symptoms of strangury or . is a fragment from the beginning of irepi vovawv 2 3 4 A omits to re. Then. The patient passes without pain copious white urine for the next twenty days. in less food. weak and .-vm. and let them drink their wine well diluted and as cold as possible. Those who feel pains in the abdomen after exercise or after other fatigue are benefited by resting without food they ought also to drink that of which the smallest quantity will cause the maximum of urine to be passed. 1 When a disease arises from the brain. When people are attacked by thirst. order that the veins across the abdomen may not be For it is in this way that strained by repletion. diminish food and fatig-ue. For A has Kal. IN HEALTH.

irXeiarov atjtov eartv rj vyietr). * 2s MV : 'darts A.. \oyiXPV' o? Tolaiv aafxevov avSpcoTroicri. €7riaTaa0ac 6K 3 t^? kwvrov ypd)/u.rj<. "Kvhpa Se on i iv rfjai vouaoiaiv ux^eKelcdat. 1 A omits 84.IIEP1 AIAITHS TriEINHS 1 2 iari crvver6<. airb A. 58 . IX.

REGIMEN IN HEALTH. and learn how in his illnesses. the greatest of human blessings. ix. 59 . 208). 1 A wise man should consider that health is IX. vi. by his own thought to derive benefit 1 Chapter IX is a fragment from the begiuniug of irepl TradHy (Littre.

.

HUMOURS .

humours have their proper explanations. seems to mean i^avBu!. 1 ir\i']p(i)ai^. rb x/>^m<* xuh-®") frn-ou ovk «<tti rapaxv avToiv. a axpeXel into av9r)rw rls) Tolatv civoo. (3) consider the colour of humours when they have not left the surface The repetition of x vf-^> v an d of the flesh leaving it sapless. &<nrep twv avQ£v iv 6io5oxj) fHv y)\ucia>v {nraWaTTfTat an obvious paraphrase. pur) 2 afnrco- ireiraapiol t&v xpovoov' ol ireiraapLoie^a) rj eaco peTrovatv. Svcnreipir)' puahapoTri^' airXdy^vcov rotcn KaTW. Karapporrtr]' bs h. aWy ia ottt] Bet. ir\r)v &v ol yypjiav." evkafielr)' direipliy icevoTrjs." in sores. etc.v dvappoirirj. Here A has ovSefila evXafieia. sense would be "judge of the colour of humours from an outbreak. To £o~ti j^pwfia rwv ^vfia>v. avdfi. y avfufcepovrcov ywpLonv. which is Littre's. for &nTraiTts suggest that the original was the variant in either t2> ^pcJ/ua tS>v xvfxQv 8><nrep avQiov (the corrector of wrote o over w of avQewv) or rb xf""'/" r ^" X v l ^"'t %* &" The verb wdw. (2) the colour of humours is . the Galenic commentary. 1 It goes back to I translate the text. II. : A avBewv M. as in Sacred Disease vni (Vol. w — 62 . ' ' A M jL The 155). which gives three rather forced (1) Like flowers. avropbara dvco ical kutco. ottov Tt? 1 twv etc rj petrel twv toawef avdecov aKrea. Tpo<f)ij' auTrwris (changed A : '6kov fir] &fATrwrls a s M.avdeav ov Se?." Sxnrep wdeov and t>s hy avOfi look like the alternative readings which so many places in the Corpus show as " The Galenic commentary mentions whole.nEPI XYM12N I. "break out. p. " florid colour . a " conflated an ancient reading.

They must be drawn along the suitable parts whither they 2 tend. Caution. I. Spon- beneficial. fulness in the upper of certain forms of dyspepsia. 4 I leave these extraordinary phrases as they are printed 3 "8m om. K€v6ttis TOiai narw. x w p' x w P l<av with the footnote > The meaning is most uncertain. nourishment. and similarly with the other nouns in the present context. except those whose coction comes in due time. repletion." One is very tempted to think that the original was evXafieiii 8u<nreipir). Coction tends outwards or inwards. or in 3 Lack of any other necessary direction. for the Falling out of hair. our ever. ff in Littre. " not a bad description lower bowels. colour of the humours.t. the reading euAa/Senj a-Keip'ty. I take r) with rwu irufxcpepSi/rctii' Littr6 reads Sia rwv <rvp. experience. Difficulty of learning by experience. 4 Tendency upwards taneous movements upwards. .<ptp6vToiv it. The lower. "caution for inexperience." I find however. and the variant in A suggests either corruption in the vulgate or an attempt at The Galenic commentary quotes with approval paraphrase. where there is no 1 is like that of flowers. LU"'y which is partitive. Codd. Emptiness of bowels. Howis that we ought to read irXaSapSrrts : OT?\a/yx v <0 v . the upper." and that aireipir] is a gloss.a. — 63 .HUMOURS ebb of them. downwards 2 tendency downwards. irX-qpuscris rolffiv aval- rpo<pri- "Flabbiness of the bowels means emptiness in the k. in the Caius MS. for 5 . s Apparently of the humours. showing no important variants. my own feeling MSS. "be cautious when it is difficult to judge by experience.

<pi><ns. adeXyerai. olcriv rj aTToar^aerai <f)dpfia/cov. /caTd/cXvais. - /ua8aj><5T7)s air\dyx l cal' ' KaTUi ir\r)poo(Tts' ko. I. II. E. ovyyeves 10 topi). %6Teycrti? peirei' fj e'<? ov' 2 cuay to. X°*PV> e#o<?.yx. KaTd<JTaai<. avrSixara &vw Kcd kcLtui' & uxpeKeei ical fiKdirrti M. rj /3XdaTr)pa.. inrepfioXi]. With the reading of A. r) alro?. 71730? ra? acf)6&ov<i ^rjpaiveiv. %K€7rrea ai ravrw ra aiirofiara Xifyoina. z /*// r) rj olat Trapi]<yopijcr€Tar ra to ecrco diroXap^dveiv. rj cpvcra. 2 3 For Karao-rao-is see Vol.vav Kev6rr)s. 141. tola Karw o-n-Aa..to~hti ai'appoirirf KaTappotrlri' rh. 1 elSos here seems equivalent to Varia Socratica. Littre' adds uxpeAeei frKairrei A: p. rj olaiv OTroaovXeLireTai. rj odev %f/io? Ti? 20 auveaTrjKcos.* eX/cos. eBpijv. e'<? avricnracns. eKKkiaw irapo- Kecf>aXrjv. rj Kavpa. aXXa Tapanis. rj eirl irXdyia. vouaov. fj fiakiara rolaiv avco. i) olov 1 diro Kavpdrcov eireyeipopbevai <pXvKT6i<. i] 21 Oiipiov. rj aXXo ti 7rd0os. eXXei\fn<i. avco. oiffiv &vai irap-qyopiiffeTai A : 3) otirt TrapriyoptirreTai M. eK/ceyv/ioo/Aeva is grjprjvai' olat ra Kara). 228. rj eVi rolai Kara)' avco i/cirXvveTai. Taylor.. p. but dried up as 64 . 2 reads & for otaiv tttrooov and omits ?j ov.aSap6Ti)S' Tpo<p7)- Kano Tr\ripu)(TiS' loiaiv &vu A fi Kadapo-is Ka\ Kevaxris before &kt] 3 * (from the Galenic commentary).IIEPI teal fiXdrTTei' 1 XTMftN eiSo?. p." * This means apparently that "loose" humours in the body ought not to be confined within it. See A. and the nature of the deficiency. Karoo. e'|a0 eAyer ai A. "defect. r)XtKcrj.1 roiffiv &vo> k(v6ti]S' toiiti -KXeicrroiuiv ij avT6fxara &vce Tpcxpi)' ra. rj 8idvi\}ri<.

ficiency. tendencies are. this passage I take to be that a rdpa^is of the humours calls for a clyster. 8 or inflammation. or flatulence. II. 7 or sore. or food. 6 The (papfiaKov in the Corpus generally means "purge.-11. age. and it is probably a The general meaning of gloss on KardicAvais. Cases in which the upper parts." here (substance diUlere. Observe these things symptoms which cease of themselves. or the cases for soothing remedies. 7 Erotian says (Nachmanson. or solidified humour. or for example the blisters that rise : Littre has "par des moyens siccatifs faciliter evacuations. dry up the evacuations. or the contrary. les voies Personally I think that the original was rriffiv a<p6Sois (a<p6dois and a<p65ovs are very similar) and that the meaning is "dry up by evacuations. for those who will have an 6 abscession to the seat. is an upwards tendency. the chief . should there be signs that the trouble will be resolved to the seat. are washed out Do not shut up extravasated humours inside." — 5 The Caius MS. country. the deficient 3 Remedies. or any other affection. Drying up. constitution. Deviation. or creature.HUMOURS. or vice versa. -f? omits 8idin\pis. 6 washing through. season. lower. 90) Iv 8e t<£ riepl Xv/nHv Apparently worms. 2 excess. Congenital 1 which downwards when there Or revulsion. 8 tb p. of the deand amount the defect. habit. " a very doubtful rendering. Littre) seems unique in the meaning Hippocratic corpus. 1. along the route to head. or growth. but 4 Disturbance flooding out. rapaxh and its cognates are generally used of bowel trouble. whereby is withdrawn poison. harmful. 65 . Deflection. upwards when there is a downwards tendency. constitution of the disease. to the to sides. .

. Si\|r7/9. 11 o-fyfjs. 3 * aAv/cri. before irrvaAov. /caraf3acri<.erov^ 7 Karoo Bie^oSov. pv%r)<}.o<. d(f>pcoSea. lb ava. Oeppud. utt ovlris. rcai o ei> coat pvrros ia *. xal ravra GKeirrea.. 10 awparos.. apparently on an erasure) A : SaKpvov ipavatos atyirjs A : : tpvarjs M.Kpi]ra. ac^fcra. ^tj)^6<. looSea. Xnrapd. &<pvaa. A : ra avrSfiara Ariyoira ecf>' olal to av-rS^xara X^yovra. a^puara. 10 11 rrrappov. 16 evcbopiyv icaOopeaiv i) e<j)dd. Xtpov. epeovfjs. $jva- parooSea. arccPev. e7U7roAao"i<? rwv ava). /cat 1 ra eg varepecov. alparcoSea. hdtcvovra.ola Bhatrreiat airb ?. tf Sietfoov M. (£uer>??. : iyp-fjyopais M. fpixt}. vartpiK)] KiiSapffiS' al/j-ardoea. : oaKpvcov ipava'iwv 11 12 A: M. III. v><j>e\4ec Kavfxaroiv eireyeipS- jxevai * A 4<p' olaiv ola f3\a. Sarcpvcov. (pvrreccv (4 omits \\. TraXivLhpvo-LS. rpuyooSea. ovpov. 12 yvcoprjf. 14 A omits rpvyevdea. epev%to<. <fi6do~ai? 6 9 <yop(Ti<.I1EPI e'0* XYMON 1 rj olatv ola fiXaTrrei 7roirjrea oocfreXel..ra avcodev 13 tcarapprjyvvpeva. M. fiereu>pia/ji6<. oopd. yp-avaicov. eyp>]2 a re rj /caiXvrea 5 8 Traihevcns ep. rreTr acrp. ola ov Set iraveiv. [ivy fir]'?. 14 rwv /cdrco. but A omits. rrplv klvSvvov elvai.. the Galenic Littre adds these words typriyopcrts <pvaa A: tpdaaai : M.. T?} varepixf] Ka9dpaei<i. rr\ricrpLOvri<.*. M.yuov. vttvwv. 66 . Xvypou. teat crrpocpeovra. After text implies to his text. paOi'^Wi. 7ra/)o5eu<ns e/xerov A : 6 6 7 M has Brtxos 5ie'£o5oi A iraldevais 4/j. olov (pAvKTfif eyepais re. 8 9 10 A /itvl^s A: /av^s Bvx^ s M. Kvrjap&v. Sua(popl7]v.afpbs. irrvdXov. acrcra Trepippeoi. ra A 18 A reads ciy?is M. ttovojv. inrvo<. a.erov M.TrrT}Tai wcpeAtet. Kivrjcris. rroirctXa. riXpcov. x°-°~ny..

urine. fluxes from the womb. concocted. mind. uncompounded." or (with Foes) "inflation 3 The words given here by Littre mean "restlessness. verdigris-coloured. unconcocted. Instruction evacuation below. "lifting up of the of humours. It A's reading gives "symptoms which reads like a gloss. hiccoughing. what are harmful or beneficial. belch- ing. yawning. looking the patient before danger comes. 16 17 Treppipei t) A : irplv kIvSvvov elvat A pviros. irap65tvo-is ("passing along"). 1 This phrase should probably be omitted (as by A). but only a few of the genitives suit it arose from a gloss on 5ie|<$5oi>. is it. rising of the humours above. flatulence. silence. purgations ." 4 The reading of A. movement. positions. foamy.-iii. hunger." body. body. Orgasm. without air. repletion. absence of pain. sleep. mucus. M. Coction. touchings. In evacuations from above. ii. of the womb. cease of themselves. rising. pain. 15 A omits '6(ra I(p0d. with shreds. Perhaps attractive. hot." 2 is here opposed to -naXtvlSpvais. affections III. that are greasy. 1 and in upon burns. with colic. voice. biting. and means jueTeaipitTiUo's either as in Prognostic (with Littre). the wax in the ears.A : affcra Trepipptoi M. pluckings. itching. shivering. and in what cases. learning.HUMOURS. what are harmful or beneficial what cases. desiccated. 2 subsidence. to be quick 4 about vomit. the nature of the at the comfort or discomfort of liquid part. irplv k'lvSvvov Kal A 4v uio\ f>viros : . memory. coughing. lees or blood. thirst. 67 Uvai M. be done or prevented. sneezing. 8 when something must sleep. and also what ought not to be stopped. descent of the humours below. sputum. opening. varied. waking. tears.

. o~K\r)pvo-p. ifrvfjis. TraX/xoi.oi tttvoXov.w p. e^a>6ev. TOiv 8' ov. ixrf ola 5ei M. xp M7 4s A: xo^otos M. evvTTvia ola av opfj.rj8e aXA. to. x. ii-ii|i6s A : v//u|i$ (17 M. Kevaxris. tov. 8a\ep6v A M: 6o\ep6v Littre. dvafypa. fj - 8i' a jJtVei % KavcrwSfs v St\pa oSfii) 3 */ tyvxpa.rj8e Kav/xa. to ev(f>opov. OJT05.a\0a/cb<. iveovaa. ola 8el. opLp.?/ ovpov. 8i<|/o Trp6cr6ev fiJi] ivtoio~ < M tyipx' uypa' /j.o-(f)vy6 fjLOt.ela tclv- TW dSpLCtl ^/OCOTO?. Standi) p/]p.b<s hepfxaros.' 8ep/u. rjv dxovrj 6£v.vp.r]<i. fxri : pi) ola oei aWoios x^M^s a TruefO-Soi A : on an erasure) ^ &.TOS. op. yjrvxpd.AA01 x«|Uo( M. irkirova. Si^jra Trpocrdev TTp6<fyao~i<i. yvcop. dcrv/iiTrrco- rr)v eppiyfriv. /3pa8v<>. 1 6ev 6fi(f)a\ov to aTpecpov. rj IBpcoTos./). p. vev(f)Q)vrj<i. rj p. rj pivo<$. /cat iv Tolaiv TrdvTr) iroifj. 7 cn]p. p.rpi- oVf^e?. eaworav y Karco6ev. tcl rj 8d/cpvov. (TTO/XaTO?.IIEPI XYMQN 10 opyacr/xos.|?7po. 10 %e<?. o)fid.ara irpoo-KaKovpueva^pwro^ pL6Ta/3o\r}. 6 IV. /cat to xfrv^te^. iv 1 2 fi peirei Treirovaf) axfieXeovTa. 12 arpo(f)o<. 4 to OaXepbv Trvev/ia.ui/xa' i^uypa SvcrcoSta- A: KaKwSea- 4 5 6 7 8 odpwv A : oiipop M. tS)v fiev. (f}vo-i]<. i.e^a> /cat ca^vpoTepa A. v~nvoio~iv ola av 7rpo0vp.a(pverdbea.. VTroy^ovBpiov. neleeaBai M. 8 eX/ceos. Oak-ty-us. ci/cpea. ovpov.>]pd.a eKovaiov. A 68 . e? tovvcivtiov.i] vypd' V f. tttvuXov. ireirova.. pivos teal vypao~p. 2 f] peVet.<]Tai. pcov. dXXoi /BXaTTTOina. 8vo~co8ea. /cat tov auaafiov. fii) /cavp. /cat irvOecrOai 9 tw Xoyio'p. avoids.O. dpdprov. rj XP<*><: dXfivpos. of A : ?. o~(i>8eo~i Ta Bianco peovra.ota pis. 3 p.6<.r) vjpd. o~%fjp.

cold. nose. 3 I take this to mean that all good signs show a similarity. sputum. if he be interested in information. wetness of the nostrils. thirst that was dry. dryness or fulness of the body . . . emptying. pulsations . flatulence. The evacuations.HUMOURS. and vice versa. rapid l eyes respiration hypochondrium sickly change of complexion . within or without. or the want of power. fetid. nails power. These are signs smell of the . chilling. . urine. with coction. 3 The dreams the 1 The word 6a\tp6s is poetic in the sense of "frequent" But this is no objection when the (9a\tphs y6os in Odyssey). without coction. mind 2 voluntary posture hair joints. brought about neither by heat nor by any other cause.-iv. what he does in sleep if his hearing be sharp. sweat. that harm. IV. sores. . in some cases but not in others. IV. the skin. yvwfj. or of the humours generally. extremities ." 69 VOL." poetic again in this sense. . voice. ear. nose saltness of skin. In every way tears. urine.) £ . 2 If (paivris and yiwuLT)s are not mere slips for <pu>vh and GKK-npvafxis must be used metaphorically with them to signify a rigidity of voice and thought not uncommon in serious cases of illness. : chills. not present before. palpitations: hardness of — mouth. moist. When that which causes the colic is below the navel the colic is slow and mild. In fevers not ardent. the things that patient sees. skin. . Prostration. . sputum. to bear easily what is necessary. m. stools. 4 In estimating signs take the majority that are more important and more promi- similar the things . (hip. muscles. . 4 The reading ireideodai would mean " is readily obedient to orders. 6o\(p6v would mean "troubled. style is aphoristic. benefit. warming. whither they tend without foam. and so do all bad signs.7).

€K roiv oupcuv oiroia dv j). not iirtxaipa. KardaTacriv 8e t/)<? vovcrov 5 €K twv rrpcoTUiv dp%op. 3 ifj. 2 (pepwaiv A: (ptpovfftv'M. on rj ra icpivovra. Kal rjv 3 20 (f>epoocnv. direp Kal avTop. ra : «al okStg Kpicriv roiavra 5 6 M. Trz'eu/xaTO? [xeicoais. Kal jd drroX\. e%avoripLaTa)v. x* I fidXiara KaKOvrai.uoia a Se? elSevat : A fuvvOriffis M.vvra} pivas.p. A (iyuoia ra aTncWa 5ei eltievai 10 oiipajf 12 M. ivavria. xpoirjs G 7 t ^dXXa^?.evcoi> o Tt dv eKKpivi]rai. pbd\ea9aL ainolaiv. olov (f>vaai.\6yovs. * Kal irore Kpitriv Kal to. 2 ottoiov 68p.. Kal rd (SXaTnovra. Kai to 6p. eTTiOecopeeiv Ta jU$7 Siatrrifiara M. ovpov.eva cocpeXel. evcf)6p(o^.}) Galenic commentary. rwv erepoov Littre. Kara ! hpd><. lax u P'^ Te P a Ta T^eiw. fielwffis 8 9 A eVaWa^is M. & 10 Kad' hie^ohoi ovpcov. irdarj aladdvwvTai TOiavra. Littre^ does not note that A gives fiet^ai 1 Kal erepccv A : fie^ai ^ 4viKatp6repa.ara. Kal raWa /nerd ra fjurj opioia a Set ei&evai? tovtcov eTTi6ea>peiv. V. irrvaXa. : omitted by M. 70 .oi. ar^ij/uLara. Kal oIltj t£9 (TV/jLTTTCixrts. 6p. rewriting the text from the jj.[/u.d<. eirucaip6repa ra crw^ovra ruiv laxvp&repa ra w\elw enixatpa to. <rw£ovraeirifcaipa. aw^ovra ra>v erepoov M. fifCu Ka l<TX v P^ re P a Ta TtAelcv.ara iirtcpaivop..oia d\\i]\oicri rravra z 10 uxpekeovra.dTia. olov oaov Kal ttotc' oiroaa S' Ta 26 i<yyv<.o<Ta avrop.\a|i$ 7 A A : : : M omits ra euTrioel Ms add roaavra roiavra. rj n rpayfidrwv. Kal ra kolvcl toicti iradijfiaai irpwia Kal €K (pvpdrayv. A : % A o5pa M.Tia A: roiavra Kal A elpar a ical M. cnrorpeTreiv. kiriKaipb-Tzpa alaOtjaei iravraiV. tcai irore Kp'iaiv Kal rd TOiavra* i/xTTOiel. rb /xev «t : 8.aTa.ocra Te^vrjcTLv. u 4) A : l/c M. eiriicaipa. vcrrepas. After tt)s I'ovaou e|aA.IIEPI XTMQN ra a<p^ovra twv erepcov 1 t& irXeio)..

the nature of the urine. 1 I translate the reading of A. discharge from : tumours. They must be known. Littre puts a full-stop at <rxT)M aTa aud a comma at "II y a bonne tolerance. which Littre follows. but I suspect that a gloss has crept into the text. change of colour. 2 I have punctuated from <rx'hlJLa 'Ta t° °^ov roughly as it is in A. clothes. 7i . symptomes survenant spontanement soulagent. as do those that help. of the right kind. smells. is intolerable." is surely impossible. postures and Symptoms which benefit even when they manifest themselves spontaneously (and sometimes these too bring about a crisis). quand les (V(p6pu>s. The abnormal conditions that must be known passage of urine. sputum. the state of collapse. of the right amount. but the vulgate. and at the right time. translating. kripuv." In any case the sentence is broken. les plus forts et les plus considerables. comme les gaz.HUMOURS. iv. from wounds. such as flatulence and urine. Parts near and common to affected so on. possibly ra a4C^"Ta -rav " les Littre's translation. — places suffer lesions first and most. . conversation. diminution of respiration and the other symptoms besides. those that harm and those that kill. sweat. eyes. etc. what is for all critical spontaneous and what artificial symptoms follow a norm. et quand ils sont suffisants en qualite et en quantite. et quand ils font crise. for example. In examining the constitution of a disease look to the excretions in the initial stages. plus nombreux. menstruation. from eruptions. that the bad may be shunned and . nent those that denote recovery are more seasonable than the others. 2 What is contrary avert combat it.-v. V. 1 If the patients perceive everything with every sense and bear easily. nasal discharge. 18 airoAAvvTa or UTroWvvra A : airoWvovra M.

.rj hihovai p. 6hp.aaiv. [ra o<Ta xal 2 Sex erai A irepicpevyei airorpeirei: Kakelrai Kal dyy ffr6fxaros' 3 Kpoo~Kaker]rai Kal ayr) ra 8e irpo&s ra fiev Trepupevyoov. ola rcpivei. Tolaiv ev r-fjai irepiohoiai Trapoijuap-otai ra TrpocrdppiaTa p.rjS' dvay/cd^eiv. 20 p.a2 tos. vypoiiv ey^pia"fcp'ia p. £r)pf}vcu. Kal Xr/rai Kal dyrj Kal heyrjrai. pbrjre p. fSpwpiacn. kal ere 4 orroaai arx oai dates roiavrai yivovrai. air or pcirei. Ka S4xV Tat M. 1 vewreporroielv. fyipolcnv.eWovo-i. ctlv. 7rop. emrraaroi.aTO<. dypvjrvLT]. vttvwv.aaiv. dvdrpiijris.fjaiv. Sfip-aro . 72 . 7 8 9 ttpo raiv Kpio-'iwv Kal omitted by A. to. KarcoOev. Ihioiai.ijre aXXoiaiv epeOurp.. ev TTohSiv yfrv^ei. a/cpecov. d(pohoiaiv. ra he Trpoa/ca1 he ovrw. hepp. 6 : iacrts edffis A M 1r\<ris vulgate.eva p. arop.i\ drraprl Kiveiv. vyprjvat. o-)(i]p. (yynqpdrwv. ra KtKpifxeva omitted by A. yjrv^ei. aAA. VI. vrrvos.t]8e /llcv piolaiv. ev rolai 7rapo£vcrp. p. u/^fiaros A : Kal '6re Kal ra roiavra A ofifiaros' : aro/xaros M.ara. eiriheroiaiv. ra 10 he aW* eav.' ev Karapporcw rfj pLrjT 26 vovaw.aaiv. 5 6iroo~ai a. 6pdp. aKOvapiaevvor)p. airdpri A : aprtws M. 4 A omits «al in. 9d\y\rei. Littre' Kal 8re to roiavra with Galen adds Set after roiavra.a<T emrrXdaroiaiv.oi<Ti A1 '/'76 tovai. eiriOeroicn. eparXdaroiaiv. M. rrvevpcaaiv dvcoOev. <ri. aiv. Kal rdWa 1 ore Kal roiavra 3 firfvavaa'dat. eacris^ rrovof.acuv. 5 olai wfaXiovai.eva /cal ra K€Kpip.Troo'rdo'KS roiavrai yivuvrai : A : ocrai roiavrai airo- rdffies yivovrai M. uAA' i a<f>aipelv roiv •npoaOealwv rrpb rcov 8 Kpialwv? 9 ra /epivop. pnqre (^appLaKeirjcri. dpOpwv. VTroxovhpiwv.IIEPI XYMftN w? ra fiev irepityevywv airoTpeirr). dpylrj. koivoictiv. re^vrjroiaiv.

. mouth. of the skin. moistening. leaving 1 alone. sleep. drinks. common. artificial 2 not. nor when the feet are chilled. cooling. abscessions of a helpful character must be encouraged by foods. It seems to be better to take Koivoiaiv re\ v ro ^fflv as agreeing with irvivfiatriv. dressings. but diminish the quantity before the crisis. sounds. encouraged and welcomed. smells. Do not disturb a patient either during a crisis or just after one. powders. breaths from above. moist things. particular. averted. when paroxysms are present or imminent. however. drying. Perhaps they are an addition The to the text from a marginal note of a commentator. ideas. Here M has fii)Te VfwTeponoUeiv jUTJTf (paplXaKlTJiffl yUT)T€ K. joints. Similarly with other symptoms. warmth. either by purgings or by other irritants do not try experiments either. dry things. 73 . from below. but leave the patient VI. although the editions read Itjcis. evacuations. and not as separate substantives. rest. Moreover. hypochondria. such as denote a crisis. 2 These difficult words I take to mean {a) letting the air play upon the patient from different directions {b) taking long or deep breaths. keeping awake].-vi. eye. exertion.T. postures. plasters. dictionaries do not recognise ta<ns. anointings. and (c) the use of a fan. and that the good may be invited. v. the word is correctly formed from 4da> and makes excellent sense in this passage. extremities. applications [postures. .HUMOURS. '')' 10 )XT)Se veciireptoTToiefti/ A. and when symptoms of this kind must be provoked. sights. but — when the disease is declining. At the periodic paroxysms do not give nourishment do not force it on the patient. . sleep.A. . but. ointments. . 1 It is hard to see how these nominatives came to he included among the datives. salves. massage. .

/cal rj ottov Be Bel. i)v fil] opya' ra Be ttoXXo.rjpa OepLtd ecrrat. fj ptirr) Sta omitted by M. 9 TolfflV JIT) TOlOVTOlfflV A : TO?fft TOlOVTOlffl M.afceveiv /cal Kivelv. ov/c opya.vto.- A : iirl to tto\v- toCto Trjiffi tJjcti Littre". 20 irepiaafiaiv ava>. Be tcl rrXelcna ev Tjjatv dprtrjtri /cdrco' ovtw yap rrepioBot robs avrofiara axpeXel. t'i ecus av tovto fj aWo.ua iron)o-87). ovveica TTOielraL'^ el ti ctXXo Tore Bel. 10 a Bel ayeiv. 2 Lvt]Be ev apxfjaiv. ev Be /cal 1 8 ra Kpii/ovra . dXX* av X W PV t& o>? p.nEPI XYMQN KplvovTa errl to fteXnov fii) avTL/ca eTTKpalveaOai. iirHpa'tveaOai teal not in MSS. 3 twi> ra ^copeovra <rv/x<pep6vT(ov ywplwv. ra. A ?. . il/ita Trfirova (pap/j-OLKtveiv ital /xii M : ircnova <papua- Keveiv 3 4 Kiveetv u>. Be by pa tfryYpd' BtaxooprjTt/cd iv ttjcti 6 Be rdvavTia' eVt to 7roXv Be ravra. fjv Kcil fiwv A : §v 'ius toov napo^vaal TrepioSiKtxl KaTaaTaffits Toiavrai . but added by fit) Mack and 2 Littre from the Galenic commentary. Tore ?. A. Se' iir' ^qpTjvaiiroi7)CT7)S dfTicrn-acrat ecos 7} ov ("vena 7roieeTai vyprjvat. rjv ical al rrepioBoi /cal r) /cardcnacns roiavTf) r) tcov Ttapo^vaLiwv'7 ylverat. Kivseiv. ev Liev dprirjaiv avco. e&>? av tovto Troiijdf). aA\o Tpf^/erar : iiraWa eveKa tovto 5 6 peipai iroieerai %-qprjvai. ev rfjcriv dpTirjai iroieayvTat' ev Be 9 Tolcri Ltrj TOiovTOiaiv. 61a Bel. ea>s av tovto avr iffirdaar ov M. (f)£pr) evcpopoos' XeirrodvLiijaai. After iirl -tyvxpa- A M 7 : els iro\v Si tclvto. yviwaai. otttj av LLaXiara peTrrj Bid. pur) oo/xd. 74 . rj aPTiairdaai.] 1 irkirova <papp. : A tjv jiii] al M. eV aXXo peyfrai. vyprjvat. rj rj ^rjprjvai.' iv Tjjcri iv iirl rt) tto\v Se to.r) TrXrjOei re/cp. 6 rjv e^ap/crj 6 vocrecov tovtoutl Tetc/xaipeadat' ra Liev j. rjv at Trapo£vapLob<. ravTrj ayeiv. has fa-rat.a[pea0at. ica) al irepioSoi Kal r) KaTcia-Taffis ToiavTri erji tuv irapo^vo'ixSiv 8 r)v al M. .

that is. humours. to a fainting condition. further. whether your treatment has been successful. humours that have to be evacuated in the direction in which they mostly tend. alone. if need be. E. : .] Purge or otherwise disturb concocted. 3 That if the paroxysms and evacuations are neither both odd nor both even. To find out. 75 . until the object in view be If then there be need of anything attained. the Take as your strength of the patient permits. if the periods cause the paroxysms on the even days. and by the convenient Judge of evacuations. a Evacuate the thing which rarely occurs then. not by bulk. 3 evacuations should be upwards on even days. shift your ground dry up the humours. 1 if. . a flow of blood to the head should be treated by hot water applied to the 2 feet. the dry will be tests 2 the following symptoms hot. But when the circumstances are not such. is.HUMOURS. moisten them. When occasion calls for it. On odd days evacuations should be upwards if the periods and the constitution of the paroxysms be odd. treat by revulsion. but passages. of an improvement ought not to [Critical signs be expected to appear at once. and by the way in which the patient supports them. downwards 1 This apparently means that if there be a flux of the humours to one part of the body. vi. and avoid the onset of a disease. reduce the patient. they should be "drawn back" by medicines or applications. by conformity to what is proper. This is what usually happens. On even days they are generally downwards.g. unless there be orgasm. and the moist cold purgatives will produce the opposite effect. not crude. for so they are beneficial even when spontaneous. that is.

dpdpa irapa yvdOovs paX.71 A M. is omitted in M. 7 : dyetv. Trpoaoirepa)' Bel Be 6\iyd/ci<. M. iirl rb avoo /naWov Kal rb ffvfxirav M.iara ri rwv ttovwv diroardaies yivovrai. dyetv roiat 5e KoirtwSeaiv rb ffv/xirav iv rolai Toiai KoirdSecri rb ffvfxirav iv roiffi M. Ktirw &va> koto) '6<ra /j. 5 6 eiKocrrela Kal reaffapaKoarela A : &K6cra eiKoffraia M. constitutions when paroxysms are on odd days and purges on even days. Tolcn K07TQ)Beat to irvperolaiv e? real 1 2 o\lyai 5e TOtavrcu TrpoarjKovTa (the omitted by A. 8 to>v Kal ti Kal is irapa yvddovs iyyvs dpdpa irvpertiSefff irivaiv i) itcaGTOV iirl to &va> /xaWov Kal rh av/xirav iv Tola A irupeTo'ttxr : Kal is &pdpa Kal irapa yvddovs irvperoi<Tiv is dpdpa Kal irapa yvdOovs /xdAiffTa airoffrdffies yivovrav iyyvs ti twv ttSvccv (KacrTov. That is. which also has % after Kardppoiros. €771. ttoWcl Set tca&alpeiv. p. arap kcLto)' Be /ecu rd irpoaoi olov 30 2 "fcpovov 7Tpoi']fcovTa dvayxx] outgj?. Karat icai ai VII. The cases considered seem to be these 1 : — 76 . or vice versa. ical oca elfcoaraia. 3 TpHT/caiSe/cdTT) Be dva> 4 (jrpos kutw.? 8 e/cdarov. A 9 apybs Kal al M and first : hand in A : avdpponos corrector's hand in A. TpHT/caiSetcaTaia. eVt to dvco paWov Kal to avpirav rjv x apyos rj vovaos rj icai Karappoiros.IIEPI 7T€piacr7J(Tt XTMfiN 1 ai okiyai Be roiavrat. 7 ev rolai avpirav. 10 M ai A.ev reaaapeaKatBeKarala. -<r.apparently added afterwards) A : irpo-qKovTa 3 &va> 4 A (with : : -a- erased) M. 5 ttXjjv oaa kutco. ravra Be prj 6 iyyvs ovtw Kplaios. TOiavTai 8vcr/cpiT(t)Tepat k ai aar dates. ev 6£eai TToWa ayeiv. reacrapecrKaiBeKdrrj dWd 35 yap to Kpiaipov ovreo avpcpepei).

and the reading of A. 1 Such constitutions are be similarly treated for example. Rarely in acute diseases must evacuation be copious. vi. in each case near to the part where the pains are. where a necessity for purging occurs on a day when a paroxysm is not due. — rare. abscessions 4 are most likely to occur at the joints and by the jaw. It is possible that these words are a marginal note which has slipped into the text. If paroxysms (b) A purge is necessary on an even day. but it makes ttA. and the Prolonged illnesses must of twenty days. If the disease be sluggish and incline to the lower parts. 3 in cases of fever with prostration. on odd days. purge upwards.tw and avw. 4 For the meaning of "abscession " see Vol. purge downwards. purge upwards. k<Lto> and &vu> being transposed A as in 3 A. and in it rolai KOTTiw8e<ni> occurs in close The Galenic commentary conjunction with iv roiixi -KvpeTolcrtv. to an upper part. and similarly with . those which last thirteen or fourteen days purge on the thirteenth day downwards. I (Introduction). occur on even days. The usual cases are referred to in ttXtjv Sa-a kvltu. If paroxysms occur on odd days. If paroxysms occur on odd days.-vii. liii. joins -roiai kotcwSio-i with &yeiu.HUMOURS. and that they should be deleted. Purging must be copious. This is very strange. in fact generally. VII. 2 The readings in the text connect these cases with the rare cases mentioned above. is certainly more natural. Littre points out that Aphorism IV. p.V '6<ra koltw absurd. Generally. which transposes k6. and not near the crisis but some time before it. the abscessions too collect in a diseases (a) purge is necessary on an odd day. crises are rather uncertain. or at least awkward. purge downwards. 77 . If paroxysms occur on even days. more often. on the fourteenth upwards (to do so is beneficial for the crisis). 31 is the source of the present passage. 2 except when purging should be downwards.

iroieoi A A : : vooyfjMTi M.IIEPI aTrocrrdaie . Kat acajxaTa aetpeei.aTO<. rj acop.a iroiei. npoireirovr)KO<i irplv i) aTToarripi^erai. This MS. 6 7 ha'i. voar\p. 7. iroteei M. elhevai. 341). omits itoiiovat.io<. fiaXiara Se fievois 10 ar/pauvovai. This seems to mean that abscessions may be the result of 78 ." and probably ravra A 3 is a simple anacoluthon. Tou? puev ovv %vp. e? b ti pakiara 1 r) (pvais peirec' r) tovtcov tl Kal 9 f olov ti a7r\r)v olBecov ipvai<. A (with tyvxvs).vdadai.' cr-^eBov ti Kal XpcopaTa 8 rt 1 2 3 4 ±u KaK07]U7}. reference to Epidemics VI. ev e'9 raina Ylepiv9a> ai 15 /3fjx€<> Kal KvvayyjLKolaiv' Troieovoi yap teal 2 airoaracnaSj coenrep ol irvpeToi' ravra rj Kara. avruKa Be ^epalv rj iroal TTOvijaaaiv. ev fjaiv 4 wprjaiv dvdeovai. airo 3 yypwv. tov avrov \6yov o~vvtiJI.ov<. treiptoi : : ''ao-Tij. omits i)(xiv fj : A : before curb and before crw/xaros.ari avdtovat. A omits TOiircov ti Kal M oivapoi A.' 1 XTMQN Se 7roSe9 aveo. 12 "j" Kat et Tiva wpoirfTrovr)KU)S ravra : roiavras- A : M iv A ti irenrovriKuis erjt M. 10 A omits crcip-ara. ev tovtois cKptaravrar arap Kal r\v Tt r olai Oepfiol kcito) Be avi<JTa- 1 17. 8 5 Kal ola ev eKaa-rqi vocnjpaTi 5 7ra0t]to Be acopa to aXXo. 0717. A f>eirei 9 11 12 M rpeVei A. ^Tj-^coheai olov Kal rolaiv voaeiv. VIII. Kal "tyv)(fi<i. 1 The reading of A seems grammar square with toCto to be an attempt to make the two. omits Sip-paw altered to fjv elaiv. aXko' TavTa Biayeyvp. M. yfrv^pol eK roiv vovacov. "accusative of the part affected. para. 6 8 cra>jj. 7 (Littre' v. Kal ola ev e/cdaTrj voarjpara 7roieov(Ti. 2 is a curious But the accusative later on. Siaytyv/AvdcrBai M r\.

and what symptoms they cause in each disease. in grammar that I have printed the text between daggers. abscessions form in these a part suffer pain before the the humours settle. from the Galenic commentary). . and so on. soul. tovtuv t{ koL i\ (pvcris In the next sentence the variants crivapoi of A and ffw/xara ffapioi of M. or a parched. 1 in it that and out. both ti (before <rir\riv) and toutwv being It would perhaps be a slight improvement to irregular. a swollen VIII. For example. whether they come from humours or from wasting of body parts." 4 This chapter towards the end is full of difficulties. patients. for crwfjicna <retptei (Littre. on rising after an illness. The sentence otou (pvffts is strange. suffer immediately pains in arms or feet. as was the case with those who in Perinthus 2 suffered from cough and angina. Hot feet especially signify a lower When abscession. to which the constitution contributes something. Then it seems to be implied that a bad complexion. It is much the same with an evil complexion. The general sense of the whole chapter is that the physician must know (1) the effect of the humours in various seasons and in various diseases. For coughs.-vm. know to what disease the physical constitution most inclines. spleen produces a certain effect. and (2) the disease to which an individual constitution is most inclined. seem to show that the text is unsound. vn. like fevers. hot skin may also denote a tendency to a particular disease. .HUMOURS. cause abscessions. punctuate olov tI ankriv olStwv iroiel . : . These results are the same. Be practised in these things. it is if illness. 4 wasting diseases as well as of those caused by "peccant humours. 79 . or the body is parched. Moreover. cold feet an upper abscession. lower part. and is so irregular. As to the body generally. 3 Know in what seasons the humours break what diseases they cause in each. . not to say violent.

. vrj? re kolXov 10 X €P a ^ 6'<£j9 e£at<p<pof3oi.vXr]<. M M M M 81a. Sucropyt]aLai. ocfiOeis 11 "xXwporriTa 12 iiroirjo-ev. p. &\\a toi roiavra A ra &\\a ra roiavra M. : ovtcds (vaKovrj hedarco rb irpoo~f}Kov rov aoofxaros tt) 7rpT)|7j eV rovrots ovroos viraKover (Kaarooi 5e rb trpoa^Kov tov - A : auifxaros. r) Xeywv. avrai rpepbovaiv. dtcofjs' ad>p. has olov before alo-xvvr).' ai 2 e'9 perafioXal e£ ottov ola. olov Xvirai. Kard^yai<i.o-rj<i irpo^ Til>> irapd irapiovri criceXea rpepei. /cvftoov. has 5ta rrjs. £t)tGiv A : A (rirriaiujv olov. 9 11 13 14 4 A omits 7) bpSiv. 8 omits ra before A adds f) before yywixris. rrjt irprj^i iv rovroiaiv [-v in second hand) inraKover ?j M. 12 A has riSovij Autttj. kcli rd eKaarw to rotavra. r)8ov/].aTa. Xvirrj. real T6%i>a9 97 81 dvdyKas Kaprepir] wvtivcov reraypievrj r) dra/CT0<. 13 ovtoos VTra/couei 18 7Tpij%€l. r) peXercov. 10 omits tis. aXXa rd rotavra. M. 10 ola rd eoovTijv. olov Sid ttovwv. TOS TT) Trpoar/Kov rov aoopaiv TOVTOLCTIV 1 * ISpcores. 16 ffpcc/xdraiv 2 3 8 7 A dporiov A. opyi]. 15 to. pev Tpi(f>6e(. Kap8il]<i X. aicpaair) ttotcov rj iypr)y6p(Xio<i. r) optov. T<ov Svvapevcov^ 5 rd e^codev axjyeXeovra ftXarrrovra. 5 el ti aXXo. r) ^tjtcov. r) Bi epwrds Ttvas. 1 ?') Kard^ptai^. ?) iiriBvfudi' 7 rj rd 8 6 diro avyicvpir}<$ \v7n']/j. tyvxrjs. 4 * <pi\0TT0vii] yfrv^rji. 80 . dXetyjri^. orav re rfjo-i a>v /j#) Selrai. 6 omits H«A. 3 e/c twv i)decov. 1 IX. 6&6vt€<. M. v7rvov.IIE PI XTMflN kcu fipcopdrayv. rj t<z Sid twv 6pLpaT0)v. omits from uvrtvuv to : M o'lwv. oi ala")(vv7}. rovra A rotavra rSiv Svvafifvuv rd e^uidev : uidi'-Xiovra- fi fHAairri rd rotavra' rSiv Swa/xioov rd e£u)6ev uxptXtovra BXairrovra. rraXpos. rjpdihrjcrav.ara 9 rj yvwprjs. aiprj.

strong deAccidents grieving the mind. Glaucias. for example. reads ^rrfcriuiv or £r)Tr\<rewv. IX. . X. with its cognates. 2 8i .-x. added the negative /xtj before the participles. pain. either through sires. words. not understanding the words. and one is strongly tempted to adopt the " lack of self-control. and the regularity or irregularity of such endurance. Fears.Karaxvans altered to the singular So with the next two apparently by the original scribe. How the body behaves : when a mill grinds the teeth are set on edge . Among psychical symptoms 1 are intemperance the and food.") is rather strange. and in wakefulness. 16 A reads KaraxpLvecs. in drink ix. Instances are sweats. whether in 2 inquiry or practice or sight or speech similarly. love of dice) or for the sake of one's craft or through necessity. passion and so forth to each of these the appropriate member of the body responds by its action. after changes. griefs. an old commentator. fortunately this reading leaves ravia. Of remedies that may help or harm those include anointing. palpitation of the heart and so forth. iyv/xvaarlTi tyvxys. affusions. the the legs shake when one walks beside a precipice hands shake when one lifts a load that one should not lift the sudden sight of a snake causes pallor. Of moral diligence of mind. . without any construc- tion.HUMOURS. vision or through hearing. endurance of toil either for the sake of certain passions (for example. shame. passionate outbursts." Unreading of A. etc. This phrase has no grammatical construction with the and the manuscript M. pleasure. applied externally States of mind before and : characteristics . in sleep. rest of the sentence. : 1 The genitive tyvxvs ("belonging to the soul are.

^povia. : to roidSe A. yovi]. 15 Kal A.r) yiverai. ^eXoivai. XI. to. rapaKriKa' Xoyoi. eawOev Be. dat]TTTa. M (wdiois A.erp[o)<i /SeAriav Oeppbaivet. oi/tco? 10 8 8ia7ri]8a. Oi rporroi twv voixtwv ra av yyeviKa t/}? ^oopr}? eonv 1 elSevai irvOofxevov. opcocriv. (woio-iv (-v in second hand) of So A. copyaiv. 12 veov loo-rrep vSpelov Xpoo/xevoiai p. ovto) Kal 1) Kal vTroard6/xi)v tercet p. Kal to Trapd /3ao-tXet 5 to.al twv eao) 7rpoa(f>epop.uev ffK\r]p6o~apKa Littre suggests that after toiovtov there has fallen out some phrase like outc* koI ?j KoiXirj.€va)v drdp Kal rdSe* ev eploiai kolttj irivooheai. Kal dep/xaivei. Kal ev rolai irviyp^olai. 8 A Koirpiufxivt] : x il P<*vos Qepixaivn. eau>6ev Se Xctttov £ypofyiphv e^ei. Kal 6 ri toiovtov.ovtivs 6ep/j.nEPI XYMON Kardifkaais. olov 10 ^XiKiyaiv. The reading x ei P-<*>vos. coinrep K. tragi A. fywvi). vareptj. vynipd. evSodev . £rjp6o~apKa M. iiriheai^ iptwv Kal tS)v tolovtcov. : rd drrb viraKovtrri dfioicos 2 tovtoov * A : : rcov toiovtwv 3 6 6 7 A oi/ : j8ao-iAei M fi6vov M. Kal tyi>X£i>' 7 tbcnrep yi) Koirpevofievrj ^et/u. in order to make the text * : A 10 82 .r) m yaarrip dfp/xj] ylvercu Koirpevofjiivri icoiAlrf M. Kal ^cowv. 11 t« ^wvra' ou eviavrols opoia Tpifterai. 13 TraXaiov/xevov 14 yaarr/p 12 oicjirep Silei ttjv Tpocf))')v. Ta5e M M. km evhodev viraKOvei x tovtwv 2 3 ofioiax. 11 Kal /3r)]. "flarrep rolcn SivSpeaiv r) yi) ovtco rolai 6 rj %d)Otcnv yaart'jp' Kal rpetyet. oacjjpaivo/jLevoiaiv' dycoyd. M ^x is 6' r] t) tcevovntvi)- w\-npou/. Bpea <f)\<u6v 9 aapKa.iivri Btpnaifft. efa) Xeyofxevov kv/juvov. a^fiela 10 ravT ev Trjaiv ifkiKiyai. cneyei. rd Trpbs op^iv.cof 09 KecfiaXrjs oca Bevr) yaarrjp 6epp.L.ev dyyelov. fia^oi. Kal rd TotavTa. XII.

HUMOURS,

x.-xn.

inunction, cataplasms, bandages of wool and the like the internal parts of the body react to these remedies just as the external parts react to remedies applied Moreover, a bed made out of unwashed internally. fleeces, and the sight or smell of the cumin called "royal." Things that purge the head are disturb;

Breasts, seed, ing, conversation, voice and so forth. womb are symptomatic at the various ages in chokings and in coughs, fluxes to the testicles. XI. As the soil is to trees, so is the stomach to animals. It nourishes, it warms, it cools ; as it
;

empties
is

it

cools, as it

fills it

warms.

As a

soil

that

stomach grows warm. Trees have a slight, dry bark, but inside they are of dry texture, healthy, free from rot, durable so among animals are tortoises and the like. In their ages animals are like the seasons and the They do not wear out, but improve with year. moderate use. As a water-pot, when new, lets the liquid pass through it, but holds it as time goes on, so the stomach lets nourishment pass, and like a
in winter, so the
;

manured warms

vessel retains a sediment.

XII.
tal

The

fashions of diseases.

Some

and may be learned by inquiry,

as also

are congenimay those

conform to the Galenic commentary, which says that there is a comparison implied with the membranes of the stomach. Perhaps it is from here that got its reading of the preceding sentence. 11 After rpiPerat A adds to (aivra. 18 A omits &e\riw. 13 A has 5(07r«r- el 5 e, but the el is cramped and waa apparently added after the other words had been written.

M

14

Sdet Littre

:

ISeri

A

:

Siei

M.
written over the
-ex-.

15

A

has

ireid6/xevov,

with

v

83

IIEPI

XTMQN

1 (oi/ceovrai yap oi ttoWol, Bib irXeove^ icracri), ra Be etc rov crcoparo^, /cal ra dirb ra>v Biatrr)-

fMiToov,

zeal

Karaardaio<i
Be

t>}<?

vovcrov,
rd<;

2
r)

arrb

topas kcucws /ceip,evai roiavra ri/crovcri voa-jjpara, oiroirj av 3 olov dvcopaXov ddXrros t) wpy), ravrrj opolwi,
aipewv.

ai

\oypai

777)69

V

4

'

10 d>0ivoTTO)piva
rfjcriv

T vx°'t T»79 avrrjs rjpepi]<;, orav roiavra iroirj, iv rfj X^PV T<* voaijpara' /cal iv
r

5

14

aWtjcnv coprjcri Kara \oyov. ra, p.ev drro 6 dirb 68pea>v /3op/3opa)8ea)v i) eXcoBecov, to, Be vBdrcov, XiBioyvra, airXrjvdoBea, ra roiavra 8' drrb rrvevpidrcov xp^aroov re /cal /ca/cwv. 7
XIII. Up?;? Be olai eaovrai ai vovcroi /cal Karaardaie^, 8 e/c rwvBe' r/v 9 ai wpai d)paio)<;,
evra/cravi,
'

evKpiveas

vovcrov;

rroieovo-iv

ai

8'

eTTiyj^P 101 Tjjcriv

10 rov<i rpowpyai vovaot 8?]Xai 6 8' av i^aXXd^rj f) coprj, opoia ?} dvopoia ttovs' earai n ra vocnqpara, ola iv rfj a>pr) ravrrj 19 ouoio)? ayrj, ayn. y%ver at' rjv o opoiu)<i roiovrorpoira /cat irrl roiovro ei\/cvcrp.eva, olov t/crepov (f>0ivo7rco-

n

>\

c>>

?

/

i/

yap
2

olKeovrai yap Sia Tv\ei6vwv, ko.1 iroWol XaaaixoAAo: St6 nXeovts Icraor A. has 7/ curb before tt)s vovaov. 3 Possibly ravTTi dfxolws is a marginal explanation of the preceding words, and should be deleted.
oltteovrat
:

1

M

oi

A

4
5

6
7

A omits A has orav roiavra t« A 8e M.
77.
:

iroier}

after vocr^nara.

to roiavra

5' airo

irvsvp.aruv XPV°' T ^>'/ Ka ^ xaicuiv.

A

:

ret

5e,

curb Trffv/xaraiy xpV ar ^> v T * «ai Kaxiov apxovrai 8 tear avr da its : Karaarao-'icov A.

M

M.

6

A
77

omits

¥ju.
:

10

SfjAai
clipri

A

8r7A.0C.r1
ical

M.
Jama larai

avr-q

o'urws &yy,

A

:

y

u>ot],

'61x01a,

J)

av6fxo'.a

%arai

M.

84

HUMOURS,

xii.-xm.

that are due to the district, for most people 1 are permanent residents there, so that those who know are numerous. Some are the result of the plvysical constitution, others of regimen, of the constitution of the disease, of the seasons. Countries badly situated with respect to the seasons engender diseases analogous to the season. E.g. when it produces irregular heat or cold on the same day, diseases in the country are autumnal, and similarly in the case of the other seasons. Some spring from the smells of mud or marshes, others from waters, stone, for example, and diseases of the spleen; of this kind are waters 2 because of winds good or bad. XIII. What the character of a season's diseases and constitutions will be you must foretell from the If the seasons proceed normally following signs. and regularly, they produce diseases that come easily The diseases that are peculiar to the to a crisis. seasons are clear as to their fashions. According to the alterations in a season, the diseases such as arise in this season will be either like or unlike their If the season proceeds normally, usual nature. 3 similar or somewhat similar to the normal will be the diseases, as, for example, autumnal jaundice ;
x

The

difference between

A

and

M suggests corruption, M

appearing to be an attempt to improve on A. Perhaps oi should be omitted before ttoAAoi. 2 So Littre, who bases his interpretation on Airs, Waters, Places, IX, where winds are said to give various characteristics to to waters. Possibly, however, we should read with

M

8e

instead of rotavra. " unlike the 3 seasons." Or,

eifr duolais

ayti

A

:

f)v 5' i/xolais

&yrn, %

M.

85

IIEPI

XTMftN

1 etc Oakirecov, teal OdXiros eK yjrv)£ea yap -2 teal r\v to Qeptvov %o\co8e<; yevyrat, teal 10 ^ir^eo?

ptvbv

av^]dev iytearaXeic^Orj,
ovv
teal

teal

vTrocnrXrjvoi.
real

3

orav

rjp*

ovtcos

dydyr),

rjpos
5

yivovTai

ifcrepot'

iyyvrdrco yap avri] rj tcivrjcrts rfi copy Kara, tovto to elBos icrrtv. orav Se depos yevyrat 6 iv Tolcri Truperocai, teal t'S/owTe? rjpt optotov,
evTponoi,
crrjaiv.

ov tcaro^ees, oi/Be /carder/pot yXcoa7 8 teal yetpeptov yevrjr at rjp 9 teal teal ai vovcrot, birtado^etpdyv, %€ip,epivai
teal

orav Be

ftrpxcoBees, teal irepiifXevptovticaL, teal tcvvayyiKa't. iv copy teal itaicfrvys 20 teal 10 <fi6tvo7T(opov, f rjv ptrj 1J roiavras x * vovcrovs pi] o-fj/e^ea)? y^etpaay,

u

"

•noiet f

Bid to

py

yiveraf Bi07rep ararot y'tvovrai,

teal

iv copy ypydat, avcopdXa ai copat dtcpiroi teal dteard-

dWa

15 at vovcrot, cocrrrep teal

idv irpoeK-

pyyvvcovrat, y rrpoKpivcovrai, y iytcaraXetTrcovrai' 16 ovrco (^iKvrrocrr potpoi yap teal at copat ytvovrai,
28
11 av 18 rrpoakoyicrreov ovv, otto'icos rd ai copat crcopara 7rapa\apj3dvcoaiv. e^ovra XIV. NoVot f3apvy/coot, d^/\vcoBee<;, tcapyfiapt1^ BiaXvrtKoi' orav ovros 20 Bvvaarevy, tcoijVcoOpoi,

vocroTTOieovcrat.

1 3

MpM:
6

2 A omits from IxTtpov to yap. \pi>xeos A adds koI ticrepai before «a! vir6airKy\voi.

M
:

:

i//u£ios

A.

iap A.
lire

6
•>;

idvrjais

M

:

Ktivt)

A.
'6rav 5e

tan V

to Oepos eapi
ifipwras

'6/j.oiov.

ISpunas

A

0epos

ytir}rat ijpi ofioiov. 7 5e omitted by
'
OTriffdox^'/J-'iy

M.
8

M

A.
:

tap A,
~h

without
A.
12

yivijrai.

10 13

A

6irtaa> ov x«'M^"'

omits

koI.

u A

omits

{wfX 6'*'
roiauTos
yivovrat
6/j.olixS

14
16
17

M M
:

A

yA\.

A
A.

omits omits

jutj.

:

o-wex& s Mravras ras A.
yivuivrai
(a>

:

u A
o ?)

ko.1.

:

A

changed to

oKoicus

M.

86

HUMOURS,

xm.-xiv.

for cold spells succeed to hot spells and heat to cold. If the summer prove bilious, and if the increased bile be left behind, there will also be diseases of

When summer season when it has this nature. turns out like to spring, sweats occur in fevers these are mild, not acute, and do not parch the When the spring turns out wintry, with tongue. after-winter storms, the diseases too are wintry, So in autumn, with coughs, pneumonia or angina. should there be sudden and unseasonable wintry weather, symptoms are not continuously autumnal, because they began in their wrong season, but ir2 So seasons, like diseases, can fail regularities occur. to show crisis or to remain true to type, should they break out suddenly, or be determined too soon, or For seasons, too, suffer from relapses, be left behind. and so cause diseases. Accordingly, account must also be taken of the condition of a body when the seasons come upon it. XIV. South winds cause deafness, dimness of
;

So when spring too has had a bilious constitution, there occur cases of jaundice in spring For this motion 1 is very closely akin to the also.
the spleen.

1

That

is,

the disturbance of the humours which causes

jaundice. 2 The sense apparently is that an autumnal disease, beginning in a premature winter, does not show continuously omits fx-q both before eV &pij and autumnal symptoms. But The before ffvvex* ws antl the latter negative should be ov. true reading seems to be lost.

A

>

18
19

A

omits

&j/

and reads

Trapo.Aa/.i.f}dvou<jiv.
1

v6tos

vdidpbv StaAvTixol 20 oStos

A

:

SiaAvTiicdv. ax^vivSes. Kaprj$aptK6v. 8apvT]Koov. v6toi fiapvriKooi.- axAi/tiSees Kapi]^a.piKoi- vwBpoi.
:

M.

M

outuis

A.

87

nEPI

XTMQN

1 toiovToTpoira ev Trjat vovaoiai Trdcryovaiv eXKea rjv fiaSapd, fidXiara aro/xa, alSoJov, Kal raXXa. 8e ftopeiov, firix^' fydpvyyes, KOiXiai aKXr/porepai,

Svaovpiat
6ict)v

2

(ppifccoSees,

oSvvat,

3

-nXevpecov,

cnr)-

orav ovros 4 Svvaarevr], roiavTa irpoaheyeaOat ra voai]para pbdXXov. rjv pidXXov irXeo10
vd'Cr}, avypLolaiv ol irvperol cttovtcu Kal bp,/3poiaiv, e% oTToioiv dv oi irXeovaapbol p,6i air ea coat, Kal ottw<; dv eyovra ra crco/xara irapaXd/Bcoaiv ifc rrj? kreprj<i a>pr]<;, Kal ottoiovtivogovv yyp,ov SvvaaTevovTOS ev tco acofiaTi. drdp dvvhpiai vonoi,

ftopeioi' &ia<pepei <ydp real

raXXa

ovrco' fxeya

yap

Kal tovto' aAAe>9 yap ev aXXy copy Kal X^PV p,eya<i, olov to 0epo<; xoXoirotov, rjp evaipuov, raXXa
17
&)9

eKaara.

p.dXiara tlktovcu vocn')p,dXiara, Kal ev rfjaiv Sprjaiv ai p.eydXai pLeraXXayai, Kal ev toictlv aXXoicriv dl S eK irpoaaywyrj^ ytvovrat, 5 ai copai avrai da^aXeararai, coairep Kal Biairat Kal n/rO^o? Kal 0dXiro<i pudXiara eK Trpoo-aycoyrjs, Kal
p,era/3o\al
ai p,ara,

XV. At
Kal

p,eyiarai

7

ai rjXtKiat ovrco pieTa(3aXXop,evaL. XVI. <$>vo-ie<i 8e &>9 7T/309 Ta<? wpas, ai

pt,ev irpb<;

iva ev Kai KaKcos irecpvdepoi, ai Se npos x €l lx ^ Kaaiv, ai Be 7Tyoo? ^<wpa9 Kal rjXiKias Kal 8iaira<; Kal Ta9 aXXas Karaardaia<; tcov vovacov dXXai
7rpb<i

dXXas

ev Kal

/ca/cco9

irecpvKaai, Kal fjXiKiai

7T/309

%<^/5«9

Kal

topas

Karaardaia^ vovacov Kal
1
8
8

SiatTas Kal 7rpos ev rfjaiv coptjac, BlaiTai,

Kal

Ti\iai

M

:

rolffi
:

ohvvai

M

4 A. ovtus has yiverai with ra Si preceding.

M

A.

3

Sucrovp'.ai

65vvu)0€€s

M SvaoupSrepoi A. M outus A.
: :

88

HUMOURS,
vision,

xiv.-xvi.

headaches, heaviness, and are relaxing. such winds prevail, their characteristics extend to sufferers from diseases. Sores are soft, especially in the mouth, the privy parts, and A north wind causes coughs, sore similar places.

When

throats, constipation, difficult micturition accompanied by shivering, pains in the side and chest ; such are

the diseases that one

when

this

wind

be greater still, rain are determined by the conditions that preceded this predominance, by the physical condition produced by the previous season, and by the particular humour that prevails in the body. Droughts accompany both south winds and north winds. Winds
cause differences and this too is important in all For humours vary in strength other respects also. according to season and district; summer, for instance, produces bile
;

must be prone to expect Should its predominance the fevers which follow drought and
prevails.

spring, blood,

and so on

in

each case.

XV. It is changes that are chiefly responsible for diseases, especially the greatest changes, the violent alterations both in the seasons and in other things.
as are gradual

But seasons which come on gradually are the safest, changes of regimen and temperature, and gradual changes from one period of life to
another.

XVI. The constitutions of men are well or
winter
to
;

ill

adapted to the seasons, some to summer, some to
others again to districts, to periods of life, living, to the various constitutions of Periods of life too are well or ill adapted diseases. to districts, seasons, modes of living and constitutions So with the seasons vary modes of of diseases.

modes of

89

IIEPI

XYMftN

Kal air la, Kal rrord, 6 /xev yap 1 %€i/A(bv dpybs 2 cnrXa, p.eya epya>v, Kal rrerrova ra eatovra Kal 10 yap Kal rovro' al oirwpai Be epydaipoi, r)\idoaie<;,

ra
12

7riv6fieva

irvKvd,

3

aKardarara

airia,

oivoi,

aKpoBpva. "

XVII. Qarrep Be*
dve/uLovs

eon
olov

£k rcov mpeov r«? vovaovs reKp,?jpaaOai, eari rrore Kal e'/c rwi' vovcrwv
fiopeia,
to,

vBara Kal

Kal dvvBpia<i irpoyivuxjK&iv, eari yap ev p,a96vri Kal 6p6w<i odev oKerrrea, olov Kal Xerrpai rives Kal
voria'
rrepl

apBpa

7rovoi,

5

vBara

orav

piiWr],

7 KV>io~pLwBee$ elat,

Kal

dXXa roiavra.

Kcu vcrfidrcov 61a rj Bid. rplrrjs, ?; Bid rrepwBcov aWcov, Kal ra avve^ea' Kal avep.cov ol fiev TroXvij/xepoi rrveovai, Kal dvTiirveovai aWrjXoicnv, aWoi Be Bid fipayvrepwv, ol Be Kal avrol Kara, rrepioBov' ravra e%ei
XVIII.
e«acrT?79,
t)

Karaardaeaiv 6p.oiorr]ra<;, errl ftpayjnepov to roiavra. Kal el piev inl rrXeov to ero? roiovrov eov tt)V Kardaraaiv errol^ae roiavrr\v, Kal 7r\eov 6 Kal ra voarj/xara roiavra errl
rfjai

Be

10

paWov 7
ovtg)<>

eyevero

yjpovov. Bplrjs 7ro\\?}?

layyporepa, Kal fieyiara voaijpara 8 Kal Koivorara Kal eirl irXeiarov e'/c twv rrp^raiv iiBdrwv, orav e£ civup,eXXr)

vBpaj7rcov Trpoenrelv,
crrjp.e'ia (j>avf)
1

vBwp kaeadai, hart, irepl Kal orrorav rdXXa apuKpd
ev /j.era/3oXfj,
2
4

ev
:

Q

vrjvepiir], r)
'in 6 fikv

ovvaKKal.

6 fiev
iruKi'6.

yap A

ola-

3 6

M

M.

A
:

:

avxva A.

omits ws 5' A.

oTffi

rivis,

Atirpai ical rives irepl to &pdpa Ka\ to, irtp\ ra &p9pz -irSi'oi M.
ra.

A

nfov Kal

Xeirpai

note on
text.

irepl

ra.

apdpa,

but

I

Probably ic&voi is a have not altered Littre's

90

HUMOURS,

xvii.-xviii.

In winter no work is done living, foods and drinks. and foods are ripe and simple an important point in autumn work is done, exposure to the sun is beneficial, drinks are frequent and foods varied, with wine and fruits. XVII. As it is possible to infer diseases from the seasons, so occasionally it is possible from diseases to for example, forecast rains, winds and droughts For he who has north winds and south winds. noticed symptoms carefully and accurately has evidence on which to work certain skin diseases, for instance, and pains at the joints are irritating when rain threatens, to quote one example out of many. XVIII. Rains occur every other day, or every day, some are continuous. Winds or at other intervals sometimes last for many days, and are opposed to one

;

;

;

;

another

others are shorter some, like rains, are ; These have resemblances to the seasonal periodic. If the year, constitutions, though less marked.
;

having had a certain character to a marked degree, has given this character to the constitution, the diseases too have this character to a marked degree and are more severe in this way have arisen very serious
;

diseases, very widespread and lasting a very long After the first rains, when rain is period of time. a after long drought, it is possible to predict coming

dropsies ; and when the other slight signs appear at a period of calm, or at a change, one must infer
6

Ka\ (I fiev

eirl

ttMZov to eros toiovtov tbv,
;

tt\v KaTO.aTO.aiv

hcoll\trev

toio.vtt)v
o'lt\v TT/i'

iirl

irAeov

A:

f)v

fi*v

iirl

nXeov rh eros

toiovtov,
7 8

/for dffT aa iv iiroirjae.

eVt irAeiov

M.

Before fiaWov
to.

M adds %v.
A
:

fj.eyio~Ta

ovtoj voo-ruiaTa. iyevtro
V7]ve/J.'nit

A

:

fxiyiffra voarjfJ.aTa f

ootids eyevtTo M. • dcfjuirj % iv (XfTaBoXri

eV ^era)3oArji.

M.
91

IIEPI
reov,
1

XTMON
2
rj

baai

fiev

i<j>

oioicnv vBaatv
/cal

3

19

vovaoi eiriarj/xaivovai, i olBe, rotovBe ^et/iwyo? Trpoyevo/ievov, olov r)p t] depot earat. XIX. T<z Xpci)p,aTa ovj^ ofioia iv rfjcnv wpycnv, ovBe ev fiopeloicri teal votioictiv, ouB iv rfjaiv
rjXi/cirjo-LV

aKOvcrreov

dvifioicri el Tt?

avTos

7T/30?

ovBevi.

cr/ceTTTeov Be

ef

ecourov, ovB' dXXos dXX(p <hv laiiev /cal irapeovrcov
5

/cal aTpepueovTcov irepl %poicov,

/cal ort,
/cal

Trjaiv
7
6

ibprjcnv

ep.fyepe.es

etcri

at r)Xi/ciai XP 0l V KaL

T/0O77O).

XX. Oi alp,oppoiBa<; eyovres ovre TrXevpiriBi, ovre irepnrvevp,ovlr], ovre fyayeBaivr), ovre BoOir)7 terw? Be ovBe criv, ovre repp^lvQoiaiv dXia/covrai, 8 Be ovBe t<xw? Irjrpevdevres aXfyotcriv Xerrprjcriv, 10 9 ye p-rjv aicaipa)<;, avyyoi roiovrotatv oi/ /3p<xSew?
edXwaav,
ify>

/cal

oXedpia ovrtos'

/cat

ocrat

aXXai

n

drroar dates, olov crvpiyyes, erepcov a/co$- 6<ra Be,
olcn

yevop^eva pverat,
12
rj

rovrcov
13

rrpoyevopueva

/ccoXviiara'
10
rj

ol vttotttoi rorrot, brroBe^dpLevoi rtovw

fidpei
1

aXXw
:

rivl

pvovrar
4

aXXouriv
tj.

ai

avvaKTtov oZv
irapeivTosv,

3
5

Before vovaoi

A omits M £wcikt€ov A. 8ti toiovtov M. roioCSe A M adds «al arpe/x(6vTCiiv, xpoiwv M Trept6iTccv'
2

at.

:

ar^efj-evvToiv teal irepl XP 01 6 koI xpo'V" Ka ^ Tpoirov
7

^ A.
:

rrepi

:

/cai

A

xal

A
A

XP 0L ^ Ka^ rpottwr M.
(the

omits

aXifficovTai.

8

b.\<pdlo-iv

M

:

&\\o?o-if
10

A
ov

two accents are

sig-

nificant).
9

omits

11

aWai
Saa

M

ye.
:

M

:

ov5h A.

&\Aaiv A.

12

yuora-

A: oaa

oh ((p' olcri ytv6ixeva alperai, tovtwv npoyffSfjieva kco\vftverai tovtwv itityvKiv irr i(p aiv 6 fit v a Traveiv.
-

TrpooyeuS/xtva kcoA.u/xoto

M.

92

HUMOURS,

xvm.-xx.

what diseases are typical of the various rains or winds, and must listen to anyone who knows the
nature of the spring or summer that will follow a winter of such and such a character. XIX. Complexions vary with the seasons they are not the same in north winds as in south winds individuals differ, and the same individual varies in complexion as he grows older. Judge of complexions by their permanent characteristics, realising that ages resemble seasons in colour as in character. XX. Sufferers from hemorrhoids are attacked neither by pleurisy, nor by pneumonia, nor by spreading ulcer, nor by boils, nor by swellings, nor
;

;

perhaps by skin-eruptions and skin-diseases.

How-

ever, unseasonably cured, many have been quickly caught by such diseases, and, moreover, in a fatal manner. All other abscessions, too, such as fistula,

are cures of other diseases.

So symptoms that relieve

complaints if they come after their development, prevent the development if they come before. Suspected places cause relief, by acting as receptacles owing In other cases to pain, weight, or any other cause. 1
1 The reading of A is a corruption of the reading of Epidemics VI. 3, 23 and means, "Places receiving (peccant humours) from another place, through pain, weight or any other cause, bring relief." A "suspected" place is one in which we might expect a morbid affection to arise, and pain here, or an accumulation of humours, might relieve affections

elsewhere.

The phenomenon

is

common enough

in certain

forms of neuralgia, the pains of which often jump from place to place in such a way that one pain seems to relieve
another.
13 o.\K<l)

&\\ov

tSttou.

ol

r6noi ovroi
&K\oi(Ti
t)

rw, pvourai
$)

A:

8o^dfJ.eyot- t) at KOtvoiviai'

trSvw
ol

tj fiaptt' f) uttotttoi t6ttoi

viroSf^diJ.fyoi ir6vw

Hdpei,

&\Aaii rivl frvovrai.

M. 93

IIEPI

XTMQN
tijv

KOivwv'iai' &ia ttjv poTri]v ov/c

dWa

Kara rod ^vfiov

en alfia epyeTai, ^vyyevetav roiaina

TrTvovaiv eo~nv olaiv al/ia dcpieadai iv Kaipw 1 iirl Tolai toiqvtoioiv, €7r' aWoiai Be wcnrep e7rl rovToicri tovto ovk etKO<;, /ccoXvais. eVi Tolai Be
2 Brj

to,

aiparcoSea tttvovctiv ooptj, TrXevplris, %oA.?/. irapa to ou? olaiv afufii Kpiuiv yevofieva fir)

i/cirvyjaei,
3

toutov
/cal*
8

Xcnraao-ofievov,
G
7

v7roarpo(j)7)
5

ryiverai,

Kara \6yov rwv viroarpo^ecov

20 t^? v7ro<TTpo(f)rj<i
Trapap,evei,

avOis <yevofxevr)<;, wairep at rwv irvpeTWV viroarpofyai, iv ofioirj irepiSSa)' iirl tovtoigiv eA,7ri9 69 apdpa 9 a^iaTaaQai. ovpov irayy, XevKov, olov tw tov

atperai Kal

'AvTiyeveos, iirl toIci KoiricoBeai TeTapraiois eo~Tiv ore ep^erat, Kal pverat, t?}9 air ogi actios, ±v Kai at, p.op payday airo pivwv 7jv oe 77/309 rovT(p oS to evrepov 11 iirl Be^id Kal nravv. 'ucavSiS, 12 eyevero' rjv ^av^airepos, eVet he apdpniKu>
29

tovto
1 2
3

IrjTpevOr/, eirnrovuiTepos.
Ka\ before eV Kaipcp. : roicri 5e Stj M.

A adds
Tot

rovToiaiv
irap'

A

oils

ols afupl KpLaiv

\aira(T<xofji.4t'ov

vTroarpotp}] ylverai'

yei/6/j.eva /xr] fKirv/at), tovtou tcc trapa rb ovs' oaoicriv :

A

av

a/xcpi ttpiaiv

yiv6/xfva,

tjv jxij eKirvr]a"i]i,

tovtov aTraWaacrofxeyov,

virb <TTpo<p}j yiviTai' 4 Kal : ret

M

M.
:

A.

6

6
7 8

Littre from Kptvo/xeva AM avdis M &v ris A. irapa/xeVij A. irapaitevei M
:

viro(TTpo(peu>v

M

iiirotnpoipeovTwv

A.
Galen.

yevo/j.€i>r]s

:

:

Q4

when the relapse follows the normal course of relapses. as sometimes in the former cases. pleurisy. by swellings by the ear do not suppurate at a crisis. 2 1 Or. n : : : evrepov (Ttpov A. 24 to 4. white urine. Thick. Guests. xx. through there is the sympathetic action. 3. apepmicbs as in Epidemics! M m 95 . the swelling rises again Blood-spitting may be caused by the bile. So both A and M. 1 a relapse occurs when the swelling softens . but in other cases blood-letting. " occur at a 2 The variations of reading are not very important. such cases seasonable blood-letting is possible. but when this symptom was cured the pains became worse. the flow. and when saves the patient from the abscession. or by When and remains.HUMOURS. 3. is not suitable but only a hindrance. The issue. and this is flow especially so if in addition there is a copious The patient whose right of blood from the nostrils. as in the case of the slave of Antigenes. Query TovTui M M has t6. 9 10 Chapter XX is crisis but do not suppurate. but the patients In some spit up matter connected with the humour. but we may note that kripwv &kos appears in Epidemics as 2) ere par See the Introduction to the present treatise. bowel was painful became easier when arthritis supervened. ceases to be one of blood. scession to the joints. season." the same as Epidemics VI. A 18 has tu with o above i: tovto A. following the same periods as occur In such cases expect an abfevers relapse. sometimes is passed on the fourth day in prostrating fevers.

.

APHORISMS .

Toto-1 7 V : : aiiTOfidrois C: : auTOjuarcdS Urb. w Bel <yLvea0ai 9 ovrco 8 teal tceveayyLr). rjv avTO/xdroiaL efxeroiac fxev ola Bel /ca0aLpea0at /cadaLpwvTai? avficfrepet re teal evepopcos <pepovaiv' rjv Be fi/j.ev yai dec rj ov. V 8e Littre. ov /jlovov eojvrov irapeyeiv ra YaXeirrj. Toiffi before toiciv. 'Ei> tt)o-i rd e^codev.i7ji<ri 4 5 4 C has M : tticti KotXirjat V : rrjs /coiAt'rjin Q. (pepovaiv rjv Be re yLvijrai. T7)i<ri KOiA. iirel to 1 16 eirl Be ovtc drpepueovaLV. o»V Rein. M Kevayylriv C Kadaipryrai Rein. 98 . IIPX2TON h aK P'h ° '0 ft Los ftpaxvs. * * So C Urb. V : Ktviayytiri M : niveay- ydvv Q. i) >) 2 Bel he. 3 rovs voatovras V. * Uvrhv Urb. avTo/j. 'Ev rolai ryvpLvaari/colaiv at eV a/cpov ewaiv ov evegLai acpaXepaL. Kaipos ogvs. nevayytiri 10 Urb. V Be T^X vy) Be irelpa Be x acpaXepr]. Be tcpLais 6 Trapeovras ical II. 4 rapaxfjai t% koiXLtjs teal rolaiv 6 5 Tolaiv jivopLevocaiv. avfupepei 8 y^a) pyv TovvavrLov. M. TovvavrLov. 3 teal tovs voaeovja /cat top aXkd Beovra iroieovra. rjv ev tw co^ctTa) 14 ovSe avra> t&> ev Bvvavrai drpe/xelv /xeveiv yap LLii. rjv fiev ola teal ev(f)6p<o<. : oStu 5). III. ov/ceri Bvvavrai to ovv eirl XeLirerai eiriBiBovai' fteXnov 15 8e omitted by C.A<X>OPI2MOI TMHMA I. eiriftXeTreiv ovv Bel teal topi]v teal xo x11 Kai V^ lKL V v Kai vovaovs.a.

tions. "deceptive. opportunity fleeting. and to the need for prompt and skilful treatment at 2 1 such times. So one ought to have an eye to season. . proper In athletes a perfect condition that is at its 3 Such conditions cannot highest pitch is treacherous. In disorders of the bowels. is. 2 1 experiment treacherous." It is just possible that Kpl<ris here means the crisis of a disease. the patient profits and bears up So too artificial evacuaIf not. if the matters purged be such as should be purged. "dangerous. Vu and /xeveiv . V places Svvavrat after &4\tiov. if profit what takes place is what should take place. or is not. the contrary. but also to secure the co-operation of the and of externals. rj has ua\ • • ko. age and disease. district. and that the aphorism refers to the danger attending a crisis. and are well borne. ovSi. well.APHORISMS FIRST SECTION I. the contrary. the only possible change is Or. 3 Or. the Art long. judgment difficult. change for the better being impossible. 99 . not only to do his duty himself. patient. III. of the attendants II. C Q. The physician must be ready.1 • Siov. and in vomitings that are spontaneous. remain the same or be at rest. If not. 14 15 Ermerins omits eireiS^ C. ecuo-ti/" l8 fit) Ermerins." 11 12 -^up-qu Kal Zp-qv olffi Q. Life is short. and. to see if the treatment in the circumstances. .

AOOPISMOI TOUTCOV OVV eiV€K€V T7]V ei)€^L>]V Xv€lV CTVfl. 8 9 ov Kal otjeaiv. 14 V. dXX' okoltj viropiiveiv. firj irrihi^eTai. IOO .6 styles 4 Ermerins omits ava\T)\ptais al 4s rb (ffxaroy &yovffai C. i'va irdXiv dp%r)v dvaOpetyios p. KaOeaTrjKvlai 16 Siairai. TOtcri al iv ra> ea^drw iovaai* atyaXepai? Ai Xeirral koX a/cpi/See? Slatrat. 13 coaavTcos 3 al icevdocnes al to eayaTov dyovaai X^-v^ie? acjyaXepal' Kal irdXiv al dvaiv IV.67rat' n /cal yap /cal 12 al irX^pcoaie . e'9 (pvo~t<i tou p. This suggests that irddfai is a gloss. hio pidXXov fiXdirTovTai' irav yap 15 o dp yivrjrat pieya yiverai pidXXov r) iv Tfjo~iv Sid tovto koX oXlyov dBporeprjcri SiaiTtjaiv. M M.6pa8e(c<. Ermerins omits from Kal to filairai . ytlpuV.r)8e Ta<i avp. 8 ' 7 11 Kenral V. teal 6 1 /cal iv roicriv puaKpolaLv alel irdOeo'i. 1 ra dp. has a*l nddecri in the margin in another hand. a. roicriv vyialvovai crcpaXepal al trdw Xeinai koX aKpi/3ee<.aprdvovaiv ol voo~eovT€<.7rr(i)cria^ e? to Xapifidvy to crwp-a.evai 13 ^aA. acpaAepai.evai Blanai 6 e? x<zA.. 2 okov Urb. ifiepei fii] eayaTOv 10 f) dyeiv.s. Urb. by Urb. he teal 2 dv tovto e<? dyeiv.e\\ovTO<.eva 'xaXeirwTepov cpepovaiv.apra81a tovto ovv 17 has £v/j. oti vop. o~<paXepaL ttuXiv 10 al 65 to ea^arov A.wrw(rta. So S according to Littr^. . 6 Kal omitted by V.to? d<piyp. After o^tffiv (spelt d|€<r«) 0' has vocrl/xaaiv. for ffvf.. Xa\tirai.T6<Ttas els rb ia-xaTrjv &ynv a<pa\epal 3 Urb. 9 10 Kal iraAiv omitted xo^ 6 "" a V Q. atyaXepbv fi x yap. al 1 to hayjXTOv d(j)iyp. V.67ttotj.va.67rat. 12 Kal C. from wcravrws to the end. 6 Ermerins omits uxraiToos . Ev T770~i XeTTTTJai BiaiTrjaiv dp.

and again new growths. who copied V. the worse. After yap Littre with E adds rh afxapr-q/xa. in acute." 13 iv rSi eVxaTto iovaai XJrb. because mistakes are more hardly borne. scribe of C. 1. for I. . C The 17 2V . So C : Ae7TTa! Kal a. when extreme. For this reason in health too an established regimen that is rigidly restricted is 1 treacherous.KpiBe?s Slairai 14 ends al Aeirral Kal aKptfieis SiatTat 15 begins : &(pa\€pal is t« irAuffra . (and S according to Littr6). in order that the body may make a fresh beginning of growth. 14 15 16 <T(pahepai Urb. are treacherous. A restricted and rigid regimen is treacherous.-v. Here V 2r . 1 IV. omitted one entire line. and thereby suffers more that occurs is more serious than witli a slightly more liberal regimen. m. evacuations carried to extremes are . where it is not called for. But reduction of flesh must not be carried to extremes. 1 in chronic diseases always. . (HIP. TOI VOL. 1.Kpi8tes Kal Kadear-qKvlai. In a restricted regimen the patient makes 1 .APHORISMS. treacherous. Urb. "dangerous. a regimen carried to the extreme of restriction is perilous and in fact repletion too. For this reason it is an advantage to reduce the fine condition quickly. Kal KeiTTal Kal d. Again. as such action is treacherous x it should be carried to a point compatible with the constitution of the patient. . carried to extremes.KpifieT'i a. 8 ends : 9 begins Kal Kenral Kal aKpifieh Slairat : ff<pa\tpa\ is ra TrAeicrTa . V. 1.) F . KaOeffTTjKvTat Kal : Aenral Kal KadeorrjKviai Kal aKptfiees : : V M Aeirral Kade<TTT)Kv?ai Kal d/cpij8ees Q. 1. too. for everything mistakes. is perilous. 1 Or. 5ia tovto ow omitted by C. . IV. Similarly. 13 ends : 1. : .

VII. 'Ei/ Be rolai 7rapo^uap.7j. : pciAAov : ajxiKphv Urb. 5 XI. r) vovcros /jLaX0a/cu>- 6 Teprj 3 royv layaTwv VIII. Urb. r) r) vovaos 8 5 irpbrepov diravBijaet.a. avrl/ca 9 Be varepov r) uk/j. 'Ofcoaoiai.v many has yap. /cat dp. T7J SlOlTTJ V tV cxk/j.KOT e prj C.. Rem. 9 X.alpeaOai Be %pr/ teal rbv voae- ovra. O/eou /xey ow /cdro^v to voarjp. VI. XvvT€Kp. roaovrov viroKCLTaftaLveiv. Tuojepcos Biairdi' to? dv voaeoov.}']. &K[W)V T7)J VOXKTOV vovcrov J rrji vovawi. okogov av r). M. A.d^r) to voo"t]p. teal ov/c e^aptcecrei tj) Biairrj.a.^u ttjs youtrou 7 /cal M. V crcpaAepy. 'E? Se t« eayarra vocnj/xara al ea^ajat depairelai e'9 dfcpifteirfv Kpartarai. and Magnolus in margin. IX.ev ovv avrlxa 7) aKpbt).)) irpSrepov ixe7vos anavSriaei Urb.o7cri uTroareXkeaOai e? 1 crcpaAfptcTepai 2 fXinpSiv 3 * CQ Erm.koX C '.' okov Be dTOC evBe^eraL dBporepcov Biairdv. e^ap/ciaei rfj Bialry 71730? ttjv dfc/uLrjv t?}? 6 vovaou. 5 rare \€7tto- dvayxaiov ^pr/crOat. while 5 XPV omitted by V. fx.l : fffxucpuv 5e. \e7rrordrrj Bialry avay/calov ^prjaOai.aAa./3\vveiTai. 'O/cotciv 4 2 raTj} SiaLTrj el dfcp. avriica icai toi)? eo-^drovi 7rovov<i ex €L > Kat r fl ia^dro)^ r p. have omitted by After ok6to. MSS.e7TTco9 Biairdv' oicoaoicri efcelvo /cat. irpb eiceivov crpuKpbv dipaipereov 10 e^ap/cear) eprrrpoodev Be.AOOPISMOI al \e7TTCu icai a«oi/3ee? Blairat a<pa\epal 9 2 x e? ra 2 ifKelara rwv a/M/cpbv dBporepcov. It is fji. C 6 real T7) StaiTl) Trphs T7]V t^)7' dK/nriv ttjs aild Ul'b. 102 . p. /col irorepov e/celpos drravSyjaet irpb7 repov.

use a fuller regimen. a rigidly restricted regimen treacherous 1 generally as compared with one a little liberal. When XI. not only is the pain extreme. however.APHORISMS. but also it is essential to employ a regimen of extreme strictness. immediately. l°3 .-xi. IX. as ancient interpretation took ws to be final. I0 : &-n-au0KwrjTdi C : Perhaps V has olffi. it is probable that the and. Take the patient too into account and decide whether he will stand the regimen at the height of relax the strictness according as the disease whether his strength will give out first not stand the regimen.uS\w(iTai. For extreme diseases extreme strictness of treatment is most efficacious. * 8 MV and Urb. "dangerous.'' . more VI. 1 Lower diet during exacerbations." in which case the translation will be restricting it not more than the patient's strength permits. is I. 2 the height comes later. regimen must be restricted immediately. restrict regimen then little before then before. It is when the disease is at its height that it is necessary to use the most restricted regimen." 2 So Littre" omits &v. for to give Or. When the disease reaches its height immediately. VII. Where the disease is very acute. where a more liberal regimen is possible. or whether the disease will give way first and abate its severity. ana/xR \ vvurai. But it is perhaps better to take 01s as meaning "how" or "in such a way " that. For this reason. VIII. in order that the patient may hold . V &. v. X. is milder than the most extreme type. and he will and a out. the disease . V omits hv. In other cases. therefore.

. rb .aKpa ra r)v 9 voai]piaTa. 104 .G)vo<. Std ttXclovos xpovov yivoiVTat' arap Kal roicriv i7ri(f)aivop. o£ee<?" -ty-vxphv yap XV. 3 many and later MSS.dXiOTa iraihia. iravrcov 10 he p. Tepovres eixpopcorepa vr\oTe'ir\v (pepovat. XIV. At KOiXiai yeip. . p.eva TrXeiarrov 1 e%« to ef£(f>VTOV n he pur]. 8 hvaKpiTa Kal evKpira.aTa TrXetco hoTeov' 1 V has Ua. r}Kiara pLeipaxia. Tou9 Se irapo^vcrpLovs zeal Ta? KaraaTa3 ai vovaoi. rjv re Trap yp.t]Kvvei' Kal Kal ovpa Kal viroywp i')P a Ta Ka-l tQ/9WT€5. hid tovto a pa oXiywv vTreKKavpLaToov heovTat' vtto itoXXwv yap diroalBevvvTai' Sid tovto Kal ol TrvpeTol toIcti yepovotv ov% opLOiw<i to crco^a.AOOPIEMOI 1 XPV' T0 irpoaTidevai yap ftXdfir)' koX oKocra Kara ireptohov^ irapo^vverai iv rolcri rrapo^va2 pLolcnv vTToareWeaOai XP }h XII.eva. olov iv irXevpiTLKoto-L rjv 5 TTTvaXov ftpayvvei.6repa eovra. XIII.evocaiv. rovrcov he rjv tvXV ^^a 4 ecovrcov 7rpo9vp. varepov iirifyaivriTai. 10 11 6 r)v clvtLkcl S' iin(paLvr)Tai '' ' dpyop-evov. SrjXol. Kal vixvol /. el Oeppbov 7rXet0"T?79 ovv Selrai Tpcxpr/s' to crco/ia dvaXio-Kerar yepovai he oXiyov to Oeppov. irepioScov irpbs dXXijXa? ain-a- 4 TToSoaies. re Kal i']v re /caB* r}p.epi]v. i7ri(f)aiv6p. Kal rjpos OeppLOTarai iv rauTrjaiv ovv (pvaei. /cat at <hpai tov aias SrjXdiaovaiv twv Kal at* eVeo?. Ta av^avop.epyjv. Kal (Spaye^ kol p.laKpoTaTOi' tt}o~lv wpyai koX Ta 7rpoadpp. x?"h is omitted by M. *r)\ovcTiv C' with 4 el omitted by Urb. 2 xP'h omitted by C. Bevrepa ol KaOearrjKOTe^. S.

youths very badly. have little innate heat. or at a longer interval. if expectoration supervene immediately on the commencement of the . 10 a a? Erm. by the seasons of the year. . by the manner in longer one. and worst of all children. XV. for the body is cold. Growing creatures have most innate heat. have 8 8 After ISpwres V has kou xp^ara. . there are supervening plain symptoms for example. then of middle age. food is harmful lower diet too during the exacerbations a wherever disease is exacerbated periodically. ix\v n'kv 7 avriKa f)v V. a Urine. I. ko. XIV. rvfiaivd V. Old men deprived of which their body pines away. if afterwards. it means a shorter illness. For the . and Rein. Moreover. n %v C Urb. XII. show whether the disease have a difficult crisis or an easy one. 5 6 imSoa-tes C Urb. xi. in pleurisy. sweats.1 fiaxpa omitted by C. Galen and many later MSS.APHORISMS. and it is for this reason that they need most food. every other day.-xv. with after fy' after Apxoixtvov. disease. whether it be short or long. which they supervene. Bowels are naturally hottest in winter and in so it is in these spring. and sleep is then longest seasons that more sustenance is necessary. whether they come every day. will will XIII. especially those of a liveliness greater than the ordinary. and by the correspondence of periods to one another. and for this reason they need men but little fuel much fuel puts it out. stools. For this reason too the fevers of old men are less acute than others. . Some MSS. Exacerbations and constitutions will be made by the diseases. Old men endure fasting most easily.

10 Urb. Littre with Littre would also read Kara slight authority reads oX<riv. pi) pi]8e veoiTepoiToielv. Tolacv pkvoiai p:i]8ev 3 a. V. ical rolffiv- 6 7 V omits i<a\ rfi x^PVBefore trirla C' has ra. 3 Beovrai' 4 cqptiov.G)vo<. yap irKiiiv C 5e?Ta< . . Erm. 8 pr/iara.8\riTai. 3 pr\T ' KpivopLeva ra /ce/cpipiiva aprLu><. yeip. has St. a!. 8 9 C omits d\\\ irpo<r6eaiuv TaKTTJtri Rein. have to7<tlv or roi<rt. XVII.(j>aipeiv tcov iv rfjai irepioBoiai /x^S' 10 SiSovat. dXX' idv. XX. . irpoQeffrimv V : irpod^ffeuv C. Bid 1 twv ovpufyepovroav ywpiwv. Erm. ©epeo? cf)opcoTaTa 3 Sevrepov. A Set dyeiv. /cal ra> edei.I.AOOPISMOI /cal yap ro epucpvTOv Oeppuhv ttoXv' 2 l rpo<j)r}^ ovv 01 irXeiovos 6 dOXtjrai. pyjre cf>appa/ceiyai. 2 3 4 5 inn Rein. iXacrcra). /cal irapo^vvo9 dvay/cd^eiv. Stnvrcu Urb. Kaif toIctiv] 5 aVaf' ?} St?. and before ffiiaTa Urb. /cat rf] rjXi/ciij. 7 atria /cal (j)0tvoTT(t>pov Svcrrjpos (frepovat. XXI. r) TrXeico fj KaX Kara p. XIX. 12 dXXoiaiv ipediapotaiv. ai iracri rjXi/ciai ical XVI. 106 . XVIII.epo$' horeov Se Tt ical rfj oipy. G 3 KaX rf) %a>pr]. omits ko). omit ixepos Boreov 8ot4o* $4 tl kcH k. pdXiara 8e tolctlv dXXoiai toIctlv ovTO)<i el6 ia pevoicri Siaii rdaOai.. M V omit a. /cal av/i(f)ipovai. and Rein. All our good MSS. At vovai vypal hiairai rolcn irvperai- rraiZioicn. okov dv pdXiara peTry. •2 ravTT] dyeiv. M. aXX* irpoaQeaiwv 11 rrpo rcov /cpLaicov.t. . Ta /civeiv.

wv cpixris. and try no experiments. to in greater quantity or in less others. easiest in winter. or the crisis in the strict sense of the word.APHORISMS. When the patient is suffering from a periodic exacerbation. but lessen the nourishment before the crisis. The strong evidence for ro7aiv. offer nothing and force nothing.poXvaix. Do not disturb a patient either during or just after a crisis. next easiest to season. witness the young and athletes. is almost proof positive that the true text has been lost. I. innate heat being great. Fortunately the general sense is quite plain. but leave him alone. food should be given once. "crisis" here may mean either the exacerbation. they tend. 2 As Galen says. XXI. through the appropriate passages. 11 raiy Kpiffeuiv Erm. To some. habit. or the summit of the disease. XIX. and age. neither with purges nor with other irritants. more food is required . 12 After f^7rj? M V Urb. which makes no possible grammar with the rest of the sentence. especially in the case of children and of those used to such a diet. XVI. -xxi. that some editors think it is an interpolation. 1 Something too must be conceded . 1 The reading in this aphorism is more than dubious. The aphorism is so like XI. A sloppy diet is beneficial in all fevers. in spring. C has r) : ttjj tcpltrews C : rwv Tra. district. xv. XVII. 107 . 2 XX. twice quantity . a little at a time. XVIII. though an early one. In summer and in autumn food is most difficult to assimilate. What evacuate in matters ought to be the direction to which evacuated.

a^P' Urb. Ta yjopkovra peo-0at. OavdcriBe vttvos axpeXf). i)v bpya' ra Be irXeio'Ta t<w tfKrjOet p. o ti av p. III. dypvTTvlr]. 'Ev fjv 2 p.aTi i'nrvo? ttovov iroiei. 108 . Kal T"7?<7£ po€fjev/cpiv)]o-avTa *Hi' oia Set <f)appLaK€Lr}(Ti Troielv. : iroA\a * Rein. M V.d\\ov tt}? <\>vo~io<i y.^ /mdWov tov 2 KaKov. XXIII. 4 Kal //. II. reads oaa for ws. KaOalpeadai tcaOaipcovTai.j)<." as Adams says. V. XprjaBai. ouB' dWo ovBtv dyaOov. Ov irXrjo-pbOvrj. 1 2 3 TrXe'iffra C Urb. and in this aphorism signifies that the humours are "struggling to get out. co fid. XXIV. tovto iroielv. "Tttvos. crvpcpepei tc Kal eu(f)6p(o<i cpepovaiv' 3 SfO"%ep<u9. dyaOov. QS. K. fir]Se Yierrova (f)apfia/cev€ii> /z?/ teal Kiveiv. i)v e^apKrj o voaecov.eva.eva before fiaWov. IV. Ta o' ivavTia.(.ov' u> vocn]p.<poTepa 2 pLSTplov yivop.6ttoi avTopiaTOi cppd^ovai vovaowj. ev tipxjjcriv. ov Oavdai/xov. TMHMA AETTEPON I. and C has yiv6fj. ei cpepfi. 'Ev iv dpxfjvt' 3 it irdOeaiv b\iydxL<. ov Xi/xof.7] x 3 ovk opya. 1 An orgasm is literally a state of excitement. dp.AOOPIXMOI XXII. /cal tovto XXV. ev<f)6pw<i' teal okov Bel fie^pi rolcnv otjecri \enro0v/j.?/ t6/c/juzi- i\\' &)? dv X W PV oia 3 ^ e '' Kai ^PV' dyeiv. "Okov Trapacppoavvrjv vttvos Travel. before ofa.

which in most cases does not occur. acute diseases use purgatives and at the onset. Neither repletion. do not seriously affect the sense. Sleep or sleeplessness. if XXIV. v. V. The order of the propositions is not quite the same. and there are several interesting variant readings. XXV. not by bulk. do even their conformity to the patient's strength be sufficient. If the matters purged be such as purged. nor else anything 4 good when it is more than natural. xxh. will be found in Humours VI.APHORISMS. the patient is distressed. is 8 Most of Aphorisms XIX. 8 means here only "very dangerous. A deadly one . sleep puts an end to delirium it is a good III. the disease is When sign. XXII. and then only after a examination. In sparingly thorough should be up well . and avoid the onset of a disease. uot crude. disease in which sleep causes distress is a if sleep is beneficial. nor fasting.-XXIV. in undue measure. but not deadly. however. I. 1 XXIII. Where occasion calls for purging until the patient faints. these are both bad symptoms. Judge evacuations. Spontaneous weariness indicates disease. but by what is proper. 2 this. SECOND SECTION I.-II. which. Purge or otherwise disturb concocted." Perhaps. humours. IV." "Deadly" " too 4 great for the constitution. the patient benefits and bears otherwise. 3 II. io9 . and by the ease with which the patient bears them. unless there be orgasm.

a xp^ eTai M : M : XpTjTai '6ti : t» awfj-ari '6ri itAelovi rpocprj irKeiovt rpo<pri ypeeTOi Urb. V xpterai i to awfia 6 7 arifiaivei XP^7 8 V Urb. (TripaiveL ro &a>p. Taov irXrjpovaOat ttotov rj airiov. omitted by V.a on irXeiovi rpofif. XeirTwopeva crcopara ra Se ev oXtyoy. vypaivai t$)v Koi\ir)v V. 3 4 Xapj3dvo)v ti<. : M M : I IO .rj Xap/3dvovTO<. TOVTOUTIV 3 yvcopi] voael. oti TrAe/on rpo<p?i oti irAeiopt rpotpr] to <ra>fj. Ta eyKCvraXipnravopeva iv rfjai 12 vovaoiat \ \ / . in'' okoctov -"• av Xrp 6peyjrr]<. fiXdip-eis. 2 IX. 'O/coaoicri Kpi(Ji<i yiverai. O/cocroi. C iroiteiv. ra 7] TroXXa VII.aivei 2 6 Hi> I'ovaov rpo<pi)v oti Kevioatof helrac. o/cou QovMrai 8 M has Ka9aipea-8ai Ka\ 7)v /j. (SkoVioi Urb. C : xp$j tt'SeVai fSovA-firai M. tovtomjlv ?) vv£ 8va(j)opo<i 7] Trpb rod irapo^vapov. €7ravarpe(f)€iv. 3 XIII. tovto rjv XprJTai' i yLvrjTai. 3 ovk V. 5 Se Tpocpyv p. XI. rax^cs Erm.AQOPISMOI VI.ev M V. acifiara 6k6o-u V. KoiXir]<i pvaeaiv ai pera/3oXai : 2 4 6 Erm. : Skou tis (tis V) for KaOaipetv. o~i]p. m^ C' Urb. 2 rcov ttovwv alcrOdvovrai. XIV. KadaLpeiv? eupoa ~ n \ 11 * La pi] fcauapa tcov acopmrcov. 1 'Ei> rfjai Tr)<. acopara %/)>/> 7 okou civ t£? ^ovXrjrat 8 irocelv. tis omitted by M. t) he eiriovaa ev<f)opa)Tepr} co? eirl to ttoXv. To. 2 yu-eTa /cpiaiv vTrocrrpocpas vroietv eccouev. (otrov C) ^r tij C Urb. l Troveovres 2 fii) tc tov acop-aro^. pi] l(T%vr). Ta ' ev iroXXcp xpovai €/c vwdpws VIII. oXiywi. After this aphorism C has tie avoi /3oi/Arj evpva troUeiv orrjcrai r)]V kolKit]V i)v koltoi fiovKr) 10 11 evpva : tSiv ffMixaraiv (Wow C Urb. paXXov. a\4ws Rein. XII. Rein. place ra iroWa after tovtoktiu.

3 That is. If a convalescent while taking nourishment 1 remains weak. the night after more comfortable. prescriptions to make bodies eiJpoa. VII. for the most part are unconscious of the pains. II. The ancients gave various See p. changes in the 1 The commentators from Galen have been worried by this phrase and the apparent inconsequence of the second part of It is plain that rpcxpyv ka/j. 2 X.APHORISMS. suffering from a painful affection of the body. take nourishment readily and with appetite. the night before the exacerbation is generally 4 uncomfortable. VI. are disordered in mind. Bodies that are not clean. . those that have wasted quickly should be quickly restored.1 it is a sign that evacuation is required.veiv means "to the proposition." 2 That is. XIV. Matters left behind in diseases after the are wont to cause relapses. Those who. free from impurities. disordered or redundant humours. VIII. 213. 4 ws inl rb noAv goes with the whole sentence and not with only. IX. XI. In fluxes of the bowels. it is a sign that the body is being over- nourished if there be weakness while he takes none. XIII. 3 the more you nourish the more you harm. When a crisis occurs.-xiv. late Two MSS. fluent. It is easier to replenish with drink than with food. vi. fiHpopcoTepr] 12 iv 13 omitted by 0'. Bodies that have wasted away slowly should be slowly restored . (and Galen) have viroaTpo<pu5ea instead of I I I {nro<TTpo<pas iroitlv elwdtv.lZa. Bodies that are to be purged must be rendered . ready to evacuate. crisis XII.

the MS. o^ea twv voorjpaTcov Kplvercu ev r)p. 4 XX.a rpecpeiv. /cal XXIII. 2 e K 8vei Rein..irav docpaXee? at irpoayopevoces. ovre t% 3 vyieir)?.V have voffoiroUti. 'Okoooioi veoioiv iovoiv ai KOiXiai vypal tovtoioiv diToyqpdoKovot ^rjpaivovrai' oko00101 Be veoioiv eovoi fyipaivovrca. Irjrai. r) (pvpuara ev m> OKeirreodac Ta? eKKpicna<i' to oa)p. XVIII. The MSS. show a great variety of readings in this 112 . diroyrjpdoKOvoiv vypalvovrat. 'A7TO 7r\T]0 fjLOvfj? fceva>oi. 3 Tr\rjopiovi). 4 XXL XXII. TrXelcov 3 irapa r) (pvoiv tovto vovoov iroteZ. Aiptbv dcopr/^a \vei. irovelv. ovre rod davarov. XVI.AOOPISMOI T(ov Bta^oypripbdrayv dxpeXeovoiv.epr)oiv. zeal OKOOCC dv V0Ol)pLCLTa o/cooa airb Kevdjoiof. racial teal a! Bia-^wpi'jOLe^ XIX. "Okou (pdpvy% 1 vooel. rjv 3 fueraf3dXkrj. 2 o owp. Twv 2 rpe(p6vTQ)v adpocos yiv ovtcu.<. tovtoioiv eloi. docpaXe? to opioiai oco/juarc i/ccpi/erai. "Okov dv rpocprj 2 eoe\6rj. being For vov<roi' wotel M. "Okov XipLO<s ov Bet XVII. Twv 6{jecov voorjpaTcov ov irdp. fit) e\ Trovijph XV. oa> reooapeoKalBeKa 1 has rpaxy^v with For <Tu>/j. yevtjrai. /cat Ta^ea><. rjv yap ^o\a>See9 Tolaiv vyiaivovoi yiveovrai.a ovvvooeZ' rjv Be ecoot. 3 4 C after it.aTi possibly imperfect at this point. Br/XoZ Be itjois. 2 Ta tmv dWwv r) virevavTiwoa.

the evacuations too come quickly. II. It is here printed as given by C. Diseases caused by repletion are cured by depletion those caused by depletion are cured by repletion. excreta are beneficial unless they change to what is bad. Strong drink dispels hunger. XVIII. body. XXII. In the case of acute diseases to predict either death or recovery is not quite safe. XIX. and it is by some regarded as an interpolation. When on a starvation diet a patient should not be fatigued." 2 Or. If they are if they are such as bilious. "3 ." that is. When the throat is affected. XVII. "not at all safe. those whose bowels are constipated in youth have them loose as they grow old. Acute diseases come to a days. it is safe to nourish the . Possibly (pvfiara here means "eruptions. the neck. contraries. xiv. XVI. as is shown by the treatment. or tumours rise on the body. Those whose bowels are loose in youth get constipated as they grow old .-xxm. 1 examine the evacuations. XXIII." C aphorism. the whole body is affected they are in a state of health. Of foods that nourish all at once and quickly.APHORISMS. crisis in fourteen 1 seems to show that aw^a means here The reading of " the part of the body about the throat. XXI. and in general contraries are cured by . 2 XX. disease is caused. XV. Swellings here may denote either a local or a general disorder. When more nourishment is taken than the constitution can stand.

ol he (pOivoTrcopivoi. Kai ov iravv hiapuevew.}] Kara \6yov Kov(pl^ovaiv ov mareveiv. v V lcrx P^raTa Urb. Tolai p. Uvperov em r) airaa/iw jSekriov yeveaOai enracr/xbv errl irvperS). naWov Urb. x> ovi(eiv ao-dei/earepa G'V: acr0ev^(TTaTa Urb. irdvra & rrepl he rd<. and several Paris MSS.dXXov rov Kara \6yov. Urb. fia/cpoc.. aKfids. 6iQ)0 ev. Ol 3 depivol rerapraloi ret 2 iroWa yivovrai /3pa%ee<. r)o~v%ir]v e%eiv fieXriov 3 iariv.7]hev evhihovai to awfta.' rd yap iroWa rwv roiovrwv earlv a/3e/3ata. erepijs Littre. 2 1 Ilept daOevearepa^ SevTtprjs all 2 3 4 Ta? dp%d<. 6 efiSopLT/ he a7ro rrjs h>$efcaT7]$- XXV. Kivei' aKpLa^ovacov he. XXIX.dho<. Kpyppikvwv rcov vovcrcov. XXVI.' 0ea>p7)T7) he ttoKiv 7] eirraKaiheKdrrj. iyxpovlCav V. rravrd-nao-iv to hiafieveiv Kai p. hevrepr)? e/3hop:dho<. have i$ before ra 7roAAo. r) dyhorj apxv> Oecopijrij he t) evhcKarr)' * avrrj yap io~ri rerdprr] ri)<. M. lo")(yp6repa. M. ovhe <po/3ela0ai \itjv rd pio\6^pd yivop-eva 7rapa\6yo)<. dcrdeveiav. Kai fidWov 3 ol 77730? rov -^eifioiyva avvdrrrovre^. firj XXVIII.AOOPISMOI AA1V. : 5 6 important MSS. ' XXX. /xo^dtjpov to fiev yap iatjkos vovaov 07)p. r) Kai avvrr]Kea6ai p. M. Kai ra rekr]. yjv ri hoKy Kiveiv. V (xdhiffra Urb.o<f erepi]? e(3hop. aim/ yap i(TTL T€T(ipT7) /A6V CLTTO T7]<i TCaaapSCT KaiheKaTV)?. L(oi> eirra rj reraprrj e7rior)A.a'ivei. to 5 he. i(rxvp6Ttpa C C C : M : : 114 . Twv rrvpeaabvrwv e7Tt7ro\at&)<?. ovhe hel 5 xpovi^eiv 4 XXVII.

See Little. XXVI. an enema. 479. J'5 . 7. fourth day is indicative x of the the eighth is the beginning of another week . the eleventh is to be watched. XXV.? 3 kivuv often means to administer a purge. as being the fourth day of the second week again the seventeenth is to be watched. It is better for a fever to supervene on a convulsion than a convulsion on a fever. and also for it to become unduly emaciated. One must not trust improvements that are irregular. for such are generally uncertain and are not at all wont to last or grow chronic. use them . 21. II. At the beginning and at the end all symptoms are weaker. seven . and signifies that a day indicates beforehand whether the usual critical days will be normal or abnormal." though how they get this meaning from -ruv enra is difficult to say. iv. if strong called for.e. when they are at their height it is better to let the patient rest. p.-xix. the latter signifies weakness. XXVII. is a bad symptom . Summer quartans generally prove short. etc. at the height they are 3 XXIX. 14.APHORISMS. for the body to remain without any wasting. At the beginning seem stronger. being the fourth from the fourteenth and the seventh from the eleventh. When fevers are not altogether slight. medicines of diseases." i. but those of autumn are long. XXIV. xxiv. Does the phrase mean " of the sevens. XXVIII. especially those that are nigh to winter. or an emetio. the former signifies a long disease. »" 1 €7rt5rjAos means much the same as 6ewp7iT6s. The 2 . XXX. nor yet fear overmuch bad symptoms that occur irregularly . 2 The translators say "of the seventh day.

XXXVI. ol<z ai/ oiKeh] tt)? (pucrtos. vcnepov /car 5 Be evcnreovTes. 5 KaBdpoias. To After eV V has apiKpcp ^elpov Kal nrupa Kal (including ird<ri]<Ti.AOOPISMOI AAA1. teal t^? wo?. r) 01/ceLi] yu. d<ya66v to Se evavriov. rd irepl rbv 6p..(j)a\ov Kal to r/rpov 7ra^o? eyeiv ftekribv io~Ti.d\\ov. : jf 116 .?. 3 The MSS. 12? t« ttoWcl iravTes «/3%a? evairiovre^. several I follow Littre.r)8ev €7Tl8l8oVTeS. XXXIV. <papp. Kal p. 'Ei/ irdo~r]cn rfjai vovaoiai. rfjai Oi vyieivcbs e%oz/Te? t<x aoopLara. TTpbs T(0 TCXei TTaXlV dcTlT€OVCriV' 01 Be kot apyas pev daiTeovre<i i'cr^i/^oj?. expvres. 3 to eppcoaOai ttjv Bidvoiav Kal eu k^ew 73730? to. to Se <7(f)6Spa Xeirrbv Kal eKT€T7jKo<. 'Ei/ 1 T^crt vovaoioiv rjaaov KivBv2 vevovaiv. /ca/eov. Ot 2 eu Ta o~oop. XXXIII.? irpoacpopd*. C) have oi voffeovres. differ considerably in the order of the genitives.a- XXXVII. vovo-os v-nap^r) oIo~lv dv Kara rt tovp. ev <^apixaK€ir)cn KaQaipopevot 5 i/cXuovTat 3 Ta^e'a)? /cat ot irovrjpfi rpo(f)r} %pebpevoi. 4 /cat tj}? rjXiKLTjs. oi fii^oev to crcofia. (fiavXcos XXXII. fieXriov aTraWdaaovaiv. Kal t?}? e^ios. iw 2 eiriBiBovai e£ appoo<TTir)<i evaireovn. vKdpxei vulgate. After Kivhuvevovffiv many MSS. poydr\pbv i7rio~(f)a\e$ Be to toiovto Kal Trpbs ra? kutco XXXV. V : virapxv Paris MSS.? ?. pboyOripov. 1 2 XXXVIII. * C Urb. Ei> Trdcrrj vovaro 3 5 to)i> 77..ara e^oi/Te? 6 KeveaOai epyooBees.

ol (pavAcos The explanation seems to do some violence to ex o. In all diseases it is better for the parts about the navel and the abdomen to keep their fulness. XXXV. But those get off better who at the beginning have a very bad appetite but later on have a good one.APHORISMS. In every disease it is a good sign when the patient's intellect is sound and he enjoys his food 2 the opposite is a bad sign. In diseases there is less danger when the disease is more nearly related to the patient in respect of constitution. XXXVI. 6 KadaipS/xevoi omitted by C. though slightly . The latter condition makes it risky to administer purgatives. as do those who use a bad diet. have no appetite at the end. 2 Possibly rpoacpopai includes treatment of all kinds. 6 ff/xiKpbv Urb. 1 XXXIII. than when there is no such relationship. and it certainly does not exclude drink. Those with healthy bodies quickly lose strength when they take purges. If so. Those who are in a good physical condition are troublesome to purge. 117 . XXXI. has more point. XXXVII. who do not improve. II.-XXXV111. age and season. whether passage. XXXII. while excessive thinness and emaciation is a bad sign. XXXVIII. habit. XXXIV. Generally 1 This aphorism > is said by the commentators to apply to convalescents. are neither ill nor well./T€S however much it may suit the sense of the Perhaps the phrase applies to all who. When a convalescent has a good appetite without improving his bodily condition it is a bad : sign % all sickly persons with a good appetite at the beginning. XXX1. V. Travres convalescent or not. Food or drink which.

Kara <pvcrtv omitted by V. Xpovia I'ocnjpara yevTjTai. /j. reads x°°P^wl 'i omitting Kai twv tSttwv. rayyOdvaroi ryivovrai paWov tcov layvcov. : C'MV ' / . Tcov diray^opevcov he f/ KaraXvopevcov.AOOPIEMOI cririov. XLI. rrepi ovtc dvacpepovaiv. TcOV eTTiXl^TTTLKtOV Tolai VeOMJlV UTTaXira^ees acpohpa XLIV.i]8e7ru> Tedvi]Korcov. (with iipaiwu) Littre^ with one MS. Aveiv 2 tov. paWov atpereov. * omit koI twv t6ttoov. TTpiC^vTepOKTi 3 has paSiws. tcov (BsXtiovcov pev. dtrOevea he.evoi TroWdfcis teal Icrynjpcos. XLVII. yevecrias tov ttvov ol ttovoi 5 TrvpeToL (Tvpftaivovai paWov rj <yevopei>ov. Bpdyyot 2 ftvrepoiat Kai Kopv^ai toIgi crcpohpa irpeaou ireTratvovrai. 2 XLIII.o a pa yivopevcov prj avTov tottov. : Trpe<j/3vTT}i<rt M V.' omitting Kai twv t6ttwi>. d7T07r\t]^L7]v la-yyprjV /cal pev dhvva- ov prjihiov. 1 2 civev (fyavepf/s trpoepdenos. tov Ai. drjhecrTepcov 3 he. Ol e/c\vop. acpohpoTepos Kara dpavpol tov 3 erepov. XXXIX. So Urb." x aV e a" Rein. XLV. 2 Kara cbvcriv. e^a7rlv^<i TeXevrtucuv. XLII. For faioiov C C Urb. oaa h av avrolcn ra 7roWa avvairo- XL. XLVI. Ot \ayj]v at pera/3o\al pdXiara tcov 4 t>)? ij\iKLr)<i. rjhiov he. ko\ copecov /cal tcov ttovcov 6 tottcov* koX tcov fiicov TTOieovaiv. The valiants seem due to the unusual meaning of /xerafio\al tSiv wp4wv. olaiv 3 3 av dtppbs to aropa. 2 koCi ol 1 2 Tlepi Tc\<. not "changes of the seasons" but "change of climate. n8 . Ot Trpeafivrai rjaaov tcov vecov tcl pev TroWa voaeovcnv 4 Omjcrtcei.

inferior. 6 fj. 2 That is. is preferable to that which superior but less palatable. mode Epilepsy by change among young — change of age. have less power successfully to resist a severe Adams' translation. Old men generally have less illness than young men. When in the same two pains occur together.-xlvii." would disease. Sore throats and colds of the very old are not concocted. " are apt to die earlier. Those who suffer from a frequent and extreme prostration without die suddenly. is is II. XXXI X. of life. XL. "are in a fainting condition." KaT<x$uo/j. VI. xxxviii. Pains and forming rather than 1 when occur when pus has been formed. but not place.a\\ov ffv/xfialvovcrt C. more palatable. but such complaints as become chronic in old men generally last until death. Those who are hanged and cut down 1 before death do not recover if they foam at the mouth. is is A clever emendation with which reading the aphorism would refer to persons immersed in water until nearly suffocated. (wrongly) make Taxv8dpaToi refer to the average length of Or.APHORISMS. life. It is impossible to cure a violent attack of apoplexy. any manifest cause XLI I. XLIII. XLI. the more violent obscures the fevers it XLVII. are XLIV. is the cured chiefly of place. XLV. 119 . Those who are constitutionally very more apt to die quickly 2 than those who fat are thin. of XL other. and not easy to cure a slight one. of climate.eva>i>.

AOOPISMOI XLVIII.era/3aiveiv 6 ecp erepov. TrXrjpovv.era/3dXXeiv.. rj Oep/iaiveiv.ev. rcov davv^Oecov Icyypwv re Kal vecov paov cpepov4 civ. 'Okoq-oi ras KoiXias vypd<.. elwOev i) To Kara r) 7roXu Kal e^airivrjs Kevovv. e\ovaiv. icav r) rjaaov evo^Xeiv ^elpco tmv davvrjOecov. LIII. LI.evovro<. Rein. 3 hel he Kal e9 ra davvt]0ea p. eXevOepiov Kal ovk a^Se? eanv eyyrjpacrai huo-^pi]arov Kal ^elpov rcov eXaaaovcov. Kivrjaet rov cr(ofj. r) aAAco? okuhjovv to o~cop. except that the last has kot' b\iyov have followed and els for 4<p' before eTtpov. LII.evcov 3 Udvra Kara \6yov rcov rroieovri. do~(f>a\e<. ££ dp%rj<. ktjv eWiap. 3 evvedaac p. acpaXepov.a Kivelv. LIV. The C 120 .aro<. I V Urb. o/eorav rb hiavarraveiv evOvs.aro<i. L.evoi toi/? avvt]dea<> cocriv aaOevees r) yepovre<. e? he rb yrjpa? yelpov drraXXdacrovaiv' ^rjpalvovrai yap a>9 eirl ro rroXv roiacv 5 diroyrjpdcrKovaiv. veoi piev eovres. Kai irav rb 7ro\v rf) cpvaei rroXepaov to he Kara piKpbv. rov ho^avro<.. Ta i/e 7roXXov xpovov 1 avv>}0ea. p. 7r6vov<> 3 CtfCOTTOV. 3 MeyeOei he acop.. p. ffeXrtov diraXXaaaovai rcov fyipas i^ovrwv. Kal aXXcos to e'£ erepov p. 01 cpepetv. XLIX. 'Ei> dpxv raL iraarj Trovelv. puts the comma after X 6l'p a'• text differs considerably from that of Littr6. fir) yivoecp' Kara Xoyov. 1 2 he.. yfrv^eiv. fxrj puerafiaiveiv erepov.

XXIX. to rest XLVIII. Erm. Excess and suddenness in evacuating the or in any body. reads audes after 3 ko. the bowels of the old being generally hard. Size of body in youth is noble and not and less unpleasing in old age it is inconvenient desirable than a smaller stature. when results are not according to rule. When acting in all things according to rule. Thing's to which one has been used a long time. . warming. LIII. even if they be weak or old. Nevertheless. do not. is dangerous But "little by little" excess is hostile to nature.APHORISMS. or in replenishing. Those who when young have relaxed bowels come off' better than those who have hard but in old age they come off worse. 121 .\ ovk o7)5e'j Galen. cooling in fact all other way disturbing it. change to another course of treatment if the original opinion remains. Those who are wont to bear accustomed labours. even though they be more severe than unaccustomed things. Aph. 1 Seep. bear them better than strong and young people who are not used to them. 115. omitted by Urb. . L. LI. XLIX. once when pain begins relieves the suffering. LII. In every movement 1 of the body. LiV. . at II.-uv. is a safe rule. usually cause less distress. especially in cases of change from one thing to another. change to unaccustomed things may be necessary. xLvm.

4 ev rfjcnv ?} toprjcriv fieyaXat p. copecov At p.. wprjcriv. 4 3 <f)8ivoTTG)piva to. rfjaiv b dppcoariyai Be fiopeiov /3^6?. KOiXiai aicXripaL. Kal raXXa Kara Ttov 2 %ei/jbo)va ev (f>vaia>v ai pev 7r^o? Oepo<. voar)para TrpocrSexecrdai %/0>/. (pdpvyyes. ohvvai rrXevpecov. vovrai' Kal OKOLt]v Kal 1 r)v p.ev errl rrXeov 9 rrjv Kardaraaiv to eVo? rotovrov. /cal %(i>pa<>. fiapvijtcooi. but has 5e» before TrpooS^x^o-Bat. III. ar^Oecov' ovtos Svvaarevrj.. iSpeoras ev roicri rrvperolai ttoXXovs rrpoahe)(ea6ai %PV' 7 VII. vovacov aXXat irpos aXXas ev i) /ca«(5? nai rjXiKiai rives rrpos wpas. 8 eTroirjaev.AOOPIEMOI TMHMA I. II. OKorav 7 hvcrovpiai <f>piKu>8ees.. adding before III Kal Se irpbs After Sipas Xobpas Kal Siairas. C V : M C omits. V. 122 . SiaXvTi/coL' d^XvcaSees. x IV. Twv 7re<fiv/caai.eraj3oXal rwv kcii pbdXiara t'iktovgi ai voarjfiaTa. ai 8e 777)09 rj /ca/eaj? Trecfcv/caoiv. rrore yfrv^os yiV7]rai. joins II and III.eraXXayal i) Xoyov ovrcos. 2 3 he '6rav M : oK6rav : ylverat 4 V iroUtt V. Notch vcoOpoi. &)? eVl to f) Rein. OKorav ovros hvvaarevr]. adds rivas and Kal Karaaraffias vovawv after Siairas. Kal tocs &A\as icaTacrrdcrias. 'Ev roiaiv av^pbolai rrvperol o£ee9 yi- VI. 3 Kal hiaira<. yp-vgios 6dX-ty-io<. rrdo-yovcnv. KapiifiapiKoi. TPITON. 'Ev rrjaiv rrore p. roiavra iv rfjcriv 6 appuxxrirjcri 2 rrpoaheyeoOai XPV' O/corav 6epo<i yevi^rai ypi opioiov.ev orav Se 2 tt}? avrfjs rj^ieprj^ 3 OdXrros. omits xpv. i)v roiavra ev r).

their characteristics extend north wind causes to sufferers from illnesses. III. which appears to be a case of dittography.-vn.APHORISMS. In droughts occur acute fevers and if the year be particularly dry. and several other MSS. which has Se? TrpoaSe- XeffBai after roiavTa. as it is in Humours XIV. when on the same day occurs now heat and now cold. districts and kinds of II. VII. heaviness of the head. proves similar to spring you to occur in fevers. I. . For xpv Urb. torpor. tion . THIRD SECTION the changes of the seasons which and in the seasons the great produce changes from cold or heat. coughs. according to the constituVI. 123 . Littre reads with many MSS. has 46v. V. dicoi-nv Kal 8 C C V . dimness of vision. When such winds prevail. pains in the sides and chest such are the symptoms one must expect in illnesses when this wind prevails. When summer must expect copious sweats . Littr6 with some authority o'lijy. have 5el. 6 ?? is omitted by two inferior MSS. III. 6 irpocrSe'xeo'flaj 7 XP 1 ') is omitted by V. IV. to Of constitutions some are well or ill adapted summer. South winds cause deafness. ' Urb. During the seasons. i. others are well or ill adapted to winter. sore throats. and so on according to the same rule. It is chiefly diseases. constipation. and are relaxing. rotovreof ibv neither nor Urb. difficult micturi- A accompanied by shivering. regimen. Certain diseases and certain ages are well or ill adapted to certain seasons. you must expect diseases to be autumnal.

. rolac ?') 10 he 7rpea/3vTepoiat Xvvres. 6pov Kal votiov. To (pdivoTTcopov Total <p6ivovai KaKov.. Urb. evicpivees Littre.AOOPISMOI ttoXv 5 Kal t« voai']fx(na -roiavra hel "wpoahe- yeodai. upala aTroSfioacrii/. ivKpiffcrraToi C'V . omits ko1 ) . 'Ey (pOtvoTTcopw o^urarai ai* vovaoi. rjp he vyiewoTarov. rolaiv s 4 o-KaraaTix-roicTLv uKardaTaTOi Kal 8v(TKpiTOi. Hepl he r&v (bpecov. The vulgate text (with M and Urb. IX. aKpaTea Kal voacohea ra Trathia TLKTOvaiv. . 3 Kal rjKLcrra davaraihts. 1 ol tokol Trpos fiopetov. 1 Kardppooi- avvropios uttoX- cnrofiiSuHnv. has V wpalws Rein. ?) Xe7TTa Kal voacohea %>)v eovra' rotai he aWoiai hvaevrepiai Kal 6(p6a\plai ffrjpal yivovrao. VEy roicri KaOecrreoicn aTrohihouo'iv. eK 7racn/<? irpocpdcnos eKTirpcoaKOVo-iv al o° av reKwaiv. rjv pev 6 ^eipu>v av)(pr]po<i Kal fiopeios yevrjTai. to he cap eiropdi'djKT] tov Oepeos irvperovi Kal hvcrevrepLas yiveadat. has 2 Tjvlica 3 copaiws al 3>pat to. (VKpiviararai Urb. .d\iara Trjai yvvailjl Kal rots vypds e^ovcri Ta<. di. 2 copata al vovaoi evaraOees ev he yivovrai. foari/xaTa yiyvovrat. has aKaraffTara Kal hvaicpna Kal to. ware irapavrtKa diroXXvaOai. al pev yvvaiKes. Erm. airoSiZovcriv. VIII.ea<. 1 tcaipolai. * MV omit oi. 124 . p. 5 6 'xeipaiv Kal eTropfipos 6 to he eap au)(py]pbv Kal evhios yevijrai. *Hi> he votios Kal to hap. XI. Kal tcai wpaiwz ev/cpiv6€<> to. r\o~iv XII. Kal 6<p6a\pLas. Kal Oavarcoheararai Tov-nlirav.. X. 6 (pvata<.

APHORISMS. have weak and unhealthy offspring. of necessity occur in the summer acute fevers. 6 tthios. evditwhs Littr6. especially among women and those with moist constitutions. In seasons that are normal. 3 See Airs. rainy and calm. X. northerly and the spring wet and southerly. IX. and the spring dry and northerly. tokstoI C . so that they either die at once or live with puny and unhealthy bodies. It is in autumn that diseases are most acute . tion it has produced. however. 1 KaOeffTiwai is difficult to translate.nTaa is (constitution). But if the winter prove southerly. X. reads /cal Tolinv vypolai ras #u<nas. regular " Ka. in the case of the 3 old. 100). catarrhs that quickly prove fatal. M." established. XI. As for the seasons. if the winter be dry and .-xh. X.-ri." are partial but imperfect equivalents. Autumn is bad for consumptives. Among the rest prevail dysentery and dry diseases of the eyes. . Places. or. vii." "regular. VIII. Waters. p. 98). (I. and. 2 XII. III. (I. 1 See Airs. diseases prove normal and have an easy crisis in abnormal seasons diseases are abnormal and have a difficult crisis. Waters. So C'V. most deadly spring is most healthy least deadly. It means "having a just as aKardcrraTos means " "Fixed. p. eye diseases and dysentery. Places. evdivhs 7 M to'/coi most MSS." 6 So practically all the good MSS." having no regular constitution. in general. 1 and bring seasonable things at seasonable times. if they do bear children. and and. 125 . such for the most part will be the diseases that must be expected. women whose confinement is due in the spring suffer abortion on the slightest provocation.

. But. Kal Bvaevrepiai. At Be Kad* i)pepi]v Karaar dates. XV. Kal Kvvdyyjav 6(f)da\piai. Kal evrova Kal 7 Kal evrjKocoTepa iroLeovac. Waters. Kal ev eTriXrjTTToi.a ijv rt 1 p is 2 omitted by K6pu£ai C Urb. have tV <pv<nv. 6 arpayyovpiat. Places has TroAvxpSvioi instead of i<6pv£ai. * For 5\<r<rov C has i'iKt<rTa. Be toictiv KOi\i7}S arprreBoves. n Kal Kopv^ac. Be Kal pe\ay^6\lai. 126 . has ofe'er Aphorisms to that of Airs. evioicri 1 Be teal (frdicrie . parallel passage in Aim. Kal K6pv£ai xp^'ai. Places.. Kal <fi0tvdBe<.a ytverai. fce<f>a\akyicu e? rbv yeipwva Kal f3r}%e<i.ev o\ov ol av^piol rwv eiropf3pL6)v elaiv vyieivorepoi. T&v Be Karaaraalcov tou eviavrov to p. Kal fjaaov* OavaTcoBees.ara avvicndcn. 4 (Spdyyoi. ro Be (pdtvoTrcopov eiropbfipov Kal votlov. Urb. Kal Kai 6 airo7r\rjKTOi. After : C. p-aKpol. koI Kopv^ai. V including 3 Some good MSS. evKivr-jra Kai eu^poa Kai ra$ KoiXias fyipaivovcn. rolcri 2 Kal Trjcrt yvvat^l pev vypolcri t<z? (pvaias crvpitpopov roicrt Be Xonroiaiv 6<p0a\plai ecrovrai 3 evloiat ^r/pal. oppaia 8 BaKvovcu. have points out. Kal to. avy^polai. and -KoXvxpovtoi. Kal xP^vioi. Kal XIII. some editors would adopt that reading here. apOpiriBes. irvperol re pvaies../3pirjcnv Ta 7ToW. Nocnjpbara <o9 Be ev pev 5 rfjcnv e7rop.AOOPISMOI Hv Be to Oepos av^ptjpbv Kal ftopeiov yevrjrai. Kal Trvperol o£ee<>. the commentary of Theophilus implies Kopu(ai. 1 Hv Be fiopeiov XVI. Waters. XVII. n 5 3 kcu dvvBpov. Kal irepl rov OcoprjKa dXyrjp. as Littre Xpivtcu some have many As the other MSS. ai pev ffopeioi ra re acop. -r) XIV. Evidently there have been efforts to assimilate the text of Rein.

consumption. dry up the bowels and make the eyes tingle. p. well-marked characteristics. 2 1 Galen and Theophilus tell us that many commentators <t>6iva§es as an adjective qualifying ocpdaAuiai. 1 if XIV. Waters. dry weather occur consumption.. including Urb. in the winter. besides Airs. XIII. giving it tone and agility. and improving the complexion and the sense of hearing. and the autumn rainy and southerly. For 8(Lkvov<ti C 127 . xm. in general. strangury and dysentery. p. XVII.APHORISMS. fxkv is 6 koX is 7 omitted by many MSS. The diseases which generally arise in rainy are." This is linmaking <p6ivd8ts equivalent to guistically better than 4 took <p6ifftfs. epilepsy. To the others will come dry eye diseases. diseases of the joints. Of the constitutions 3 of the year droughts in more healthy and less deadly than wet weather. Places. For eiixp oa V has evxpo&repa. from true melancholia to mere nervousness. In 4 eye diseases. omitted by CM. XVI. III. Hut <(the autumn) be northerly and rainless it is beneficial to those with moist constitutions and to women. apoplexy weather are protracted fevers. Places. has SaKpvevcrt. sore throats. 1. some cases. " Melancholia " includes Airs. in some cases. mortifications.-xvii. 3 The KaTcuTTtiffies of a year are those periods which exhibit definite. and angina. all forms of depression. 2 XV. 102. acute fevers. colds and. with coughs. Of daily constitutions. I. melancholia. fluxes of the bowels. Waters. "eye diseases resulting in destruction of the eyes. 102. such as are northerly brace the body. If the summer prove dry and northerlv.. 5 M has (pdivci'Sea. headaches are common colds and.

XIX. the order of the diseases showing considerable confusion. Kai OiTwv trovoi. including Urb. XVIII.? Kai yiverat Kai irapotjvverai. C M 128 . has re 5e. 3 Kai to e-nih. Kai cpvpaTa.rj-iT'TiKd. 6 Kai dpOpiriKa. oi iralSe? teal oi tovtwv e^optevoi rfjcjiv rjXtKi-paiv dptard re hidyovai (fiOii'OTTwpov. Kai Kai xavaoi. 3 In M. 5 Kai crr)7reS6ve<i alSoicov. /ueXayxo^iKa and fiaviKa. Kai iSpcoa. I ov oe oepeos.. AA1. Kai ra paviKa. wpas. Kai aipajo? pvcries. Kai Ta9 KOtXia? vypaivovatv. Kara teal 8e ra<.ao~i 10 8v<TKivT](Tir)v.ev yap rjpo?. Kai Stdppoiai. oi peaoi ttjgiv ifkiKirjCTiv. were not in the texts known to Galen. Kai TrvpeTol avve^ee?. rpiraiot irvpeToi* Kai ep. Kai (3pdy%oi.. Kai /Sr/^e?. rou piev r/po? cucpov tov depeos. and there are several minor variants in the less important MSS. Kai Xeirpai. V. Kai dX<poi. Kai Kvvdyyai. Kai e^avO nates eXKcoSee? TrXeiarat. * This is adds koI rerapraToi. Kai iXiyyov? ipnroieovaiv. read re. Noaijpara 3 avrecov Se iravra pev 6" rrjaiv toprjai yiveTai. adds tov <p6ivoirwpov. rd pbeXay^oXiKa. ToO 1 omits 5«. 5 XX. Kai 6<pOaXpiat.AOOPISMOI p. and many MSS. 2 teal tov ^etpioiyvo?. ev oe 1 roiaiv 6(p6aXpolo~i teal roiai od>p. Kai Kopv^ai. Kai Xet^ve?. p. apparently. are transposed.erot.aXXov troveovatv ai 8e votioi BtaXvovcri ra acoptara teal vypaivovai. words. •npovTrapyr). teal Kaprjfiapia? Kai /3apu7]/coca<. 7 Kai vytaivovai paXiara' tov Se Oepeo? teal tov pe^pi P<ev rivo? oi yepovTe?' to Se Xottrov. evia re tovtoov. Kai aropdrcov eXKcoate?. Rein. pidXXov ev irdarjai evia tear evict. 2 Rein. which the reading of C.

bring on heaviness of the head. throats. 6 many other MSS. angina. colds. madness.1 alSvuv TjSpwTes. It gives quite good affioiup ISpua. but Galen took aldotuv omits iced reads ISpwrti for 'ISpooa. As for the seasons. epilepsy. 1 eruptions turnto ulcers. III. read irAeurToj. eye diseases. at certain seasons. sweats. In spring occur melancholia. with a colon at o-nireSSves. ulcerations of the mouth." We See Littre's note. make the eyes and the whole body slow to move. skin eruptions joints. In summer occur some of the diseases just mentioned. vomiting. aggravating any pre-existing pain in the chest southerly constitutions relax and moisten the body. "very many tertians. 1 It is not possible to translate the Greek terms for the various skin diseases. coughs. the aged for the remainder of autumn and in winter. before both <rr]TteS6vfs and 'ISpwa.-xxi. XX. with (ri)irf$6ves. . . pains of the ears. There are many interesting variants this C V M 129 . the middle-aged. ital aphorism.APHORISMS. sore and diseases. sense to take these words together. tumours and affections of the ing generally XXI. and also continued fevers. in spring and early summer children and young people enjoy the greatest well-being and good health in summer and part of autumn. XVIII. and the bowels watery. may be sure. however. and Urb. V and which Littre adopts. diarrhoea. that diseases besides leprosy. in the latter part of has ko. All diseases occur at all seasons. XIX. as the modern classification is so different from the ancient. 2 tertians. but some diseases are more apt to occur and to be aggravated . mortification of the genitals. and so supports the other strong testimony that aiSoiwv should go with i'Sptua. xvn. bloody flux. Ae'irpa included many * With the reading of V. hardness of hearing and giddiness. ardent fevers.

omits Kal Aeiej/repiai Kal has Bpdyxat. and It is placed Svcrevreplai.. For roiaSe ffvufiatvei 7 has KaAov/xtvovs KotyoS6vras. XijOapyoi. 4 iXiyyoi. daand 2 ra is omitted by V. dadp-dra. Kal to. Kal s rolai Ta<. * has trv/x[$aivei ra roiavra. a-rrovBvXov tov Kara to Ivlov elaco wenes. Bcdppoiai.oviai. aTToirXii^iai. Urb. 6p. /cal (pdlaies. XXIV. and M. 4 <p6/3oi. Kal irvpeTol rerapraloi. Kal vSpwrres. dypvirviai. ical Kvvdyyai? /cal dadTeplat. For KiWyxai Many MSS. 7 Kal (nrXrjvei. Be XXV. irvpeTOi. icaX twv depivwv rd x iroWd. arraapol. Ke<fia\a\yt. ttovol 5 rrXevpecov. kcli irXavrjT€<i. /cal eTn\r)^riai.* Kopv^ai. 0pdyxpi. 5 -k6voi TrAevpew tmqdiuv C'V : irSvot (TT7]deci>y irXevptuiv has a colon at ir6vwv. by others after. TOicri TrayyTdroiai twv TraiBwv. 3 4 C by Galen. omit Avdapyoi. ical ra fiavixd. while a few omit K6pv£ai. /S^e?. it is not commented on by some MSS. ryaiv yXi/ci-pai TOtdBe avppev apuKpolui /cal veoyvolai d$9ai. XXIII. 6 'Ev fiaivet' TOicri TracSloiaiv. XcOido-ies. Kal arpayyovpiai.AOOPISMOI XXII. irepi- ir\evp. 6a<pvo<. Tov 8e x et ^ v0 ^> wXev/otTtSe?. /cal Suaev2 /cal iV^mSe?.ai.(pa\ov <fi\eyp. para. ov\cov 6Ba^7]apbOi. IIpo9 Be to oBovrocpvelv irpoadyovaiv. e\piv6e<i 1 xl arpoyyvXdi. V omits Kal Svaevrepiai. real \eievjepiai.ovai. eperoi. Urb. e^pvaiv? XXVI. Kai 5 KoiXias aK\r)pd<.. Tov Be <f)OivoTru)pov. ar^Oecov.d\iaTa orav dvdycocn to*/? KWoBovras. 1 p. before K6pv(ai. For Kvi>68ovTas M C V !3° . nrapla10 6 pta. Kal elXeoi. fieXayxoXixd. a>r(ov vypoTrjTes. UpeafivTepoicri Be yevopevoiai. fifties.

has ras KoiAlas aicAripas ex ouai "i it actually Littre says that C M has ras KoiAtas vypas 10 11 For For d<ra> Sxths e\p. dizziness. stone. dysentery. aphthae. pated 8 Ka\ is omitted by M. apoplexy. XXIII. angina. consumption. terrors. madness. coughs. pains in the sides. In autumn occur most 1 summer diseases. melancholia. headache. with quartans." 9 has ffKAypas before to. XXII. sciatica. has Iffdxries and V Iffwda-qes. asthma. chest and loins. convulsions. epilepsy. the reading of V. warts." "watery"). 131 . lientery. xxu. curvature at the vertebra by the neck. "many. older occur affections XXVI. irritation of the gums. ascarides. 2 1 With That C is. ileus. But the point is that children usually constibecome very relaxed in certain circumstances. of apparent inconsistency of saying that diarrhoea occurs in children naturally constipated. In the different ages the following comchildren and babies. fevers. At the approach of dentition. asthma.APHORISMS. enlarged spleen. pneumonia. irregular fevers." have a tendency to constipation. So V and many other MSS. lethargus. XXIV. This reading would give the sense : " fat babies with a tendency to constipation. sleeplessness.s. strangury. In winter occur pleurisy. round worms. and in the case of 2 very fat children. and if the bowels are hard.ivdes C has %\nivQai. especially when cutting the canine teeth. sore throat. Among those who are of the tonsils. So some scribe or commentator changed aKAvpxs ("hard") to vypas ("relaxed.-xxvi. diarrhoea. dropsy. coughs. watery discharges from the ears. M exovffiv. inflammation of the navel. XXV. III. plaints occur to little : vomiting. The reading It obviously arose from the is very interesting. colds.

Littre has fj.AOOPISMOI icapiSes. XXIX. Before xoipaSes After <t>v/j. Ta irdOea KpLverai. bvaovpiai. (ppei'LTibes. XXXI. . bidppoiai ^pbviai. icardppoiai Tourt 11 be. ra be ev eirra erecri. Xydapyoi. . 7 After TraiSlouTi V adds TrdOea. KCU €K pivcbv ai/taro? XXVII. add K«l. Erm. atpoppo'lSes.eva. after rovruv. 5 C M V (with teal : x 32 . ical 9 vocn'ipara. Kavaoi. a'iparos irritates. Tolai be ver]VLo-/coio~iv. p-dXiara be rd 7rpoeipr)p. cpOlates. Total 8e 3 4 pvaies. Loiai be vnep rrjv t]\iKirjv ravrnqv. dad para. eiriXrptyiai. ra be 6 £' av irpocrdyovatv 6/cocra rolai koX rraibioicn? prj aTroXuBfj irepl Siapei'vtj to rifidaiceiv.Ta. Xeievreplai. t TrXevpirtbes. ftrixcobees.epr)ai. . TreptTrXevpLoviat. omits ko! irpoffdyovcxi. puev ev reaadpaKovra ra be ev €7rra 7T/30? prjau. and for t)) TTJtrt Or)\eir)oi Littre with two MSS. including Urb.. 3 rrvperol o£ee?. After 8e Urb. dpOpcov 1 7rovoi.* tovtcov ra woXXd. %o\epai.a. iXiyyot. hvaevrepiai. bvairvoiai. arpayyovplai. XXVIII. y^povi^eiv elwOev. <f>vpara. drroTTXri^idt. rdWa AAA. rj rotai 07]\ecri 8 rrepl rd$ rwv ttjv ijfBrjv 7 KaTtiprjvicov pittas. 6 has oaa. 3 After St re). 5 teal TaWa a/cpo^o proves. 10 Trpeafturijat. ttjv r}j3rjv Trpeo-fivrepoicn koX 777309 irpoaayovai. * For nponpr)jx4va V has elprjixiva. ra be 7r\eiara toi<tl Traiblotat f]p. vecppLTibe?. For okScto. /cal 7TVp€Tol \p0VL0L pboXkoV. 1 xoipaSei. 2 aaTvpiaa/xol. 8 Tolffi QyKeai many MSS.a\i(na Se to M n-poeiprj/xeva (from aphorism XXIX?). 2 has (rrpayyovpiai. 4 M has en (and.

irpea- fiuTepoicri. in seven years. or. Older children and those approaching puberty suffer from most of the preceding maladies. who would transpose (raTvpiao-fioi and place it next to aiTKapiSes. is very of the ancient commentators. from fevers of the more protracted type and from bleeding at the nose. I have adopted this explanation. XXIX. III. So Lallemand ffaTvpiafffiSs. 10 For irpecx^vTTi<Ti many MSS. accompanied by coughing. strangury. on the ground that the latter often cause the former. especially those mentioned above. pains at the joints. II Kardppaiai C'V : Karippooi or Kardppoi most VOL. 1 xxvi. are wont to become acute chronic. pneumonia.) G . suffer from spitting of blood. refer to it.APHORISMS. epilepsy ardent fevers. scrofula and tumours XXVII. the ears. Young men fevers. at the approach of puberty.. hemorrhoids. XXVIII. Most diseases of children reach a crisis in forty days. swellings by generally. XXX. a word explained in the Galenic Glossary as meaning tumours by the ears. and the other diseases. including C. at the commencement of menstruation. None and Pappas. But such as persist among boys without ceasing at puberty. XXXI. cholera..-xxxi. chronic diarrhoea. but at the same time I am not at all sure that satyriasis is not referred to. dysentery. kidney the word given by all our MSS. lethargus. difficult. pleurisy. phrenitis. Those who are beyond this age suffer from asthma. lientery. read MSS. iv. with the exception of one scholiast. in the case of girls. (hip. catarrh difficult I micturition. Old men suffer from difficulty of breathing. Littre thinks that it means the same as (rarvpia^oi. phthisis. in seven months.

Rein. ev(f)opa><i o~vp.ov. pivcop vyporjjres. fxaWov is omitted by ^ef is C and several MSS. TMHMA TETAPTON Kvovcra<.AcDOPIEMOI Kayefyai} %vo \xol rov KoiXirjs teal crco/^aTO? o\. 'Ey jfjen ^apfiaKeirjcri roiavra ayetv e/c rov 5 Kal alirofiara lovra -^p/jaip-a. 'Tiro 2 Kvva irpo 10 kvvo? evrjfieas 11 epycoBee? at <f)ap/jLaK€iai. 9 depeos ^et/icoj/cx? Be rds Kal fiev /carat.au/ecoiTi69. VI. vrrocrreWop. fifv is C 134 . * 6 6 7 Xph ola 8 omitted by V and several other MSS. omitted by MV. Ta9 fxrjva II. /cat 6(f>0a\p. tb is omitted by CM. ^et/bLcova.ea<. III. depo?. Paris MSS. 1 * 3 Rein. has 7rapa before rauras. IV.(ov 7A. Qap/xa/ceveLV 2 di'o). T01/9 lo"yvovs Kal 2 Keveiv. 7 ra Be evavria 8 3 Bvo-^epco<.(fiip€t re Kal (pepovai. rerpdKal d^pi kirrd firjva)v. ola 3 Be ivavriwi lovra iraveiv. places /cox^m after oAou. fiapvrjKotai.evov<. aVa> <fiapp. and by several other MSS. VII. *\Hv /xev 6 ola Bel KadaipeaOat /caOalpcovrai. r^aaov Be 2 ravras' rd Be vrjTTia Kal rd 3 irpeafivrepa ev\a/3ei<J0ai I.ecra)9 evadpKovs. fidWov t<x? V. rd acofxaro'i. (fiapjAa/ceveiv.. rjv opya. is omitted by C'V and by : many 6k6<to. Kara). 6 dfifiXvatiriai. dypvirvlai.a- vTroareWo/xevovi Buo-7)p. Tou9 Se 2 Kal yu. but appears in several Paris MSS. or &Ko7a mo3t MSS.

matters of an opposite character should be stopped. At and just before the dog-star. : ^ M : 135 . sleeplessness. XXV. In purging. but these last less freely the unborn child. V. the patient benefits and bears up well 2 otherwise. add kolXicls. read x il vos aud 8*P*os m the next aphorism. apoplexy. should there be 1 orgasm. and ancient purges were violent in action. disease. Purge upwards thin people who easily vomit. cachexia. II Erin. vn. dullness of sight. in I * 8 summer. If matters purged purged. be such as should be III. . FOURTH SECTION Purge pregnant women. II. hardness of hearing. but be careful in winter. pruritus of the whole body. purging is troublesome. very cautiously. 3 VI. I. Kal C'V and many other MSS. in winter downwards. eyes and nostrils.-IV. Purjje downwards those who vomit with difficulty and are moderately stout. bring away from the body such matters as would leave spontaneously with advantage. and some Paris MSS. 10 Kal tovs robs Littre. the patient is distressed. Heat causes prostration. 9 After &vw Urb. In summer purge by preference upwards. Rein. a word which Galen says must certainly be understood. xxxi. See note on Aphorisms. but be careful . watery discharges from bowels. See Aphorisms. I. dizziness. cataract. should be treated I. VII. IV. III.APHORISMS. XXII. in the first and last stages of pregnancy. from the fourth to the seventh month.

robs fdivdStas Rein.T(i)v puaWov ciyeiv. 2 has oT<ri. authority. Urb.w^o? avw KaKov. XL OkOCTOKTI 2 0~TpO<f>Ol. yu.aKeveiv iv rotai Xltjv o^eaiv. XIV. Tou<? Be p. oti Kivrjais ra trcopara 5 Tapdaaei.<j>a\bi> irovoi. \v6p. 1 IX. %etyu. 'Okogohti Koikiat Xeievrepioohees. however. by Galen's comment. . reads ras &vu> comma at inrooreWoficvovs. IIpo? tovs eWeftopovs 5 rolcn p.evoLO~i. reads nvre vwb &\\ctv. dBporepws ras Karoo. vpbs tovs Si' i\Ke^6pov Rein.r) prjiBucos 3 ra avoo Kadaipop. in add- some form ing ras ras &vcd less &va> is after \fnoare\\ofi4vovs. C 136 . Kal oacpvos d\yrjp. r\v opya. 4 4 2 3 eh vSpoorra %T)p6v ISpverac. tw avTop \oyiap. after &KKws. and : * St' i\\€06pov Erm. and Littre' follows slight MS. XIII. has kotcd Bepeos. Toix. Kal TTOVOl irepl tov 3 6p-<fia\ov.>.e\ay%o\iKov<.fp rdvavria rrpoariOeis. toiovtoigi KaKQV. (frapp-aKeveiv 2 XII. <£>app. supported. Most MSS.^r' a\\&>$. X. overwhelming it is omitted by C'MV and most important MSS. V very common 3 4 V has V has To?<n Kal ol irepl 7rajs 6fj. Trpbs Be tovs vttvovs Kal Tas aKiV7]o~ia<. Trpbs [xev to. have of the participle. This variation For dKoaouri in Aphorisms and need not be noticed again.. nrpb t?}<? irocnos irpovypaiveiv o-dojxara rrXeiovi rpocpfj Kal dvairavaei. ^irrjv ttltj ti$ eWefiopov. 1 'Etttjv /3ov\r) fiaWov ayeiv tov i\\e/3opov.? Kivijaias twv <7a)/jLa. inroffTeWf-aOai is the reading of C.a //. avdrjfxepov y^povi^eiv yap iv rolat.AQOPISMOI VIII.evov p<>']T€ V7T0 (pappLaKeiijs. The authority against with a is virotTTeWofxivovs. 9 XV. Be (f>0iv(oBeas inroareWeadai. 6 rjaaov 1 8r/\oi 8 Be Kal rj vavriXCrj.

sounds like a drum A (tympanum)" (Adams.Kivi]cnas C'V and many other MSS.-xv. When one has taken hellebore.) • ras a.APHORISMS. apparently. has V fiaWov ayeiv rhv iWefiopov. In very acute cases purge on the first day should there be orgasm. and to indulge the sea too less in sleep and rest. It is bad to purge upwards in winter those whose bowels are in a state of lientery. In giving the hellebores. XI. Rein. Kivei rb ci/xo. -(as . XII. and ache in the loins. fjiv jSouAjj t\<t<tov. 298. have their bodies moistened by increased food and rest. By the same method of reasoning apply the opposite procedure to those who are of a melancholic temperament. . the dropsy called "tympanites. XIII. 1 XV. IV.e/a> rb ffu/ia. vm." so named "because in it the belly. Be careful in purging those with a tendency to consumption. one should be made to increase the movements of the body. "dry dropsy" is. for in such cases delay causes harm. finish with a dry dropsy. XIV. when struck. See Coan Prenotions. and purge downwards freely. : The accent is sometimes written 7 For irpbs ixkv . 8 Littre"s L has yavrlr] (seasickness). proves that movement Sailing on disturbs the body. uri Kivfaias Littre and M. efficacious. When you wish hellebore to be more move the body when you wish the . removed neither by purg1 ing nor in any other way. 137 . ' C has Kivricrts irA. before the draught. those who are not easily purged upwards should. Those who suffer from colic. VIII. Tapdcrcret. IX. pains about the navel. a reading noted by Calen. X.

C has naveiv. air o atrirj.a\\ov kcikiov avv TrXeica (f)ap/xdK(p Be a/xeivov. i)v yevrjrat o~Tp6(j)0<.v<rai . mark a hiatus at kokictto. Kal V C : Urb. Kal avv irvperw. add ra>v inroxo0pr)/. Kal KaphtKal cncoTohwos.. kcitco (f)ap/jLaKeu]<. including MV M. iovTi. Erm. (or (papfiaidris) : Rein. KaKiaia' 6 TrXeico Kal r). 9 10 TrovrjpoTepa r}. (pappaKel-qs SeTadai) C'V and many 3 * 5 other MSS. Beladai arj/xaivei. XIX. Kal dvev 1 Kal okocw av xpcofiara 8 TrvpeTOU. cnracr/ibv yap XVII.. iravaat. XX.e\av. XVIII. for fTT^v 2 .i<LTa>v. add /j. has %v Be SdeaOai (or iravecrdai Qoi/Aj. 2 'E\\e/9o/30? iniKivSwos: tolgl ra<. odpica<. vyieas e^ovai. Kal 6 oKoaw av n fiara 1 ov irovrjpov.aLver OKoaa Be Kara). 'Okocjol ev rfjai fyapixaKoiroo-irjai p..a eKTTiKpov/xevov. 138 . : C : yiyvi)Ttxi V : yiprjTat 6 7 M.. Kal 3 fir) Kivei. with Urb. 8 * aTfia some MSS. After xp^M aTa some MSS. diro ravrofiaTov tovra. TTTo^copriixaTa fieXava.r) KaOaipofievot ov rravovrai irplv '' i) Bi\jr/]- 3 awcnv* A-iTvpeTOtcriv eovaiv. 12 XP^' For ira. Bi- 3 Kara). 3 avoi (f)ap/j. . vttvov iroiei. For $i\f/-f)<r<>><rtv V has Snp-fi&ov&iv.aK€ir)5 SelcrOat crrj/xaivei. Kal arop. and Urb. Rein. M omit. Kal oacfivos aXyrjfxa. ydvnrai most MSS. XVI. 5 3 XXI. 3 -v/rwcrt.iaTa dvw SelaOai arjp.. ifiTroiel. 'KirvpeTtp wy/x6<i. Ta <f)ap/uaK€iy]<> virep twv 2 (ppevcov 68vv7]/. okoZov aljua. Kal yovarcov (3dpo<i.AfcOPISMOI /civet to cratfia' 1 eirr)v 8e iravaai. p. After ttAs/o. (pap^aKirjv (without SeTtrOat) Sttyaffi St^ama-i C.

. the worse the sign. XIX. and the more numerous and the more evil the colours. are a very bad sign. should colic come on.APHORISMS. IV. but no ancient commentator mentions it. vertigo. 139 . either with or without fever. cases where there is no fever. XVIII. When there . heartburn." Such an interpretation makes the aphorism more homogeneous. Littre text. need downward purging. 1 coming spontaneously. For irovr}p6v has iroyrjpa. XXI. as it produces convulsions. Pains above the diaphragm indicate a need for upward purging pains below indicate a XVII. Stools that are black like (black) blood. is no fever. xv. omitted by {xp'-i/xara TrKtiova V). and a bitter taste in the mouth indicate that there should be upward purging. has k<x\ kcucSv. XVI.-xxi. effects to stop. Hellebore is dangerous to those who have healthy flesh." but " shades of black. When caused by a purge the sign is better. do not cease from being purged they have become thirsty. Littre thinks that ov isovr\p6v 7r\6ico M C a gloss. Those who suffer no for thirst while under the action of a purgative. that in this does not 10 11 rj 18 is omitted by C. need is indicated of purging downwards. and 2 it is not a bad one when the colours are numerous. with heaviness of the knees and pains in the loins. until XX. In 1 that 2 Even though /xe\av is omitted from the it must be understood. For k&kiov Rein. loss of appetite. make the patient sleep and do not move him. it is clear J aTa - aphorism xp'+'i suggests mean " colours.

14 C has After Other readings are adds : virox<»p'>>o~t and ^ llro imox">psuo~i. V. with many MSS. puekava viroxtopeovra. vTroxiepcovTa C has Rein. OKoaoiai pbara.f\aiva. payel 7r\?}#o? Okoo'olo'iv iv to?o~i 7rvperotcriv atpbop16 OKoOevouv.aip. Hv XXVI. \e7TTv<7fievoiat 4 fxeXav 2 8 G ck vocrrj/xdrcov o^icov r) 4 6 €K rpav/xdroov. rfj vaTepait] aTroOvrjo-KOVcriv. omitted by MV. Avcrevreptr) rjv cnrb ^oA. XXIV. Littre : C has r) r) Rein.AOOPISMOI XXII. Dietz (from the reading <5/co?a<. 6ava.evot(T i and Galen 7 \e\tirTvp. C'V and many other MSS.e\alvr)s 10 11 efy ical x o?^VS V Urb. /carto 12 teal ll to. 10 Alp. vtto 8v<revT€pir]<. S. 12 13 Rein.ov OKOIOV. has rjv 77 fxtKava to. davdaifiov. has irovnpSiv for r) &\\ass. 2 8e. 3< Otc6o~oio~iv rj 7ro\vxpovio)v. has nzXav alfia.a aUa? vireXOr). i) \e7 okoiov X°^V /^eXaiva rj alp. XXV. 15 XXVII. reads p. has ical before SkSo-oktiv. r\v V C M f.e\av C has to 5e fj. u davdaipiov. kclkov. Kara &veo. davdaifiov. including S and Q.ivoiffi C and Dietz. 9 p. have inroxvpeovo-i. omits 6|fW \e\eTTTv<rti. e^o/Aev&) okoiov 13 dyadov. is omitted by M and many other MSS. *j.. ' 2 adpices V7rox<0pwa>cn. For i/coro!/ a/.?/? [xekaivr}<i 9 ap^qrai.a dva> fiev okoiov av f/. and : AeAeirTvo-fifvuv tip.ara. which Littre" has) suggests C' with many other MSS. 1 3 6 6 xo\d)Zea rd 19 18 KcocpGoaios eiriyevopievris 2 4 Siaxcopr)20 Ka\ TraveTai. XXVIII. viroxoopr)fj. XXIII. iv rfjcriv dvaXyjyjreo-L 17 3 TOVTOicriv ai icoikiai tcaOvypaivovTai. 15 C ol virb rerapiaicmv ix^H-^ 01 140 . 2 Nocrrj/jLuTaiv r) OKoacov apyoyikvwv. 8 omitted by M. 1 rjv %o\*7 fieXaiva avto rj /caTco 2 vireXOrj.

its but evacuated downwards nature. and that the inconsistency is a real one. irA7J0os For oKSffoitrt. however. If a patient suffering from dysentery discharge from the bowels as it were pieces of flesh. C'Q many After C C olffi. XXII. to the "black vomit" of yellow apparently 1 XXVIII. a disease 3 anacTixwv ov iravv ti aKiaicovrai 16 17 18 el 8e Kal a\i<TKOVTai wporepov Kal iirtyevriTcu rerapTcuos. means death on the following day. or through wounds. XXI. quite possible that the two aphorisms come from different sources. iravovTai. 4Tri\o\ai6iciiv tTtiyivoixivris. and so also black stools. xxii. fever. adds u'l/uaros.-xxvm. XXVI. When the unknown to Hippocrates. is a bad sign 3 it is a good sign. XXVII. Should black bile be evacuated at the beginning of any disease.) have and other MSS.APHORISMS. it is a mortal sign. they cease " Attenuated " (Adams). IV." It is. or through any other cause. a discharge of black bile. as Adams thinks there is. stools are bilious. acute or chronic. A dysentery beginning with black bile is XXV. would interpret the latter half as referring to "bleeding piles. 20 C V has Kaxpoatws has iravovrai. 141 . When in fevers from whatsoever source there is copious hemorrhage. during convalescence the patients suffer from loose bowels. mortal. whether upwards or downwards. XXIII. (and other MSS. or as it were of black blood. omit to. whatever be . 2 There does not seem to be any reference. it is a mortal symptom. When patients have become reduced 1 through disease. Blood evacuated upwards. Galen. seeing the inconsistency of this aphorism with No. 2 XXIV.

4 <yvd0ov<. C The MSS. The and of several other MSS. and may be right.ei'oi(Tiv.' evravda ai e/c dvtarapievoiaiv 8 diroardcries 6 ytvovTCU. feai 3 BvvrjTCU. 2 irpb 'Ara/3 rjv /cal TrpoireTrovrjKos r) n9 10 y tov voaelv. 1 olhrjpaTO<i /cal p. 2 ^O/cocroicnv ev rolat. e? apOpa kcu nrapa ra? ylvovrai. of Urb. irpoircKovr]K<is tis. Urb. 12 v Hv virb TTvperov eyoLievco 6 Tpd%r)\o<s 13 i£ai<f)vr]$ e7riaTpa<pr). omit. wovriori. ttv)^ e^aicppr/^ e7riye~ 11 davdaiLLOv. 5 Tolcri KoiTKiihecriv ev Totcri irvpeTolaiv. 142 . olSrj/xaro^ iovros iv rfi cpdpvyyi. SixrKpira. ^o\co8ecov iiriyevOLievwv XXIX. C omits For to iraiWrai. Most MSS. XXXI. has yiyver&i SeiKvvrai. rjv av z cbprjv d<pr). 8 M ti novearit. /xoA-t? 14 KCLTCvniveiv is 0avdcripov. e? rr)v avpcov rrjv avTrjv cbprjv rjv \d/3r). Twv vovacov 3 Be 1 rt. V has tfv t« al C'Q and many other MSS. p. 1 K(o<f)(oat<.. C variety of readings. pdXiara ax '0/c6(TOicrc 3 d. XXX. BvaKpira. V before iraverai has Stax^pv- fiaraiv. reading is very attractive.TToard(ne<. ti ' of C Trponcnovr}K6s ti 7rpoire7ro^7jK:aJS MV. has (with Magnolus in margine) %v %v h. show a great noveei ti. 3 'Okoctoicti irapo^vo/xol yivovTai.rj e'oWo?. einavOa aTrjpt^et vovctos. XXXIII.rj XXXIV. But many omit.v. 2 3 4 5 6 ' yiverat Urb. Q fjv n •novi]aa>aiv.. XXXII.. Urb. V has (for 5e aviuTa^ivoaJiv) Siavt(Traiu. Trvperolcriv i/craioi2 a iv iovai piyea iylv€Tai. at least omit this aphorism. Two MSS. 'Hv XXXV. Q. 3 vr/rai.A<DOPIEMOI oKoaouri 4 iraverai. vtto TTvperov e%OLiev(p. Troveaei.

ceases when there is deafness. it is a deadly symptom. 1 XXXI. be suddenly seized with suffocation. xxvm. XXXII.APHORISMS. with no swelling in the throat.v 8>pr)v a<p?i). there being no swelling. especially at those of the jaws. and to swallow be a matter of difficulty. XXXI V." 10 11 12 13 V has 7] VOVffOS TTTipi^il. the disease settles in that part. Diseases with paroxysms. have a difficult crisis. . When rigors occur in fevers on the sixth deafness supervenes . 1 Galen a different interpretation.-xxxv. day the crisis is difficult. M many other MSS. But in a state of if previous to an illness a part be pain. When in fevers the patient is prostrated with fatigue. XXX. If convalescents from diseases have pain in any part. 16 C omits this aphorism. if IV. 143 . XXXIII. If the neck of a fever patient suddenly become distorted. the abscessions form at the joints. He explains " the crisisadopts is difficult if the paroxysm comes on regularly at the same hour. If a patient suffering from fever. whatever be the hour at which it left off on : the preceding day (V h. dno(7Tpa(pjj 14 After Uvtos most MSS. it is a deadly symptom. the abscessions form in that part. omitted by V and Rein. if at the same time as the paroxysm ceases on one day it returns on the next. it when bilious stools supervene. For eTTiyefrirat i£ai(pi>r)s is has i-niaTrji. XXXV. XXIX. have if rep rpaxfay Galen's commentary implies that he did not know this reading.

Kal Tpir/KoaTr) 1 ovtoc yap oi TrpcoTT). 5 4. Kal evheicarcuoi. 1 The MSS. 3 yivopbevoi.aivrjTai. 2 yfrv)(pol iSpcoref.rj \ap. rj 6 avBis uepp.aivovaiv. ddvarov. For fj. show several slight variations in the numbers.evo<. rj tyvxpov. avv irprjvTepco 2 vovaov ar)p. Kal okov eve rov o~ojp. Kal TpirjKoarfj rerdprrj' lhpoiTe<i vovaovs irovov Kpivovaiv ar/p. rov 3 4 voai\iJ. and many other MSS. yivojxevoi 9 Kal p. fifjKos vovaov rjv 4 arjfiaivei. has 8ia<popai and omits Kal. ii. val rj to awp. XXXVIII Kal okov evi rov adip.aivei on rrXeuovi he rpocfrrjv p. and many other MSS. 2 viroTpoTnacr^v Urb. mentions the fourth day. XXXIX.rJKO'i vovaov puev Kal vTrorpoTTiacrpLOv*. rpoff>fj 'ISpcbs 7roXu? 8 (baveprjs yivop.aTos Kal avaTpomao~fj. place 5e after avv.6v C viroarpo(pi]v s 6 Urb./3dvovrt rjv but no MS. as Galen notices. Kal teal evaraZoi. dyaOol rpiraloi. XXXVII. For Skov V has oirrj. zeal 'lBpcoTe? irvperaivovri irepbirraloi.aTO<> 0eppLov evravda r) vovaof. an important omission.AfcOPISMOI XXXVI. Kal okov ev oXqj tw aa>p.aros iBpcos. Kal pLifj Kal elkocttt]. ar/puaivei on Kevojaios helrai. avv 6%el he.aivovat. Kal efthopLT) Kal elKoarfj. Oi irvperS) 3 p. Kal eTrraKaioeKaraloi. vrrvov avev rivbs altlr)? rb a&p. XLI. 7 xptofia erepov €% erepov yivrjrat. XL. 4 xprjrar rovro yivrjrat.a ar)p.eral3o\al reads «\ For VQ have km.r) ovtox. C ?) C 144 .a tyv^rai.. evravOa <ppd^et T)]v vovaov.r)Ko<. Q has Kal zIkckttoI ejSSo^ot Kal TpiaKoarol irpMTOi Kal TpiaKoarol ej85oyUoi Kal TzaaapaKoaroi. teal reaaapeaKatSeKaraloi.atoi.aTi pLeraj3o\ai. e/3oop. oi he p. r)v ap^covTai. 2 .

with C. a long disease and relapses. yivofievov." : 7 yivqrai Urb. indicates that the body has a surfeit of food. Sweats in a fever case are beneficial if they begin on the third day. XL. yivono. and with VQ read k<x\ for fj before aid is "if the body grow cold and hot by turns. trtptis : (paveprjs The MSS. And on whatever there there. the fourteenth. have yiyvono or variations. XXXVIII. for these sweats bring diseases to a crisis. we omit (cat. with a milder fever they indicate a protracted disease. occurring with high fever. But should it occur to one who is not taking food. the ninth.APHORISMS. Galen notes the variants < Urb. 8 : yiyi/rjrai V. the twenty-first. Other MSS. TWOS another hand) over nv6s. XLI. is grow hot. occurring after sleep without any obvious cause. : some reading while krepris V has avev <paveprjs. or if one colour follow on another. XXXVI. And in whatever part of the body there heat or cold.*vos — Rein. XXXVII. or. sweats. for instance. if the body grow cold. IV. the seventh. it means that the disease has settled XXXIX. nvbs ahlov eTepTjj. the thirty-first and the thirty-fourth. again. xxxvi. And where there are changes in the whole body. Cold indicate death . it 1 signifies a protracted disease. Copious sweat. <pavtpris (in AafxfiavovTL after yivojievos. among them M. is part of the body sweat. show many slight others. 1 The sense is a little clearer if. the twenty-seventh. Sweats occurring on other days indicate pain. has &vev >av *P 7l s t alriris yiv6u. the eleventh. has rpo<p)\v 145 . it indicates need of evacuation. in that part is the disease. the seventeenth. the fifth.-xli.

6 4 'iSpeb? TroXvs "tyv^pos. 3 iXdcraa) vovcrov crrjpaLvei. ar)p. TooSees. including MVQ. 4 For i\d<r<Tu> a very great number of MSS. tr\eov. 1 8 ifimirTT) Littre's A'L i/J.aivei otl okoctoi. kclXcos. <f>vpara e? ra apdpa r\ 7 ovtoi gvtiomti iyjivovrai etc 7rvpeT(ov. fj .. av OT(p S' Bia la^vpoTGpoi rpoTTG) pyq SiaXetTrovTa. omitted by V. v6voi . 13 at teal he. XLIV. add /xaKpwv (from Galen's commentary). For Se is * fiefa the MSS. ttovoi 'O/coaouri pa/cpoc.ara tt6voi . ayaOai' icai rjv Kara 1 real Kara t« ovpane'ifa. the -v coming from vovoov which follows. irvperol apOpa rj XLV. Qavdo~ip. * Before iiriKivSwoi C'Q have /cat. has eKaffffov. At TOiat icaical' p. teal SvacoSees. 4 aicLvhvvoi. /xh SiaAlirovn. 7 So C. XLVII. 3 C <pvfj.AOOPISMOI XLI1. After : irvperiav a few : MSS. 3 TrXeloai ^peovrat. M (pifiara is ra apBpa r) yiyvovrai. V has tj (pvfiaTa f) eh ra. iv ireXihvai. 6 Se 3 6epp6s. Of irvperol Tp'nr)<. 146 . XLVI n Hi/ ptyos epiriTTTr) 8 Trvpera) pt) Bia9 10 2 XeiTTOVTi.ov. TjSrj daOevel eovri. yivovrat.triirrei irivrri ' C'V iirvrritrrTji M : itri- C has iv irvperw Urb. MV omit ixkv. &p6pa ir&voi. read i\a<raa>v. XLIII. Q have 6k6ctoi. 6 For 6K&Goi<ri Urb. ctlel pev x pe^co. irAetwv. rolai rrvpeTolcri kcu alpa11 iraaai 12 ^oXuiSee^. Oeppos 2 r) y\rv^pb<. have ueifav. SiaXeiTrovaiv. 2 (j>vpara r) 'O/coaoicrL 6 if to.rj a7roxpep. irAeiw.y}rie<. tovtohti irovoi eyylvovrai. 5 eirixivhwoi' jivovrat. hiaXeiirwcn. aTToywpkovaai rtjv Sia^coprjaiv. pea>v. Urb.

10 Urb. malaria of the mild.APHORISMS. a sufferer from a continued 4 it is a fatal XLVI I. XLV. bloody. Those who. XLII I. 1 are dangerous intermittence of any kind 2 indicates that there is no . while the sign. are taking too much food. XLIV. Copious sweat. hot or cold. "semi tertians. after fevers. 3 Littre's view. XLVI. or bilious are all bad. 4 I have printed the harder reading. body is already weak. is probably right. IV.-xlvii. 11 : affdevews iovros rov ffJofiaTOS aa-deve: 46vrt M." as they were called in ancient times. XLII. without intermitting. : tV Siaxapycrti' C'V rcks 8tax<»>pycrtas M. danger. grow worse every other day. fetid. : aracrai Rein. * That is. xlii. that Galen's distinction between dimeo-i} and ifj. 1 These are malignant tertians. expectorations that are livid.and i/i-. for if some suitable same with stools and urine . M omits 12 13 imffraoai fxtv Erin. intermittent type. The sense is the same regular reading of C in either case. a less serious one. 147 . If rigor attack 3 fever. Such fevers as. though the more may be correct. inverts the order of SvadSees : C acrdevel £6vti rcot acifxari C and x°*^5ees. when cold.ir'nrTT) refers to the tenses rather than to the prefixes em. indicates. continually running. but It is the it properly evacuated they are favourable. and when hot. Sufferers from protracted fevers are attacked by tumours or by pains at the joints. In continued fevers. are attacked either by tumours or pains at the joints. a more serious disease.

. C 6 6 7 Many MSS.i] Xvuptva 7T/30? Ta? irpaira^ Kpiaias. crco/zaTO?. has iv rolffi pvq SiaXenrouct irvperoio'iv. ' Rein. PAeirei aKovet. r) iv oi Trjaiv aXXrjaiv appcoarirjen Kara irpoaipeaiv ocpOaX/xol haicpvovaiv. Ev rj ^et\o?.AOOPIZMOI 8e l ix)') 2 Tt twv avptpepovTwv . including C. omit. rt. reads 7iVtToi a few Paris MSS. BiaXelirovdi irvperolaiv.. 11 okqctoigi iv roicri LIII. KCLKOV XL VIII. ovSev cltottov 4 Se pLi] Kara irpoaipeaiv.$i M 6cp6a\/j. 6 r) pU 7 SiacrTpcufif}. pi] SiaXeLirovTi. omitted by M. (ialen says that there were in his days some omitting the negative. 8 rod crw/xaTos C'V tov Kapvovros Littre. yivnrai C'MV.vr]rac Sid 7 TOiV TOTTOiV TOVTCOV. It is in all our MSS. TTvpeTcp* r)v 3 teal Sityav %XV> @avd<rtpov. 6 av tovtcov iyyvs 6 5 0dvaTO<>.ov. have it. authority. LI. : : MV has C transposes fi fj. LII. 'Ok6<toi<tiv 13 12 iirl ray 14 ohovrwv irvperolcri 3 TrepiyXta^pa ylverai. i/cKpi. ' 2 Otcov iv TTvperq) pur] SiaXelirovri hvcnrvoia 9 yiverai /cal Trapacppoavvr]. rjv Ev Tolcn fir] ra pev e£a) yjrv^pd r}. with slight Most MSS. T by ? * Urb. 10 3 crrjpalvei.hs i) fist) and deppvs.. 5 i) XLIX. 1 Se is fi-h. 2 MSS. 3 ra 8e evSov Kairjrai. including M. 3 omitted Urb. 8 6<ppv<. /a^ko? vovaov L. rjSrj daOeveos iovros rov yevi]Tai. 6(p0a\p6s. la^vporepot yivovrai ol irvperoi. omit OKOV b' &V T<p. */8ij. Oavdatp. 148 . drorrcorepov. r)v pi] /3\eirr}. Ev Tolcri TrvpeTolaiv cnro<TTr)pLaTa p. r)v prj d/covr/. 'O/coaoicriv iv rolai irvpeToiaiv.

if sight or hearing fail. while the body is already in a weak state whatever of these symptoms show themselves. See Coan Prenotions. the fevers become more severe.ol V have arHnaivovvi (V -v). while the patient suffers from thirst. The meaning would be etc. if the external parts be cold but the internal parts burning hot. In a continued fever. L. and one or other is probably right.APHORISMS. excretion does not take place through these channels 1 it is a bad sign. differs d(/>0a\fj." 2 : "are bad if suppressed.-UU. When in a continued fever occur difficulty of breathing and delirium. V. In continued fevers. 1 The reading noticed by Galen. transposes ew\ tSiv b^6vr<nv and iv tovs bh6vras C. abscesses that are not resolved at the first crisis indicate a protracted disease. TvperoTai. death — is near. involuntarily. requires for health (twv <Tv^<pep6vToov) evacuation will only The emendations of Ernierins and Reinhold do harm. 10 11 M V Urb. XLVIII. XLVII. it is a fatal sign. When in fevers very viscous matter forms on the teeth. In fevers. rolfft ol 13 13 irepl 6k6<toiM. in omitting and reading okosoi (twice). 115. but if properly evacuated.-f). 2 XLlX. which omits would mean that if the secretions be substances that the body /j. it is a fatal sign. See VII. it is nothing out of the common but it is rather so when they weep . eye-brow or nose be distorted. LIII. LI. remove the difficulties of meaning from this aphorism.. IV. 14 y\t<rxp<i<TfiaTa 149 . LI I. from the other good MSS. eye. When in fevers or in other diseases patients weep of their own will. if the patient's lip. lxx.

'O/coaoicnv iv toIcti 7rvpeToiaiv iKTepoi 12 iiriyivovTai irpb tcov eiTTa ypepaJv. LVII. n tnroTpoTTid^eiv 7repicro~fjo-iv LXII. V C M places this aphorism after LVIII. \vei to voarjp. \vai<. 3 LVI. After vSa-^/xa V has to Kal <pi\viz6cnpo<pa. LXI. 2 irXrjv tcov icp'qp. kclkov p. eKKlirovTos Galen. irdvTes omitted by Urb. TTvperolcru rd tcov pivcov pvkv. piyeos iiriye2 vop-ivov. e«XeiirovTOS 4 tov irvpeTov. LIX. yixepais KptvS/xfvai eva. eVoxAoujueVoi 6 7 MV.a. 'T7to /cavaov i*%op. Ttto a-jraapov rj rerdvov i^op.pT'n)i<Ti Kpivofieva 15° . HvpecrcrovTi iSpcos iiriyevopevos. : C : fipaxe'icu S. omits &v. Tptrato? 2 Soiai a/epiftfc Kpiverai iv G 1 krna irepto- TO pLCUCpOTdTOV. rjv Kcnd crvvhocTie^ pr) ttjv KOLkirjv yivcovvypcov 4 Tat. ov Tt. iirl ftovftcocri irvperoi. %ea 3 x irdvv LV. Tolai omitted by C'Q. Kai vypacnrjv irXeico ar)p. UvpeaaovTi rjpepycriv 3 elcodev. iv SiHTKpiTa M apTirjaiv to. rj koi\l)] pr) 8 ifCTapax@etcra.alvet. iv irvperolcn tcavacoheoiv.rjKvvei yap rj 3 vovaos. LVIII. fipa£pedi£ovcrai. LX. Ot BiyjrdoSees elcnv. 'Otcoaoicrtv itrl ttoXv /3?}%e? fyipal.evu>. dcpfj 9 rjv iv 1(i 6 irvpeTos. 8 has tjy. /catcov. Okoctolctlv av K(0(f>(o9f).. coTa 3 alpa itc iv rolcrt. €(/>' fj/xepHv M. /a?. 13 1 2 3 4 6 f$pax*at fSpaxe?a Urb. 7rdvT€<> 2 kcucol.evcp 5 2 irvpeTOS eTTiyeropevos Xvei to voarjpa.A<DOPIEMOI LIV.epcov..

1 ardent fevers 2 causing slight irritation. 3 bad except fever's intermitting. LXI. -KvpioacvTi C : MV. . it is 1 2 protracted. yhwvrai. SvffKpiTa Kal <pi\wjr6<TTpo<pa. LX. liv. LVIII. » el Urb.APHORISMS. Urb i:vp4<T<T0VTa. it cures the disease. thirst. Whenever persist. is a is LVI. MSS. MV. An exact tertian reaches a crisis in seven 4 pei'iods at most. LXI I. Trepiaa-fiaiv : Kpur-fifi-qcn (sic) C'V omit . place 9 after the next aphorism. last tertian is malaria with an access every So the aphorism means that the tertian does not more than a fortnight. or the bowels become disordered. and "Ardent" fevers were a kind of remittent malaria. iiriTpoirid{(tv Urb. %v 10 11 12 Urb. When in fevers there is deafness. LIX." 3 * The "exact" Ephemerals" are fevers lasting only about a day. unless there be watery discharges by the bowels. If a fever does not leave the patient on the odd days it is usual for it to relapse. . LIV. Sweat supervening on fever. there all is dry coughs not much LV. in IV. When jaundice supervenes in fevers before seven days it is a bad sign. other day. Fever supervening on a patient's suffering from convulsion or tetanus. if there be a flow of blood from the nose. These words C and some other C. *5* . Adams translates: "with a tickling nature with slight " expectoration. a sign of excessive moisture. A sufferer from ardent fever is cured by the supervening of a rigor. LVII. removes the disease. without the bad sign for the disease . Fevers following buboes are ephemerals.-lxii.

LXVII. rovrotcri kcdvarerapaypteva 20 irdpetatv rj irapecrovrai.ol. TrXr)Qo<. i)v to v7ro%6v8piov to Se^iov* cr/cXijpov yevijrat. and several other MSS. ovk ciTTvperoiai. ylvrjTac. eXOov i/c rovrcov Xeirrbv 13 wcpeXer fxdXtcrra Be rd rotavra ep^erai otcriv^ ef apxijs rj ota ra^ecov 1 viroaraatv 1D - 5 ccrx^t- 3 eV irvperolcn rd ovpa olov inro^vytov. fi M. fjfiepi]v 'O/cocroicriv 1 av ev roicri irvpsrolaL rjLiepr/v kuO" 3 piyea Xvovrai.AOOPIEMOI LXIII. Ev 10 Toicri rj 9 irvpeTolaiv ol i/c rcov 2 vttvcov <po/3ot. ovk dyaOov. evoeKarp Trvperolcn ttj 7] tjj Tea- era pecr/catSe/carr/ fxrj itcrepot eiriylvovTat./3co$ea. 'O/coaoiaiv ovpa rrayka} 2 0pop. kclkov? LXVI. yiv^ai For ovk aya96v M has kclk6v. rfj (vSeKciTT) 4 5 6 7 8 rh Se^ibj/ vTroxovSpiov M. cpaXaXylai r) 'O/cocroicri Se 19 1 8 17 LXX. This aphorism is omitted by C. 3 tca/cov. oXiya. /caxov. Urb. : 2 Toi<rt omitted by C. 8 'Ei/ rotcrt irvperolo-i rotcriv o^ecriv ol arraaLiol /cat ol irept ra crirXdy^ya rrovot icryypo't. epoofAT) rj 'O/cocroicnv rrj ev ttj rotcrt 2 evarrj >. V. LXV. 11 airaap. 152 . LXIX. This aphorism in Urb. E*v TOiai uvperolcn irepX tyjv KOtXtt]v 2 fcav/j-a Icryvpoy /ecu /eaoStcoy/Ao?. /caO' ol Trvperoi LXIV. 17 18 fiyos C. 2 TrpoaKOTTTOV. 'Ev rotcrt nrvperolcrt to irvevLta kclkov criraa/jtov yap ar/piatvei. LXVIII. 5 6 5 i)v 8e fi?]. omitted by M. dyadov. comes C after LXVII.

or con- vulsions. on the eleventh. on the ninth. LXV. M. terrors after sleep. and scanty. when the urine is turbid. LXX. as shortly after it. LXIII. has tout*. LXIX When the urine is thick. fever being present. 11 This comes after LXV. or on the fourteenth. LXVI I. lxiii. After iv % omitted by M. C 153 . In fevers. In cases of fever. whose urine contains a sediment from the onset or LXVI II. In fevers. IV. aphorism in makes M 12 13 15 17 19 irax^a omitted by Urb. present. it is a good sign. a copious discharge of ^comparatively )> thin urine coming afterwards gives This usually happens in the case of those relief. like that of cattle.-lxx. Traxfo> v 14 oTs tip 16 C. convulsions and violent pains in the bowels are a bad sign. In fevers. bad sign. Otherwise it is not a good sign. Fevers in which a rigor occurs each day are resolved each day. In acute fevers. vviaraais V. LXVI. when jaundice supervenes on the seventh day. 18 20 Ttrapa-y/ueVa V. stoppage of the breath is a it indicates a convulsion. unless the right hypochondrium become hard. LXIV. Galen mentions novoi as a variant of <p6fioi. tt6voi ko. 4k tovtov \eirruJv Rein.1 ffiraanoi. 9 After irvpsToiaiv 10 For <p6&oi 7) C C adds to?s has o|e'tn. are a bad sign. headaches either are.APHORISMS. full of clots. adding that either reading good sense. great heat about the bowels and heartburn are a bad sign. 5£ omitted by Urb. or will be. In fevers.

'Ok6(toio~iv ev ru) ovpa) LXXVII. 8 LXXIV. 154 . 7 has ovpoov and Urb. vopuevov. olov ev roiat KomcoSecri 6 p. puts rfj rerdprri before swivscpeXov. Kal rd aXXa TeTdprr) 3 LXXII. al fjV put] cj>vaat.AOOPIEMOI LXXI.op pay )'](Tj]. TTOvrjpd- 'O/cocroicriv ovpa ev 2 8iacf>avea toicti XevKa. M Galen notices a reading ixupaiverai to roiavra. p. 5 KoiXiai tovtomjl 6 KaOvypaivovrai. 3 After Siacpavea Urb. tov- tpiaiv iirivecpeXov 'tercet to ovpov tt) 1 Kara Xoyov. V reads ttj 'Okoctoictiv ev tco ovpco rerdprr] 1<TX el nayel eovri (trivi<pe\ov Kal tpvdpby to obpov Urb. 6 5 roltri rovrtoiai Urb. 3 eTTifyaiverai? LXXIII. 'Okoctolo-lv viro^ovhpia ocrcfyvos dXy)jp.evov. instead of rfj rerdprrj 2 Before ovpa Urb. 'OKoaoiaip eXirl<. See Introduction. epvOpov. 8 C has yivcrai after ravra. 'Okouoktiv 3 ejBhofjLoia KpLverat. 1 Kaiappayewoiv. r/ ovpov TrXrjdos 5 vireXdr)' ev ttv per olo i 8e ravra.aTO<i eiriyeSia/3op/3opv£ovTa. has ij. 1 LXXVI. pverai tt)? dirocrTdcnos ovpov ttoXv Kal ttclxv 10 Kal Xcvkov yiv6p. xxxvi. 2 irvpeTolcn rjv reTapraiocaiv evioicnv dp\erai yiveadai' Se Kal ck tcov pivcov al11 LXXV. tcov veeppcov rj Kvcnios cXkcoctiv aapKta 3 Travel eovri crpuKpd cotnrep T/Ot'%69 avve^epyovrai. e? 9 dpOpa deptcnaaOai. al omitted by Urb. "Hv tt. has *}. and Kal ra aXKa. C * $\v iirttpalverat Urb. fjv eirt(paii'rtrai tmylyi erat. has ra. : : C C oSpwy.? Kal rrdvv ra^i> Xverac. cnjpbaLvet. fidXiara 8e fypevniKolcnv pierecopa. irX^Qoi iirek6r)i M (and Littre). tovtoigiv drro tcov veeppcov eKKpuverai. alp-a i) irvov ovpfj.

the patient's urine on the fourth day has a red cloud in it. LXXV. 3 And 9 10 V V has tci &p6pa and has iroAv Jrax" and C r&pOpa. LXXIV." 3 Adams translates TerapTaioiffiv "quartans. LXXV1. unless there be LXXI I. and with it is is 1 So Littre from the commentary of Galen. Blood or pus in the urine indicates ulceration of the kidneys or bladder. When the urine is thick. Transparent. does mean "white. and small a pieces of flesh-like hairs pass with it." 2 The reading %v iin<paiviiTai would mean "bad. When an abscession to the joints is to be expected. and other symptoms accordingly. lxxi. like that which in certain prostrating fevers begins on the fourth day. l urine is bad.. LXXIII. It breaking of wind or a copious discharge of urine. XIV. When the urine is thick." 4 Similar propositions occur in Nature of Man. has iraxv Kcd ttoAu. M noAv K&pra. IV. Adams takes yiv6/j. should pain in the loins supervene. 4 LXXVII. Aevitd. especially when it appears in cases of phrenitis. iraxv. "becoming white. however. In cases that come to a crisis on the seventh day." The other meaning seems more probable here. disease if there is also nasal hemorrhage the very quickly resolved. When there are swelling and rumbling in the hypochondria.evoi/ with Ksvk6v.-lxxvii. Perhaps.APHORISMS. colourless 2 appears mostly in cases of phrenitis. LXXI. These symptoms occur in fevers. it means secretion from the kidneys. the abscession may be averted by an abundant flow of thick. white urine. 155 . the bowels become watery. 11 Ka\ C Urb. Urb.

4 eXfccoatv Kvario<i 77. Urb. tovtohtiv t/ /event. add After \t6iq Before rb Urb. t>}? fiaper) LXXXII.ara /cal e/cpayevro'. Kat oSvvrj e/ATTCTTTj) e'? 3 top ireplveov. Hi> tcai alfia e^-rj. Kreva have 8ape?a. 5 'O/cocroicnv iv tj} ovp/jOprj (pv/Jt.AOOPISMOI •jriTvpcoBea 3 yp-(opia. ra irepl e'<? Kal to rrjv LXXXI. crvvegovpetTai. including C has Kal rbv C Urb.co8ea tovtoktiv n i) kvcttis kcli \i0ta. LXXX. 3 prj^iv 'O/coaoi cltto ravTOfidrov alfia tovtoujiv citto twv veeppwv ovpw 1 (pXefitov err) /Active i. good MSS. 'Okoctolctiv iv t&> yjrafi/u. oiipfi arpayyovplrjv viroydcTTpiov 4 kvcttiv -novel. "Hv oafxr/ 3 aijfiaivei.. C ko.*. tovtohti. 2 Opofiffovs. 1 2 Ovprjcris vu/CTCop 7 7roW?] yivofievrj. 3 kt£vcl Kal 4 rbv after All our fKtyverai viroyacrrpioi'. cf)verai. MV. 2 <TfiiKpi]V tt]V viro^oiprjaiv roiaiv ovpoiffi Urb. LXXXIII. hiaTTVijcravTOS 6 3 \vcns. 5 C *5& .1 bl veQpol. teal alfia teal ttvov ovpfj /cal \e7r18a?. ovpeovai. 2 v(f>Lcrrarai.. has rbv arj/xaivei. Kal. LXXVIII. LXXIX.

xxxix. LXXIX. "it means a cure. VII. vvktos. means psoriasis of the When a patient has a spontaneous blood and urine. and its odour be strong. in the is urine much When LXXXIII. 1 it IV. When tumours form in the urethra. LXXX. iic crrjfialyei Urb.-lxxxiii." 6 has a few MSS ' Before C <=k vvktop (perhaps as one word). it indicates the of discharge breaking of a small vein in the kidneys. there is relief. it means ulceration LXXVIII. Urb. pus and scales. Or. XIV. the parts the bladder are affected. 2 LXXXI. *57 . LXXXII.APHORISMS. 3 should these suppurate and burst. passed are night. in means that the bowel-discharges scanty. lxxvh. 1 2 3 Similar propositions occur in Nature of Man. See Aphorisms. should pain attack the about hypogastrium and the perineum. passed as bladder. and strangury be present. this were bran. of the bladder. has t<r*<r9ai. If there be blood and clots in the urine. If the urine contain blood. When the urine contains a sandy sediment there is stone in the bladder. Ik vvktosp.

Ta iTriXr/TTTiKa OKoaoiai irpb tt}<. ev recr- r/pepyaiv diroXXvvrai' r)v Be Tavras 3 8ia(f)vyco(Tiv.AGOPIZMOI TMHMA nEMnTON I. Ai'ywaTo? 'E7rt v ttoXXov pvevTo? c-7racryu. Hi> pieOucov e^aL(pvr/<i afywvos t*9 yevrjrai. but ret after neOvoiv by C'V. tj$ is placed here by Urb. e's T7)z. 6 IX. 1 'E7rt aTracTfio^ Tpoo/jLCLTi eTuyevopLevos 2 . r)v yu-?. M. X.o? r) 2 Xvypos IV. 2 Oavdaipov. jeTpaffiv 6 C Urb. UTraa/xbs e£ eXXefiopov. 158 . w/}?^ eXOutv. omit iroWa. t« 7roXXa avvcnro- 4 Ovyaicei. vyiees yivoviai. 'Okoctol Kuvdyxv v Biafyevyovai. rovTOiatv e? epirvrjpia peOlaraTai. III. C adds 7) Xuy^o's. 1 icai «s tov After ffiraff/xhs 2 3 4 For Qavaffifxov C has /co«'^.. /cat)' r)v at KpanrdXai *) 3 4 Xvovtcu. kolkov. (pOey^riTai. Trvperbs eiriXaftr]. KaBaipowai 3 VIII. Several inferior MSS. an omission noticed by Galen. real peTaaraaiv la^et. 'Otfocrot L>7ro rerdvov dXiaKovrai. VI. eTTtyevopevo^. eTTL<yev6[ievo<.' o/coaoiac 6 Be nevTe eiKOGiv erecov yiverai. rjfirjs aapaiv 4 yivETai. 'Okqctol irXevpniKoX yevbpevoi ov/c dvaev Teoaapeaica'iBeKa r)pbeprjcn. virepKaOdpaei cnracTpibs rj Xvypbs 2 Karcov. II. VII. O^i'cr/e? yivovrai 7 pudXicna rjXi/CLrjcn rfjaiv dirb o/crcoKatBe/ca erewv P&XP 1 TpiijKOVTa 3 irevre. Oavdcri/xov. aTraaOel'i airoOvrjaicei. ' V.

X." 2 Or "change. is a bad sign. 7 yiyerai M : Little reads Kadiffrarat. Those who are attacked by tetanus either die in four days or. should the disease 1 The word Bavdmixov is said by the commentators next to mean is here obviously referred to. cpBiffis ntdiffrat/rai. Fits that occur before puberty admit of 2 cure.APHORISMS. II. IV. If a drunken man suddenly become dumb. rrepiiffraTcu. and recovers his voice. "dangerous. i. Convulsion or hiccough. he dies after convulsions. 1 A convulsion supervening upon a 1 wound is deadly.iov must mean at least " very often fatal. unless he falls into a fever. recover. but if they occur after the age of twenty-five they usually last until death." 3 Aphorisms IX. Consumption 3 occurs chiefly between the ages of eighteen and thirty-five. Convulsion or hiccough supervening on excessive purging.-x." "modification. have close parallels in Coan Prenotions. show various readings — fjadia-Tarai. VIII. if they survive these.oi/. Those who survive angina. or unless he lives to the time when the effects of intoxication disappear. VII. Pleurisy that does not clear up in fourteen days results in empyema. is a bad sign." In the aphorism tetanus 8 Our MSS. <p8i<ryes fiaAurra yi-yvovrai V. VI. supervening on a copious flux of blood. Tre pilar avrat. Convulsion after hellebore is deadly. 159 . V. -XV. and 6ava. III. FIFTH SECTION I. V. IX.

ayayuyi] ylverat e/c rov ir\ev/xovos. plyea irvpercohea. 3 r\v iirl XII. transposes Kal to before es. 5 XIV. Theophilus says that this alteration is necessary to the sense. Toicriv virb tcjv (pOiaLcov ivo^Xovfievoicriv. yvoo/JLr)<. 3 tnroOvrjcTKOvaiv. depfiov fiXaTrrei raura 7 TrXeovdicis aapx&v i/cO/]\vv(T(. (3apv 6't?? tol>9 avdpciKas iirL^eoixevov. 6 re av cnrofSi'iGcrwcn. 8 rerdvovs. : els rov irvevjxova is rov irvev/xuva rpeTrerai aineoim Kal Tovreotai Tpeirerai Kal Urb. vdpfccoaiv. iTuyevofi'ivr]*. yivrjrai. Tiro (f>0icrio<i i)(o/meva) Stdppoia eTriyevofievri. Kal M. rjv y O/cocroi i/c avatca9ap96icnv rjs TrXevpiriSos 'i/jbirvoi yivovrai. pecoat. vevpcov dicpd- reiav. iv etna r/fiiprjaiv aTro9vr)GKovcriv r\v Se ravra<. : C 2 4 5 6 C has V 4k. <T7raafiov<i. 160 . To 2 nekcMTfxovsy 1 he tjrvxpov. Kal V Littre with two inferior MSS. 'O/coaoiCTL (pdiaicocriv ai T/n'^e? airo rrjq peovaiv. To Xpeofievoio-i.. XL to TTTvafxa.v.AOOPISMOI 1 TrXev/xova avrolai rpiirerai.ueai<ri. O/cocroi atfxa a<$>p£)6e<i avwrnvovai. : els rbv TrXevjxova aureccv rpfTterai is rbv irXevfxova avrioici rpeimai. fiediaravrai. av rj pi]^i<i travovrai' Q rjv he e? <f>0(. \enro- 4 Ovfitas. d(p 4 [AT). OavaTatSes. and it seems to be the reading of Galen. XV. K6(f>a\7]<. /ecu at T/Ot^e? 4 airo 2 t?7? /ce<f)a\r)<. reads rovreotcriv For t)v V has el. hia^vyuxTLv/efiirvot 4 yivovrai. XVII. TCLvra olac Odvarcs. 2 2 XIII. iv Teaaapd/covra rjiAepycriv.^ TovToiaiv €K rov TrXevfJbovos i) dvayooyrj yiverai. ovtol.criv XVI. hiappoLrj<. al/Aoppayias. OavarcoSes. 3 For avcnrTvoutri V C has Oavaaifiov. and has rj avefieovtri M ave.

XVII. 1 2 3 Or "become purulent. Consumptive patients whose hair falls off from the head are attacked by diarrhoea and die. Inpatients troubled with consumption. After ravra has rolcri. Heat produces the following harmful results in those who use it too frequently softening of the flesh. places over iroAread by it for irXeovaKis. : 4 ing. has a colon at ravra. should the sputa they cough up have a strong 2 smell when poured over hot coals. Query eanv Aaicis. the . : : 7 C oI(TI. 3 XIII. x. death ensuing in certain of these cases. XIV. who says that to translate "if diarrhoea supervenes" is inconsistent with XIV. and should the hair fall off from the head. * "Blackening" will include "mortification. Rein. dullness of the intelligence. it is a fatal symptom. the illness ends passes into consumption. should lungs clear up within forty days from the otherwise the disease breaking. 8 Urb. XVI. which Urb. ravra. When patients spit up frothy blood. develop empyema. should they survive these. 161 ." So Adams Or "offensive. Cold produces convulsions. has yvw^rjs vapKaiaiv and ravra oTai Qavaros in the margin. tetanus. ravra e/j ddvarov. blacken- XV. If diarrhoea attack a consumptive patient it is a fatal follows on pleurisy. Rein. 1 XI. So Littre. is ddvarov. ravra olcri dduaros. i(p' ols & Odvaros.APHORISMS. or. die within seven days. impotence of the muscles." (in notes). the discharge comes from the lungs." but is not to be limited to it. When empyema symptom." "fetid. feverish rigors. XII. hemorrhages and fainting. turn to the lungs.-xvn. Galen notices four variants for the end of this aphorism rovrouri Oavaros. V.

i i) — perhaps rightly.«eo<? >' r. Kvarei. 4 Littre reads iroieei here.AOOPISMOI XVIII. XIX. to 8e vcortaiq) fiveXw' 3 Oepfibv o)(f)6Xijmov.ia.acri. XXII. To vevpoicriv. 2 oaa alfioppayeiv fieXXei. ' E\/cecri to /nev -^rv^pov SafcvcbSe?. hep/xa fiaXdaaei. airaa/ncbv. xxxi.ivei M. \ aTracrfMOvs. l<jyyaivei. 2 XX. tovtolctl to Bepjxov (fiiXiov 11 Kal Kplvov. 1 ttXtjv €y/c6(pdX(p.ovs has been suggested for fieXalvei. yjrv)(pbv iroXefiLov oareoiaiv. 1 iK0epi. and I have not seen the word in any MS. without quoting any authority for it. ptyewv. reravuiv. i/cOepfiaLveiv. dvcohvvov. piyea TrvpeTcoSea.e\aafj. rerdvwv TrapvyopiKov fiapLrjv t6)v he iv /cecfraXf) Kaprj- Xvei' 6 TrXelarov he 7 he hia<pepec oarecov KaTt]yp. the exact reading has apparently been lost. though ungrammatical. See Intr. 'Ozcoo"a Kare-^rvKrat. 2 atpop payee Me^^«' Littre and several Paris MSS. To Oepfiov i/CTTvrjTi/cov. fxe3 4. eXtcei. i v c/ A "V" AT T f? AA1. tovtcov he /uidXiaTa.io<. is the reading of all our good MSS. 6 Two MSS. 3 fx. ovk iiri irainl fieytarov at^fxelov e'<? aacpaXetrjv. Ovrjcncei. teal epirrjaiv eadiofjiivoiaiv. JliCTt oe o/cov eiri Teravov avev eA. read rovrov. toictiv iv fcecpaXfj eX/cea /ecu oKoaa viro -tyv$. 3 Xatvei.v (•/ i vew ev(7upK(p. I have Dietz would place it after Terdvovs. Terdvovs. 6Svv)]v dveK7rvr]Tov iroiel. Though the collated. oSouai. Sep/xa irepKTKki-jpvveL. 162 . -^rv^pov ttoXXov tcardyyais eTravuKXiqcnv Oepfiij^ Troielrai' 6epfxi] 4 he ravra 5 pverai. i) h^ovcri' eX/covTai. The text. alhoia>. /xdXXov rolaiv etyiXw fievoMr i. to he ^jrv)(pbv TroXifiiov kcl\ fcrelvov. Oepeos fxeaov. as this is probably the correct reading in aphorism XXIII. varepr). Rein. meaning is clear. ehprj. p..

body generally. makes it thin. blackens. or threatens to hemorrhage. causes pain sores to smart. causes feverish rigors. convulsions. harmful to bones. 3 1 : be. it is the surest 3 sign of recovery it softens the skin. Cold brain. 163 . for the seat. removes pain and soothes rigors. Cold makes skin. it Heat relieves these symptoms. sinews. The text 6 rh ev represents 7 C'MV. convulsions and It relieves heaviness of the head. and the time the middle of summer. and spinal marrow. especially are exposed. Urb. a copious affusion of cold water brings a recovery of heat. XX. while cold is harmful and tends to a fatal issue. K«pa\rf koX Ka. Sometimes in a case of tetanus without a wound. vary very much here. and tetanus. nal KapTjPap'njy \vei. teeth. XIX. Perhaps. XXI. except where 1 hemorrhage threatens. the womb. Perhaps the sentence is a misplaced " title" of the next " the aphorism. is V. 2 XXII. which . It is particularly useful in fractures of the bones. Heat parts that are chilled. the privy parts. and most especially in cases wounds in the head. hardens the unattended with suppuration it . 5« paWoi/ V : fxaAAov C : /xd\itTTa 5e M. and Littre (combining the readings of several) has ra 8e iv tjj Ke<paAfi. When heat causes suppuration. tetanus." 2 The emendation tovtov is an attempt to get rid of the awkward plural. XVIII.p-f\B>ap'n\v Avet. of corroding herpes.-xxii.APHORISMS. does not do in the case of every sore." Se. when they of — With Littre's reading "Where there is. the patient being a muscular young man. but heat is beneficial. the bladder for all these heat is beneficial and conduces to a crisis. The MSS. xvm. Also in cases of mortification and sores from cold.

Kovcporarov. 'Ei> TOVTOiai Sec rq> yfrvxpcp \pr\adai. j3>ix* wv KivrjTi/cd.7) dv 10 TTVpLTj. 3 KarappoiKa. have aluoppayieiv fteWti.e\\ei. for Kai and many other MSS. 2 eirel rd ye epvcrL7reXa<. with juj} before Galen apparently had ij p. before it. alp. o/coOev eirippel' /cai 6/coo-ai (pXeypoval eV rj eTrupXoylapaTa c? to peirovra veapw atpbari. 2 e7rl ravra omitted by Urb. /cai TroSaypi/cd.oppol/cd.fkAei with the indicative So Littre. : C the force of yap. rj ev dpoopaai 9 &6 KoX €5 dXXd Xpi]<JLp. So C. XXVII. Ta yjfvxpd. But Se often has 5e MV yap : KpV<TTa\\0S X"*"' V. o/coOev aipoppayel.evov 5 •jroXv pr/l^ei re /cai layya'ivei. teal bSvvrjv Xvev' 7 5 vdp/crj 8e perplrj 68vvr)<. . iirel to ye eXrcovpevov fSXairrei. 164 . Q 2 2 XXVI. fj.ia. dyadov. V. following several MSS. 3 el p>r) /capr\$apia<i everroiei. Ta? 1 /cvovaas (papp.r/ aura. tovtwv to. Karax^i^vov tro\h Au«. iraXaid pueXaivsi' 1 teal epvdpbv /cai vcpaipov ravTa.. 8 i)v eTTiKOip^dwaiv. drep eX/ceo<i. rj peXXei.a/ceveiv. r)v opya. dXXd irepl avrd. * C <TT7)6^0i)V C.t] eX/coveirl pevov. Ta ev apOpoiaiv olBijpLara zeal dXyrj- para. XvTC/cr/. vdpicqv yap noieei Rein. XXVIII.A<DOPISMOI XXIII.aivop. irXelara <tyv%pov icaTayebp. . Compare aphorism XIX. . olov ytoov /cpvo~TaXXo<. TTOXXayij r)v. "TSoop to ra^ew? 6epp.evov /cai Ta%e&>5 Tp-vxop. to p. 1 p. 3 arrjOei^ iroXep. 'O/coaoiai Trielv bpe^a vv/crcap rocai irdvv Siijrcbcriv. TvvaiKeLcov dycoyov. XXIV. 3 MV 6 6 7 TroWhv KaraxedfAtvov MV. teal airdapara.evov. XXV. XXIX.

hemorrhage. to it is is a desire. When there thirst. and in inflamed pustules inclining to a red and bloodshot colour that is due to fresh blood in these cases apply cold (but it blackens old inflammations). whether from gout or from sprains. caused by intense drink during the night. sores. That water is lightest which quickly gets hot and quickly gets cold. . Cold : V. C I6 5 VOL. but around them in inflammations. discharges of blood and catarrhs. without cases when . are harmful to the chest. and provoke coughing. kv fy. should sleep follow. and a good sign. but it should be applied. but 8 6k6(toi<ti jrielv Urb. 9 &k6(toktiv ope|u vSwp 4k vvktwv tovtouti Stipwdecriv V.) H . Aromatic vapour baths promote menstruamany ways would be useful for other purposes if they did not cause heaviness of the tion. and when there is erysipelas without sores (but it does harm when there are sores). Cold things. omits Uv. XXIX. XXV.APHORISMS. Purge pregnant women. Swellings and pains in the joints. if there be orgasm. or is likely to be. perhaps rightly. XXVI. Tovrioiffi irtkvt 10 0' Urb.-xxix. For numbness in moderation removes pain. XXVI II. which reduces the swelling and removes the pain. XXVII. xxm. such as snow or ice. have noAAaxov. not to the parts whence blood flows. has SnpwSecriv. iv. in head. should be used in the followingthere is. XXIV. v8u>p me7v ope^is vvKruip. from the fourth month to the seventh. in most cases are relieved by a copious affusion of cold water. and Urb. (hip. XXIII.

a e« TcJr jvvatKl in 3 pvev 4 C C iroWaKis C koiXIt) : a. Yvvaizcl iv yaarpl i^ovaij. : : 8 6 iroWa.v?]vai MV. 2 rj Bvaro/eovarj.el^ov to XXXII. BiBvpa i^ovar). la^vol yevcovrai. C has ffvW7}8r\vai. Yvvrj iv yaarpl e^ovaa. XXXVI. i/crirpooa/cei' teal p. This reading explains the insertion of (which omits yiverai) before tu>v. \vai<. iniyevSuevos Urb. zeal ra avrd del 7 yivbpbeva. koiAItj TToAAa pui] Urb. zca6dpaio<i prj Kara 5 3 BetaOai arjpaivei. 166 . XXXVIII. alpa roiv pivcov pvev.eovar). klvBvvos i/crpwaai. XXXV.yoiB6v. 8 XXXVII. Urb. Twv XXXIV. to dijXv. joins together this aphorism and the next.. izcrirpooazcei.dWov rjat p. 2 XXX. ize XXXIII. alpa ip. ayaOov. Yvvaircl iv yaarpl i^ovari vrrb rivos twv b^kwv voaripdiwv XrjipOrjvai. V KoiAlri KoiAlr] iroWk {>vt\i has tov inrpaxrai.AOOPISMOI rerpdpriva. rjv r) 4 2 kolXlt] pvf) 7roAAa/a?. thus: yiverar pviv ru>v Avffis pivaiv 5e KaTa/xr}viwv 4kA€17t6vtwv' at/j. XXXI. 1 6avaru>8e$. 3 ayaOov. 1 2 10 izerirpcbazcei' zeal rjv pev 6 Sextos la^vo? rb ctpaev rjv Be b dpiarepbs. Urb. f. rrrappb^ eTTiyivopevos. V. Yvvatzel vtto varepizccov evoy\ovpevr). Yvvaizcl iv yaarpl iyovarj. zeal a%pt errra p. Yvvai/cl 3 epi(Spvov. rjv paadol etjaL(j)vi]<. eiriyivofxtvos [>vri : C C M fivel : ra omitted by Urb. (fiXefioropr)delaa. MV. 2 Odrepov 4 yevrjrai. 2 KarapLr/vioov izcXenrovrcov.rjv6i)v rjaaov rd Be 3 vrjrria zeal irpea/3vrepa evXafteZaOat. to>v /eara- 2 2 prjviwv payevrcov. Yvvaucl ra 6 /carapyjvia a%poa. Yvvaizcl iv yaarpl i^ovar) 9 rjv 6 erepos paaObs tcr^o? yevr\rai.

menstruation is a cure. See Aphorisms IV. and irregular.-xxxviu. in the latter case is unborn child than seven. (^ai<pvy]s i(Tx v bs yivr)Tcu 10 omitted by Urb. less V. 2 XXXI. omitting these words below. I think. XXXVIII. aphorism is omitted by C'V. she miscarries. If a woman with child is attacked by one of the acute diseases. 167 . should either breast become thin. M puts after fxaadoi. When ing 4 is called for. If menstrual discharge is not of the proper colour. If the right breast become thin. difficult a woman suffers from hysteria 3 or labour an attack of sneezing is beneficial. XXXII. miscarries . XXXVI. loses the male child . xxix. A woman Avith child. it is fatal. Kara rb avrb. if bled. C has exouo-rr SiSufia. she loses one child. the larger the embryo the greater the risk. 2 3 This aphorism C'V place after XXXI. When a woman vomits blood. (perhaps rightly).APHORISMS. Should the child suddenly breasts of a woman with become a thin. she if the left. XXX. XXXVII. 1 care is needed when the of less than four months or of more . Said by some commentators to refer to retention of the placenta. a flow of blood from the nose is a good sign. When a woman with child has frequent diarrhoea there is a danger of a miscarriage. 1 This i. When menstruation is suppressed. XXXIV. * Or. it indicates that purg- XXXV. XXXIII. "an emmenagogue. When woman is pregnant with twins. but Littre seems inclined to accept it. the female. Galen rejects this interpretation." 7 8 9 C omits del and reads.

V: Urb. fieXiKpyrov k^rj vepl ttjv XLII. : touttji Karafxrivia avTTjs (followed M V has by and C e^eAenrev). Yvvalica fMeWr) Bloov 5 3 rjv OeXys elhevai aSeiTrvw fjuev el * revet. Yvvr) rjv fxev appev ei/^069 iaTiv ev rfj Be 0i)Xv. exovcrai Aeirral eovcrat kvouctiv V. V. XLIII. fjv epv(riire\as . XL. XLV. /xev o~rp6<pos ex 7)' . . 6 Kal %v fxev arpo<pos ex e ve p^ T l v Kal o~rp6<pos «x el "repl r\)v KoiAi-qv Urb. /j. O/coaai irapa <f>vo~iv Xe7TTal 10 11 iovaau irplv r) yacrrpl e^ovo-iv. . orav fieWei KadevSetv. and S^ii/a : : M C : M Sifinjva). 2 . aSelwvoi eovo-qi M : omitted by Urb. /cvy. i/cTirpoocrKovcn.AOOPIEMOI XXXIX. Bt/xrjva : rpifirjva ra Kara/xrivia eypvaai arep irpoavrfj ra Tavrris Urb. &vo"xpoo<>. arpocfyos ov Kvet. has el CM. 7u!'ai/d yevrjrai Urb. 1 68 . 2 3 4 5 Urb.avL7)v arjfiaivei. has fiacrdobs titOovs. ydXa e%*7. SiSov Urb.e. ktjv 7 4 <yao-Tepa. ravrrj^ ra Kara/xrjvia i/cXeXonrev. Yvvai^lv OKocrrjaiv e<? tovs rndovs 2 alfia crv(TTpe(f)6Tai. 8 9 So C V : ei /*ev followed . Trieiv G covey. V dovvai M SiMvai Littre (who does not C C C " \ : : give the authority). fiijSe TeroKvla. 10 Aeirral eovcriv ev yacrrpl A67rra} eovcriv ev yacrrpl 11 (i. M : •yiwoH/ci . has ou woven. 2 i)v Kvet' i)v 8 8e fit). ev ipvaiTTeXwi davareoSes. has $\v fie\Ai)s elSevat tj Kvei r. ov. 1 O/coaaL to aSifxa teal /xerpia)<i i/cTiTp(t)o~Kovai. iiryv KaOeuSetv. Yvvai/cl Kvovarj 9 2 vo~Tepj) yevofievov.v Hi> yvvr) 1 fir) Kuovcra. by el Se. ?x 01 "'"' After eKTnpdxTKovtn Urb. . yevrjTat V. . XLIV. ' . . . xoiAirjv r\v fxev C : Kal el jxev ire o~Tpo<pas ex 7! pi rrjv yacr-repa avTTJs 7 V: rctjv VUrb. 2 XLI. 3 Tra^yvdrjvaL.re ^ T V>' yaarepa M. Astttoi eoDcat Urb.

Perhaps the meaning \s "Women. it indicates madness. pregnant woman be it is attacked by erysipelas in the womb. otherwise she is not. fatal.-xlv. who in pregnancy are unnaturally thin. of this aphorism seems plain enough. and two of irapa <pvaiv." 3 The meaning Adams : 169 . Littre keeps them. If moderately well-nourished women mis- carry without any obvious cause two or three months 1 Galen says he had never seen such a case. Women with child who are unnaturally stouter. is is V. supper] colic in the stomach she is with child. XXXIX. therefore. but points out that they are inconsistent with the commentary of Galen. 1 XLI. complexion. of a bad . XLIV. XLI I. give is her hydromel to drink [without 2 If she has when she is going to sleep. but Adams thinks that the aphorism may refer to rare cases of puerperal mania. though says it is not altogether confirmed by experience. XLIII. miscarry before they can recover a better condition. who says that the woman must be He suggests. that we should either read ovk aStim/p in the text or pri iretrXripSxTdai in Galen. xxxix. 2 These words are omitted by our best MSS. When blood collects at the breasts of woman. If you wish to know whether a woman with child. she is If a woman of a good complexion If a be going to have a male child if a female. If a woman have milk when she neither with child nor has had a child. The ancient commentators gave three explanations of the aphorism. a XL.APHORISMS. well fed (koI ireirX^pwa-dat cririuv). her menstruation suppressed. 3 thin miscarry until they have grown XLV.

C ixTTepewv V. ravT-pai tt\oov to aropua tcov varepecov d7T07ue£et. have ij (or t)) k«}. Se^iolai. 11 LI./3dvovcriv iv yaaTpl. 3 /cat 4 irp\v 7] \errrvvdrjvai i ov kvovoiv.7]Vta aye. mappa/cov /ecu tovs pLVKTijpas to 3 <TTop. 5 [3dpeos to ep.ap. and adds avroiv after KOTvA-qSoves. 5 6 7 8 After AeirTuvBrjvat Urb. add rf/s /xrirpas. "Hv 2 vaikpr) iv to. 'Ofcocrdi irapa fyvaiv Tvayeiai iovaai to eVtpur) crvX\. 3 "Ep. add rovro. omits TavTijaiv KOTv\w$6i>es three MSS. After iyKei/j-euri some MSS. (f)d(Tio<i cfravepPjS. 'Hv i/c ttoXv yvvai/cl iv yaarpl iyovar) <yd\a Tcov pca^wv pvfj. omits /uaAAov. YvvclikI /3ov\r) rjv Karap. irpoo-de\<i 'Tareputv i7n\dp. t& layia pbev 5 iy/ceipLevr) 8ia7Tu)jar]. ctikutjv a>? puejiar^v Trpo? toi/? riraovg 3 TrpoafiaWe./3ave 9 i/CTrTcoo-ies. dadeves 14 to epftpvov 1 After has TavTt)s at KOTv\r)86ves ttjs rSiv vcrrepaiy. dvd<y/ci] ep-pLOTov yeviadai. after C places izTapfxiKbv C reads ywaiubs and M has ra before Kara^via. tovtwv 12 to arop.d\\ov. 2 C airopriyvvTai 4 M. 6 XLIX.iv. crvpipLvei. XLVIII. Kpareiv vtto tov fxecnai.a to)v vcrrepeoov LII. Ui'b. 8 irnL.{3pva 8e dppeva iv rolai dpiarepoiai ra di'fkea 1 iv rolaiv p.a. 170 . d\\' (nroppifyvvvrai? XLVI./3pvov. 'Qrcoaai 2 iv yaarpl eyovai. C 9 bicSaa. 1 elai. XLVII. and begins the aphorism with irpocrSels (Tr6fia.AOOPISMOI ravrrjcnv at KorvXr/Sove^ fiv^i]^ kcu ov Bvvavrai.

14 avOevuv V. to cause sneezing expel the after-birth apply something and compress the nostrils and the : you wish to breasts a check menstruation.-lii. xlv. the female on the left." as given by some MSS. tents XLVI II. and conception is grow thinner. tir'nv\oov means literally the fold of the peritoneum. it shows that the unborn LI.APHORISMS. read 11 has ir P 6a&*\e. Galen says C'V : ^vfM/xvei Urb. V. 2 Plugs of lint to keep the suppurating place open until it is well on the way to heal from the bottom. being unable to retain the unborn child because of its weight. 3 Galen would prefer "under. the cotyledons of the womb are full of mucus. : ffv/x/xe/iivicfv M. L. 12 C' has TotiTe'oicn for tovtoov. apply cupping-glass of the largest When women are with child the mouth of womb is closed. If the part of the womb near the hip2 must be employed. 13 ffvfifxvet C C -robs titOovs. women cannot conpresses the mouth of impossible until they XLIX. and virb -robs mQobs. 10 has iv tSi (Tri\6ri for irpbs that in his time some MSS. because the fat x the womb. XLVI. When milk flows copiously from the breasts of a woman with child. and break. To mouth. the 1 So the commentator Theophilus. C'. When unnaturally it is fat ceive. XLVII. after conception. joint suppurates. The male embryo is usually on the right. LII. The aphorism is omitted by 171 . If to 3 the size. in his day.

^'O/eoajjat to iart. /cal varepr/ 1" (f)\eypiaivovcrr). r) itcTirpwtcovcrai ravhwevovcriv. rj iv Tolat yovvaat. ^oke-no)? real irpocpdaios 4 iTTiKivSiivwi.r} yevofievcov airo varepr]^ yivovrai vovcrot. This aphorism is omitted by C. r) iv Tolaiv 6(j}0a\fio2cnv. real rea/eov. pov L1V.vepris -Kpotpicrios C. ' C has tjv ical before &vev. p. 11 vovt9j<. 1 2 4 5 6 This aphorism is omitted by C. LVII. LIII. depfxal- V0VTO.. TavTjjmv avp^fiveiv. 10 iiriyevrjTai omitted by M. liave ' Harai.AOOPIEMOI rjv Be arepeol ol [xacrrol eaicrtv. vyietvorepov to epbftpvov arrf/j. ravTyaiv ol titOol tcr^/'ol yivowai' rjv 3 iv Be ird\iv (TKXrjpol yevcovrai. 1 'Ofc6aai BiarpOeipetv /xeX\ovo~i ra e/n- <r-t]fiaiver 4 ftpva. MV have Siafdelpet. * C V reads &rep. aTO/u.fiaivovai.a tmv varepecov rb crreXrj- avdy/cr/ cnofxa twv 3 vcrrepecov Qtcoaai iv yaarpl eypvaav virb irvperwv 7 \ap:(3dvoi>Tai. o~vp. has yiverat for Urb.aCvei. LVIII.evcov aoi 3 irXeiovcov.I. adds 6/cJitoi before «7rl. for which 8 <pa. 8 Urb. 172 . 2 \enrouvp. iirl Be TjiraTL (j>\ey/xaivovTo \vy% iiriyiverai. real ol 4: 6 8iacj)06Lpovcriv. oBvvq karai r) roicri 2 Tlfdol&iv. arpayyovpit] iwiylveTai. r) iv rolacv lo-%loio~iv. 'Etti dp-%Cp (^Xeyfiaivovri.ir) r)v eTriyevrjrai. 'E7rl 9 p6(p yvvaiieeia> airaa[xo<i real LV. real la)(ypw<s io")(yaivov7ai?' dvev 8 Tirerovcn (pavepPj?. real iirl k vetypoicnv i^iruoiai <TTpayyovpir\ iinyiverai. LVI. KaTafir]Vicov yevop. For iax valvov rai C' and several other MSS. omits tcc tfiflpva.

either in the breasts or in the hip joints.-lviii. Littre. and there ' no miscarriage. is but if the breasts be hard. C'. LVI. without (other) obvious suffer difficult and dangerous labour.ei/uov prefers the second meaning. I Galen takes the sense to be that hard (and not milky) breasts indicate a healthy child. On inflammation of the rectum and on that of the womb strangury supervenes on suppuration of the kidneys strangury supervenes . a Galen says that iraKiv can mean either (1) "again" or (2) 3 * "on the other hand. LVII. hard milky breasts indicate a more healthy one. on inflammation of the liver hiccough supervenes. 1 LIII. . diseases of the womb . it shows sickly that the child is more healthy. ui. omits from 173 . If convulsions and fainting supervene upon menstrual now. eyes. When menstruation is too copious. LV. or knees. it is a bad sign. 12 Ka\ is i-riyiverat. When the mouth of the womb is hard it must of necessity be closed. LIV. When women are threatened with misIf they becarriage the breasts become thin. omitted by C. LVI 1 1. thinking that this interpretation neglects the comparative vyteivSrepov." He with the preceding clause. When women with child catch a fever and is become exceedingly cause." The phrase " without obvious cause" may also be taken irKaovaiv ytvofj. child .APHORISMS. have yivofitvaiv ital or to yiyvofievwv. or a 3 4 dangerous miscarriage. Some MSS. understands the sense to be that while soft milky breasts indicate a sickly child. diseases ensue when it is suppressed. V. and Urb. II Or (with the reading of C') "feverish. occur. they thin. come hard again 2 there will be pain.

12 ivheirj yap T779 rpo<f>rj<i fiaXXov Kal TrepLKaeas. 1 tcrjv fxev iropeveadcu" So/cfj i) oSpurj Ov/xia reara)' 3 8id tov croS^aTO? e<? to cnofxa Kal 69 t<z? ptvas. Ta? irvKvds /ecu oKoaai ov KviaKovcrcv puJTpas e%ov(riv. OKoaai Kal 6 drroo-fievvvTai yap yovo<s' %r]pd<. adds iv yacrrpl e'xouo-77. has After TropeveaOat omit.. tyuxpas- 9 10 For e. ol. 11 Kadvypovs e-^ovai Ta? p. transpose to <rr6fj.erpop eyovaiv. daai he & avrfj irpoairtTTTOoai.1 Urb. Urb.Aa6kotoi koI iroiKiAai ope£ies. Twai/cl iv yaarpl iyovay r)v at 5 /caOdp2 aies TTopeucovrai.a and ras plvas. add o. 8 After 06 three / MSS.p. Hf yvvaiKi® al tcaOdpates p. M. fir) re irvperov eTriyivop.i) 7 iropevcovTai. 6 After yvvaiK.aTioicri. Xoyi^ov ravr)]v ev 4 yao~Tpl e%eiv. Urb. 5 <yLva>a/ce oti avri) ov hi ecovrrjv ayovos iaTiv.AOOPISMOI LIX. (pdei'perai to aTreppua' OKoaai Be if.* LX. transpose irvicvas and 174 . pbijre (ppi/cys. has %v at the beginning and retains al. at roiavrai iiTL- LXII. Q and one other MS. 'O/coaai 8 tckvol ylvovrai.evov.(poTepcov lS Ti)v Kpdaiv avp. LXIII. 7 is omitted by and three MSS. adds (after earii. dhuvarov to e/xfipvov uyiaivetv.) oAAo Sia rhv &i>fipa.x e " C' has fo-x«"Urb. n LXI. dp. to the beginning of the MV omit al and transpose aphorism.aTO<> KaTwdev V (Urb. Se Yvvrj i)v fir) Xapi^durj ev yaaTpt. Urb. f3ov\r) elSevai el XijyfreTai. ov Kvtatcovcnv. 7repifcaXv\p*as lp. have iraiwvrai for /*?/ yiir? V C irop€u(avrat. line).i']Tpa<. d 10 Kal yjrv^pa<. 1^ UapaTrX^ala)^ he Kal pevayv' 1 r) yap hid Ttjv d iirl tcov dp15 dpaioTijra tov acop. 2 3 4 5 MV C MV above the have cot.

. Similarly with males. 14 avlpihv V.-LXIH. ffv^/j-fTpws Urb. If a woman with child have menstruation. . as our word "breath" is. and neither shivering nor fever supervenes. k<x\ . you may assume the woman to be with child. tov aw/xaros omitted by C. for the seed perishes through lack of nourishment. LIX. LIX. 3 Moving air in the body was called -n-1'ev/j. The writer of this aphorism was evidently a supporter of the Pneumatists. cover her round with If the smell wraps and burn perfumes underneath.APHORISMS." 2 As Galen says. for the seed is drowned those who have the womb over-dry and very hot do not conceive. conceive. 175 . Kpanis really means " "blending. 11 12 13 16 KviffKovaiv omitted by After irepiKaeas V has exovtrtv. LXI. and you wish she will conceive. the rarity of the body the breath 3 Either because of is borne outwards 1 Used in the old sense of the word. But those whose temperament 1 is a just blend of the two 2 extremes prove able to to know . If menstruation be suppressed. seems to pass through the body to the mouth and nostrils. who tried to explain health and disease by the action of air. four (not two) dispositions have been mentioned but these can be taken in pairs. ." compounding. be assured that the woman is not barren through her own physical fault. but attacks of nausea occur. to air moving to and from the lungs. .a. LX. which was not confined. it is impossible for the embryo to be healthy. LXII I. C. If a if V. woman does not conceive. healthy mean with respect to (1) heat and (2) dryness. Women do not conceive who have the womb dense and cold those who have the womb watery do not conceive. and so we get the. LXII.

v(t)8ecn pi] Xh]v ttoXXw irvpeaaovaiv'^ G BiBovai Be koli ev7rvperolat pa/cpolai /3Xr/)(poiai. ovBe paivovrar tovtwv Be 9 rotai p. olaiv aiparos Bia^ooprjai .iTimeivl other MSS. irape^pTaiu C'V. oBvvat irXevpov oijeiai. rroXXov yeyovev dp1 7 p. KaX VTTO~%6vhpia perewpa real Tolai Bi^wBeai' naicbv Be kcil olai %oXooBee<i at 3 ev rolaiv o^eai Trvperoiaiv. a. els rb crrdfia.(o (peperai 777509 to prj irapaTrepireiv 1 to (Tirep/jUi' i) Bia ri]v irvKvvT^ra to vypbv ov Bta\copel e£(o' rj Bid ti]V ^jrv^poryra ovk ckttvpovrcu. and some other says. reravoi. as Galen 6 8 For /xaKpoTai C has r\. 4 ev Toiaiv o£e'<n irvperdicriv C Urb. 11 rj ep7rvr)o~is. omit TToWw. Urb. 8 Be itCTeTij/cormv. r)v 1 epvdpa p. which word. 1 p.&XXov rj rd olBi'^para. 176 . Td\a BiBovai /cecpaXaXyeovai kclkov KaKov Be teal Tot? irvperaivovcn. have «a). Before rb Urb. One of our MSS. * C.A00PIZM01 to TrvevfJM ei. ov pdXa 6 replrj.ev oiriadev dcfraviadevTwv e£ai(fivi]S. ware dOpoi^eaOat 7rpo9 top tottov tovtov' Bid ri]v Oeppaalr/v to avrb tovto <yiverai.aviai. 7 MSS. Littre inserts it following the commentary of Galen. seems otiose. 3 After uiroxwpricries Galen thought that a nal should be added for the sake of the sense.: ev o|e'<n eovcri 5 MV.r)8evb<. which implies it. Toiv Trpoeipr/pevcov arjpieiwv nrapeovTos. 2 Only three (inferior) MSS. rj LXIV. airacrpoi. i) Bvaev- LXV. 4 kcli viro-%u>pi)aie<. 10 irapd Xoyov 'Okoctoutiv olBi^para e\£' eXfceat (palverai.$i irv per 0^(1) V \lr)v -koWu) -nvpecrauKTiv C. airoivrat.<pavi(onev(iiv Trapa\6yws Urb. (probably through the influence of Galen) reads ical. fj. adds rS> (Tri/xari reading also irape/n. rotai Be epirpoaQev 10 p. teal olaiv 2 Biafiopfiopv^ovra.6£ei Be (f)0t.

To give milk to sufferers from headache is bad it is also bad for fever patients. the chief being that wounds in front do not differ from wounds behind in their probable or possible after-effects. and for those whose hypochondria are swollen and full of rumbMilk is also ling. has otoktl for roiai (twice). severe pains in the side. if the swellings are inclined to be red. but when there also in protracted.wpoa6zv C. V. . of the aforesaid symptoms is it Give LXV. 177 .APHORISMS. 4 rh vyphv here means rb o-irep/xa. When swellings suddenly disappear.-lxv. 4 There are many difficulties of meaning in this aphorism. wounds in front by delirium. Rein. or dysentery. . so as not to force along the seed or because of the * does not pass out . or through the heat this same thing happens. swellings appear on wounds. of consumption when there is no very high is excessive emaciation. o^elrj o$vvr) irAevpeaiv Urb. but when the low fevers. but tovtov seems to refer to 2 1 something already mentioned. 3 Oalen objects to the last clause as inconsistent with the one preceding. lxiii. and for those who pass much blood. when none present. at any rate not to the extent mentioned in the text. is beneficial in cases fever. density of the body the liquid or through the coldness it is not heated so as to collect at this place 2 . wounds behind are followed by convulsions and tetanus. : /xauir) K<xl blvvr) irXtvpov o|i'a C. there are seldom convulsions or delirium . 3 LXIV. and to the whole aphorism as an interpellation. and for those who are thirsty. or suppuration. See Littre's note. Galen notes that the writer leaves the "place" to be understood by the reader. 10 11 fiavlrj t) cis Totjfj. bad for those whose stools in acute fevers are It bilious.

'Ptyea apteral. <yvvai£i p. 2 olSjjfiaTa'^ "Hv /it) rpavfidrcov irovripoiv eovrwv evwfxa. /ieya kcckov. : : I 78 . many slight variants in all parts of the aphorism.wv viro anao~jJiSiv ov iravv ti V. M. Littre without stating his and there are 0pi'{.ev e% octavos /idXXoi' /cal 8id vcorov 69 ri)v K€(pa\i']V drap tcai dvSpdai oiriaOev /idXXov r) e/iirpoaOev tov drap kcli to (TcofiaTO . cnrao~fiov 01 vtto TerapTalwv dXiaKOfxevoi ri 7 vito ov irdvv dXiaKovrar eTTiyevr/rai r\v oe dXlcncwvTai 4 irporepov. tovto all Qpit.a Urb. 'Otcoo-OLcn LXXI. Ta ^avva.AOOPISMOI LXVI. olov Tnfyecov. Taios. SrjXol Be h t) 6pl^. 8 ical rerap- Sep/iara irepiTelverai a/c\t]pd TOiaiv 4 ISptoTi 2 /capcpaXea. 9 l/crepicoSees LXXII. Curb o"irao~/xbv ov irdvv t< 7 oi> M C Urb. dvev ISpwros TeXevOKoaoLcri he %a\apd KaX dpaid. ra 3 OTTiadev T779 /cecpaXfjs ohvvw/ieva 2 r) ev /X6T&J7T&) opOlrj (pXeijr TfnjOeiaa dxpeXel' LXIX. t) oSwcc/xevwi M. exoucri. Ot Toi^ee? elaiv. 1 2 ov irdvv rt irvev/xa- l<rx v Pwv teal irovrjpwv 46vrocv olS-n/xa M.o7 8e C omits from olov to ! : ov irdvv ri virb ciraa/uov irdvv ri virb o~wao~fx. 6 <ix<W 'o< Urb. 1 (^aivqrai. 8r)A. /ir/pcov 1 LXVIII. ^pTqard. authority.. Td 4 5 8ep/xa dpaiov. iravovrai. real aw TeXevTwaiv. LXVII. 2 Katcd. 3 4 5 fvvofxa C : Se Kvvo/j. 6 LXX.

LXXI. LXVI.e. disease. V. not of fatal diseases only. has |r?pa. i. their greater coldness and . parched. »79 . If swellings do not appear on severe wounds it is a very bad thing. as is shown 3 by the hair. Rigors in women tend to begin in the loins and pass through the back to the head. LXVL-Lxxii. Littre thinks that the last sentence is a separate aphorism. Softness 1 is good. liability to rigors.APHORISMS. hard and 4 without Those whose skin sweat. die is loose and rare die 4 with sweat. . contrasting the bodies of women and of men. in swellings. in the fore. Those subject to jaundice are not very subject to flatulence. 1 2 3 That is. any 8 9 For ffK\ripa Urb. Those whose skin is stretched. The skin too is rare. LXV1II. Pains at the back of the head are relieved by opening the upright vein in the forehead. Te\(vTui(Tty omitted by C. 4 Perhaps reXevrHaiv refers to the termination of So Theophilus. Or "crudity. Commentators mostly think that there is a reference to the fact that the front parts are more hairy than the back this shows the less rarity of the latter. LXXII. LXX." etc. bKouoiffi 5e . the convulsions cease. hardness 2 is bad. But if they are first attacked by convulsions and a quartan supervenes. LXVII. arms or thighs. LXIX. In men too they begin more often in the back of the body than in the front for example. . Those who are attacked by quartans are not very liable to be attacked by convulsions.

ical 3 olai voarjporepov p. Katcoi'-jOea. 'Ei> rfjcrc xpovlrjcri pbrj i-Trtyevofievrj. as 4 C has vocrikwrepov. has ras Sia<popds. Perhaps a case of hen- For epywSws C MSS. 2 Olcri plves vypt'}.aOr]reov.r) p.eva. cnipuelov r) 3 dyadov. IV. add aKynixara.€ria>pa 3 ra Be p. VI.). ipywBa)? VII. to. la^vporepa. read Svaxepis. ytvo/xevr] yiyvoufvri are other readings. For [xepeow Rein. yevop. and is mentioned by Theophilus. p. vyieivorepov. 10 VIII. 3 Ta irepipbdBapa eXfcea. to fiera. aAyrjudrmv 6$vpr)fiaT<x. V. vyid^erai rolai TrpecrfivTepoiai. kukiov.aKprjai zeal yovi] Be ravat 3 avria.* III. kcli iv Ta 7 TrXevpfjai. uyteiv^Tepot 6 6 7 M. fir. Karap. 2 v€(f>piTiK<i. real iv rolaiv aWoiai p. 8 olSr^ara is strongly supported by the MSS.. rfjai Svcrei'Tepirjaiv 2 airoairlai. and many other Urb. and Littre omits it from his text. /xev p.ara 8 Kara rrjv d KoiXirjv yivop.evr) XeievTeplycriv o^vpey/xir] 1 irporepov. eX/cea trpSjepov fii) iovaa. Twy oBvvecov. (including and Urb.eya 6 Biacpepovai. 5 /cal el iv <mfjde(TL. Rein.epeo-iv. 2 has vyp^i (with vyp6repai) and irpScrdtv fii] V M has vypo-ripi) with vyoSrtpai. teal ra Kara tt/v kihttiv. Kal olBrfp. C diadya. ov prjioLcos vyid^erai.A00PI2M0I TMHMA EKTON I. II. 2 iv 1 fcov(p6T€pa. tcanov avv irvperw. vyiaivovai 'Ei> vypal <pvo~ei.eva Ta (TtopLdTi. Totalis vBpcoTTtKolai ra yiv6p. After xvariv Urb. It is not mentioned by Galen.ere(opa. irp6repov. 180 . 'AXyij^aTO. perhaps rightly. 3 voarixirepov Urb.

malignant. " are (generally) more healthy. and in the other parts. V. in the sides. would 2 . are cured with difficulty when the patient is aged. are below the average when in health those of an opposite character are above . . loathing for food is bad if fever be present. it is worse. One in the breast should observe about pains. as it does not suit very well the predicates novcpoTepa and loxvpoTepa. § 7 (end). whether they show great differences. Sores on the body of dropsical persons are not easily healed. SIXTH SECTION I. 2 VI. VI. i. stood) the subject of 8ia<p4pov<rt. and would make "the patients" (under1 With the reading of M. and affections of the bladder. 1 III. II. Sores. He reads Sia<pepw<ri. making the genitive rwv oSwctav depend upon it. Those whose nostrils are naturally watery.APHORISMS. In cases of prolonged dysentery. aphorism occurs in an expanded form. 181 . V • io For por ywdpfya V Kov<p6Ttpa MV have Kov(pa. are . when the hair about them falls off. acid eructations supervening which did not occur before are a good sign. the average when in health. IV. VII. II. 3 This word is doubtful. . In cases of chronic lientery. Kidney troubles. and whose seed is watery. Littre. VIII.-vm." where this understand ras wpas after pipecnv. has iniya/S^eva. relying on Epidemics. Pains and swellings 3 of the belly are less serious when superficial. more severe when deep-seated.

: : rb (Trd/xa C'V Kara ra Sira' t) /caret rb (T-rSfxa Urb. l tj vScop. ire pnrXevpovhis 7r\evpLTi&o<i. Xvet. SiafcoirevTi. Km a. 3 Rein. tci c&Ta V 6(p6a\jj. ^povta<. Ttto &iappoL7]<i e^opevfp p. 5 'QcpOaXpiwvn Kf<TT£i> rj vivo 8tappoi7]<.A00PI2M0I 2 3 IX. 2 7) Kara to cyropia. k>TT7]v rj r)rrap.a pvev /card t«9 plvas. Xvcris. TrXarea e^avOrjpara. X. 'Ttto vSpwiros i^opeva). Total pieXay^oXiKotai. 7) Stdppoia iiriyevopevt]. \7](p- 2 OrjvaL dyadov.ici)i'Tas. 5 One has b<pBa\ixiwvra Urb. t)v p. rj Kara tq wra.f. tr)V KotXirjv vSaros pvivros.r) KLvSvvo'i vSpcona e7riyevia0ai r) e'xpixivtp 3 (pOiaiv. All.^ Kara ret SiTa M. 7] ^ a. fxt'a 1 ft) irjuevTt <pv\a)(6fi. /cal tolctl ve(f>pit 2 TiKoJaiv alpoppoiSe<i eiriyivofMevai. XIII. 1 2 oia/coTTT} oareov. 4 txopivw in appears before ^. To. 2 'Ttto 4 i^opevM XVII. XT. "Ttto \vypov Trvapfio? eVi- 2 ryevo/j. rj ri e t&v koi\lt]v. ttvov.aKpr)<. aipoppoioas. ciito e/xeTO? ravTopdrov 3 poiav.€i>o<. 3 Kara rds (p\e/3a<. and several other MSS. 182 . 7) A1A. rj (fipevas. Xuei to voaripa. eTTLyevopevos Xvei rrjv Sidp- XVI. davaraySe^. rb arofxa. tmv ivrepcov iytce(j)a\ov. dyadov. KecpaXrjv iroveovn ical irepiwhweovTi. rj alp. XIV. 3 \e7TTcov. XV. kclkov. /capBir/v. 7) i) XVIII. %ovopos. adds avTOfiarov before Kara. ov irdvv rt Kvr (T[xcohea. 2 e? top \vypov.ua omitted by 7/ MV.

APHORISMS. a flow of water by the veins into the belly removes the dropsy. XIII." Some MSS.-xix. In the case of a patient suffering from pro- longed diarrhoea. In the case of a person afflicted with When hiccough. diarrhoea supervening is a 4 bad sign. 2 3 • tj is placed by C before tuv inipwv and Urb. there is a danger lest dropsy or consumption supervene. cartilage. brain. a flow of pus. Broad exanthemata 1 are not very irritating. 1 When not a bone. of Hemorrhoids were supposed to be one of Nature's ways removing impurities. XVI. XVII. probably the pustules of scabies. XI. 183 . ix. cures the trouble. unless one be kept. have KaTaXcupe?!. XIX. When the head aches and the pain is very severe. by the nostrils. omits tZv. midriff. XIV. is deadly. belly or liver. X. sinew. XVIII. XV. involuntary vomiting supervening removes the diarrhoea. In the case of a patient suffering from dropsy. sneezing coming on removes the hiccough. the slender are It is known what exanthemata meant . ears or mouth. 2 sign. heart. one of the smaller intestines. IX. a patient has been cured of chronic 3 hemorrhoids. Hemorrhoids supervening on melancholic or kidney affections are a good XII. water or blood. 4 Ancient "ophthalmia" included many eye diseases besides the one now known by this name. That is "left. good thing when an ophthalmic attacked by diarrhoea. patient is It is a A severe wound of the bladder. In the case of a patient suffering from pleurisy or pneumonia. VI.

avayicr) v) C. ovre avpL(pverat. as it is difficult commentators from Galen to reconcile it with 184 . 8 iravroos ddpius C. 'Hz.Taxv6w V. 4 For firiyiAcna three MSS. V add T7js. i) Otcocroicriv 6 Kavaoiai 2 rpop. who sa} s that iKirv-qQrivai here means. according to several interpreters.a<? e%a>0ev Kcnayeopjevov eacoOev tolo~l 5 rpeireadai.A00PISM01 vevpov. e/cpvevros rov ttvov 8 rj tov v8o. by Galen." 3 Before navies Urb. The alternative T is an attempt to express the criticism of Galen. yivuvrai 7 Before eKputvTos Urb. C C C rouTeouri. XXVII. ixavLrjs 4 ' XXII. e? rrjv 1 /coiXiijv aljxa i/c^udr) irapd 2 ipvcriv. ovre av^erat. fxeXay^oXiKov rb roiovrov. 1 2 7rdvTco<i diroWvvrai. XX.cpveTai.to<. but "corruption. XXVI.^ XXI. irapaKOTT^ Xvei. Toiai 2 ficuvofievotai 3 Kipacov Xvcriq. QkOCTOL epLTTVOL Tj vSpOOTTlKol T€p. 1 This aphorism has been a puzzle to to Littre. add KalovTai fy re/xvovrai Urb. 3 dyadov. dvdy/cr) eKTrurjOPjvai. 3 dOpoov. 2 XXV. 'EvTepoov r)v hiaKOirfi rcov Xeirrcjv ti.oi yevcovTai. have aXyvixara. e/c rj al/xope? pothwv eTTi<yivofjLevwv. not transformation into pus. SiacrawTJvai tV omitted eKiroiTjflTji'ot by C. a reading noticed Urb. Hi> (po/3o<i i) 8uadvp. e<xa> 'E/3fcrt7reA. XXIV. 3 i] yvdOov to Xbtttov. For irdvrasY has txuvavros and all «ol for t). rj aKpoiroaOirf.VOVTCll 7 /caiovrai. 2 ov avp. tow? dy/cwvas tcaTaftaLvei. 2 Oxoaa pijyp.Lt] ttoXvv %povov BiareXy.ara rod vcotov Avet. ov/c dyadov dv iv he e£a>. aXyfipiara f/ (/cal) pr. 6 and V (wliich omits &v).y/*aTa 5 Ka. (f)\e/3oTO/xLri XXIII.

1 severed. : C I8 5 . 2 it must suppurate." It is uncertain to which of these many states reference here is made. It seems more natural to interpret it to mean that delirium replaces the tremors. delirium removes these tremors. XXVI.APHORISMS. "into a cavity. if the pus or water flow away all at once. XXV." a much more appropriate word in the context. a fatal result is certain. * Galen notices that some authorities read aXyrifiara. XXI.-xxvn. Ruptures 4 that descend from the back to the elbows are removed by bleeding. Fear or depression that is prolonged means melancholia. Whenever cases of empyema or dropsy are treated by the knife or cautery. VI. it If one of the smaller intestines be severed does not unite. or the foreskin neither grows nor unites. XXII." 3 /xaviri includes every state when a person is "out of his mind. e. XXI I I. 2 If the article tV be omitted. 5 XXVII. If there be an unnatural How of blood into the belly. Whenever tremors occur in ardent fevers. the part XX. but takes the meaning to be that delirium replaces the fever. XXIV.g. is part of the jaw. 5 Galen thinks that this aphorism is an interpellation. Littre thinks that " referred " pains to the elbows are meant "les brisements dans le dos font sentir dans les coudes. xix. "pains. (StaKoirfi) is Perhaps all that is meant is that a severe cut never completely restored." The reading of combines both readings. experience. but it is good when internal erj'sipelas turns outwards. Varicose veins or hemorrhoids supervening on madness 3 remove it. callus is not exactly bone. When erysipelas that spreads externally turns inwards it is not a good thing.

avrrj.ici)8ee<. XXXVII. Totatv vSp(07riKolcri /3r)% eTnyevofievrj. 2 fijjvia 2 Tvvrj ov iroSaypid. 3 (pap/jLaKOTrocrir) omitted by C' -J) : <papfj. which seems to be the simple various hands to the fuller text found The variants include 5« or 5' before av. 2 nXevpiTi/col 01 6£vpe<yp. 2 d<f>poSifrid^€iv Urb. eVAeiVr. rj dtcpiqroiToair].aice'n] V. 'Tiro Kvvdyyy]^ 9 eyop. dyaOov. support but is the one known to Galen. The reading ov yivovrai has poor MS.AO0PI2M0I XXVIII. avrriv). all with approximately the same sense. kcucov to 8e irpoyeyovevat dyaOov. rj 3 (f>Xe/3oTopLLr). Xovrpov. V. pceydXoi (paXafcpoi. XXIX. lieu? oi) irohaypid irpo 2. el efcXeXonrev avrfj. £irtAe\onrev. the omission of hv.S6 . rdpiveiv 2 8e ttjv eiaoo (pXe/3a. vtto 8iappoLTj<i p. Ae'Aoi7re>'. (f>ap/. 1 XXX.dXio~Ta dXiCTKOVTai XXXIII. offer many readings (V. avrrjs. e '» 10 The MSS. Kvvovxoc ov TToSayptwaiv. ov irdvv Tt yivovrai.kv<£> ol8r]p. I have adopted the original. XXXI.. eK\tvr]. rj 'OBvvas ofyOaXpbwv irvpir). sK\e\oiirev. 6 XXXVI. o/eoeroi? tovtolgi tcipaol ov yivovrat'^ dv <fiaXa/cpoio~L 3 Kipaol yei'WVTai irdXiv 2 yivovrai 8ao~ee<i. 3 Xvei. altered by in our other MSS. 5 In the second part of this aphorism text of V.. 'Qfc6<roi XXXIV. 2 TpavXol pbaKpy)<. Avaovpir/v 7 8 (pXe/3oTop. XXXV. firj ov8e tcara- 2 (fraXaxpol yivovrai. Otherwise one would adopt ovk 4 iyyivovrai. ra rou dj>po8irj aiaapLOV.a 2 yeveaOai ev ra> {3poyxa> 1 e£<w. I.iaK07TOairj XXXII.Li) Xvei.

fieydkoi as epithet of iwiyevwvTat. by vapour baths. XXXI." after (paKaKpoiffi. by bleeding or by purging. XXXVI. . if it trachea. omit rh Se ayadSv. grow sign hair again. Eunuchs neither get gout nor grow not get gout unless suppressed. adds ££a> yap rpfireTai rh C v6at\ixa. XXXIII. hald. by bathing. A intercourse. and Littre. 10 rpaxv^co Urb. XXXII. and adds (pAf/3as. A but . Bleeding removes difficulty of mic1 turition open the internal vein. 7 T-as e<ro> Littre and Rein. XXXV. it is a good thing when a swelling appears on the outside of the .APHORISMS. . youth does not get gout before sexual is XXIX. 187 . Those suffering from acid eructations are not very likely to be attacked by pleurisy. icipffol. 1 He Galen suspects that this aphorism is an interpellation. among other things.. Those with an impediment in their speech are very likely to be attacked by protracted diarrhoea. says that to make good sense ical must be understood <p\e@oTOfj. A woman does menstruation XXX. xxviii. MV. VI. XXXVII. 6 Several MSS. In a case of angina.-xxxvii. XXXIV. 4ov<ri(y) . Pains of the eyes are removed by drinking neat wine. Bald people are not subject to large bald people who get varicose veins varicose veins . XXVIII. ovtui before or after irdKiv.. 8 otSrifia * C V : olS-fifiara Urb. cough supervening on dropsy is a bad precede it is a good sign.ir) : before "bleeding. .

ev etna iipieprjaiv drroXXuvrai.' 4 ovtco Be ical Xvyp. vftol eg aaOpbaros r) ^r}^6<i yivovrai rrpb 2 3 4 5 ^/Sty?. XLIV. €7riyevofiev7}<. have 188 . yiverai C Urb. 1 fii) XXXVIII. irepl XL. araaOai. koX t<z<> ovXas rcoiXas yiveaOai. rrov^pov. arroXXwrai. transpose ffirao-fxhs itX-qpcixrios Some MSS. 'Ev rola iv LKTepiKolcrt rb r/rrap crtcXrjpbv 1 2 yevecrdai.AOOPIEMOI 'Okoctoujl tcpvirrol KapKivoi yivovOeparreveiv (SeXriov Oeparrevofievoi yap arroXXwrai Ta^ew?. i]V fit] 9 rb ovpov pufj. Littre omits rov irvov % on the ground that the commentary of Galen implies two readings. rovroiaiv. XXXIX. vBpw^r ernyiverat e/c r) Xeievrepir). rovroiai Trvperos 3 emyevopievos Xvei rov rrovov. cnrX7]vcoBee<. TTVOV rj XLII. C Urb.6<i. repov a(pi- XLVI.. 'Okoctoi Bvo-evrep'iry. "E>X/cea 6/cocra eviavaia yiverai. 'OKoaoiai Bidrrvov ri ev ra> aayp-ari ebv airoaiipbaivei.a. vrroxbvBpiov rrovo<. 3 rrvperov emyevopievov aXa XLV.arcpo3 avay/cr) ocrreov xpovov loyovoiv. C has Kpvirrol kolokIvoi yivovrai twice. V. rovroiai Bia iraxvrrjra rov psr) 6 TOV TOTTOV OUK cnroo-r)p.aivei. 2 1 'O/coaoi rr)<. 2 <rio<i rj Xiracrpiol 3 yivovrai 2 r) vrrb rrXrjpco- k6V(d<tio<. XLIII. one with rod irvov 6 some MSS.<? dXicrfcovrai. teal 4 arroXXwrai. and Kevuaios. rh vdo-ri/xa. rj p. yiverai 3 'O/cocroicn cirep rb 5 (pXeypiov^f. vrrb Bvcrevrepiris p. have For rov ir6vov irSvoi yivovrai. XLI.Kprj<i t>". yu. 'Okoctoio-lv crrpayyovpi-))^ 8 elXeol yivovrai. rai.?) deparrevopievoi Be rroXvv 4 "fcpovov BiareXeovaiv.

XL.es Rein. XLI 1 1. die in seven days. if the dysentery that supervenes be prolonged. unless fever supervenes and there is an abundant flow of urine. is removed if fever supervenes. aA. Reinhold omits ?.) has i)v rb TjTrop o-ich-qphv yei'/jrai.vi. sclerosis of the liver is bad. the pain or XXXIX. give both and the other with tov t6ttov. 10 tax** Littre with several MSS. VI. . are attacked by ileus. hwrai by 9 C Urb. It is better to give no treatment in treatment causes speedy cases of hidden cancer death. If sores last for a year or longer. xxxviii. (with many other MSS. When suppurating matter exists in the body without showing itself. after strangury. When persons with enlarged spleens are attacked by dysentery.-xi. this is due to the thickness either of the pus or of the part.APHORISMS. from depletion. When pain in the region of the hypochondrium occurs without inflammation. phrases. . XLV. All our MSS. Convulsions occur either from repletion So too with hiccough. 8 ot rotovToi is added after an6\KvyTai by V. For to . yevtadai Urb. tov tSttov. a fact which Littre would explain as an attempt on the part of a scribe to include both of Galen's readings. dropsy or lientery supervenes with fatal results. Those who. XXXVIII. before &ir<i\"• . do not recover. XLII. it must be that the bone come away and the scars become hollow. XLIV. XLI. but to omit treatment is to prolong life. 189 . Such as become hump-backed before puberty from asthma or cough. XLVI. : Xaxuiatv V. In jaundice.

AOOPISMOI XLVII. L. Littre : KaOlffTarai several M>SS. 2 vo/xivr. ravra dirocfiXeypiijvavTa iv Teaaapd/covTa 2 r)p. (j>\€/3oTO/Aii] rj (jyap/jLa/ceir/ i) tovtovs tov ^/jo? (pap/xaKeveiv (fiXefto- 3 1 ro/j-elv. 'OKoaoiab av/xc^epeit. ^oX. LII.etov- 3 3 prjGiv diroKaOlaraTai. : ditoKadiaravrai Urb.aTa yuveTcu.ivoiv ?) twv /3Xe(pdpo)V. Kadla-ravrai Dietz.uv After rtaaapaKovra dnroKcLditTrai C has xptV has oktw. 4 For yivovTai Littre (without giving authority) has the attractive reading Keivrai. 'O/coaoicriv dv 6 iy/iecfiaXos BtaKoirfj. : M C 190 . ylvovrcu? teal peytcovatv.?)? e/xerov 3 iiriylveadaL. At irapafypoovvai at fxev fierd yeXayTOS yivofxevai dacpaXiarepar 7 at Be fierd cnrovBfjs 8 3 iTTtcrcfcaXecrTepai. dTroXXvvTai iv eirja 4 rjv pit] irvpero^ iiriXd^rj. o~vfij3aXXop. /cal Trapaxprj/xa dcpcovot. LI. 7roo-tr/9. XLVIII. LIII. ^KOirelv Be ^pr) /cal ra? vTrocpdcnas touv iv roiaiv vttvokjlv r)v ydp re 6(pdaXpL0)v r]/jLepr)<Jiv. 'O/coaa 7roBaypi/cd voar}p. irvpeTOV LIV.. 'Okogoutlv vyiaivovaiv il-alfyvr^ oovvai ylvovrai iv tj) /cec^aXfj. V. XLIX. dvairvoal tca/cov. /x?) itc BtappoLi)*. roiacv civdyKT] Trvperbv /cat.. pueTa 1 2 3 After <p\e&oTofi. Totcrt oirXrivwhecn hvaevrepirj iiriye- dyaOov. iovTi <pap/naKO- (frXavpov to cn]fielov teal OavaTwBes 6 acpoBpa. 5 6 vTTOipaLVtjTai tov Xev/cov.Go$ee<. 2 'Ef Tolaiv b^eai irdOecn Tolai 9 at /cXavd/j.

One should also consider what is seen of the eyes in sleep for if. 6 6 7 8 &-n6\\vvTai after rmepricriv C. VI. Delirium with laughter is less dangerous. Some MSS. xi. 3 In Urb. the forty-third aphorism of this section. XLVIII.vii. In cases of enlarged spleen. 1 Cf. should diarrhoea or purging not be responsible. die within seven days unless fever comes on. Those who when in health are suddenly seized with pains in the head.Tai Urb. L. as apoplectic seizures are referred to. when the lids are closed. where it is said that in such cases a protracted dysentery is followed by fatal results. a bad. LIII. place tov Mvkov after $\f<pdpaiv. a part of the white is visible. Such as are benefited by bleeding or purging shall be purged or bled in spring. LIV. In gouty affections inflammation subsides within forty days. In acute affections attended with fever. lutely fatal.-liv. Severe wounds of the brain are necessarily followed by fever and vomiting of bile. Some MSS. It is taken from Prognostic. this aphorism is joined to the preceding. LI." This word is very appropriate in its context. becoming 2 forthwith dumb and breathing stertorously. sign. read KAavd/xov (or K\a8fxov) for a-nouS^s. ia-cpaKfaraTai and iiri<T(pa\4(TTa. XLIX. it is. dysentery 1 supervening is a good thing. combined with seriousness it is more so. 191 . 3 moaning respiration is a bad sign. LII. in fact an abso. XLVII. 2 The reading KtivTai would mean "lie prostrate.APHORISMS.

aTO<i. 1 3 4 C ttoAu (irouAv). exo^evoiai 10 tovtohti Trjtcerai 11 ypovirfi to iV^t'of e^iararai. adds Kal dTOireo-elv. 1 rov rjpos zeal tov (pOwo2 LVI. at least omits.'nt)ffiv or toIgiv rjKiKloto'tv many MSS. 8 V : XP 0VI V^ is found after t'crx"£5os i n some old 192 . 5 6 anbir\7)KTT)Kol ol C. Ta voSaypiKa 2 Trcopov Kivelrat. One MS. 'E^ rolaiv o^ecxi voar']fxaai -^rv^is dKpcoTrjpicov.A^OPISMOI LV. 'Ofcoaoiaiv vtto laxid8o<. eiTLKivhwoL a(ofj. TMHMA EBAOMON I. kcu irdXiv ep-TMnei. u>s eirl -rb few MSS. 3 to o7ceA. ?}i> /a?) KavQkwaw. '' Toicrt fieka^yokiKolai voai)p. A adds here naWov and some MSS.o?. /cat ^toXoD^Tai.Kites' al aTrowXyi^iv rj (ttt aa fiov. has One MS.acriv e<? rdSe rov diroo.fftx6v Urb. LX. LIX. add /col rd naviKa before toC ^pos. 3 5 rj /xaviijv. tov awfiaros after o~ira. 7 After ctJroo'aTrTJi'at Urb. rn r\\udr) rjAiKi'p rrj Littre (^Ak/tj T^triv T)\iK. 9 pv%ai iirvylvovTai. avdy/cr] diro8 2 aairijvai. : C ol V : rrjt M) : ox^ovfitpois editions. rj TvcpXcoaiv ol 6 LVII. 2 ^s Tdy Se some good MSS. o-ynelwo-iv. 2 KCUCOV. *Hf eir'nrXoov pd\i(na ylvovTai /ie'^pt? k^KOvra. o-nnaivovffiv Littre. 2 KiroirXriKTOi Be a7ro reacrapdfeovTa irewv LVIII. i/CTrecr-p. 'O/coo-otcrty t»7ro tV%mSo? ivoxXovfievoiaiv 3 rovroicn e^ia-Tarai to iayiov.

: LVI II. lv. mucus cases of chronic disease of the hip-joint. In cases of hip-joint disease. M has V omits : (pehei V and many some MSS. In acute diseases chill of the extremities sign. LV. (and Littre) other MSS. the leg wastes and the patient becomes lame. L1X. 193 . when the hipand then slips in again." correct) will be almost impersonal. unless the part be cauter- LX. Apoplexy occurs chiefly between the ages of forty and sixty. 2 If the epiploon protrude. LVII. i-yyii'ovrcu for STnylvovrai. In melancholic affections the melancholy humour is likely to be determined in the following ways apoplexy of the whole body. mean "and drop off. it cannot fail to mortify. in VI. joint protrudes forms. hip-joint protrudes. 10 11 • C omits this aphorism. is a bad 1 See note on p. The word vqnaivei (if the reading be " it means. i.APHORISMS. LVI. The words added in Urb. convulsions. 185. I. Gouty affections become active in spring and autumn. SEVENTH SECTION. In when the ised. madness 1 or blindness. /xv^a yiyverai V. 2 Galen and all commentators refer this aphorism to abdominal wounds through which the epiploon protrudes.-VII. ivox^ovfiivoi&i." The epiploon is the membrane enclosing the intestines.

After 3 4 5 For For ecAixris. 7 for Kavfxaaiv.6<i. 5 Eut 7repnr\evpL0VLij (fipeviris. EttI ISptoTi. 1 kclI aKprjroi 2 y7ro^&)prycrt69. III. ep. 'E7U 2 hvcrevrepLrj. 6 XIII. 6 One MS. VI. kclkov. e/xeTo?.Uol rtravoi V. kclkov. 'Eul rj7rt at/xaTO? et. 1 7 KCLKOV. Galen mentions <r7ra<T. 'E7Tt Kavpuaaiv 2 la^vpolai cnraa /xo? ?) T€Ta^O?. Ei7tI ocTTeco voaiqaavri.6TO<i. «al dcm-177 M has /cal &i<pT]Toi fyieTo*. o~ap{j TreXiSvij. IX.\6u> pvaei 3 TrapcKppocrvvrj i) 2 aTraap. 194 . IV. aTroffiriTfj 2 V. 'E7rt 2 kclkov. rj Kvy%. rj 2 7rapa(ppoavvrj. 2 kclkov. i) vSpcoyjr. ov xprjaTOV. f) airaapios.ol ipvdpoi. 2 2 kclkov. has imyti'o/j. 'Ev vovaco TroXvXpovij) dairlt) VII. . plyo? kclI irapacppoavvij. XII- 'E7rt TrXevpiTiSt TrepnrXev/AovLi]. (ppiKt). kclkov. kclkov. 'E7rt (/ju/iaro? e<T&) p^ei e/cXucrt?.* kclkov.AOOPILMOI II. XI. i/ierq) \i/y£ ko\ 6<p0a\/j. have irepiirhtv/uLOiir] and After /cot/cdr M M has 7) /cal.evTj. has both readings. 'E/e TroXvrroo~Lrj<. 2 /cat \enro\lrvxlr) yiverat. rj e/ccrTacrt?. according to Galen was omitted by certain ancient Tpav/xaaiu MSS. pLCLvLr] V. VIII. some MSS. eixeros ?) M has tKKpitris ai/xaros. ayadov.

2 dropsy or raving. For shivering to follow sweating is not a good sign. Convulsions or tetanus supervening on severe burns are a bad symptom. In ileus. 6 '95 . or (b) some disease with similar symptoms. In a case of diseased bone. vomiting. ii. vomiting and fainting. " 3 Probably meaning showing signs that Kpaffis is absent. After a flow of blood delirium or convulsions are a bad sign. In a protracted disease loss of appetite and 3 uncompounded discharges are bad. 1 it is II. X. III. hiccough. VII. IX. livid flesh on a bad sign. XIII. V. Phrenitis 5 supervening on pneumonia is bad. Pneumonia supervening on pleurisy is bad.APHORISMS. For hiccough and redness of the eyes to follow vomiting is a bad sign." use of cases. is a good sign. Phrenitis means here either (a) the form of malaria called by this name. VIII. IV. convulsions or delirium are a bad sign. i-myl-yvecrOai to signify eirl The common all one symptom supervening on another suggests that 2 has somewhat of this force in By (KCTaffis is meant an increase of the maniacal symptoms. helping to hring the disease to a crisis. 1 It is difficult to decide how far the preposition inl in this and the following aphorisms means "after.-xiii." * If KctKbv be omitted: "Pneumonia often supervenes on " pleurisy. Rigor and delirium after excessive drinking are bad symptoms. From the breaking internally of an abscess result prostration. 4 XII. VII. For madness to be followed by dysentery. VI. XI.

* iKirinjiris omitted by V. mapa^poavvr].b<.o"i9. 'E7rt o~TTao-p. eKTTvrjcns. 2 TG)Sfi?. 1 be omitted " "Stupor or delirium follows a blow on the head. teal 'E7rt ttvov 3 fyOiais pvcris' 2 2 eirrjv he to aieXov ¥i7ri Xa^iai. 2 KCLKOV. XVIII XIX.AOOPISMOI XIV. 5 Svaev- XXIV. ocneov SiaKOTrf). airoBvr}<jKovo-iv. 2 Teplrj. 196 . (co/cdi/ omitted (according to Galen) by certain MSS. (pXeypovrj aypvTTvir) tov Tqirajos Xvy£ XVIII.. 1 rj XV. 4 'E7ri io"xyp(p crepvypa) ev toIolv eXKeaiv. 'FjTtI aiyttaTo? mrvaei. EttI Xr/ddpyw too/io? kclkov. 'E7rt oSvvrj iroXv\poviu> T(ov irepl rr)v 2 KOi\lr)v. ttvov TTrvaei. XXI. XVI. 4itt)v Se Urb. XXV. XX. dKpcorrjpicov ^v^l<. tttihtis. E7rt epvo-nreXari aryrrehoov rj e«7ru>. XXIII. Oavatt)v 2 rjv Keveov Xd/3j). E7ri ocneov ^riXwo-ei epvaiireXa<i kclkov. 1 2 3 oSvvrj iayypr) rwv rrrepl 2 KoCXirjv. bis. add IWa?j£is Before irapa<ppoffvvi) Rein. &TTL 'E7rt 6 aKprjTO) viro^copijo'ei. If itokJ)!' C : f). kclkov. kclkov. XXVI. XXII. rj 7rapacf)po- 2 avvrj kclkov. Urb. puts ^v Keve 2>i/ AaSr. XVII. V. 2 alfioppayirj. 'E7rt TrXrjyfj e? rrjv KeabaXrjv €Kir\t]^i<i 2 irapaabpocrvvr). with XXV.k6v. Kai iirrjv for -KTvtXov 5) C Urb. After eKTrvrjcrts many MSS add 5 6 ko. 'E« 'E7rt $>appcLKOTToaLri<i enraapub^.

is VII. XVI. XXVI. Convulsions following on purging are deadly. 3 On uncompounded stools. rhage On violent 3 throbbing in wounds. After spitting of pus. 3 XXIII.-xxvi. die. spitting of pus. In violent pain in the parts about the belly. Galen says that pvtris the hair or (b) diarrhoea. convulsions or delirium a bad sign. 4 Galen states that this aphorism applies. IV. XIX. After protracted pain in the parts about the belly. On the laying bare of a bone erysipelas bad. Stupor or delirium from bad. bad). as they easily can be in a list of aphorisms giving " bad " symptoms. XVII. After the severing of bone. I have done my best to use the most appropriate prepositions to translate iirl in aphorisms XVII. xiv. hemor- <(is bad). chill of the extremities is a bad sign. XX. hiccough is is XVIII. XXII. After spitting of blood. not to any bone. delirium. a XIV. suppuration <(is bad). is liver. 3 2 means either (a) the falling out of These words must be understood. to XXIV. In sleeplessness. 3 suppuration XXI. 1 blow on the head XV. On <(is erysipelas. if the cavity be penetrated. In lethargus trembling is a bad sign. but to severe fractures of the skull piercing the membranes. dysentery <(is XXIV. consumption and 2 and when the sputum is cheeked the patients flux. 197 VOL. mortification or bad). In inflammation of the bad.APHORISMS. ("IP-) t . 4 XXV.

i) ^ovhpos. XXXIV. 5 roDra KarapUrb.AOOPISMOI XXVII. pbaKprjv 3 Tijv dppcoaTirjv cnjp. 5 XXX. 7ropL(p6\vye<i 3 /cal piaKprjV 1 " 'O/coaoicri 8e ev 10 roicriv vcpicTTavTai. Dietz. rj vevpov 1 tw acopari. except Urb.aTa ev rrjai hiappolyGi. 'Okogoioi 7rvpecr<TOvcriv 6 Kpipivcahees at vn ocri denes ev rolatv ovpoicri ytvovrai. Urb. have 198 . has efiaravTai but not en-i. has eVl have ev ve<ppiTiKa crTj/tcuVoviri. STri/carappee? (pXey/xa. 2 *Hi> vtto Xevicov 'Q/cocroiaiv Sidppoia eiriyevrjiai ia^vpi]. Xvei vovaov. rapa^i] la^vpij XXXIII. and itpiarcuirai. ' have Kpr^/xvciSees. "O 2 Bia/coiry 2 ev av oareov. 8 10 C Urb. ovk av^eTai. 3 ^)Xe7/xaTO? eyop. xoJ'Spos and vevpov are transposed by V. and vcplaravTat. QptviTiKa : M laxvph after o-w/jluti V. V: a.<pverat ovk av^erat oi>x vytd^ei ovre av^eTat ovre (pverai M. rovroiaiv dirb ttjs Ke^aXrjS 3 /carappel. vecppiTi/ca n ovpoiai o~i)pbaivei. omits vevpov. 'Okoctouti Be ra ovpa SieaTtjKOTa 8 9 ev to> acapbari rovroiai yiverai. XXXI. Karappel : : 3 C t V MV V : pu M. C. 3 ecrnv. acppcoSea* &iaxoopijp. Some MSS. XXVIII. 6 7 • C : ev Toiaiv ovpotat after irvpeao-ovaiv o-oixaivei MV. MSS. 12 tijv appccKTrirjv. Urb. 6%eli)v ttjv dppaxjTujv 3 ar)p.aivouaiv.iroKOTiv M.evu> t?jv XXIX. 'Ey yaarpl Ti e^ovcrt) reive crpibs eiri- 2 yevo/xevos e/crpcoaai iroiel. 4 add to before diax^pv/xara. 'Okocoici yoXoahees ai virocndaies ylvovrai. StaKoirTJ C i Urb.aivov<Jiv? XXXII. dvcoOev 8e Xeiriai. 11 V 8t6ffT7)«<$TO after 8e MV. ovk av^erat ovre o-v/j. All the best MSS.

bilious below. and the watery part. Galen and Theophilus give this meaning to awQev. XXX. 6 XXXIV. 199 . 4 XXXI. xxvii. authority for Iv and v^laravrai is strong. In fever cases sediments like coarse meal forming in the urine signify that the disease will be XXVIII. it removes the disease. In cases where the urine becomes divided there is violent disburbance in the body. reading. I. Tenesmus 1 child causes miscarriage. and " a la Littre translates.e. it cut through in the body. 7 Straining at evacuations of stools. 2 XXIX. A repetition of Aphorisms VI. xix. and that the disease will be protracted. incipient anasarca. is cases where the urine is thin at the and then becomes bilious.-xxxiv. When in the case of a white phlegm 3 violent diarrhoea supervenes. XXVII." but Galen says he had never seen urine watery above but 6 The word Sieo-TT^JTa perplexed Galen. as albuminous urine is frothy. XXXIII.APHORISMS. 6 Adams adopts it. 7 Adams explains this as referring to albuminuria. Medically i^lcrravrai (" settle on the surface ") is the better But the MS. In 5 first. VII. who took it to mean "not homogeneous" Adams thinks that it refers to a strongly marked line of distinction between the sediment . partie superieure. an acute illness indicated. protracted. 12 Urb. When bubbles form in the urine. 4 This medically obscure aphorism should be connected with the doctrines expounded in the latter part of Sacred 2 3 1 Disease. In cases where frothy discharges occur in diaiThoea there are fluxes from the head. in the case of a woman with cartilege or sinew be does not grow. Whatsoever bone. XXXII. it is a sign that the kidneys are affected. has 6£eir]v for naKp^y.

Galen mentions but prefers 4irl<TTa<ris because of the sense. 6 Kal to airbajripLa eaopevov paWov eaco. fjv p. xal bBvvr/ ep. Hv oupfj alp. adding 4v TfffcrapeaKatSeKa r)jiip7]<Ti' to. Kal 3 crrjpalvei. irovoi re o£ee? irepl tol>9 pivots rovs pa-%ia'iov$ yivovTai. adds Kal o^eirjv tt]v a.ppu>OTir)v ecrecrBai. XXXIX.ev 4 irepl Tot"? e^co tottovs yivcovrat. irepl ttjv kvgtlv voaelv 4 arjpaLvei.e. XXXVII.r. . 9 XXXVIII. has oXedptov Kapra for kuk6v Bepairzverai Urb.evov 7 ef-af i)v Be paWov 01 irbvoi 777)69 it 5 rovs eaoy TOTrovi. irvpeTOv. V iitiffracris M. omitting Kal 6£ea. 4 tjv (iiv Trepi yivcovrai omitted by Urb.iriiTTr) e<? top irepiveov Kal tov KTeva. K.). a-n/xaivei o£ea.a epeovaiv. 6 After t6ttovs many MSS. 7 C'V: Urb. and several MSS have irepl. Galen says that some would read tpptmriKa on the ground that the symptoms mentioned are not confined to 1 virSffraffis C : botli readings. Tcev Kplverai o£ea rpiralus twv voarj/J-d- Kpivtrai $p 200 . (so Urb. has rolm crrvTrTtKoiai only. C . 3 After fftifxaivei Urb. 10 Urb.ardppooi e? ttjv avoo KOiXir/v 2 e/cTTveovrat ev rjpeprjcnv eircocri. have ylvccvrat. 2 nephritis. pocrBeyov r)v pev dvev Kcucbv rolat o~(QT)']piov tjv Be (tuv irvpeT&. 3 'Oicocroicn Be Xnraprj vecppcTiKa 7) eiriaracri^ real 1 adporj. . Be%ov eaop. 8 Be tolctl o'tvtttlkoIo'lv r) Oepcnreveiv 4 yfrvfcrifcoiaiv. O/cocroi 7 alp. has vepptriKa.a Kal Opopftovs. has the final -aiv erased.A00PI2M0I XXXV. okSctoktiv 8 Rein. to. tovtohti 2 b£ea O/coaoiai Be vec^piriKotcrcv eovai ra 7rpoeiprjpeva crrjpela avpfSaivei. 9 V omitting Oepaireveiv K. Kal arpayyovpLr) e\7j. airocmipa irpoa- XXXVI. 5 For irphs Urb.

with styptics or refrigerants. kxkttw. M 2o: . if these occur about the external parts. When kidney diseases. omits this aphorism. the scum on the urine is greasy it indicates acute disease of the aforesaid symptoms occur in XXXVI. 10 M . "scum on urine passed at short intervals." 3 That is. 2 if with fever. to refer to time. for vTrScrratrts is very strong. 1 VII. authority comment seems Galen would keep vecppntKa. i adp6r] firra irept6Soi(Ti rb fiaKp6raTov. 2 This meaning of ffwrypiov (OepairevBrjvai hvva. The word should mean "salutary. The vomiting of blood. if without fever. it indicates disease in the region of the bladder.tvov) is vouched for by Galen. Treat it may be cured . and not the urine. would have altered the reading 1 Galen's The MS.to o|eo twv vocrrj/xaTuiv yiverai K.r. realising that greasy urine is not necessarily a sign of kidney disease. but to be decisive.-xxxix. has kt4vo. When a patient passes in the urine blood and clots.aivei. t« (rrjficuvet. understanding etppiTiKa. irepl ryv kvotiv voatav and ryv kvo-tiv voaceiv art/naivet. «oi ttjv vovaov o-rifj.jj. it is bad. . and acute pains are experienced in the muscles of the back. When the kidneys. expect rather that the abscess too will be internal.APHORISMS.aKp6ra- Galen mentions two readings. .f. the chest. XXXVII. which is called a9p6r\. expect an external abscess if they occur more about the internal parts. XXXVIII. . Some ancient commentators. suffers strangury and is seized with pain in the perineum and pubes. Catarrhs (fluxes) into the upper cavity 3 suppurate in twenty days. and massed together. has rpiraios rov. xxxv. Urb." But it is the scum. XXXIX. XXXV. /j.

Hv rat. Galen mentions both ISpwros MV. rrepiy Ly vov-rai (ev ^lto)vl yap to ttvov Tovroiaiv iaTLv)' rjv Se olov apuopyrj pvfj. ylverai 'O/coaoi epbiTvoi Tepivovrai 7 i) /caiovrai. XLIV. 10 AkAoois rjTrap Sia Ttvov fiwap oia iriiov Kaiovrai V SicAffoi to fiwap Sidirvov Kaiovrai % Tenvovrar Urb. 6tp8a\/AU>v odvvas Avet Aovrpbi' teal aKpaTOTrorfir). a/cpaTrjs yevr/- cnroTrXrj/cTov rov o-GOfiaros. 3 r) ' f) yXwaaa tl * i£al(pvr)<. 3 Xvyt. airoX5 Xvvrai.AQOPISMOI XL. *Ht>. /cal SvacoSes. 6 For tov irvpeTov V has rfjs ice(paAfis. 6k6(toi : Ka\. has datives in -$>. Okoctol 9 r)rrap Starr vov tcaiovTai r) repLvovTai.^ ttoXXov XLII. 3 puevov. XLVI. omits this aphorism. to ttvov icadapbv pvfj teal Xev/cov. Yvvrj rov Trvperov.OVTO. 'OSi^a? 2 /cal 1 10 ocpdaXpbcov.ev rb ttvov /caOapbv pvfj /cal Xev/cov. iircyevTjrai. vtt epicad aipo pukvwv twv 2 repo)!'. vcpai/xov After Se Littr6 has. Query rrjs /ce<£aA<xA5 C t) 717JS ? 7 tciovTou Te/nvovrai Urb. 202 . a/cprjrov Troriaa^ Xovaas ttoXXw Oeppuw. Xvai<.riO'ov. pteXay^oTrpecr/3v- Xlkov to TOIOVTOV. Urb.KUV i/'5aTos C. C. *Hv Trvperbs pur) airo ^oXr)<f ^XV' vbaTOS^ /cal deppiov Kara t^? K6<paXi)<i /carayeoXLIII.V M.io<} ov ylverai. following slight authority. Ttp-vovrai 8 omitted by MV. : 2 to rotovro yiyvtrai V.Aovcras iroAAw : C 8epfj. ovk ayadov. 2 XLI. arroX4 Xvvrai. 6 a[i<f)L&ei. XLV. : rifivoPTai r) Kaiovrai C : ?. pref erring the former. KOA. 3 4 V. KO. irepirjv pev 8 yivovjai' rjv Be /3op/3opco&e<.w (pAefiorS/J. readings. Urb. Rein. e£ai<pV7is yXSxrffa •7rp<=<Tj8uTaTa>j' (pXejBoropbei. rjv p.

are seized with hiccough. btpdaAfxuv bZvvas' <p\e&or6[j. and bleed. paralysis is Perhaps.-xlvi. If the tongue is suddenly paralysed. They could not possibly be descendants of a single text copied with the ordinary copyist's blunders. this aphorism literally . 1 The ancient commentators why V 3 Some ancient commentators took . Whenever empyema or : is treated by the knife cautery. for in such cases the pus is in a membrane but if it flows like as it were lees of oil. a copious affusion of hot water over the head removes the fever. r. the patient recovers. patient recovers the patient dies.e. Whenever by cautery or the knife. XLV. the but if muddy and evil-smelling. it is not a good symptom. XLII. So V. 3 XLIV. irupli). if the pus flow pure and white. XLV are at a loss to understand " melancholic. 2 XLIII.ei. . In cases of pains in the eyes. the patient dies. XL. as /. xl. but with aKprjTOTrofflrjij &Kp-r)Tov. caused by black bile. give neat wine to drink.1 Kovcras iroAAw Oep/xw. Urb. If old people. atcpaTOV iroTL<ras ko. 203 . the affection is melancholic. These three readings throw light upon the history of the Hippocratic text.APHORISMS. bathe in copious hot water. 1 XLI."" 2 relieves the headache. If a patient suffers from a fever not caused by bile." The reading of suggests. A woman does not become ambidexterous. I. VII. when violently purged." i.itAayxoAia may mean merely "nervousness. abscess of the liver is treated if the pus flow pure and white. others thought that it referred to the position of the female embryo in the womb others to the belief that a female is never an hermaphrodite. or a part of the body suffers a stroke. 7j bSvvas ocpOaA/xaiv rofj-ir) Kovrp6u- <p\e&o- Xvef M." the aphorism means that persons of a nervous temperament are peculiarly subject to "strokes.

ovk 1 e%oi» Bie^oBov e? ovBeTeprjv j8rj£ iTriyevrjrai tcov koiXicov. 3 'if* ' ' ' "£ » > / rpialv 3 yoocnv. rjp. L. ^veau' ecru After irupeTos V has irpwros. 4 eV ffTvOeffiv 6 7 8 For Ik • C Urb.€pr)(Tiv aTToWwrai' 5 e/c rjv 6 Be TavTa<i Bicupv/ce<pa\r)<. M have ?£«. have Before tov C has % Sia^vxpaivofiefov and V ^ tyvxonevou.evo<. aveXTriaros 2 /cal (f)\e/3oTOpuri s ltto Kvvay^r]<i e)(pp. C. d^rb. adds (pAe&as. koX oBvvrjv irape")(ei. Urb.. \ver Tepveiv Be Tas ecr&). have followed closely in deciding the text of this aphorism. vyiees ylvovTai. tovtoicti iirtyev6p. 13 peTa^u twv 12 ya- <7Tpo? (f)\eyp. 877 tV eXffw fKefia C. "%Tpayyovpirjv koX BvcrovpLrjv &(opr)£i<. Urappos yiveTai tt)? Bia- 7 6epp. After Keyeou M has \eirTos Urb. otl Bid crevov ?) Bie£oBo<. C reads ewv After irArjpov/xeVot. XLVIII.fi Keveov' 8 virep^elrat ovv o di]p 9 6 ivecov. nrap/xol yivofTat V. V reads 10 11 I C : 204 .evu> oioripa r/ epv4.a dTTOKXelerai. i) Bivypaivopuevov tov ev tt} Ketyak. ( LII. Urb. r tovtovs rov rjpos *%pr) tyXeftoTopeiv. iv VT TV ALilA. omits it and also the preceding. iiriyevopLevov. 2 eCTTLV.atvopevov rov iy/cecpdXov. \vei ttjv oBvvjjv. (Tvpicpepei LIII. Onoaotai Ofc6o~oiai alpa dcpaipetv (ppevcov /cal t?}? 14 diro 11 2 tc!)v <f)\e/3(ov..AOOPISMOI XLVII. 'Okogoutiv dv atyaKeXiadfj 6 iytcetydXos. avrfp 5 eauv. 1 'TSpcoTTtcbvra rjv /3r)g e^rj. Ok6(toi 10 r)irap 7repia>8vveovcn. dyadov e^co drjpLa iv tw ar/jdet 3 yap Tpeirerai to voarjpa. LI. 2 TTvperb<. tyotyei Be. LIV. vSpwTieovTi %v C. 5 2 3 For 4<mv re'jUi'e"' V has yiverai.

LI II. When it is beneficial to practise venesection. XLIX. one ought to bleed in the spring. they . There is no hope for a dropsical patient should he suffer from cough. . and makes a noise. : airoKeTrai manv MSS. has ^. ?lpos tpKcBoTo/xucrOat. In cases where phlegm is confined between the midriff" and the stomach. 2 So the air inside overflows. xlvii. Sneezing arises from the head.APHORISMS. 3 I. or to the cavity in the head being filled with moisture <(or becoming chilled). LI. Strangury and dysuria are removed by drinking neat wine and bleeding you should open the internal veins. In brackets is a translation of the words found in and V. VII. 1 L. LII. When there is severe pain in the liver. it is a good sign.<pepei. the disease 1 Sphacelus is incipient mortification. for the disease is being diverted outwards.e. they recover. 2 commentators to include by some C al/xa a<paipzeff8at /j. 13 For ovk Urb. XLVIII. if fever supervenes it removes the pain.eea8at : M awb to>v tpAeSlaiv rovriovs eapi alfxa acpaipieiv airh twv <p\ifiuiv. said caries of the bone. In cases of angina. owing to the brain being heated. » oW is (els M) Ir4priv MV. When the brain is attacked by sphacelus.-liv. the die in three if outlive patients days these. chest and bowels. LIV. 205 . because it passes through a narrow place. Sei (pAeffororoureotffi £vfj. causing pain because 3 it has no outlet into either of the cavities. XLVII. if swelling or redness appear on the breast. 12 airoKAeUrai C'MV : airoKAverat Urb.

olvo? tcro? fcr&) 5 2 Trivofxevo^ \vei. 206 . x^^V. \verat &vBpaiiros Zk rov tt6vov. 6 has ravra. After \vei many MSS. olSijpaTO? p. tovtoktiv r) koiXli] vSaTos ' 3 ifiTTLTrXarai. 'Okoctomti o° dv to rjirap voaros irXrjcrOev 1 2 e? rof eiri'TrXoov' payfj. </>p''"?Ungrammatical sentences are not against all our MSS. 'Otcocroicnv dv vtto 3 6 iyfcecf)a\o<. 'AXvKy]v. For yiverai 7 frayevros : one Aiais yiverai Urb. has £eryf) before els) Littre (with one MS.. ungrammatically gave the Littre restores these. omits this aphorism. 11 aeiaOfj twos 12 10 7Tpo(j)dcrio<. cited) has to Ziri-nXoov. LIX. uncommon in the Hippocratic Corpus. laws. %do~fir)v. add tV vovaov . Tolcri aoofiaai 13 rolcnv vypds to. 'O/cocroicrLv iv rfj ovpi]0pr/ (frv/xaTa yiverai? 3 yii>TOS. /cal ' iovro? iv 4 inrb irvpeiov i)£opLev(p.aros. LVIII. rfj Hy QavdaipLOV. 1G Karairiveiv fir) hiivrjiat. : : ifxtrAriiTdev uSa-ros V : vSaros K\f)<TdtV a CM. 5 fxevov Kara t<x? cf>\e/3a<. LV. 4 dffa> M. (this MS. : tIv 4tcU\ow C'MV rov ZttIttXoov Urb. 6 has iK<pverai. nominatives aXvKrj. dvdy/crj d^covovs yevea- Oat Trapa-^pvp. yap ^rjpalvei to. 1 vSaros ifxir\7](T9ev Urb. 3 Galen says that some MSS.rj lb irvl^ e£aL(j)v>]<. eTriyivijrai. 9 5' &?M. 8 C C C C MS.ara. dX\ r) fio\i<i.9 crap/cas 1 * /U/xo? eyovoi Xi/ibv ijXTToielv 3 ad>p. C' too has 1<roos. LVI. LVII. 7 3 4 tovtomti. (pdpuyyi. hiairvqaavTOS 8 Q fcai i/cpa- \verai 6 7roi>o?. \vais ylverai rr)<i vovaov.AOOPISMOI Tovroicri.a. LX. real aTrodvyaicovcriv. <ppLKi]v. e? ttjv kvcttiv rpeTro- rov <$\eyp.

207 . When tumours form in the urethra. 1 . LVI I. LVIII. LIX. . The numbering of this and of the two next aphorisms is an attempt to reconcile the order in Galen with that of our vulgate. rots 13 omitted by C. Distress. In cases where the liver is filled with water and bursts into the epiploon. yawning and shivering are removed by drinking wine mixed with an equal part of water. should suffocation suddenly supervene. the belly fills with water and the patient dies. liv. if they suppurate and burst. which omits LIX and places LX after LIX bis.-lia.6\ts MV: Ka\ Karairlveiv fj.ao-t yiueaBai V. vypas after adpxas V. there being no swelling in the throat. LX. LVI. it is a mortal symptom. or drink only with difficulty. the pain is removed. 10 has airh for inrb.APHORISMS. LV. VII. In the case of a person suffering from fever. and Urb. xxxiv. Starving should be prescribed for persons with moist flesh for starving dries the body. ~ l vypas ex ovo T ^ s tyi-cias Urb. the patients of necessity lose at once the power of speech. has vw6 twos irpo<pda ios in the margin. 11 has V &<pwvov. 16 d\\a /j. : 14 C : vypas ras adpKas exovffiv. In cases of concussion of the brain from any cause. a grammatical error said by Galen to be C found 12 in some MSS.6yqs SvVrjrai Qavdo-ijxovG'. 1 See Jphorisms IV. 15 has eV t£> rpaxv^ " *v T ^> (pdpvyyi For if rrj (papuyyi C • n-j'lf e^altpvris iyy(vt)Tai £k tov (pdpvyyos V. and the patient be unable to drink. ffdip. is removed if the phlegm be diverted by way of the veins into the bladder.

apdpa C omits this aphorism. M.K\T)L. rj yfrvxpos. okov iv '6Ao> 2 tu> o~a>fj. *Hi> vtto irvperov e^o/xevq) 6 rpd^rjXo^ Kal Karairiveiv pr) Svvrjrai. "Okov rjv eovTOt ev ra> Tpa^]\w.' SiaXeiTTcoai..ua (T^pov i£ krepov /. Urb. 1 ev 6\(p t5> acopaTi p. which ends here. /j. ttoXik. ale) pecov.aiveL ir\elov vypov oi Lit] dirdyeiv ovv SiaXeiTrovTes. viraysiv Irrxvpw /jiv avaiOev ao-Qevei 5e KaTwQev. LXIV. vouaov LXII. rovroicriv ttovoi eyyivovTai. 6epp.uoi»'et TtAelov to ISpws ttoAvs Bepfibs' v) \pvxpbs ael frewv.ivei V: Kal okov fjv iv oAwi twi (raj/xari /xeTa/8oAar ko! to ffu>/.eTafto\ai.a erepov 4 arjpaivei. vouffov h?ikos o~rjiJ.a \f/vx erat 7j aOOts Oepixaivr)Tat xP^.AOOPIEMOI LIX 3 /xt] bis. Kal irdXiv 6eppaiin]Tai. (Trjp. 'OKoaotai 6 2 (frvpLara. 208 .ov. Kal to crcvpa i^ypjTat. - Kal to (rai/xa ^vxv Ttxl Kal ird\iv dep/aaivriTaixocijita tTepov f£ eTtpov jU6Ta/3aAAjjTa:. 1 TTVperol fiaxpoi.ia KaTa^vxyTai fXiTaSa.ev la^vpco dvcoOev. Kal irahiv QepuaivqTar ftriKos r) xpw/xa cTepov e£ erepoi/ vovaov o-qfialveL. 8 Kal 7 €9 to. Oavdcrtp. i) e'£ %po)p.?]Ko<. r& i)v tw Se daOevel fcdroodev. oISi'j/xcitos LXI." ISphs iroAvs aei fiewv 0fp/j. 01 TTVperol lo-^vporepoi ot(o S' 8td dv rpirt]^ yivwvTai. eTTi(rTpa(f)fj.iv : tw C vypov .aTi 5ia<popal 7) Kal f/v to o~£)fJ.lerafiaWei Ta> jutjkos yovffov SrjAoI Kal okov iv C : o\w aw/xan /usra^oAal -i. <rr)fiaivei ttAuov vypbv ISpws iroAvs depfibs r) \pvxpbs ae\ pewv. p. 4 LXIII. <rrj.bs \pvxp<5s 0"qp.a. 3 'I8pa><.bs % tyvxpbs f>4wv aUl. 3 p. vypbv virdyetv tw fxkv iax^pw &''w6ev.aiv€i on T/307T&) 5 4 dfCbvBvvoi. 2 krepov p-eTafidWrj.o<. ar]p. eiriKLvSvvot. This 3 is another series of variants that cannot possibly be f) due to ordinary "corruption. tw Se aaQivu K&Tcadzv.alvei irAeiov airdyttv lo~xvpw avwdiv tS> aadevfj KaTwdev. V: ffrinalvei nAelov ISpoDS iroKvs ?j 6tp/u.

alv(i 8ti olkIvSwoi. if they beviolent every other day. So evacuate. See IV. becoming hot again. downwards. 209 . xxxv.naiviv 8 ok6<toi TTupfTOL ISpccs irovAvs. 6 5' rpStrwi 6k6<toi C. if a weak one. 3 LXI 1 1. xliv. xl.)] StaAeiiroi'Tes 5ia rplrTjs C : itrx v p6 7( pot ylyvouTai' Kal ttwctiv anivbuvai taovrai eVi/di'Sueor ol Trvperol '6ra> 5' av /*}. avaidew nSi Se aadevtl KCLTOlQeV M. 5 \pvxpbs. cold sweat greater disease.M. mean " Much sweat signifies disease. is Galen 4 inclined to think this aphorism interpolated.APHORISMS. or the complexion changes from one colour to another. See Aphorisms IV. they are free from danger. e'Aatrcrcu. lix. flowing constantly hot or cold. 2 LXII. 7 r) (pvfj. a protracted disease is indicated. it is a mortal symptom." * 6 See IV. upwards. are dangerous they intermit in any way. LIX. yurj volaov ar. it indicates that . but if come more Fevers that do not intermit. xliii. The words added in our best MSS. 3 : 4 1 vyp6v andyeiv ovv rb /xtp iaxvphv. 5 * See Aphorisms IV. Much sweat. 1 LXI.os tKarrov 6 ttoAAtji/- ipvxpbs iroAArjV. crr]fj. tumours and pains at the joints come on.ara f) MV. 6 depfxbs.&ko7od 8' ai> Tp6ircc StaAiiraio'iv a-q/iaivei tin anivSvvoi TrvpeTol 6k6(Toi fj. After LXII iroAvv 6 C adds ISpbs ttoAvs v6<rov o-rj/j-aivei 5 ipvxpbs rrri/j. Sta r/)^T7)s laxvpdrepoi yivovrai iwucivSwoi' Stou SiaAtiiraxri.-lxiv. bis. av. if the body is chilled. Tp6ira> SiaAi- V: 6k6o~oi StaKelTrovres. in the case of a strong person.alyer o 6e 8ep/j. 8 yiyvovrai V. and the patient cannot drink. LXIV. Where there are changes in the whole body. there being no swelling in the neck. In the case of a person suffering from the neck be distorted. VII. hot sweat less. in the case of fever. In protracted fevers. indicates excess of moisture. SjaAenroj/ r«s5io Tplrys lerxvpwTepoi : ISpws Of pubs ikaaaoo : V fiev M ttoAvs vovaov yivovrai xal iirii(ii/5vvoi.

r)v vyiel. av vyiei oioyri. LXVI. "H^ vyiel. 6 /3\a'-^6i?.dWov 10 LXIX. %v vyiu. ttovoi 'O/coaoiai 2. rep p. oKlyrj y vovaos ylyvtrat. 5 Rein. Oiovel ti]v ^vap-ara. Kal crrrjvai teal 9 olcri Ta viro^wp^puara. okoctw dv irXeuo BiBat^. ouroi 3 7r\€L0(Ti xpeovrai. C. ravTa voaepcorepa. Karat &>/ia viro^copfj. (f>v/jLara etc teal x e? ra dpdpa cnrioiai iyyivovrai Tt? Trvperwv.tool /xlv vyiaivovTi lax^S' tou 5e kol/xvovti vovaos.A0>OPILMOI LXV. 4 Bid tT/9 KvaTio<i Bia^wpeovra oprjv 6 i vyialvovaiv vtt oyu> peliai'^ rd 7 ovv opioia rouroiai.vovrc 3 vovcro?. 2IO . %v : f\v vyiil.a. tcaOapiju rd po(f}7]p. Ta Set.ev 3 TrvpecraovTi rpocptjV BiBu>. Kotk'iT)V r/v Tovroiat Be p. crvpL(pepei rju edarj<i 8 purj Kivy]ar)^.Ta noAAa.oia rolaiv vyiacvovcriv.i) viroKaOrjpai TroiJ/cra? 8iBa)<. ijtciara vocrepd. iroWfr M has V has %v dxiya. rjKicxTa tcl B 6p.%v Kal §v bxiya rji K. For Kal ylyvovrai ris kcL/j-vovti MV have fiaKpa V (ylvovrai M after irvpeiSiv). o'lrjv V: Little with one MS. 6 7 C adds ovv after ra.ara.r. 5« After £vff(j. tm Be tcdp. p. 1 2 3 fjv 'OtcoGoiaiv dv fj. C. 4 89.e. vocn)\6Tepa vtpiffTai'Tui u7ioxcope'e( 8 a MV. : C rpocp-liv 5iou>%)V fj r<a fxtv vyialvovri \a\vs M lo-xvs- tco Se KcLfivovTi vovaos. tS> piiv vyiaivovri Tis tS> irvptaaovTt rporprjv hiScinj. LXVII. rjv uyiaivouTi la^vs. vcpiararai. V. el 61a Tot? 1 LXVIII. vovffos- t» irvpeaaovn TO> tis irupcaaovrt rpo(pr)V diScoi.

the aphorism does not tally with fact. they are par3 ticularly morbid. Galen says that there were 10 virox<c[>tr) C' (not anrox<*p*ri. whether they are like those of persons in health if they are not at all like. When the alvine discharges are crude. as Littre" says). 4 Galen criticises this aphorism. LXVIII. in such cases it is beneficial But if you give slightly to purge the bowels. 3 Galen finds fault with the comparative. is inappropriate to urinary evacuations while if it applies to stools. they are not at all so. If you give to a fever patient the same food as you would to a healthy person. were known at least as early as the age of Bacchius. which the meaning is expressed. the more you give the more harm you will do. however. xlv. 2 LXVI I. and thinks that a superlative is wanted to contrast with Bhutto. the patients are taking too much food. is obvious enough. .-lxix. When the evacuations are allowed to stand and are not shaken. but gives only one. they are caused by black bile and the more copious the . the aphorisms in this part of the work. 211 . the barley gruel without purging. he says. The word lia-uara. . 1 2 two forms of this aphorism. See IV. 4 LXIX. and is well illustrated in Regimen in Acute Diseases. lxv. As Littre points out. and a sediment of as it were scrapings is formed. 1 LXVI. This. but if they are like those of healthy people. however just Galen's criticisms may be. Some old commentators would join this aphorism to the following by means of a nai..APHORISMS. so that we can only He blames the way in guess what the other form was. We must examine the evacuations of the bladder. In cases where tumours and pains at the joints appear after fevers. VII. it is strength to the healthy but disease to the sick. LXV. which omits %v vyiu.

A<DOPISMOI airb 3 r)v ^oX. x°^65ets Kal omitted by M. yetXo? fiXeirr). 4 2 LXXI. KoCKlriv Kal kvcttiv ayaOav. KadaiptaOat M.i) SiaXelTrovffi irvpsTolo-i C V. Kal okov dv Tt Kara i airo')(a>peov KeKadapfievw. BiaaTpacfyf}. 1 eKaaaova.fvahas ov vXi)<tixovt) ov Xt/ibs oi>5' After these words KaKov.eva. TreXiBval teal aipLaTcoBee . 1 davdaipov.ov kclk6v. while 8 irvperbs Galen. ra pev s ef&> ^v^pd Be eo~u) KatrjTat. 178*7 rjv aKOvrj. to. At LXX.r) BiaXei-novTi rj TrvpeTw. 3 icai icaicai' cnroywokovaai 6 crrf) 5 pr) /ozXco?. r)v r) /3i? p. a7ro%p6yLti^ie9 al ev rolai irvpeTolcn p>r) Tolcri 8ta\et7rovcri. i)v irkeiova. vypr)yai ttjp KoiXir/v. vovaos.iTpi. C'V: fiaXXov tov fxerpiov yii/6fJ. p}) rod irXeiw irXeioov 2 3 4 fy irXelova irXe'iw f) eXaaffova tXaaaoo r) vov<tos and eXaacrui zXicrawv V irXelova irAeiw and : C : eAd<r<ro> ixderffovos (without 7) vovcros) M. ekdaaovos. SiaXeiTrovai irvperolaiv. Ta aco/xara XP'h okov Tt? fSovXeTai Kadaipeiv? evpoa Troieiv Ki)v pev avco ftovkrj evpoa Troieiv.aXXov Ttji <pv<rios ?) 6.. LXXIII. araaai Rein. LXXII. rjv 'Ei/ rolcri fir) r). arycrai T-qv koiXltjv r)v Be kcltio evpoa Troieiv.t}<> p. iSi virb x°>P*ovti o-rfj C omitted by C. /caKov. "Tttvo<.XX6 t'C ayadbv ovSey. omits evpoa noieiv (twice). LXXIV. Littre and Reinhold. dpcpoTepd pdWov 1 tov perpiov <yivop. 212 . Kal 9 3 Bi^rav e'%77. aypvTTvii]. Rein.ekaiv))^ eariv. rjv daOeveos «6vro<. has ovb" oti av /j. 'Ev p. TrXeLovos.r) 6(p0a\[x6<. iraaat. ixaXXov rov fJ. &\Xo ovSev ayadbv. 1 Kal ^oXcoSee? Kal Be 2 BvacoBees. has ovSe Xt/xbs and omits ri. SityavG'V: 5tya 6 7 C M V M : 9 iv Tolfft fj.

r) : "coolant. Galen appears to have known only the reading wvptrbs «x??> which is." 6 6 See p. In a non-intermittent fever. 4 "Bring into a state favourable to evacuations. mean : " neither anything else is good if it be beyond nature.xiv. discharges the more copious the bile. as is the case with discharges by the bowels and bladder. the body being The other reading. xlviii. 7 See IV. LXX. more strongly attested by our MSS.. constitute disease. The words added MSS. 111. 3 bodies you must to if make them downwards. II. it is a fatal sign. expectorations that are livid." Adams. purged. Lxix. 1 fy ir\el(o. best in our repletion. iii. LXXI. if the outside of the body be cold while the inside is burning. the less copious the other. Both sleep and sleeplessness." Compare with this aphorism. as he remarks. 213 . and the less 1 copious the one. In non-intermittent fevers. bilious and fetid are all 2 bad but if the discharge passes favourably. but " relaxed" is the nearest Littre renders by single equivalent I can think of. and 7 thirst is present. xlvii. upwards. LXXIV. £\6(T<r6)v more copious the discharges the worse the disease. 5 fluent 5 LXXII. nor Compare II. it is bad. absurd. moisten the bowels. When you wish to purge make them fluent 4 if you wish . when be6 yond due measure. close the bowels. LXXIII. ix. blood-stained." 2 Or (with Rein. means %v ikdcrcroi).) "are bad if suppressed. nor starvation. "the foutros. irXeiwv. they are good. should lip. The adjective eCpoo is active. In non-intermittent fevers.APHORISMS. VII. nostril or eye be distorted. And wherever a part of the excreta remains behind without the body being .-Lx. should the patient lose the sense of sight or hearing." 3 Compare IV.

ttoXXi]. dyaOov otcoaoiai 8e dvev irpoaipecrux. fcal ijp ttov aXXrj tt}? cpvaio<. 4 </>dop^' em rfj <j>dopfj K. eVt- LXXVIII.aTi htdppoia- BiappoLj) cr^ecrt? t?}? cua) tcaOdpato<i' eirl rfj 6 5 a^eaei OdvaTos. 10 LXXXII. rjv oXiyov. irdvv 8 6avdaip. yiverat. .T. 'E7U Siappolj] SvaevTepLr). 2 XevKW (pXey/jLari vSpcoyjr eTU- ylverat. tcai iv Kara Ta? crap/cas.aai. Kara ri]v koiXli]v vTro%a> pt] p.AOOPISMOI awfiaTcx. /cecpaXi)?' 'E7rt. olcriv av oiKeirj T7?? 4 (pvaios koX rr)<. Okogoi 9 LXXXIII.<? pevp. LXXIX 3 'E7T/. r LXXXI. ifxerco M. reads won em rfj Kad. /cat ev Tolai Kara ttjv kvcttiv. <p8ur) aoBeveos eSi'ros V : a<r6evi)s cuv M. £K. Teacrapdicovra erea (pptviTiicol yivoviai. oaTeov. KaBapois ava)' airoffTdcnps barftnv V. 2 e'/z6T&> 5 et LXXX. 'E7ri hvaeinepir) Xeievrepii) 2 ylverai. 1 2 3 So C. O«oia teal tolcti TOiat.e. oXiyq i)v r) vovaos 5 iroXv. 5 1 6 ti 'Ej7tI av 7} toutcov twv aijfxeicov. rjXiKirj<i r) vovaos 77. and adds the article before 214 . LXXV.(3aivr) 7 ro aco/xa.va/cov. virep to. ol 6<p9aXpbol 3 O/coaoicriv iv rfjaiv dppwaTirjtjiv Bafcpvovaiv Kara Trpoaipeoiv.. Oavdai/nov. LXXVII. (XcfxtfceXa) anrocTTCKJi*. ttvov 6 <p06r).aTi and Siappoij). ov irdvv ti vytd^ovrar fjcraov yap tcivhwevovaiv. LXXVI. at/xaTo? eirl (jiOoprj zeal i/c ttvov^ /cdOapcris avco' eirl cpOopi] pevpLCt eirl t?.ov to toioutov. Rein.. omitted by M. For <p8opy M has (>tv/j. r)v ttoXv.

ri aivoQvi](T- xv. 1 from its . On vomiting of blood consumption and purging of pus upwards. with 10 rjacrov yap . and xvi. appears. LXXVII. the flesh.APHORISMS. such a thing is deadly. On the stoppage death. voiktos ?i omitted by V. 9 buSaoKTiv C. On dysentery supervenes LXXVIII. vovaos yiverai. considerable slight siderably. of the bone.L Galen's com- mentary ceases here. by this VII. . LXXXI. 1 a good sign. On sphacelus exfoliation belly and the . On diarrhoea dysentery. LXXIX and LXXX. On "white phlegm" supervenes dropsy. if the body departs in any way natural state. LXXXIII." 6 TTTi/ffa Koty(TL 7 8 the end some MSS. and goes on. If phrenitis attack those beyond forty for the risk is less years of age they rarely recover when the disease is related to the constitution and LXXVI. add 5iaffx^<Tei M.-lxxxiii. . LXXV. to the age. In the discharges by the bladder. which has ovrot ov ttavv ouj^ovTai' 2*5 . ivrtvdzv ol t)v 8e iro\v After toiovtov V adds : votioi. On a diarrhoea stoppage of the purging upwards. when involuntarily This probably means "through the skin. whichever of these symptoms it is a deadly sign. lxxiv. time weak.t. LXXXII.iirijv 5e cia\ov t(TXV Tal > At M a'tniros M omits — Galen's inaccurate quotation of VII. . irvou inverts Kod f>u<ris. lientery. k. On a flux diarrhoea. When it is in illnesses tears flow voluntarily from the eyes. a bad sign. (ppeviTiKa yiyverat following. if slightly. the disease proves if very conif considerably. On consumption a flux from the head.

epr)at. .a/ca ov/e IrJTCti. 'EittI ^poviw voatjp. yivop. . LXXXVI. ravra %pr) vofxi^eiv uviaraP <i>Qicies p. O/coaoto-iv iv eie roltri irvperolai eouaiv alp. 6 OKtyews C.eva Query.dXtcTa yivovrat enro Tpi/j/covTa zeal 7revT€. KCtfCOV.AOOPISMOI LXXXIV.era 7 /eal eV^A-i'-v/ao? 6 inrepfioXrjs. Kara ^e? ? (pOiciv irdvra p-ev a lc%vpd. and LXXXVII. Kpia-'ifJioicnv 'ISpcores i)p. tovs toiovtovs iSpairas 7 8 C omits Aphorisms LXXXVI. wairep cnaXaypbol ttoWol' xpovvoi? real yfrv^poi acpoSpa teal avdy/CT) yap /3i7)<. C omits <p8ioies . oierai 8 ical Bexa ireatv p-eXP (frvcriv 1 rd Be Kara yivop. C.evoi. a toov ptvwv x pvf). LXXXV. iiruewSvvQt 2 p. 7reVre. lr\TCti' O/eoaa (f>dpp. 2l6 .evoi leal etc rod p.eTco7rov. oca o-'ihripos oiiie irvp IrjTat. a<po8poi re teal Ta^ew? (i)doup. pvrj.' oca Be 3 irvp ovk Ifjrai. crlSr/pos IrjraL. 2 <pop>']. iroXv^poviov. rov teal tocovtov ttovov 4 ISpcora TropeveoOaf* p. C M V. T6TapT<xioiGLV 3 Tvovqpov.aTi tcoiXlris teara- LXXXVII..r) oi ev Trjai. 3 * 5 ^?j omitted by M. Kal Kpovvoi Kcd irovripeveffdai omitted by C.

The first sentence. C and V. I.-lxxxvii. 401 and following. LXXXV.APHORISMS. LXXXVII. is Aphorisms V. that compilations like Nature of Man and Humours may have grown by a repetition of a like process. Those In the MSS. lxxxiv. Those that the knife does not cure are cured by fire. When quartan a x VII. For such a sweat must be attended with violence. as it were in drops or streams. excess of pain and prolonged pressure. which Littre discusses in Vol. LXXXVI. pp. before the beginning of Prognostic." etc. LXXXIV. diseases that medicines do not cure are cured by the knife. The symptoms that nor3 mally occur in consumption are all violent. The interesting point about the addition of such fragmentary passages to the end of a book is. ix. occur the following fragments. Those that fire does not cure must be considered incurable. bad symptom. In a chronic disease excessive flux from the bowels is bad. while " When in 1 So Adams. not found in C. in is patients suffering from it is fevers there bleeding at the nose. 3 Kara cpua-iv may be a mistaken repetition of 217 . Consumption usually occurs between the ages of eighteen and thirty-five. Littre takes the Greek to mean : fevers the patient bleeds at the nose on the fourth day. days. and are very cold and copious. 2 With the reading of M: "that occur on the critical /caret <pd(<riv. He considers that most of the passage belongs to the work Sevens." etc. when they are violent and quickly forced out of the forehead. Sweats are dangerous that do not occur 2 on the critical days.

rjv iv rfi voafj. ooprj crv/j. d<pa Kal %et'A->. vhpanriKU) virepviKa yap to yXcoaaa (jyvaucov.evoL ttoBcop -^ruy/pol Kal /xeXaves Kal 1 cnroOvrjaKeiv ravra aacbearepa yiverai. has (pofiepwTepov ttrav. : Here Kal tyvxp^ 218 .p. So So C: V 6 Si air\t]vi. fyofiepdoTepov yap ianv on 10 av 2 p.So/iez'09. dveXiricrTO . <rK\r]pol. avifj r) Sevrepov 1 8e. 6/309 1 ls Sevreouv iv r) ttj &py\ C V : Sdrepov 5e %v fiiv ev ttj Icprj vov<rer) aiir^j 2 S>p7) V. 20 <TTpe(p6fMevo<i. rreXia viroXeXv/xeva 8 Kal e^ecrTpafi9 Kal o-Korohiviwv Kal 10 dirofxeva Oavarcohea.aX^ rfj ^ei/xcov' vovaw. 16 fieXXoval re 17 crKkripol haKTvXoi Kal iyKVTTTovT€<.. dvaa7rco/u.AOOPIZMOI t<x (opt) 6"e Kal OavaTciihea.eXaiv6p. omits. oW^e? p. toutwv enry tcop arj/meuov Kal to TrdOos 3 aaOevearepov ravra 8i)Xol.?) 13 clkovcov /j. ev0€(o<i Kal at KoiXiac eTraipovTat. rj olov Kavaw 6epo<i. p:ev ev tois irvpeTols T049 o^eai arjfieiovaOai XP h } 01TQT6 awO^aerni.yXiicara pn\aivop.y]8e avviels 0avaTw8e<. 14: Kal ifiecov 15 81a pivwv orav ttlvt) ^ai'arwSe?.. Kal virvrp Kal Kca/xaTL 12 ttoXXw Kare^o /xevos.evrj teal TreXirj Kal aifMaTco8r><.. Kal viroXvacrewv drpe'fia Kal dyvoewv Kal /u.£i>o<i.iVi) Kal aifxaTaiSTiS' 3 4 5 V C as a : title. i/rir^o uej'09 re Kal Kal 5 6771/9 top ddvarov Kal to tcov 8aKrvXmv 7re/V(oV<z 7 8r)Xouaiv. neKiSva omitted by V. 6 davaru>8e<.. rfj re rjpe/xba 11 ?. 6 ixeWei op^is cnrodrrjatceiv 6 4 / Kal oirore 8e£to<. rrepl Oavarwv cnjpielcov. omits 6 7 8 9 has crriuaivovai (a gloss).eXaivop. C ire XtSva ?) koI for ire\ia. So Here C V has V V adds and (lower down) £ia<vinoi>Tes. which reads vno\eAvp:cva airo\e\vfieva V. Kal cfrvawpTat.

and cannot hear or understand. and the wet - of winter is bad for the water of dropsy. is past hope.ee is not recognised by the dictionaries. must foretell the death or recovery of the patient. 3 does not recognise his friends. The patient who is dizzy and turns away.e. winter of dropsy. if Secondly. pendulous and turned out. in 12 14 16 Here V V Ka. be ill VII. C V. and lips dark. » 'oiroXvuffa. .APHORISMS. The tips of the fingers livid. Littre Can the MSS. the tongue becoming black. The right testicle cold and drawn up is a mortal Blackening nails and toes cold. Immediately the bowels swell and are puffed up. omits koX . about to die these clearer symptoms occur. the patient in the <(kindred) season. are mortal symptoms. hard sign. it is a mortal symptom. . Vomiting through the nostrils when he When patients are drinks is a mortal symptom. The boundary of death is passed when the heat of the soul has risen above the navel to the part above 1 I. These are the symptoms that in acute fevers death. for example. some are actually mortal.ari) be correct? apparently adopts it. pleased with quiet and 2 oppressed by deep sleep and coma. and bent forward show that death is near. . wins a decisive victory. summer of ardent 1 For the natural element fever. If he is slightly raving. dark and bloodWhatever of these symptoms is not present. reading (Kav/j. black. has 6avardi'5i)s. For a more fearful symptom is stained.vfia. Summer heat makes the heat of fever worse. The signs of it shows that the lesion is less violent. the very season is an ally of the disease.Ti C has avdpunrots. Oavarwo'es.

AOOPISMOI Be 1 Oavdrov iireiBdv 2 to t?}? tyv^s Oepfxbv iiravekdri inrep tov ofifpaXov €9 to avco rcov 3 eireiBav (frpevcov. diroPAeirwo'i V. 6 7 i>6ovv 6 V omits Tjj. e? to 6\ov ttclKlv. zeal trvyKavBr) to vypbv airav. iirav V. /cal. tov &vu> tuiv (pptvuiv t6ttov V. oBev to %f}v /cakeo/iev. 220 . '''a- omits ^ 8 • C has efSoiAop Here V adds aT^ia »cal x°^V Kt3 Q^eypa aapicas. diTOTTvel Oavardoheai a6 poov to oOevirep avveo~Tr) to 7rvevp.tov V. diro7 8 ^rv^r} to tov aoofiaTOs o~ktjvo<. 5 to fxev fcecfyaXr) Bia tcov aap/ctov to Be 8ia twv iv Trj 6 uvairvoewv. V C 5e. 30 6 irvev/jicov icai rj icapBia rrjv iK/ndSa airo^uXwroi<> aiv* tov 9epp. 6\ov.ov aOpoovvTOs ev T07rof?. 1 3 4 2 tov Qo. iccii to dvrjTov elBcoXov a/xa teal r) \6i7rovaa Be %o\?) 39 to yjrv^pbv Kat a '/taTt 9 Kai (frXey/naTi /ecu aapKi wapeBooKev.a tov Oepfiov.v6.

leaving the tabernacle the cold. phlegm and flesh. however. the next note. i "The {b) iXhcaXov suggest Orphic thought. rb The words (T/cfjeos and tyvxpbv Kal rb 6v7]Tbv €?5coAoi/). 1 there passes away all at once the breath 2 of the heat (wherefrom the whole was constructed) and whole into the again. the second to the universe. See. of the whole improves both the construction and the meaning sentence.APHORISMS. 2 Is "the whole" the individual organism or the universe? The first instance of rb '6\ov seems to refer to the individual. the moisture of the heat that collects in the places of death. mortal image to bile. 4 parts or the vital places of death" might mean either (a) the places fatally attacked by disease. Perhaps the warm life of the individual is supposed to be re-absorbed into the cosmic warmth. partly through the flesh in the head. 3 Is (riv here supposed to be related to (<=i*> (boil) ? Perhaps. VII. 221 . 4 Notice the poetic language [rb rov o-co/icrros o-icijvos. the organs breathing through partly 3 And the whence we call it the "breath of life. and all the moisture has been burnt When the lungs and the heart have cast out up. blood. both odev to (yv naXeouev and (above) '69evirep At any rate their omission ffwiffTt] rb o\oi> are glosses. gives up soul. the diaphragm." of the body. however.

.

REGIMEN .

rovroiai ^pPjaOai. Et fiev poi Tt? eSoxei rcov irpOTepov avyypatydiTwv irepl SmiT?79 dvd pwirlv^ tt)<. elpyjp.eva ov irapea /cevaa par eyvwapevois SiaTrpoo~op.ev ovv ra /nrj 6p9ai<. fxev i]Srf avvkypa^rav. ovSels Si ai>TOi<i eyvoo 10 avyypaineov dWoi Se aWo eTrerv^ov' to Se o\ov ovSeis tto) twv irpbpeptyOijvai pev ovv ovSevl avrwv d^iov repov. 224 . kclOotl vvv Se irco iroWol 6p0oi)<. vevorjpai' ocra p. i/ccn'coi efyev dv p. e\ey*)(eiv p. 717)09 vyeirjv opdws e<yv(OKU)<i avyyeypafyevai nrdvra Sid ttclvtos. kclOotl tjv iariv el jii) ehwrjOrjaav e^evpeiv. SrfKwaa) b fiovXopai. e\ey%(ov pev ravra. ocra Svvarbv avOpwirlvr) yvdoprj TrepiXrjcpOfjvai. IxavoTs M.o\o<yelv Se Tot9 /ca\a)<.'ev yap opOobs virb tcov -nporepov eiprjrai. aWwv e/cTrovTja avrmv yvovra '.oi. opOcbs e^ovra. Siori ov% ovtw. erraiviaai Se Travrwi on eir eyeipr\a av yovv 1 ^rjrrjcrai. to. Se KaOoTi So/cel pot 6p9w<$ Sid tovto eyeiv e/caaTov. e/caaTov avTtoi' iSo/cei ^p-qaipbov elvai.nEPI AIAITH2 TO nPflTON I.€vo<. 1 aW iTTZX KaXis 6 : ' el P r (Tav "f °" v Q' ) &^' iTrtx fl P'h (Tav r0 ' M with dAA' and 2 -to erased : a\A' firex^PV^otv ye Diels. ov-% olov re 2 dW(o<i 7ra)9 epue pbt] avyypdyjravra > opdws crvyypd-^rat' ocra Se opdojs elprjtca&iv. €X 6l ov ^^ v 20 irepavoy e^7jyevp.

1 thought that any one of my predecessors on human regimen in its relation to health had throughout written with correct knowledge everything that the human mind can comprehend about the subject. I have resolved to accept what they have well thought The correct statements of my predecessors it out. while many have If I to write already written on rightly understood this how he ought subject. . however. I explain how far each of their statements appears to me correct I shall set forth my wish. These preliminary remarks are made I shall 225 . If.REGIMEN BOOK I. but nobody among my predecessors has Now none successfully treated the whole subject. Some indeed have succeeded in one respect and others in another. and to make use of these results in so far as they severally appeared to be of use. As a matter of fact. Now I am not prepared to criticise their incorrect statements nay. . nobody yet has to treat it. accomplish nothing by exposing their incorrectness. ments. it would have been enough for me to learn what had been correctly worked out by the labours of others. of them is blameworthy for being unable to make but all are praiseworthy for complete discoveries attempting the research. is impossible for me to write correctly by writing them in some other way as to the incorrect state.

Biayvwvai Be vtto tlvgov pepwv /ceKpdrrjrai' eiVe yap ei're ti-jv et- dp^i)? avaraaiv eicelvwv p. dBv- varo-i earao ra vtt yivbpeva yvoovar pit] yvooaerat to erriKpareov ev rw acopcan.i]8e eVe^e/^r/cre p. 226 . 5 Bel yap eitlaraaOai rwv re iayvpoiv (fivaei d><. rolai p.iv dcfiaipelaOai. perd Be ravra aircov Kal rrorwv drrdvrcov.ev iravrbs cpvaiv di'OpcoTrov lyvMvai /cal Bcayvwvar yvtovai pev curb r'wcov avvearrjKev e£ dpj(r}<. on ol dvOpdoTTOiv oKorav rtvbs rrporepov rovrov anovartocn irepi va)aKOVT€<. irptorov p. (f>eiv < i>i)pl 8e 8elv rbv peXkovra bpdcbs avyypd2 rrepl 8iatrrj<. dv6pa>irlvr)<.ev opdcos elptipevoiat 30 32 TTpoaop.rj yvcoaerai. i) OepaTreirj rov dvdpcoTTOv.v8pwidr}s M: xpb Littre and vulgate.. ov ycavrrjs earl 8iavoit]<i yvosvai ra varepov BtaXeyopLevcov on t% elprjpeva. olai BiairwpeOa. II. eyco ovv.oXoyt']aa>' rd 8e pi) 6p6cb<i elpijpeva 8i]\ooaa) rrola eanv oKoaa 8e p. 0. e^evpelv re ra p. Bvvapcv r\vnva e/caara e%et KCLi r h v Kara cfrvaiv Kal ri)V 8i dvdytcijv Kal ' 4. ravra pev ovv Bel 3 yivcocriceiv rbv avyypdcftovra. Bibri ov Bvvarai 1 3 ol Se? 6 2 omitted by M. 6p66t)<s twos e^r/yeupevov. eyd> emBei^co Kal ravra old ean.. okov dv 6 Kaipbs eKaarco 6 rrapayvovai Be ra elpypeva ovttw avrdpKrjs yevrjrai. xpb T V V 8vvap. oi>x ifcavbs carat 10 ra avp^epovra rrpoaeveyKelv tw dvOpcoTrq).T]8el<i roiv irporepov 8if\5)aai. toa-rrep eiirov.i]irw elprjpeva. a. rolai re daOeveaiv o/cw? \pr) layyv irpoanOeiai Bid ri)£vrp..IIEPI 8e AIAITHS 1 rbv \6<yov roiv ttoWoI rcov irpOKarariOepat. ovk airohe^ovTat rrepl rovrcov. T ^X P71 V di'dpcoiTiv^v.

most men. 227 . both the power each of them possessed by nature and the power given them by the constraint of human art. none of my predecessors has even which things attempted to set II. author must know. ex ov. of a man not yet complete. refuse to listen to those who discuss it after him. I shall statements and set forth the truth correct accept about those things which have been incorrectly I shall explain also the nature of those stated.REGIMEN. and when they are weak to add by art strength to them. and further the power possessed severally by all the foods and drinks of our regimen. seizing each opportunity as the care 4 6 it occurs.-11. Accordingly. 1. I forth. be ignorant of the primary constitution. maintain that he who aspires to treat correctly first of human regimen must its discernment of the nature of ledge of acquire knowledge and knowin general primary constituents and discernment of man — For if he the components by which it is controlled.Tl e tKaarwi 8: exd ffruv - M. for : I. are strong by nature. For it is necessary to know both how one ought to lessen the power of these when they . when they the following reasons have already heard one person expounding a subject. Even when is all this is known. as I have said. he will be unable to gain knowledge of their effects if he be ignorant of the controlling thing in the body he will not be capable of administering to a patient These things therefore the suitable treatment. not to realising that it requires the same intelligence learn what statements are correct as to make original discoveries. because : H)vtiv* cKaaTa «x e ' M 'ivTiva * avOp<i>irr)ir)v M.

6vov raura. tcevcodevra. darpcov 7T/309 re eirtroXds teal Svcrtas yivcbateeiv Set.ev yap rjv evperbv eVt rovroiai 777309 etcdarov* cpvcriv airov p.eva)V. 228 . avp. 3 e£ covirep rolaiv dvOpdiiroicri ravra 8e rrdvra Siayvovri ro evpepd iariv el p. ical rives avrcbv av^i]- aiv irapaatcevd^ovaiv e'9 adpteas ical rives eXXeiteal ov p. re rrjv teardcrraenv rov eviavrov. otccos erciarrjrai ras pera/3oXd<. rcbv rrovcov <f>v(rcv 8 lay w (o a zee iv 8id rrjv 8vvapiv rcbv Kara teal rcbv fiirjs yivop. virevavrias p. evprjro dv vyeirj rolaiv dvdpcbiroiaiv vvv 8e rd pev rrpoeipijpeva rrdvra dtcpLficos. Set 8e. a>9 ical eoitce. dXXd teal ra? crvp30 perpias rcov rrovwv rrpos ro irXrjdos rcbv crircov ^riv.ev yap dXXi'jXoicriv e\ei rd<i Svvci- pias aira 7T/309 vyeirjv ttovol ra to. teal rrjv (pvcriv rcov acopdrcov. elaiv. rjv /J. yivcoaKoi dv rov dvdpcoTTOV etcSvvovrd re teal ev rolai yvpvaaioiai oinrQ) avraptces 1 <rira 6: crtria M. evprjrai. rovro 8e dSvvarov eupelv.IIEPI 20 AIAITHS eaOitov 6 di'Opwiros vyiaiveiv.(pepovrai 8e irpos aXXr/Xa pev <yap rrecpvKaaiv dvaXwaai 1 vrrdpyovra' alra 8e /cal trord eKTrXrjpcoaai teal rrbvoi. 777309 re rdf 6eaei<i rwv ycopicnv" ev olai 8iaireovrai. teal virepfioXas cpvXdacreiv teal airwv teal rrorcbv teal nrvevpdrcov teal 40 ai rov oXov vovaoi tcocrpov.)) teal 7rovfj.erpov teal rrovcov dpiOpbs avpperpos prj e%a>y eVl to rrXeov pi'jre eirl ro v'trepjSoXrjv pt'jre eXaacrov. teal 7rpo9 teal rov dvOpanrov teal ras ifXitcias ras wpa$ rov eviavrov 7T/309 Ta9 perafSoXas rwv rrvevparoov. oKold ecrri. * x^P^" Zwinger Diels. el pev ovv rrapeirj ris teal opeprj.

" etc. use up material. but of food and drink to make good exist among men. from which diseases . . Now if one were present and saw. he must eating alone will not keep a man well take exercise. this last discovery cannot be made. while .. possessing opposite qualities. IV. to the season of the year. ii. deficiencies. as it appears. 4 (koottov 0: tKaffr-nv M. wind and the whole universe. "saw the how it is 3 ipvovrai vulgate. For food and exercise.) k . addition to these things it were possible to discover for the constitution of each individual a due proportion of food to exercise.REGIMEN. and to the A man must observe the constitution of the year. the discovery is not complete. both natural exercises and artificial. to know which of them tends to increase flesh and which to lessen it and not only this. to the constitution of the patient. although the things previously mentioned have been discovered. but also to proportion exercise to bulk of food. he would have 1 of the patient as he stripped and knowledge 1 With the reading of Ernierins and Diels: he would know patient as he stripped necessary to keep him. to the changes of the winds. to the age of the individual. yet work together to For it is the nature of exercise to produce health. to discern the power of the various exercises. And it is necessary. an exact discovery of health for men would have been made. to the situation of the region in which the patient resides. But even when all this is dis- If indeed in cerned. Littre. 229 VOL. (HIP. that he may know how to watch for change and excess in food.. all But as it is. with no inaccuracy either of excess or of defect. risings and settings of stars. also I. drink.

koX irpo 60 tov ecp KOLfiveiv top dvdpcoirov diro rifs u7repf3o\i)<i. vytes vtto tov voaepov. %vvlaTaTat /cat ovv t« £a>a jd ts drrb hvolv. tcov rolai 8e TrpoaTiOek' fir) rcapeovTi /cat 8e nrovovs' ahvvarov virodeaOai e? a/cpiffehjv atra eVet okogov ye Bvvarov evpelv ifiol dXXa yap el /cat irdw jjuicpov ev8eeeiprjrai. 1 tt)v fiev ovv 8vvap. from the de qua provenit of P. 6 has &<m 5ia<pv\&a<retv. 3 4 elpriTtxi d(p' 8 ei/'pTjraj has been suggested. 7rpo8idyva)o~i<>. 1 AIAITHS (pvXaaaeiv vyiatvovia. al vovcroi ToXaiv dvdponiroiai ylvovrai. 69 re\evrd fiev 6 to eVt^et/o^/ta twv BtavorjfidTWV. III. 2 After ivdeto-Tepa Diels (perhaps rightly) adds ret erepa. fiucpbv ovXXeyofievai irplv ovv tcparelcrdai ev ddpows efc(pai- tw dv0pcorr(p to fioi. dXXa irdvra /cat o dvdpwrros 8ia(f)6poiv fiev tt)v Bvvafiiv. Tolcrl TavTa eaTi T€ ov8evi. ev 7roXXw y^povio to aco/ia vtto t?}? virepfSoXr)^ real rolai fiev ovv aXXoiai e? vovaov a(f)iKecr8ai. dKorepuu Diels. avdy/cr) KpaTrjOrjvat. 3 L tovtov fi^XP enTiKeye'ip7)Tai £v T V@V var eiprjrai Be ov8e ravTa' e/iol 8e ravra e^evpifrai.<p6poiv 8e rriv ^pr/cnv. reading is Set (pvkaacrtiv. oKorepov* dv yevr/Tai. 2 cnepa twv erepcov yivoiro. : M 230 . ov yap evdeux. avp. yey pa fifievoia i.IIEPI 50 yvfiva^ofievov. e/cdrepov 8e ^wpi? oi^Te avTO ecovra) ovre aXXo) vBaros. a irdayovaiv e^evpyjTat teal o/ca)9 %pr) TavTa KaOiaTavai e? Trjv tovtov 8e irpoayevofievov tt/jo? toIgl vyeirjv.iv avrSiv e/caTepov Diels (after Ermerins) puts yivaxrKoi hv after yvuvatf/xevov. cocrre fiev acf)aipi(ov. irvpbs 8e avvafi^brepa avrdpKed dXXoiat TTdai /cat dXXijXoiaiv. 5 dXXa Kara vovrai.

as well as the forecasting of an illness before the patient falls sick. including man. ii. When to the things already written this also has been added. For diseases do not arise among men all at once being present it is amount of food and . but they have not gone on to set them forth. the task I have set before myself will be accomplished. 1 But I have discovered these things.— in. together these are sufficient for one another and III.REGIMEN. Now the other investigators have attempted to carry their researches to this point. different in power but working Both together in their use. based upon the direction in which is the excess." The conjecture tvpriTai would suggest that the writer had been successful in making a discovery which other authorities had unsuccessfully tried to reach. if there occur even a small deficiency of one or the other. are composed things. since how far it is possible to make discoveries I have already set forth. itself suffices Now neither the power that Or. In fact. "but neither have these things been set forth (discovered). all animals. in course of time the body must be overpowered by the excess and fall sick. but each by nor for anything else. they gather themselves together gradually before appearing with a sudden spring. so as to keep him in health by taking away here and adding there. fire and water. and how these are to be replaced by a state of health. I. 231 . So I have discovered the symptoms shown in a patient before health is mastered by disease. But without impossible to prescribe the exact exercise. namely. practised his exercises. 5 adpSov 6. Now of two for for itself 1 everything else. Tf\tvra 6 : reXe'erca M : finem accipit P.

.ev irvp irre^ibv eVt to etr%dkov rov vBaro<.IIEPI AIAITHS e%et roir^vBe' rb p. Tovrcov Be irpoaKeirai e/carepco rdBe' ra> jnev irvpl rb 0epp.1 ovSe-rtpov oi/Safxa. koX it avroB arras iBeas d-no- Kpivovrai air aXXijXtov /cat o~TTepp.0~TOV KOI i\d-)£LGTOV 1 6)9 CLVVCTTOV.arwv /cal %wcoi\ ovBev bpboiwv^ dXXijXotaiv ovre rr/v btyiv ovre 1 2 8 fail Before iAa-x^Tov Littre adds rb. 6? ovBerepov yap Kparr\aai iravreXcos Bvvarai Bid tooV rb p.ev ovv irvp koX to vBwp. Some would read ko. 7roXXa<." This is very likely the correct reading. Several authorities would omit irpdrepov. ovKeri iy/cpares e? rrjv eariv. ovBerepov Be el dXX 1 20 Bid ravra Bvvarai Kparrjaai TravreXws' Be 2 rrore KparrjOelr) /cal 6/corepov irpbrepov. ovrco Be rovrwv tjrjpov evi yap tyvxpbv teal eyovrcov. avrdp/ced eari rraai Bid iravrbs €9 rcov alel 26 to pbrjKiarov real rovXd^iarov doo-avro)<. eiriXeiirei rj rpocfyi]' drrorperrerai ovv OKoOev pieXXei rpetpeaOar rb Be vBwp iire^ibv €7rl to eoyarov rov irvpos.'iararai ovv ev rovroi. rb Be vBcop rrdvra Bid iravrbs 10 Opeyjrar ev /xepei Be e/cdrepov /cparei iccu Kparelrai TO /jL7]Kt. koi ovBerepa ical ovBe dp. elprjjal fioi. r& Be vBari rb rb vypov eyei Be air dXXrjXcov rb rod vBaros ro vypov evi yap ev dirb [iev rrvp irvpl* vypbrr]<i' rb Be vBcop dirb rov irvpos rb ev vBari £r)pov. ovBev dv vvv ovrco Be e^bveir] rwv vvv eovrcov o-arrep eyet earai rd avrd. 232 .oKorav Be crrtj. rpocfirjv ru> epurirrrovri irvpl i]8r) /caravaXia/cerai.ev yap irvp Bvvarai rrdvra Bid iravrbs Kivijaai. IV. wairep iiriXeiyfrei. "and neither will altogether.a s rb p.bv /cal rb £rjpbv. emXenrei ?} /civi]o~i<.

as it advances to the limit of the water. can become completely master for the following reasons. stops at this point. suffice for all things throughout the universe unto their maximum and the minimum alike." has anb tov VSutos. as 1 have said. kox ovBev Sfioiov aAAo aAAai. So fire and water. each of them possesses is this.is here means <pv<ris. lacks nourishment. When it stops its force ceases. find its motion fail. "nature/' "essence. they separate off from themselves many forms of many kinds. Peck has [air' avrwv] kcu anepfiara kcu t. If ever either were to be mastered first. for in fire there is moisture. for there is dryness in water as they are. These things being so. while water can nourish all things always but in turn each masters or is mastered to the greatest maximum or the least minimum possible. as it advances to the limit of the fire.-iv.fj. and so turns to where it is likely to be nourished the water. These elements have severally the following attributes. both of seeds and of living creatures. I. and water has the dry from fire. however. Neither of them can gain the complete mastery for the following reason. 1 Probably 5uva. none of the things that are now would be as it is now. . Neither. IV. Fire can move all things always. A. Mutually too fire has the moist from water. iv Trupl 5 * For '6/xoiof M M : 6/xoiwi' 233 . and neither singly nor all together will the elements fail. which are like to one another 1 neither in their appearance nor in their power. iii.u>a. and hereafter is consumed to nourish the fire which it. But things being assails same things will always exist. Before 77-oAAaj Fredrich places is.REGIMEN. the also. Fire has the hot and the dry. L. Zwinger. water the cold and the moist. and so . The fire.

ec pr) perd irdvTwv Trot* yap aTroOavelrai . twv ye Buvarcov. % '6rt 5' hv 5ia\eyofj. avppiyfjvai Kal BiaKptOrjvat tcovto.e. have : Kal rb M » Kal omitted by M.nEPI AIAITHS 10 tt)V Svva/MP' are yap ovwotc Kara tcovto icna1 peva.T. Bywater after Bernays. av^r]Ofjvai. Kal peicodfjvai tcovto. L. btydaXfioiGi Se itiareveodai /xaWov. r) yvUfxar iy£> 8e rdbe el yvu>p. avppiyrjvai 1 2 eiil ^ Be avppiayecrOai /cal BiaKplveaOat to Kal M ra Corais : : eireira Kal eireira MSS. * izoi A. "KiBov e? <£ao? av^i]6ev yeveaOat. bv not ebv. irov MSS 6 has Kal This is practically the reading of 6 : M M otire rb £u>ov airoQavelv o\6v re ^t. yeveadai. 6 yeveadai rj d-rrdXeaOai. t<x>v ttoWcov eiveicev eppr/- vevco' ravTa 7 Kai 8 woV yeveoQai Kal d-rroXeaOai Sr/Xar ex ei 30 tcovto. Rackham. oi>x.ai 6 7 Tavra. ovre to 5 aA. el t^&ov. 234 . rb Be etc tov (pdeos e? "AiBy)v peitodev dirokeadar b(f>da\polai yap Tricrrevovcn pdWov rj yvcopy. dU' dlel dWoiovpeva eiri ra Kal eiri ra. Peck after H. ££<jr For Littre" (from 0's £w el yap). dvdyKrjS yiveTav teal ra airo tovtwv cnroWvTai pev vvv ovBev dirdvdiroKpivopieva. irbOev yap earai . ovBe yiverai 6 ti prj Kal irpbcrOev rjv avppiaybpeva Be Kal BiaKpivbpeva dWoiovrac vopi^erai Be vtto twv dvd pdnrwv to pev ei. £$a £<S>ei Fredrich and Gomperz read rb aei£ooov. Kal yap airodavitrai- ovre to ur) bv yeveadai. 3 M. irdvra Kal peiovrai e? to pr\KiaTOv icai e'9 to ti 6° dv BiaXeyoopai i\d%L(TT0V. dvbpoia if. Ki8ev irapayev^aerai. tKavoi<i 20 eovcriv ovBe irepl twc bpeopevwv Kplvar eyu> Be 2. 3 TaBe yvebprj e^yeopai£a>a yap /ed/celva Kai TaoV Kal ovre. : Both MSS.t\ K. 6 '6ri br)V StaAeyopat M. diroQavelv olov re. twv XprjfAaTayv. /xtTa iravruiv.A/ au^erai prj bv yeveaOai.

Nor can what is not come into being." : almost verbally the same as a fragment of Anaxagoras quoted by Simplicius (Phys. Becoming "mixture" and "separation" are the same thing. av6\\vffdat ovk bpQSts vofA^ovaiv ol "EWrjvtsis XpvfJ-a ylverai ov5h air6AXvrai.REGIMEN. . "So of all things . iv. 235 . So of all things nothing perishes. eyes rather than mind. For there is life in the use mind to expound thus. and being separated. but are always changing to this or to that. I expressions what popular " and " separating. and nothing comes into being that did not exist before. I. though these are not comBut I petent to judge even things that are seen. from these elements too are separated off things which are necessarily unlike. . The facts are "perishing" are the same thing. Things change merely by mingling and being separated. "becoming" or "perishing" . as well as in those of If there be life. Kal SiuKplverai Kal ovtcos av opBws icaAoTey tJ t« yivecrdai (rvfj-fxiayeffdat /cat rb d-rriWuadai SiaKpivtffOai. there cannot be death." ling '* " and I am merely " mean is using really mingthese. unless For whither will death all things die with it. 163. aAA. . 1 But the current belief among men is that one thing increases and comes to light from Hades. take place? For whence will it come ? But all things increase and diminish to the greatest possible maximum or Whenever I speak of the least possible minimum.' airb (6fTOiv xpVP-O-Taiy crvfinicryeral re. 20). It runs rb Se yivecrOai oi>8hv yap km. while another thing diminishes and For they trust perishes from the light into Hades. this. " "increase" and/' diminution are the same thing "becoming" and "mixture" are the same thing. For as they never stay in the same condition. things of the other world. 1 The passage.

tu>vt6 omitted by : M : P 7U27 has nihil ex omnibus idem est.e^ov Kal : eVi cnroAeo-flai <fol> . to p.ev 7rpi]aaovaiv ovk olhaaiv. Kal Tahe Kelcre. Xcopet 3 he iravra teal Beta Kal avdpoi/cat irtva ava) Kal kutco d/xei^op-eva. . twv he re Keiae.ia<yopevcov aX\i]\a.p. Burnet in his fAdxHTTov omitted by 6. <rehi)vr) firl to ixrtKirrrov Kal ihaxitrrov nupbs ecpoSos Kal vSaros. 6 ourcos before rjAios Diels. a/coVo? Kelva &he. (poneovToov <$' TMi'he. €K7r\i] pol. and may represent the passage of Heracleitus paraphrased by the author of irtpl ws teal . GKCLGTOV 77. 10 ctkotos "Kihy. Kal 1 7TeTTpGi>p. 35 j'6/xo<i AIAITH2 ] fieiooOrjvai.. 2 Kal ovdiv . irdvTa TavTa Kal ov TavTci. topijv. 7 Kal a 9 p.00? eKCLOTOV TCOVTO. "Aihy. htaKpiOijvai TTaVTCl 7T/90? 2 TTUVTa Ollhei' Kal TTCIVTOOV TOJVTO. Sia/fpi07jfai Diels Bywater brackets fj.etu>0rii>ai. Kal tcovto. r/Xto? eVl to p. (f)do<i Zi)vl. <f)oiT& Tahe t av ra Kelvcov.7)KiaTOV koX to eXd^LGTOvJ^ 5 Trvpbs e</)oSo9 fcal vhaTo<. yap 77} <fivaei Trepl tovtwv evavTtos. V. . eKelvwv 7T/309 eohe. . irdcrav irdaav %(opy]v 6 hiairprjaaopeva Kelva T€ ra Zirjvi. 3 x wp^ Bernays 4 x^P" MSS. TCOVTO./]KiaTov Kal eXayiaTov &)<? irrl €v(f)p6v>] Kal Tjj ae\i']vr) to p. Early Greek Philosophy suggests the following reading of the passage.evr]v poipyjv eKaarov to pelov. 236 . This is very Heracleitean.a/cpoTatov Kal ftpayvTaTov. rj/nepy] to p. dXX 6/x<y? avTolai irduTa ylveTai hi dvdjKrjv 6eii)V Kai a fiovkovTai Kal a fil] jSovXovTat. V^epV Kal tvtppivr) irrl rb fxr\Kiarov ical tXaxiffTov 'i\ios. a he ov 8 irpijaaovai hoKeovcriv elhevai' Kal a 9 fiev opeovoiv ov yivwaKovaiv. 10 ti)v eirl avp. SioiVrjs. <f)do<.IIEPI aiToX&aOai.

the ascendancy of fire and of water. * ra d S( T« K(7ocrt M : «' & Littre.Se t' Ktivoov 8 10 M omits ov. Day and night. and that of all things to the individual. xliii. so the sun has its longest and its shortest course all the same things and not the same things.REGIMEN. See the Introduction. And what men work they know not. Tttlf M. and each fulfils its allotted destiny. those of this world go to that. darkness for Hades light for Hades. to the maximum and minimum just as the moon has its maximum and minimum. And destruction . " diminution and " separation are perishing. but nevertheless all things take place for them through a divine necessity. darkness for Zeus the things of the other world come to this. " " I. TU>V S« Tl Ktlfff : Diels (raCra M). and during every season throughout every place the things of the other world do the work of this. Yet nothing of all things is the same. both unto the greater and unto the less. For in regard to these things custom is opposed to nature. 1 This and the following chapters contain a mixture of the philosophies of Empedocles. . things of the other world come to this. Light for Zeus. both human and divine. al to." the same thing. But all things. p. both what And as the they wish and what they do not wish. rc. they combine with one another. 237 . and what they work not they think that they know and what they see they do not understand.1 V. and those of this world do the work of that. " — — . and those of this world go to that. and so is the relation of the individual to all things. * iraffav 7 x^P^ v omitted by M. iv.-v. Anaxagoras and Heracleitus. are in a state of flux upwards and downwards by exchanges.

pLiayopeva e^aXXdaaei e<. tu> pe^ovi diro tov loprj he izaaiv pelovos /cal T(p pelovi airo tov pe^ovos. toiovtov (pvats dvOpooircov. ov he Xap. TWl iAaOCTOVl 0. oXa oXayv. fX&ffCTOVOS Hal T6 2 ical rb TWl /Xf'foH .epea p. 8(5a'<ri omitted by . avp. 6 e/cdaTi) he Trepi(f)OiTa ^v^r) p. 1 e/caaTa . /cal Ta to pelov lovra hia/cpiveTai e\ ttjv eXdaaova pe^ov iropevop.ev7] hiairpijaaeTao is rjVTiva dv omitted by M. to he Xap. e^ovra crvyKprjaii' irvpbs /cal vhaTOs.ev eirl ycbprjv he e/caarov (pvXdaaei ttjv eoovTov.u^ 6/jioi6Tpoira : Diels. . ovtc irpoaOeaios 1 20 ovre dcpaipeaios heopevrj tcov pepecov.eva. 238 .. tov he \apf3dvei' /cal tw piev hihcoai 3 ToaoiiTQ) irXeov. . to pev aidel.IIEPI AIAITHS cltt dXXijXcov. o oe ojtrei.$dvovra irXelov troiel. Ta he hihovra pielov. 3 4 tov 5e ovSev n$i So Fredrich and Wil.epecov.1(0 TOV /j. crwpa ecrepTrei he e? dvdpwiTOV p. r.(3dvei' /cal tw pev 2 hlhwcri. ical ^v^rj dvOpooirov. /card /cal he av^qcnv twv virap^ovTcov ^o)o?/?. M : tov Si Littre. /xe(ovos 0L7TO TOV Diels writes au|?. to o clvto tovto 6/colov ical •noieovai. to he eX/cer to pev hihwai. av^dverai 20 to fjue^ov diro tov eXdacrovo<. . dfxodTpoira Bywater reads ov tie \a/xfidvft. Ta he hcaaovra' /cal rd pev \ap.c(ovos.. /cal to eXaaaov dirb 21 tov pe&vos. bracketed by Bywater ical .. 1 VI. Ttjv pe^co rd^iv Ta he 4 aydelrai 5 e/c ^oopi]<i dXXo%elva pLi-j opoTpoTva yoap^v t<x he eirl to Tpir)<. irpiovaiv dvOpwTroi gvXov o pev eX/cei. Ta 5' dXXa Trdvra. Ta pev Xtj^opeva. petcoaiv heop. "tyv^h hia/coapelrai./3dvei ToaovTw pelov.e^w /cal eXdaau) eyovaa Ta popia Ta eeovTrj . 10 puelov he Troieovres irXelov iroieovcri. 0. p.

VI. and to one it gives so much the more. and the greater increases from the smaller. Those that take give increase. but herein they do the same thing. to the greater from the less. but needing space to correspond to increase or decrease of what exists already. and the strange parts. M. the other pulls takes. and the smaller from the greater. being unsuitable. comes I. into whatsoever space 1 it enters. Into man enter parts of parts and wholes of wholes.REGIMEN. those advancing to the greater mingle and pass to the greater rank. pulls and the other pushes. the other pushes. It gives to this and takes from that. Each individual soul. . One part one part gives. 1 Each the parts going to the keeps its own place less are sorted out to the smaller place. All other things are set in due order. to all things from one another mutually. it fulfils its several duties . are thrust from a place that is not theirs. Diels adds aini] 239 . and while making less they make more. ov Ttpoadfcrtos ovS'e acpatpcaios 5fofi4vr]s before ovre irpoadtcnos. having greater and smaller needparts. makes the round of its own members ing neither to add to. and receives the T<p ? Should we read § for 6 6 5' uidetrai M : ixxupteTai 9. and to the less from the greater. nor to take from. .-vi. its parts. both the soul of man and likewise his body. those that Men saw a log the one give make diminution. containing a mixture of fire and water. . while that from which it takes is so much the less. some to take and others to give. v. Such is the nature of man.

iv aXXro utt Be ovBevi' real 33 diTOKpLverai.I1EPI iaeXBrj. Tpo(f)r)s iiriovat]^ oure 0X17/79.aro<i 10 auytcpijaiv e^ovaa. yap M. av^erat iv TTvpb? X<>opi) Ttj teal uSaTO? ecovTOV eKao-rov. M. dirb ecaco voaTO^ ^r/pov kul irvpo^ vypov. coairep 1 ra pev ol TeKTove<. dXXwv* vtto /3li]<i VII.<fi61 irXavara'. rh Kal air' avTwv Wil. to ijXfxevoov M : fxii dfj.(popov k t. Tpo(f>r)$ iiriovcnp.ovoe?v 8. to Be davpfyopov iroXepel teal pdyeTai /cal BiaXXdaaei inr Bia tovto d\Xi]Xcov. Se na\ ttji irepl rov didpooTTOv M : Trjirep avOpwros 240 . real Be%€Tai AIAITHS tt ra poo n lit tovi a. (TvyyivdicTKef irpoal^a yap rh ffufj.(p6p(p. 30 dvd pdnrov cocrauTO)?- -*\rv\r) iv dvOpcoTTm av^dverai. 8 av^erai : Tpiiptrai- rp((perat 6 Diels. p. ra Be e^w. ov yap ofiorpoTrov iv Toiatv do~vp.ev yap pocai ywploicnv eppieveiv 2 Be dXX>jXoicn yivcoa/cei a<yvd)piova' avyyivop. Ylepl p. TpeQerai av^trai M. oaa oAAoia ixtv ovv M. LHels : uaa aAAeos 6 auvyii'Sfxeva 6 M : : 6ic6<Ta 8' 6 6 ' &AAcus 6 : : nlv 8e 8 M. e.ev^ twv aXXoov ^rowv idaco. irepl 6 Be dvOpcoirov Bt]Xd)<TG). ov yap e)(et to irpoaav^opevov eyov Be irdvTa.i] Bvvarai to 7T/90? o irpoai^ef npoai^et yap to o~vp(f)opov 2 tw o~vp. 2 3 4 : ffvixfxiay6^iva crvyyvwfiova Diels.eva. {3ia£op. dv9pco7rov ravra Be ical Oi'pXea kuI dpaeva ixoXXd /cal iravrola rpetyeral re 7 /cal 8 av^erai Biairr) rfi irepl tov dvOpwirov dvdy/aj Be rd p. e? dvOpcoirov ioepirei Be tyvXV po'ipi^v (T(t)p. dxrauTcos oaa SiaAAaccrei cur' aAATjAcoy.eva p. twv dXXcov ^wcov twv peydXcov baa aXXoos.t) ovtc iroXX?)<.epea e%etv nrdvra rd ecriovra' ovtivos yap 9 pr] evetrj pLoupij i£ ap%f)<i ovk dv avf*i]06i.

Into man there confining my attention to man. some things being forced inside. It could easily fall out before aufr/fle/jj on the other hand. As carpenters saw the log. For that which is not suitable cannot abide in regions not adapted to it.-vii. each grows in its own place. comma 10 at apxys8 Before to has real. while the unsuitable wars and fights and separates itself. potential optatives without &f are not infrequent in the Hippocratic Collection.REGIMEN. but combining with one another they realise what they are joining. But having all. others outside. male. When it is otherwise. both female and portion of a man's body. Now such wander without thought. and one pulls and the Diels' reading would mean: "They wander when at " variance. and in no other creature. nutriment being added from dry water and moist fire.See p. Bywater puts a attacks that are made. enters a soul. VII. having a blend of fire and water. I shall say nothing about the other animals. much 1 . are nourished and increased by human diet. etc. Now the things that enter must contain all the parts. many and of many kinds. whether the nutriment that were added were or little. 241 . 493. vi. as having nothing to grow on to it. and that the character of soul is relative to that mixture. . For this reason a man's soul grows in a man. I. is doctrine " It is death directly derived from Heracleitus. 2 a These. For that of which no part were present would not grow at all." 9 &»/ is not in 9. 2 That soul is a mixture of fire and water. It is the same with the other lame animals. 1 For the suitable joins the suitable. to souls to become water. there is forcible separation from others. but when the}' are of one mind they realise.

^Kpovov Be ToaovTOV e/caaTa ttjv avTrjv 6 tcl^iv p. . O/tiaoT^- aerat 6 0ia£6/iievov j8ia£ojue'i Perhaps the readings of are a correction due to a scribe or editor who did not realise that besides the deponent fiid^o/xai there exists flid£u>. . ?. 2 ov 3 yap av nrapaBe^ono kutco levar rji> Be f3id£covtolovtov too</>j) tcli* TravTOS dfiapri](Tovrai. p. 6rj\ea /cal dpaeva. VIII.rjhe «%p* pi)KeTi Be^rai i) Tpofyi]. evos xu airoyevopevov rpvnSxri 0. ) KO. to oe cotfei eio-co oe %v\ov irpi^ovai.p. ^apea rj Tolaiv 6%eai yevrjrai ev ttj Tj) oevTepr/.ijBe avpcpcova irpu>Trf to. dpa he /cat avp. top ai)Tov Tpoirov vtto /3lrj<i otcoaa S' av irpoTepov dvdytcr)<. . Fred. a/xapTijaoi/rai M : Pia^r/rat . 296.e£ova yjjupi^v. 4 fSiafavrai 0. e'^oucr?. p. avopa>7rov to fiev e\/cei. 242 .a Be 10 /cal avpu- pLicryeTar -^doprjv Be dpetyavTa /cal tv^ovtu \>j/3hi]v Bie^ibv dppovirjs 6pdrj<. 7 ircavrjv e\rj e? to pi]/ciaT0v twi' ^coprjv BvvaTWv' eiretT evapeifiei e? ttjv p.r) tvxv T *7S dppovirjs. 6 Be oodel. .IIEPI AIAITH2 tcovto tov dvw eX/cei. <5 Tpvwaxrt M : irpi(ov<rt in : corrector's hand over Se irie^ovTicv duepirei 8e Trie£oi'Toi> aya> fpiret irU(wv rhv &voo eA/cet (from several Paris MSS. ttclvtos k£a) epiref rjv Be fitrJTai irapa /cai- cnroTev%6Tai. See Appendix. ^ooet /cal av^erai Tolaiv avTOiaiv olcri /cal irpbaOev rjv Be p.layeTar eicacrTOv pev yap Bia/cpiveTai TrpoiTa. e%ei. TavTa Bia/cptveTai irpoiTa. M: ov 0. ttj oca Travros. 1 /cal 6 p. o~v\8 Bid iraaewv.? avpLtfxovias Tpeis. Troieovre?' kcitco B 6 irie^wv & (3ia£6pevov 19 pov. Btco/copeva' icai epirXrjar) ttjv TreTrpw pevr]v poiprjv.TU) 8« 3 M : 8' Littre : Tue£6vTo>v avw epirti Dielfi : irit^6/j. .ev eX/cei. dp. 1 2 avptpcovlt].€i'ov &i/co ou yap av irapa (Kaiphvy Sexotro Diels.

REGIMEN. and at the same time they also commingle. T7/P ouTj/y Ta£iP 8 x^PV fM/Se Tpo<f>r)v M : r) Tpo<f>rji- pL-qbe Sie^iovra yevrjTai. But if untimely violence be 1 applied there is no success.r)v Se Sevrep-q yeveois : Erm. For each separates first. yev-qrai. M : ylv-qrai. and it has not sufficient room for the greatest possible extension then it passes into larger room. which has three harmonic proportionals. they will lose all. the other pushes. If force be applied Such is the nutriment of a man. Such as first fill the allotted portion are the first to be separated. on changing position. r)v ttclvtos Tjj r) to Sid Littre ("mais Trpwrrj ovpLcfrcovir) 10 Trpdirrj ov/. and the low harmonize not with the high in the interval of the fourth. of the fifth. Bernays conjecture 9 ^La-navTOS 6 : ft. or in the octave. The one that presses below pulls the one above. Each keeps the same position until nourishment no longer receives it.uf>a)vir].^iv ex«< 6 : £ koctto eVacrTa tt)v avrr/i/ ex e ' rd£iv Littre. 6 txaarov %Xti 7 M 17 : rrfv aiirriv to. 8te£iovoas Mack. for avAXaft-qv St' 6£eiu>v. But if they do not achieve the attunement. though they do the same thing. they live and grow by the same things as they did before. then the failure of one makes the whole 1 There is a kind of "one-way traffic" through the body. covering altogether the octave. -qv r) b'evrcp-q le passage est derj yeVijrai eV navros.-viii. along in the same manner by force and necessity. otherwise the saw could not descend. vii. and at the same time also commingles. One part pulls. sespere ") rfj oevrepr] 77 rfj Sid For ivos has tlvos- 243 . to hiaTiavros yew-qQfj r) : liv. VIII. to r) -npcbr-qt ovp..(f>wvi-qt. they achieve a correct attunement. rj TrptOTT) avp. And if. other pushes. female and male. Diels. driven .<f>oivlrj. x c^>PV v &• See Littre VII.r) Se Sevrep-qi yiveois. Interference with the circuit means disease or death. what is forced inside comes outside. I.

ev 7rpcora irdvTii inrb Be t?}? Kiv?]crio<.dvaXiafcei Ta p-ev ovv GTeped ovv to virdpyov vypov elo-co.ev ovv Kal OrjXecov Bioti exdrepa dpielfiei dX. Apaevcov p. Bioti ovk ex ei Tpo(p7jv Bid Be twv vypcov Kal paXavcov Kal ev TOVTOicri 1 2 BvvaTai' TavTa yap eaTiv avrco Tpocf>7]' evi Be ov KaTava\iaKop. 1 ' tovtwv Be OKorepov av TVXV ^@ ov Kai T ^XV T7) ? dppovirjs. ttjv <f>vo~iv ev t&) crvveaTipcoTi Kal ^t]pw ov /caTa- eyicpaTea yiveTai Kal avvio'TaTai tov vypov e/cXetVovTo?.V tov yiveTai. to Be irvp direp bcrTea Kal vevpa ovopud^eTai. Kiveop^evov Be tt)v rpocpijv dirb twv ica\ vypov ebv Kivetrai virb tov ^(oirvpeiTai /cal Trpoadyerai icriovTwv €9 tt)i> irup6<i' yvval/ca crircov bpolu><. 244 .evrj vtto £??/)6t?7<? (\6bv Kal : omitted by M. tov irvpos ^rjpaiverai en 10 koX arepeovrai' aTepeovp-evov Be irvKvovTai irepi^.IIEPI 77-0:9 AIAITHS ov yap e? 6 toi>o9 fiaTaw e/c dv irpoaaeLaai' 19 to pelov irpb fie£ovo<. Kal dpaiov icrTiv. 2 BiaKoapeiTai to uaj/xa «aia (pvacv Bid TOir]vBe 20 vaKicrKcrai tw irvpl if T))v rpo<pr)v dW dvdyKrjV Bid pev tcov aTepewv Kal %ripwv ov BvvaTai Ta? BietjoBovs ^pofta? iroielaOai. have the genitive. Ik tov avpLjJiiyevTOS Kiveopevov. Ka\ to irvp iy/caTa/c\€i6p. tov vypov. yivcocrKovaiv polprjsIX. ea)9 irvevpaTos. to p.evov ov/ceri rrjv rpo^rjv iKavrjv e^ei eirdyeadai. irpolbvTi tw Xoyrp BrjXcoaco. 6 Bioti ov ti iroieovaiv. ovBe to irvevpa e^coOei Bid tt)V TrvKvoTt]Ta tov irepiexovTO^. : KtveSfievoy Diels the MSS..

-ix. and the fire being imprisoned can no longer draw to itself its nourishment in sufficient quantity. it is moist and is kept in movement by the fire.REGIMEN. later on in my discourse I shall explain why each severally come to be. while it does not expel the breath owing to the hardness of its envelope. scale of I. reading \Kivnvfi4vov or <ivevijJvov) will give the rendering: "out of the moisture mixed with it. this occurs equally but owing to the movement and the throughout as it solidifies it hardens fire it dries and solidifies all round. because it has no but it can through the moist and nourishment Yet in these soft. 245 . as there can be no consonance. The reason is they know not what they do. compacted. and put in motion by it. At first. arranges the body according to nature through the following Through the hard and dry parts it cannecessity. and draws to itself its nourishment from the food and breath that enter the woman. arranges. As for males and females. too there is dryness not consumed by the fire. no value. . But whichever of the two happens to come and achieves the attunement. The fire. and as the moisture fails they become compact. vm. not make itself lasting passages. 1 The MSS. . dry mass that are solid in substance are not consumed by the fire for its nourishment. So it consumes the Now the parts in the available moisture inside. and are called bones and sinews." etc. . but they change from the greater to the less before their destiny. while it is still rare. Being in movement it gets inflamed. meanwhile. but they prove powerful. being moved x out of the moisture which was mixed with it. for these are its nourishment. IX.

eyiaTr)v ttjv Bie^oBov gclto. 246 . to puev ovv eVcoraTft) KaTacppa^Oev irvp Kal TrXelarov eo~TC Kal p.IIEPI AIAITHS rov Trvpos' TavTa Be avviaTarai 777)09 aXXi)Xa.e> Be to pueaa tovtcov 2 to 37 imoXenropLevov tov vBaTOS avvicrTcifxevov nrrjyvvTai.aTl 10 Xaftelv irapd irdvTcov. TpoTrov airopulp-rfaiv tov oXov. Bie^oBov 7ri>evp:aTo<. KaXeZraf /ecu e^eireaev ical evrevdev.irXeiaTov 'yap to vypbv ivravOa oirep 30 eVei koiXltj eiroir]evr/v. vSaTC ^rjpu> Kal vypv Tapuelov. ev tovtouti Total ywp'ioioiv. iiroivaaro <yvfi<p6p(Dv Wilamowitz : (rwTp6<poi>v 6 : ivrp6(pu>v M.a Bid. after XwpLoHTiv. X.(p6poov Be Tavrrjv vSaTos -^v^pov Kal vypov avaTaaiv. ewvTW iv TW CT(Op. oirep KaXeiTai crap/ccs. eKaaTOv ptoipr) cpepopueva es to (pavepbv dcpiKveiTai 1 - Between irepioduus is and a\\o Diels inserts t6. eiroL^aaTO tov •nvevfiaTOS BieijoBovs Kal TpO(f)i]<i eiraycoyrjv Kal diroKXeiadev e? 1 ctWo awp. ev o) cpavepou. Bvvapuv. @aXdao~r)<. tyoov 3 Tpocpov. 3 rpKraas is placed by Diels Fredrich marks an hiatus after KolAat.arronrdvTa aAAotoixr?/?. e%a>. oirep rjv vyporarov tov TTvpos. diro tov o-vveoTi)KQTO<s diroKpiaiv. ovk et^e Tpocprjv. 'E*vl Be Xoyw nrdi'Ta BieKoapbrjcraTo Kara to irvp. davpi(popcov Be cpOopov irepi crvp.Tre/i'yjnv' to Be rrepioBovs e-TTOL^craTO TyOtcro~a<>. tcl eTreicnrLTTTOVTa KaTavaXio-KOv Be Kal av^ov 4 oKeBaatv vBaTos XeirTOV Kal Trvpbs eVoo/TaTO Tjepiov. ^rv^pov Kal Qeppbov. Bovvac nrdai Kai ai)To to.r]o-iv 7^9. 5 cwpaveos /cat.ip. aWives (^XeySe? KaXeovTai tcoTkai. p. piiKpd 7rpo? fxeydXa Kal fieydXa 7rpo? pwcpd.koiXitjv piev tt/v pLeyicrTrjv.

by fire. for dry water and moist. Should we read apaiovl 247 . a secretion from the compacted substance. the moistest part of the fire being in those places called And in the middle of these that the hollow veins.REGIMEN. It is called flesh. the power of the sea. 8* av^ov : Diels. to give to all and to take from all. destroyer of those not suited. all things were arranged in the a body. and it is called the belly. it made a dispersion of fine water and of ethereal fire. 1 suming and increasing. around it a concretion of cold water and moist. ret. copy of the whole. each 1 With the reading of increasing other. Therefrom the fire burst forth. the small after the manner of the great and the great after the manner of the The belly is made the greatest. the invisible and the visible. and these dry parts become compacted one with So the fire shut up in the innermost part another. a steward small. abundant. X. x. which remains of the water becomes compacted and congeals. a a copy of the passage for cold breath and warm. since it had no nourishment. In a word. in a fashion conformable to itself. Conearth. The fire shut up in the of the body made itself three passages. Littre: «ai ra jx\v icaravaAtcricoi'. in which things are carried and come to light. nurse of creatures And suited to it. I. which alters all things that fall into it." Diets : "Consuming some and 4 av£ov 5 KaravaKiaKov SI na\ Karava\L(TKovTa 5e av^ov (av^ov 6) 0M Z winger. and made passages for the breath and to supply and distribute rest nourishment. ix. both is most abundant and made for itself the For there the moisture was most greatest passage.

eaai zeal eiaco /cal e£&) rrepaivovaai? to Oepp-orarov Kal icryvporarov rrvp. Perhaps a gloss. iv Be rovrw to l rrvp irepioSovs Tpiaads. StaWa^is. 5 8 omits Kivi}<Tts. aoiKTOv 6 tyocpov Diels. ov eyovra. 26 Kal rdBe Kal eKeira. /eivTjai*. Diels has a comma. (frvaiv Be irdvrcov Oeol BieKoap.tv. 8idWa£i<. <pvat<i. orrep irdvrtov aeXtpr}^ irriKparelrat. Bidcjiopa ibvra' Bia\eybp. oi>x opLoXoyelrai bpioXoyebpieva.eva. peluffis. 1 to Diels.i]oai>.vojxovyap av6pa>ttoi eOeaav avrol etovrolaiv. vrrvos. eyepais. ov yivoHTKovres rrepl e a)V eOeaav.eovrai. pLeiwais.rovro irdvra Sid rravros Kvftepva.ova BiaXeybp^evayvaofirjv virevavrics 10 m 6 rpbiro<.aifCTov* rovrw ^rv^i]. 4 &Cktov Littre &6lktov Bernays. aarpwv 20 Svva/Miv. voos.T0v. bpbo\oyebp. 2 3 irvp l)iels : irvpbs ai he <a>s> irpbs ?|co Trepupop^v MSS.y rb 6tpfi. dvbpoia ibvrapip.. ovBerrore arpepa^ov. yivoHTKovras a rroieovai." rrpos rov itepieyovra rrdyov. ai Be p. vbpos yap Kal olo~i irdvra BiairprjaaopbeOa. followed by <irp>>s tos erepas. teal k^co' rrepaivovcra^ 7rpo? aWrfKas ai puev rrpo<. eKaarwv. Kal elcrw vypcov. 5 av^t]ai<i. tV After -trepaiiovaai : M : : 248 . dyvd>p.evo<i. 01 Be dvOpwrroi €K rSiv cfiaveptov ra d<fiavea aKerrreaOai ovk errio-ravrai' reyyipai yap XP eo ~ ov yivcoaKovaiv' pievoi opLoirjcriv dv6 pcorr ivt) (pvaeo 6eo)v yap voos iBlBa^e pupLelaOai ra ecovr<ov.IIEPI 7T67T AIAITHS iiroirjcraro pw /xevrj . ra KolXa rwv Bvvapuv.67a. Bieirov airavta Kal oyjrec /cal ty-avcrei. ?jA/od 5vya/J. XI. ai Be rrpbs rrjv e%co trepi^oprjv. Bernays himself preferred &^avaTov.. Kal crvp-(f>opa irdvra. iv 4>p6vi]cri<i s Kara (f)vaiv. Kal ov yivoocrKovras a irdvra <ydp opioia.

towards the solid enclosure. imperceptible to sight or touch. mutation. The fashion of intelligent without intelligence. decrease. though in agreement. and though they know what they are doing yet they know not what they are copying. the power of the stars the middle The circuits. hottest and strongest all fire. custom was settled by men for themselves without their knowing those things about which they settled the custom but the nature of all things was . by means of which we accomplish all For things. within and without each bounded by the others those towards the hollows of the moist.-xi. all compatible though conversing though not conversing. which controls all things. though incompatible. For custom like. x." but " les operations divines. do not agree though they do agree. ordering and is never at rest. things according to nature. For though the arts they employ are like the nature of man. waking. allotted portion. thought. reverse). But men do not understand how to observe the invisible through the visible. . according to its I. the power of the moon those towards the outer circumference. growth. both here and there. sleep." Debs SievSauTtiffev 8. And : in this fire made groups of circuits. This governs all things always. For all things taught r are unlike. for itself three . motion. wherein are soul.REGIMEN. and nature. yet For the mind of the gods they know it not. XI. bounded both within and without. them to copy their 1 own functions. mind. 1 Littre translates: 6 Probably "the operations of their own bodies. Is the latter altered to dto) SifKSfffx-qaaf a Christian collection ? (or tlie 249 . each is contrary.

XII. £u>ov 5e. K. <yLV(o<r/cei.va. : : M 250 .i] etc dvOpcojrov u^a^i/? iracBos is <yu>(tj(TKei. yivci)- cr/covcra rd cpavepd dvBpa peOlararat- T(p iovrt to peWov Oaviov ^(oovtlT(p ov^ opoiov olBev dtro3 redvrjKori to £gooj'. ical rolcriv drroOavovcri. Be pr) roiai pev yivtoa/covcnv del opdois.IIEPI AIAITHS 17 ra pev ovv avOpatiroi Biedecrav ovBerrore Kara twvto e^ei ovre 6p@a><. crvviepev on kcu del ravra* tolo~i p. icai poiGi ra o p. cpvcriv dvd pooirov yvvai/ci fiiov ravra pelrar 10 dvrjp ru> crvyjei>6pei>o<i iiroirjae' ovra><i cpavepw 2 to dBi]\ov yivaxTKei on ecrrai. : t$ affwercji ((TvveKafifvy. p. o be /cal pr) clows aWore piiraiBiov ciWcos.avriicr) roiovBc rolai /jev <f)ave- rolaiv d<paveai ra d(f>avea (fiavepd.e. ovx ° pM &v airb Oavdrou. ovre /at) opOow oxoaa Be Oeol BieOeaav del opOcos e^ec teal rd 6p6d teal rd pi] 6p6d roaourov Biacpepei.T. oi>x ofj. rail TiQvr\K6ri rb £<t>ov oiSe ovx (ifxoiov airb 6a. /cat rolcriv eovai ra peXkovra. 19 yivoocrtcovaiv aWore dUu?. /cal rep davvercp 1 crvv'iacriv. re^vrj^ <pucrco<.ev etoaj? aet opuais.avri/cfj<. yvd>p. 1 r5iv aavviraov {6 cj'ti omits rwv) MSS.our us (arat yviifxt) Diels. Siyfrfj r) davverov yacrrijp' ravrr) Treivfj.Tov £wovri.oiov airo6avbiv £wovrit<j5 redvr)K6n olSev rb £ohov Diels ovx cj/totoe atrodavwv £wvn rw re6vriK6ri olSev rb £u>iov 3 : : 2 By water. dv0pu>7TLV7j'i TTiWea. JLja) Be Br/Xwaa) re^va? <pavepd$ dvOpd)TTOV TraOijpaaiv 6/tota? eoi/cra? zeal fyavepolcri real dcfraveai. Little Sl6tl ovx omoiuv rb airodavby rep £uiovti Ermerins. ra ^coira.

by the dead he knows the living.-xii. The characteristics of seercraft and of . perhaps ytvaitTKOixeva or The dei before &\\ore is suspicious. . Seercraft is after this fashion. by the invisible knowledge of the visible. ytvdxTKerat. right under- — standing always. know. sometimes wrong. getting knowledge of the visible. I. XII. woman human not. The belly is without consciousness. By the visible it gets knowledge of the invisible. Now that which men arrayed never remains constant. So great the difference between the right and the wrong." The grammar is curious. corpse is not like a living creature . 1 nature are these 1 : for 2 always rightly interpreted. 251 . The knowledge invisible human intelligence. 2 4 For ravra perhaps we should read ravrd. arranged by the gods. by the dead knowledge of the living. Or (with ravrd) "the same. for those who. by the present knowledge of the future. and by means of that which understands not men have understanding he who knows. xi. A man by union copies the nature and life of man. . with a begets a child by the visible lie gets of the invisible that so it will be. he who knows not. sometimes right Seercraft herein understanding. whether right or wrong but whatsoever things were arranged by the gods always remain right. yet by it we are conscious of hunger and thirst.REGIMEN. But I will show that arts are visibly like to the affections of man. those who know sometimes rightly and sometimes not. With 6p0ws some participle (or verb) must be understood. both visible and invisible. changes from childhood to manhood by A the present it gets knowledge of the future.

virb 7rveup.T(i>v 0. 3 4 6 a(paip4ovrai 0: cupaipeovres M. Kal eK rcov fiepewv avvrtOep-evcov bXa yiveraf Kevreop.drr) ravra rrovel dpaarfjvai. 2 the Te'x"»)s of M. TTvev/JLdTi dv ay k d^ovr e? to irvp. rpifterai.evoi re Kac rep. TOVTO 01 TWlVTb M. 252 . XV. 10 erriararai' 1 rj KaO/jpevos (pvais avrop. and so haps we should read Tex^'Toi.Oufx. virb tu>v : : 6 7 virayajy^ M kpai. KaXXieo ra brrepeyovra rroieovar ravrd p. 8 KeLpovre<i rrapaivXeKovres d. i/cuTee? ra oXa Kara 9 Kal ra p.rop.evo<i' perai.v6 pwno^. Kal Xa/CTL^ovai. Ktvebis 12 rix v V ffl (") * s corrupt. Kal vcjj ov novel dcpaipe'ovra vyiea rroielv.evoi yiverat. la^vporepa Kal 5 irdcrxet Troieovai.evoc ra aaOpd utto rcov Ir^rpoiv iiyid^ovrai. Xvp. rdp^vovres Se Kal Kal dvKsvreovres ra aaOpd vyiea iroieovaiv. Trvpl rrjv inrdp^ovaav rpo(f)i]v dcbaipeovTai? dpaibv he TTonqaavres iraiovai real crvveXavvovaiv. %lSi]pov opyava' f re'Xy^ai f 1 rbv aihripov 2 rt]KOU<rt. apaiov/xeua iirayaiyrji : ravra Ermerins and Diels. Per- irupl rrjKoucrt Bywater : : 7r«piT7J«ou<ri MSS. €Xkovo~i.11 Kal roBe h]rptKi)<ito Xvrreov arraXXaaaeiv.evos Si : vnb roiv for vSa.aivop. ravra MSS. 10 avay/ca5 apaiovpievos Korrrerai.IIEPI AIAITHS XIII. vSaros 8e dXXov dv0p(O7ro<i rpo<pf) virb la^upbv ytverai. XIV.aros %op. 7raiBorpi/3ov ravra^ rrda^ei virdp^ovaav rrjv rpo(j)i)v irvpi acpaipecrai. KaOalvSdrcov 8e eiraycoyf) 6 aXXofev la%vpb<i 7 01 yvacpees rovro BiaTrpijacrovrac Koirrovaiv. M.epta bXa rroteovai.epea Staipeovai. 10 Be ravrd eK rebv oXwv Opwrros /xepea iraa^ev Btaipelrai.

This do also the fullers. Iron tools. strike and pull by maltreating they make stronger. constraining the fire with breath they take away the nourishment it has already when they have made it rare. they beat it and weld it and with the nourishment of other water it grows strong. they beautify. I. . union of the parts wholes are formed. XIV. he is breath constraining him. This too is part of the physician's art to do away with that which causes pain. . Cobblers divide wholes into parts and make the parts wholes cutting and stitching they make sound what is rotten. xm. that which is rotten in men is healed by physicians. By fire the nourishment he has already is taken away. ing them in. Craftsmen melt the iron with XIII. Man too has the same exWholes are divided into parts. On the application of struck. and taking away the cause of his suffering to make by him sound. . water from elsewhere he becomes strong. or by weav. They trample. 9 10 11 k6tttov(Ji Xvixaivipiivoi laxvportpa noieou&iiax v P orf P : :L Kara ravra M : Kal to. Nature of herself knows how to do When a man is sitting it is a labour these things. As he is made rare. when he is moving it is a labour to come to rise . fire. rubbed and purged. 8 k6tttov(tiv eAKoucrc Xv^aifSfuvor (Akovcti Traiuvai Kufxaivo/xefot iroieovar M. : vyiOL^ofTai 12 Etmerins iiyiaivovrai MSS. XV. 253 Bywater has ravrd. and from perience. . Such is the treatment of a man by his trainer. By stitching and cutting. 8 rwtvrb M : ravra Bywater. : 6.REGIMEN. : . The same happens to a man.-xv. by cutting off the threads that project.

Littre adds nal irheiai et iroteovTes peLa Koieovffi because the Latin MS.eiTai' to.olcov.ev f-rjpd vypaivovTes. 6 Ti/cTOve<.ev ^rjpa vypaivovTes. 7027 has </>ep maius facientes minuunt.rj crvvTidevTesSet. 1 dXXa ra avra ex ei V tyvGiS tr/TyOi/c?. e/c tov fiapeos. p.eva Byvvater's emendation.^>opov 6 ipyd£ovTai. 254 . t<z puev oXa Btaipeovcri.ev kuto) "r irie^eTai. 8 ovvti8 Oeaai' Tavra trdvTa Bid(popa eovra avp.eva puev oXa p. have Toiavra or to aix<p6- Toiiirb iroieei. 6 Be eX/cer 6 [xev Be kcltw fieico irie^ovToyv avw epirei. [Mof aiKrjS opyavov virdp^ai irpcoTOv.2 ^ rpvirwcnv.' BiaipeovTes. OiKoBopboi ex Biacfropcov aup. a. Be vypa to.(pjTep&s tpepei M : twivto Tvoitovrts repoi 3 See Appendix. Bel XVIII. to Be avco rv XV <i BiaipeopLevrjs TrXeiovs kpireL. fiiov oloi (6vr(s 4 After iroifovcri M : fxiw iroieoprts 0. 9 ev w BifXu>aei a fiovXerat] approver]*. /ecu cnro pieiovs pLtfj<. 7}5ei 0: ISiws M. £i]paivovT€s.. eX/eei. £rjpaivovTe<. 6 omits 7 crvfji(popov. 0. XVII.oves koX eXdcraoves.vdp(o7rov to Be wdei' to avTo Troiel dficf)OTep(o^.IIEPI fievos irovel 12 AIAITH2 /cat. XVI. icai 9 jxe£. avvTciljies etc TOiv avTwv oi>x ai ai/Tal. Toiavra and iriTpiKrjs. Bianav dvQpwnivT)v ra Be vypa to. av exoi fi p. 2 1 The MSS. Be ovtco Be eyovTwv ovk pup. a/j..5 tou p. TrvevpLa piifieovTai.(f)epet. dvairavcraaOai. ovop. (p06yy<p Be ov^ Be Birjpr]p.au piev 6p. to. e'/c tov 6%eo<. TrpiovT€<i 6 fiev d>6el. 6 anQorepais e 'i ""'fail' M : iced afx^orepcos' M also has iroiiav before afupoTepws. 296. 8irjpr)p. to. to Be z Tr\eiu> Troieovai* TTOieovTes (fivaiv u>6el-\ to fiev eXicei. to. p.. to avro iroieovres dp-ipoTepwi.

" When they press. to 8e appears to come up and vice versa. [First there must be an instrument of music. 1 When they diminish they increase. whereby to set forth what is intended. XVI. some come up. what it should.] When they press the tool. 255 . they divide wholes and put together what is divided. The worils /SouAerai should probably be deleted as a Mou<tikt)s .REGIMEN. moistening the dry. dividing wholes and putting together what is Were this not so. to rest. applies to a different action of the saw.e. [When boring. * 8 M apfxovir) . After avfupepei awTti^ts M: apfioi/iris crvvra^ts 0. greater and smaller. in both cases the same thing is in. then down. Some parts <(of the food) are pressed down. from the high and from the 2 but not alike in low. drying what is moist. From one soul when divided come . moistening what is dry. the result would not be divided. which are alike in name 1 Probably this means that as the saw goes down the log however. In other respects too nature is the same as the physician's art. that goes down. they are all called "notes. it first goes up. one pushes and the other pulls. one pulls and the other pushes. . drying the moist. that expels it done. Builders out of diverse materials fashion a harmony. When carpenters saw." 2 I. more and less. in both cases doing the same thing." adds tjji (pvcrei. this goes up. xv. I. XVIII. Perhaps. It is a copy of the diet of man . marginal note which has been incorporated into the text.-xvm.] From the same notes come musical compositions that are not the same. All these being diverse are harmonious. XVII. They This draws breath are copying the nature of man.

tcl Be eXa^iarov Bid(popa y/cio~ra avpKpepei. dvapp. auvlararai' drveipyaa puevoi irpos Trdvra ^poovrar dv9pwrro<i e? rrjv dp^r/v t 1 ttA'Ivtov oiiKtrt and ovk e'A. KaX Bld(f>fOVa 4 avco tcpoverai Be tous (pOdyyovs 20 /cal Karoo.evi]<i 5 rf) avpicpoovii] ' repots. XX. fcpoverai rd Kpoup. oltto tj}? reXeuT atcri.0(rp. rplBovai.u0p'J)ira>y robs (pd6y-yovs. yXwcrcra pbovaiK)jv pbipbelrai BiayivooaKOvaa p. e'Aa- ^KTTK MSS. TrXuvouai. ^ovat. rd dvoj Karoo Kpouop-eva opdw<. rd Karon avw tcaXoos Be f)pp.era0oXal /cal TroXveiBeararai pbdXio~Ta TepTrouaii'.to aurd 8 irepioBot dp-)(fi<i ev ra> aoop. oyjra a/cevd&vaiv TravToScnra dvOpooiroLat. fxev dvu>. TrXoKee<$ 5 c reivouai.puii'iqs M. to. 256 . 10 Mdyeipoi (popcov.oarou Be XIX. KreviNaKoBeyjraL ttXvvovgiravrd 1 TraiBiwv Oeparreir).(f)(oi>a- TTpOaTTlTTTOVTCOV. Bia- ai'p.ara ev rd Be Kara).(f)6pcov.oia ironjarj.ax'o'TOJ' Wilamowitz 8 : irAelara and M.aXaK(p. 6 0: tt)s av^. Ttj/covo-f Trvpl p. dyovres kukXm irXeKouaiv.ev to yXuKu TO OJJU TO)l> /cal avp. ovk av exot op0w<.el Be 2 opioia itdvra iroiijaei Ti<?.«p ivirjl By water. 23 Xvirrj. Xpvcri'ov epyd^ovrai. e/c ftpcoaiv teal Ttoaiv dv6 pooirtp'^ Tepyfriv fiovaiK}} KO.I1EPI 1 AIAITHS ojxoioyv rd trXelarov Bidfyopa fidXiora avp:<pepei. 2 4 : tvi M.. rwv avT(ov ou ra aura.I i)v Be Trdvra bp. p. avy/cpivovTes. avOpivwi : a.ari. ov/ceri Tepyjrw at irXelaTat. /cal ovre e^6i ovre yXooaarj^. ou/c e%ei ouS" el ev ra> auju) Trdvra avvra^eiev. uKuOev 'ap%€Ttu iyri rouro reXevrq. Koirrouai. lo-^up'p Be ou. bracketed by Diels after T7J o~u/.

I. but there is pain when the tongue is out of harmony worst. Those that are most diverse make the best . from things that are the same. it. If a musician . II) and omits xP^"/Tal (b 8) and reads : ' M awepya 'dnevoi. Children are tended in the same way. fire it is comWhen they have wrought it they use it pacted. the discordant from the concordant. XIX. begins. not strong. to be food and drink for a man. Its notes are struck high and low.-xx. washes it. The tongue copies music in distinguishing. if the cook make all alike there is no pleasure in them and it would not be right either if he were to compound all things in one dish. some low. Cooks prepare for men dishes of ingredients that disagree while agreeing. beat it. Basketmakers turn the baskets round as they plait them they end at the place from which they begin. tune. those that are least diverse make the composed a piece all on one It is the greatest note. . and touto Knnerins ravra MSS.iwv (1. Curriers stretch. of the things that touch it.REGIMEN. 6 8 i<a\ XX. mixing together things of all sorts. 19) . things that are not the same. rb a >rb Diets: tovto : MSS. crv/xcpGova (1. So a man beats corn. the sweet and the acid. 257 . melt gold. Men work on ia><o5e\pai 6: ffKuroSf\pai M. omits <rvii<pA. xvm. comb and wash. The it ends where it circuit in the body is the same . sound. rub. pleases. it would fail to please. The notes struck while playing music are some high. for all purposes. wash it and With gentle. and it is well neither when the high notes are struck low nor when the low are struck When the tongue is well in tune the concord high. changes and the most varied that please the most.

rrpoariOeaai irpos ete ra eWeiirovra.p. ete rwv avrosv ovBev opoiov roiaiv avroiaiv opydvoiaiv. ovBev opoiov to erepov ra> erepa> ite rwv avrwv roiaiv 6 irdaavroiaiv opydvoiaiv. e£ vypcbv ^t]pa 7TOieovre<. 6 p. vypd %y)paivovre<$ 2 teal ra ^rjpd vypaivovre^dcpaipeoinai drrb rcov virepeyovTUiV.a\. %pr\ra. iayypu) pev irvpl ev rat aojpari ov avvlararai. rpoxbv Biveovai. of a note that has crept into the text. teal e'/c rcov fyiptov vypd. irXvvei. ex rcov vrrepeyovruyv dcpaipeofievos. Kepapees bniaw irpoo'U) ovre rod b\ov drropipia ra vypd %rjpaiva>v. rrdayei teal dvOpooTros' av^erai eie tov e'A.i<i rd irapoi^opeva pivrfpovevaai. f dptyorepws apa 4 T779 Trepi(popy)<i-\ ev Be rS> avru) epyd^ovrai rrepifyepopevw rravroBarrd. ' XXI.ayjipdriov avvOeais. Trvpd)cra<. 5 dvOpwnoi ravra yovai teal raXXa ^o 1 ev rrj avrrj Trepufropj) 10 irdvra epyd^ovrai. teal 7%.rjatv o~ojparo<i rroie1 ^u^?)?. ra p^vKiarov rov 3 ekaylarov e\ to ravra 10 i. 2 ko. teal ovre rrpo^wpel. to.a%to"TOV e? to peytarov. roiaiv eWenrovai rrpo(Tri6ei<i.rjpd vypaivcov teal XXII. Bvvap. 3 Perhaps Tavra.1 ra Jrjpa vypaiuoures omitted by It has the appearance M.. arjpi'fia dvOpcorrlv^ cfycovi)^. dXrjOet. Tpapipiaritet] roiovBe. ra iron^rea offKaxrai' ravra irdvra errrd ayi)pdrwv rj yvcoaw Bi 1 tt\V vf'i'X^s is bracketed by Diels. XXIII. i£ vBaro*. yvcoprjv Be e^ovra ov rroie- ovaiv. av^ovres. ovaiv irXrjv KvBpiavroiroiol p(.IIEPI AIAITHS alrov k6ttt€1. 258 .arc(0 Be.

i. Through seven 1 set forth figures o. power to recall past events. 2 59 Perhaps rai/ra. smallest to his greatest. rj. to must be done. a>. Statue-makers copy the body without the soul. as they do not make intelligent things. making dry from moist and moist from dry. symbols of a human 1 voice. taking away from that which is in excess. Potters spin a wheel. using water and earth. which shifts neither forwards nor backwards. moistening the dry and drying the moist. On this wheel as it revolves they make pottery of every shape. They take from that which is in excess and add to that which is deficient. making their creations grow from the smallest to the tallest. .e.REGIMEN. applies fire and then uses it. He grows from his Such is the case of man.-xxm. without two being alike. and no two pieces are alike. from the same materials and with the same tools. therein copying the revolution of the universe. I.u. adding to that which is deficient. xx.Trojj. 5 6 du<poTfpoos a/xa rov oAov a. strong fire it is not compacted in the body. yet moves both ways at once. e. (peofjs. XXIII. what comes I.7)t//s irept- M Diels would read &yti for d/xa. XXII. the seven vowels a. In one and the same revolution the same case.ia (sic) rrjs Trepi<poprjs (6) is has Kal aiMpoTtpwae. With grinds it. roiaiv avToiaiv bpyuvouTiv omitted by M. though they are made from the same materials and with Men and the animals too are in the same tools. drying the moist and moistening the dry. afxa rov '6\ov /*i. * corrupt.i/. XXI. but with gentle fire. they make all things. v. The art of writing is of this sort: the putting together of figures.

fj<i. tcXerrreiv. dprrd^eip. al alcrdtjcreis dvdpunro). rov<. dypwair]? XXIV. 6 Se ravra irotecov avvrj*.ev Xeyeiv.e£arraroiai dvBpwnoi rrwXeopres teal dweopievoi' 6 /cal ravra irXeicrra e^anrartjaa^. 6-^ris (fravepwv. 6Sp. Oeppiov rj yfrvxpov rrpevp. av0pco7ro<.IIEPI AIAITH2 fiara /cat.rj eTTiardpLepo<i. Ta aIo'X"rTa Ka\ KaWicna 8.M.. So M M : We : 26o . pudyovrai. dSi/ceiv Sitcat(o<.3 o fjurj ravra rroiecop /ca/co<i.aro<. i^arrarwcriv el? i/c rrdvrcov Kpiverai. vrro/cpiri/crj e^arrard eiSoras' ol Xeyovcnv ciXXa /cal (ppoveovaiv erepa* avrol eaeprrovai /cal i^epirovaiv ov)( ol avroi' epi b Se dvOpdnra) dXXa /u. 6 /cal top avrop p. 1 dteor) yjrocpov. •naXa'iovai.d%ovaiv. * elS6ras a \iyovaiv aAAa ko. Ta KaWtcrra Kal alcrx i(T7a ought perhaps to delete km. teal rore p. ciXXa Se rroielv. dvOpunroi ravra Siarrprjaaovrai.rj elvai rov avrop. pip yXwcraa rjSoprjs /cal d)]8ii]<.€iv Kara vop.aivop.\ (ppoveovoiv 8 elSoTas \iyovai Ka) (pporeoiKTiv fTepa.ev 1 Ka\ al ai'rrSr/rrsis avBp iirccv 6 : Kal tj aX<rQr)(ns 7] av8p£-nwv M : ai'OpwTM? 2 3 By water. e^airardp. fiid^eaOai rd al'a^iara /cal /edWiara. Oav/xd^erai. Sie^oSoi eijco /cal kaw Sid tovtoov dvdpwTTOiaiv ypwais. rpeyovcri. orop. tca/covf TroXXol is 6avp. dyoprjv i\66i'T€<. UaiSoTpifiir] ToiovSe.a 10 11 SiaXetcrov. aw/ma -^ravaios. /cXeirrovcriv..SiSdcr/covanrapa- vop. 0. Diels suggests #AAa A iyuv<nv aAAa. ovro<. teal 6 eiriardfievos ypdp. irivovres /cal p.Si errrd a^rjiiciTcov teal 6 p. Siarrpijaaerat..- dyadof Oeoyvrai errlSei^is ri)s twv ttoXXwv d<ppo- 10 Kplvovaiv eva i£ drrdprcop dyaflov. has yywtris dvSpunrotar aywviT]. oXiyoi yivdxj/covoiv. Se dXXov<.€voi ravra Siairptjaaovrai. which might easily be a repetition of the first syllable of KaWuna.ov.

to trick. tongue for pleasant or unpleasant . few know. they deceive. He who has deceived most is admired. "proof. The actor's art deceives those who know. to rob. they wrestle. which is probably the correct reading. 261 VOL.) £ . xxiii. Many admire. to be unjust justly. to deceive. He who does teach how not these things is bad he who does them is good. So too Fredrich. they trick. the same A man too can say one persons yet not the same. out of them all is judged. They behold these things and judge oue man out of all to be good and the others to be bad. . nostril for smell. I thought of evi before I knew that the suggestion had already been made by Bernays. I. They . they fight. 5 ev\ MSS. All these things a man performs.REGIMEN. Through these comes knowledge or lack of it. (HIP. 1 Bernays suggested air<$S€(|(j. both he who knows letters and he who knows them not. «al 6 TTOIUV M : OLKOVtlV 0." S\Ao cppoviovcriv.-xxiv. It is a display x of the folly of the many. IV. sight for the visible. Men come to the market-place and do the same things men deceive when they buy and sell. they come on and go off. . When drinking and raving they do the same things. The trainer's art is of this sort they tastes. run. knowledge. mouth for speech. body for touch. outwards : to transgress the law according to law. XXIV. the same man can be not thing and do another the same he may be now of one mind. passages and inwards for hot or cold breath. They say one thing and One think another. Peck suggests i'8<Was for elS6ras. now of . to do the foulest violence most fairly. Through seven figures come sensations for a man there is hearing for sounds.

ot. has Swdarai perhaps rightly. 20 ai rtyvai irdcrai rfj dvdpwnivrj (pvo-et iTrt/coivco- 21 veovaiv. but reads ovros.n EPI AIAITHS 1 ovtu> fiev dXXrjv tot€ 8e aXXijv eyetv ryvcbfiijv. irpoTepov p. Ta<.ov. i/arvpovpevr) €<? rrjv av^r/cnv rotai Trpeafivrkpoioiv. s if omitted by 6. TrpoeLprjrat. e<? dnav %<pov. i<TTi . TavTa lo~xvpoTaTa. iaepTret. p..a /cal av^eTai. 6p. ovoev eTepov eTepov ovo WTepov. 8e dvOpco7TO?. axrirep p.epea 8e dvB panrov . dvdpwixov av^erat p. TrepKpoprjs teal 10 tov crco/iaTO? av%Lp. UtTTt K.co Ta be 2 * ovk is omitted by ouros is omitted 6. /cal iv 3 Trjcnv rjXi/cirjcri Trjcri <yoj4p. OCTTf? 8vvaTai TrXeiGTOV? dvOpcoTTOvq Tpe<f>€tv.ev dXV iv Toiai t?}9 veoiai /cal rS)v awpbdrcov..T.6. /cal yjrv^pov tov KaTavaXicrfceTai e<? Tr/v peicoaiv tov dvO pcoTrov oaa 8e twv <Tcop. av^€Tai' Tv\rj p. are XeTTTWopevrj /caTavaXca/ceTai a-fw/zaTo?- tov iv 8e /3/aaSe?/? t?}? /civi]crio<. crvyKprjcriv e^ovcra irvpos real vScitos. H ical 8e ^jrvxv tov dvOpconov. M 262 . 'O ti p. 5 20 dneXOovTcov 8e tovtwv daOeviaTepa. /cal 2 /cal 8rj /cal e<? iravra 8e ouk vecorepop iv irdaiv /cal irpecrftvTepov. XXVI. by Si Ixi'Rpunrui. /cal twv irpocrrj/covTOiv. SvvaTat Tpecpecv ical av^eiv 8vvdaTr}<.ev dv e'? aXXo iaiXdr). are Ta^et^? iovar]<. outo? 4 lo"xypo<i' aTroXenrovTtov 8e.dT(ov d/cpud^ovTa iovo-r)? o~<op. toiovtov /cal e/caara twv o-wpbaTwv 6/cota TrXeia8vvaTai yfrvyd^ Tpecfreiv.eXea ov/c rjv 6 tl 8e e? ttjv yvvat/ca. av^eTai.r]ai. XXV. 6 ti irep dvenrvet. 8ta/cpiv€Tai ical Ta irdvTa dp..et. 6.oi(o<.aTO$. do-0eveo-Tepo<.

.REGIMEN. can mean " to keep " pets or servants. I. And all the limbs are separated and grow simultaneously. but is weaker when they desert him. following a later correction H. . the motion being slow and the body cold. becomes thin and is consumed for the growth of the body . none before or after another although those by nature sumed . Just as a potentate 1 is strong who can nourish very many men.' (5/co?a : ir\ei<rra Svvarai rj/uxas rp€<pttv. does not grow equally in all but in young bodies. To what does it refer? And how can a body nourish many souls ? 1 6 ToiovToiv i<dl fKaffra tSiv ffitiixiruiv ir\i7(TTa. as I have already said. even so those bodies are severally strongest that can nourish very many 2 souls. The soul of man. as the revolution is fast and the body growparticular But it . 2 aire\d6vTuv 8e TotJra'i' is strange. ovTi Trp6ripov oiiSiv . whether young or old. Such bodies as are in their prime and at the procreative age can nourish it and make it grow. ravra Iffx^pir^pov eKaffra r£iv ffoi/xdrcoy irKfTarai roioxnov ukoi Svvarai Tpi<pav ravra lff^vp6ovti' M toto 6 6. erepov tripov. it catches fire. ing. enter into every animal that breathes. XXVI. it is confor the lessening of the man. being a blend of fire and water. whereas in older bodies. and the parts of man. So all the arts have something in common with the nature of man. Whatever enters into something else does not grow but whatever enters a woman grows if it meets with the things that suit it. -xxvi. xxiv. as well as " to Tpifeiv " nourish the body. XXV. another. but are weaker when this faculty has departed. 263 . and in into every man. ofid' vffrtpov Littre. vffrtpov M : oijTt nyurepov in .

r]va>. SiafTTj M: : sx el e- 8: SiaiTTjcrej M. TO 5' omitted by M.6 iariv. e? (pdos dvaheiKvvrai eypvra 16 ri]V crvytcprjotv I'lvirep Kal hid Travros e^ei. rd S' iv rerpap.ra fxev ovv iv reaaapaKovra rjp. ra he j3pahvBiaKocTfielrai. * 5 apoev 6 Kal aptriva 6 : M. ov fiAvov Se oil f. "Appeva t&> piev ovv Kal drfkea iv r&he rpbrrw yivoir dv o>9 dvvarov rd he 0/]\ea drrb ru>v ^jrv^poyv Kal vypwv 7T/30? vharos p. rb iv 8 rrvp re 7rpo? iravra <pavepa.d\\ov Kal pia\a/ca)v av^erai Kal airwv icai rrorwv Kal iirirrjhevpbdrtov rd he dpaeva 7rpo? irvpbs pidWov. repov. rd fiev Odaaov. rrjv yvvaiKa. otfco? dv icai rov rrvpb<. TVXV ^Kaara Kal 10 rrjt Tpotyrjs. 264 . 2 XXVII. pr)a ov <ydp a7ro rov dvhpos piovov drroicpidev av^ipiov Kal dirb tt}<> yvvaiKos. ovv OrjXv re/celv fiovXoiro.i6vov M. ware KaravaXiaKeiv rb iruppeov Kal avviardvai ht daOevetrjv rov rrvpos' oKorav he Kara rcovrb dpicporepa avveK-neabvra 7 eKarepov fiev tw Tr\7]0ei 8 rvyr)> avfiiri'mei 1 8 rrpbs . hid rdhe.r\a'i. a>? 8' aiiT&)? Kal dWa ybvipia ylverai ra p.o)v /ecu airwv Kal hiairt]<i.IIEPI (pvcret AIAITHS rrpbrepa (paiverai r<ov iXaaaovcov.ev Odaaov Ta he (Bpahvrepov ivvea pur/al errrd^va reXewi- re\ea)<i.epr]aiv tercet rcdvra <$>avepd. . rd §' iv 1 rpiai. rfj 7rpo? vharo'i el 3 hialrr) \pt]Greov el he dpoev? rfj 7r/)o? Trvpbs 5 rov dvhpa iirirrihevaei hta/creov Kal ov piovov oeoB Kal 10 hel rovro ai. 6|ei . dWi]\a. hum dWa dWa rb piepos ovk eyei iKavijv rrjv Kivtjaiv rov vypov. ovhev ovtc iv iaq> he \povw rrdvra rrpbrepa yivopueva. d-rrb rcov jjrjpoov Kal 6epp. rd S' iv hvo p.

to consume and to solidify the oncoming water. 1 It ylveTai. time to form some take less time. . aWa 7 M oi) yap rb airb rov avtipbs /uovpoi/ av^tfx6v Kal rb aicb ttjs yvvaixbs 5ia r6Se' <TvvtKtr(o6vTa 8 av/jnriirTtt 8 : : avvtfxir(<r6rTa M. not but also the woman. three months and others in four. drinks and pursuits that are cold. Males. 265 8 Trepnrlmtt M. I. For growth belongs. moist and gentle. they conjoin. If he wants a boy. grow from foods and regimen that are dry and warm.-xxvii. blend as they will have always. the fire to the fire and the this. yet they Not all take the same are formed none the earlier. inclining to fire. some longer. 6 reads So 8. grow from foods. owing to the bulk of its moisture and the weakness of its fire. to the man's but also to that of the secretion. some in . in the following manner. according as they severally meet with fire and nourish. ment. Either part alone has not motion enough. Similarly also some are formed before others those that grew quicker are fully formed in seven months. Males and females would be formed. those that grew more slowly in nine months and they appear in the light with the same some two months. So if a man would beget a girl. But when it happens that both are emitted together to one place. larger become visible before the smaller. Some have everything in visible in forty days. might perhaps be well to punctuate with a colon at no colon at TeAe&is and a comma at a-KoOiiKwrai. ianv diroKpidev. inclining more to water.REGIMEN. for the following reason. Females. . xxvi. only woman. he must live according to a regimen And not only the man must do inclining to fire. so far as possible. he must use a regimen inclining to water. 1 XXVII.

fcal Kai tt)< Keivierar tl X^P^I 1 weVrji. Kai ylvovrat ovtoi 7 dvBpes Xapirpol Ta? -^u^a? Kai to acbpa lo~xvpoi. rjv eireiTa. apaev drrb TVl to tt}? yvvai/cbs drjXv.ecr#at 7rt7TTO^TO? kXvBcovos. to birdpypv.<poTepa)V TVXV> av^eTai Kara. to pev yap BiaKplveTai e? nrdvTa. evdea><. KCU TdVT T)V TV%r) CTVVetCTTeCTOVTa 4 1 28 Trap dp$OTepwv Kara tottov. he BvvaTai teal to dr/Xv Kai to dpaev 7roo? aWrfka. teal ovviGTavai 7r/ao<? to vrrdp^ov rjv Be e? vypbv 3 Kai Treai]. iv fiifj Be f/plpy tov prjvos eKacrTOV BvvctTai avaTrjvai tcai KpaTrjaai TOiV 67UOVT(0V. el fitv odv iv ^VPV 1 : M * o-vvacirtcovTO. ware purj KaTaa/3evvva6ai vtto tov €tti2 to tc iir ibv 8e^. to Be acbpa Bia(fxspei endoTOV. air apyr\<i KaTaaftevvvTaL tc dWd hiakveTCLi e? ttjv pelco t&^iv.ev ovv alel opoirj ical iv pe^ovi Kai iv iXdaaovr ov yap dXXoiovTai ovTe Bid <f>vatv ovTe St dvdyKr/v acbpa Be ovBeiroTe tq)vt6 ov8evb<. XwiaTaadai acbpaTa drroKpiOevTa dp. Kpareei rod ovveKTTf<roi/Tos vSaros' 6 : %v futv vvv iv |rjp")i X^'PV L irtpiKtvitTai.nEPI AIAITHS To rrvp rfj teal to vBcop waavToos. 1 Ta 6 pi] vtto t% BiaiTT]<i f3Xa/3ebai rrjs Be to Be pev dirb tov dvBpb<. to Be avp5 10 ptayeTai 777)09 diravTa. 266 : . 7re<T Z7> * rjv pev ovv iv %yjpfi X^PV 20 avve/c7reaovTo<. Ktvelrai. Bioti Kai iv dp(f>oTepoi? dpcf)OT€pa Tpecf)€Tai. Kpariti tov auvefiirfffivTOS vBaros M. rjv diroKpiOr]. 2 itrnriirTOVTOs ifurivTOVTOs M. 6: |i/>'6^(7r6(roVra M. el Kai /cparel rod vBaTO?. rjv pev ovv e<? dpcreva y XXVIII. xal Bioti r) pev ^v^V tcovto irdai Tolaiv iptyvyoiai. s After re adds imb tov iixTtiirrovTos k\v5u}vos. "tyvyji p. ovTe Kara (f)vaiv ov$ vtt dvdy/crjs. Kai drrb tovtov av^erai to Trvp.

and master the advancing and that only if it happen that parts are emitted from both parents together in one place. for it both dissolves into all things and also combines with all things. in a larger creature as in a it changes neither through nature nor through force." 6 6 7 is is a/j. 1 On one day in each month it can solidify. and the babies become men brilliant in soul and strong in body. and therefrom it grows. But the body of no creature is ever the same. if it also master the water emitted with it. matter that cannot form a living embryo ? 2 Littre says " : ils croissent sur le fonds existant. but receives the advancing water and solidifies it on to what is there already. But if it fall into a moist place. it I. i. always alike. is set in motion.-xxvin. Now if the bodies secreted from both happen to be male.REGIMEN. either by nature or by force. so that it is not quenched by the onrushing flood. Male and female have the power to fuse into one solid. 267 . water likewise. : ra ffw/xara 6. omitted by M 0. they grow up to the limit of the available 2 matter. man be male and that of the woman female. both because both are nourished in both and also because soul is the same thing in all living creatures. immediately from the first it is quenched and dissolves into the lesser I'ank. Now if the fire fall in a dry place. for 1 Littre translates: "passant au rang de decroissance." Does it refer to "lifeless" matter. xxvii. should soul is Now smaller. parts. although the body of each is different.'poTepoip is t2> (Twfxa omitted by M. XXVIII.e. unless they be harmed by If the secretion from the their subsequent diet.

av^erai tov to Be pbeiovraf 30 avTov Tpbirov tw irporepcp' yivovrai Be ovtoi dvBpoyvvot /cal /caXeovrai tovto 3 ainat. rwv 6p9u}$. /cpaTijarj Be to apaev.IIEPI eiriKpaTrjcnj to apaev. to Be OrjXv p.ev diro t?}? yvvai/cos OrfXv. op. 'i) piKprji irphs ttjv /xe^wf irpbs T?.(pOTepo)V OrfXv OrjXv/ccoraTa /cal ev^veaTara yiverai' i)v Be to p.LKpr} irpos 2 r) pie^cov Trpos rrjv eXdaaovaKOivfj Be T(bv vnap^ovrcov /cpaTtovar ro Be aebpia to ptev apcrev av^erai. dpaavrepai p. ov yap X CLTT €%€L 7T/90? O Tt bpLOTpOTTOiTepOV 20 irapeovrodv rrjv //.Tepov trover fieC'Ji : bixoTpo<f>iirtpov M. rpels pLev ovv Be irpb<i to pidXXov /cal rjaaov dvBpcbv.epecov /cal Tpocbds teal TraiBevaias koX hia/cpiveraL p.o)<. Be /cbapnai /cal avrai. Bidcpopoi to towvtov* elvai Bia Tr/v avy/cpr/atv tov v8aT0<i tcov p.e'£&> irpoaepyeTai 'yap teal /cal 0^0) pijo £i TO)V r) p. /cpaTrjay Be to OfjXv.ev tcov 6 rjv Be to irpoadev. BrfXcaaw irepl tovtoov. Kai 7) M : Trpoaepx iTal yap K <d 0. tov to 6"' airb t?}? yuvai/cbs dvBpbs OrjXv. irporepwv Xaparpoi. Be TrpolovTi to5 Xoycp /cal XXIX. Bioto airo tov avhpbs to apaev efcpdrriaev. curb Be tov dvBpbs drjXv.f i\dff<xova- 268 .ev tyvyr) r) irpbs ttjv layvporepyv Ttpoa player at daOevearepr]. yeveaie<. To rpbirov rjv Be OvjXv yiverai Kara tov avTov aTvoxpidfi. puev airb 1 6/xOTponu.ox. dvBpeloi yivovrai. rjv Be airb fxev tt)? yvvai/cbs apaev d-rrorcpiOfj.ev tcov 37 avvrjdeia<i. AIAITHS r) p.eiovrat /cal koX ovtoi rjaaov e? aXXrjv pbolpyjv. Be. op. puev air dp. 5 apaev. /cal rovvopia tovto Bi/caia>s e^ovaiv. to Be drrb tov dvBpb<.

and the male get the mastery. while less brilliant than the former.-xxix. education and In the sequel I shall discuss these matters habits. the woman but female from the man. For rh toiovtov has roiovrot. both to the highest But if the woman's secretion be female degree. goes to the greater and the greater to the less. and the female gain the mastery. 1 And these. phrodites called.REGIMEN. but the degree of manliness depends upon the blending of the parts of water. also." is omitted by 0. the male gain the mastery. and the man's male. but the female body decreases into another part. If the secretion of 1 XXIX. and united they master the available matter. "destiny. The male body grows. (but neither M nor 6) have after 6v\v the words a#|«Tai rhv avrbv rpoirov ical. A few MSS. 8 oEtoi 8 avrai M. both parents be female. xxvm. I. it grows just as in the former case. also is generated. but nevertheless they too are modest. the girls are bolder than the preceding. Littre prints them. upon nourishment. they turn out brave. But if the man's secretion be female. as the male from the man won the mastery. and the woman's male. These turn out herma(" men-women ") and are correctly so These three kinds of men are born. nevertheless. since there is nothing more conFor the small genial present to which it can go. while the female diminishes. 3 4 s ovv t) : 269 . the weaker soul combines with the stronger. and have But if male be secreted from rightly this name. the offspring prove female and fair. In like manner the female Or.

XXX. irapaayJ]aovrai J 3 dX\ iv erepo^ rov erepov.(f)orepa<. Between irphs authority inserts ^tj. yvvaircb<. avgerai rbv avrbv 8e To\p.(f)0- Te/3«oo"6 "7T€(f)VfC(i)cri rewoiv 6p. Kara. 19 8iarepivovrai e? to ahifkov tovto real dvOpwirlvri yjrvxv 7rao"%e«. twv irporepwv Tponov. reeteavpevowi 7rpo? reercavp. toiovtov 8rj to ttclv e&Tai' orcorav 8 dvaXcoacoai ttjv virapyovaav rpo<pr)V. opuoiov real ov 8id8i]\o<> to crwp.ev irXelcrjov rr)<.oia)<.ivov<. real la^vpov pev ovv ttoXv air apcfroTepcov diTorepidfi. and KeKav/ievovs Littre' without MS. to crTopLa.a)v. Uepl 8e t<ov 8i8vp. real dvaydo-real grjpaivcovTai dirb t>}9 rcaOdpcnos. ov a7r' yiverai 8i8vp.a.r)rpecov rjv yap opLoieos dp. (frvcris alriT) t<ov p. 4 OTTOtw aa)p.070? Sr/Xcocrei. ty v XV v 1 H'V TrpoafiiayecrOai ^v^f?* defropcov 2 e? irpocravdpaicas.wv yivopevwv o>8e 6 to p.ari ^anrvpeovrai.IIEPI dpcrev. Kparrjarj 8e rb AIAITHS Orfkv. Ta? diroayi'Cpcrdai rjv pLrjrpas 6/iot&)9.. oreorav p-ev apaeva 1 dpicpoTepeov a7Torepi0f).a 7rdvr€<. eg avdyter/s tyvxni2 M : (piffei 8. For a<pop£>v 4s M has atypwv icrriu. >) X. ytvovrai 10 real avhpetai aTrtcrrel el 8i tj<? ovopd^ovrat.. 8e 7T<»9 aXXw? ovv yivrjTai. 270 . Svvarai iv avgeaOai' reparel yap rjv dpefroTeprjcri rfjai yd>pri<jiv T?)<? TpocprjS t?}? €TT cover r]<. rjv ware ev@v$ to 10 CTirepfia rd rov dvBpos avWapbftdvr) 5 e<? dp. rpoeprjv avrolat 8i8ov<>. lo~%vpov<.i]porepai. Svvavrac Tpecfretv.. 77/30? aa0evea<. {3dX\.

strong on weak. How twins are born my discourse will The cause is chiefly the nature of explain thus." If anyone doubts that soul combines with soul. 8 has dirau 7rape<rx??K^T05 nod oil StdS^Kov 'irtpov rod arepov. Let him place x lighted coals on lighted coals." 3 - in So M. has So rotovrov dirb irdvTwv. with that flame. — ~ : M 5 After airoo-xi^eo-Qai M has ouru yap avdyKt\ aKldvaffBai. for the female soul to be represented by a weak burning When combined. unlighted. and one will not be distinguished from another. in fact. Now if the seed secreted from both parents be abundant and strong. growth takes place after the same fashion. I. the two coals burn with one flame. and if it opens equally.Peck reads irav Trapao'X'h eTat * a * oil StdSrjXov rb erepov rov krepov perhaps rightly. XXX. and the female gain the mastery.-xxx. They will all present a like substance. if it conceive the secretion of the man so that it immediately divides into both parts of the womb equally. with Littre's reading. 1 more natural. 271 . let him consider coals. but the whole will be like the body in which they are kindled. giving them nourishment. it can give nourishment. it can grow in both places. For if it has grown equally on either side of its mouth. coal." Bat it seems if the male soul be the strong burning coal. and also dries equally after menstruation. as it masters the nourishment that reaches it. And when they have consumed the available nourishment. they dissolve into So too it is with the soul of man. and are named "mannish. the womb in woman. invisibility. but the girls prove more daring than the preceding. In all other cases twins are not Now when the secretion from both parents formed. xxix. 4 6.REGIMEN. " Or. appropriate "to the substance which they are kindled.

XXXI.a re yiverat hjxa 6 : yovr\p. TSaTO? he to XeTTTOTaroz/ Kal Trvpos to dpaiorarov avyKpiqaiv XaftovTa ev dvdpco-nov acopcni vyieivordrrjv ejjiv cnroheiKvvet hid rdhe.d. : r65f to. 10 7 virapyov irpocrhtacpdeipei. ovk eiriylveTai 5 eV rfjai 6 vypaalrj ovhepciii.a aTreKplOt]. OrjXea yiveTaf orav he to fxev drfkv. oKorepov av e/caTepov Kpari'icrr). 3 4 X°P ia o^-oia 6 to x u P la M. yovifxd re jlverai a/xa* e? <f>do<. M: Ta5« 6. eTTena r[]aiv avTjjai rpocpfjaiv av^erai. ' XXXII. re avaytverai a/u. to he dpaev. ofioca he dXkt]\oio~i ra hihv/za hca Tcihe 2 yiverai. ?/tj? to elairc-rrTov hid tovto avviaTarat i% apxv$ aireppLa KparrjaeLKal ^caec. ovre to vhcop €9 to ttvkvotcltov ev Trjai tov vhaTos ecf)6hoiaiv..IIEPI ev AIAITHS 1 o/corav he anfyorepois cipaeva yevvdadai' OrjXea an a/jicpoTepcop. 272 . eireiTa 20 21 ap. ovk imyiverai 6: ovKen yiverai elffirmrov 6 : itrnorninrov M. toiovtov e-rrav^erai. oti irposTov jiev t« 3 yjcopia opcoia ev olaiv av^erai. Eiiriyova he Ta>he rro rpoirw ylveTaiorav ai re p. oti ev Tjjai pieTa/3o\f}cn rov eviavrov twv copewv rfjcri fxeyio-Tyo-iv ovk eTrtTrXrjpovrai to eo-^arov 9 10 ovherepov. ovre to irvp ev rijai rod 7rvpo<i. to re airepfia fyipov Kal depp-ov ejXTcear].- fitjrprjcriv dWa 9 (pepei 8 dficpolv. hioTi ov Tavrd avp.a M : 70'ci/ui T6 avdyerai 8 6 Littre. ovre to)v i)\iKiea>v n ev rfjai fxera1 2 yevvacrdat 0M : yevvarat Littre. y6viu. 7j re yvvr/ tokxvtt). hiareXeiv he ov hvvcnai. M (perhaps rightly).r)Tpai Oep/iai re Kal g-tjpal (pvaei ecocTiv.

Superfetation occurs in the following way. is I. M. 7 TrpocrSLCHpdeipci M . and at birth they reach together the light of day. whether these be due to altei'ations in age or to together . . -xxxii. of necessity boys are begotten in both * but when from both it is female. 9. preceded. but destroys as well the embryo already there. Therefore. TjAiKiajv 6: fiiKpewv M. M has Kal (perhaps rightly) for raiira. which has ravra 10 ovSerepov.REGIMEN. xxx. 8 8 dix<p(Hv u M avrotv M omits ovk : . Twins are like one another for the following reasons. and the woman is also such. on being blended together in the human body. eV : ianri after d\\a. But when one secretion is female and begotten. 273 . whichever masters the other gives the embryo its sex. male. there is no superfluous moisture in the womb to master the seed that enters. XXXI. XXXII. 1 If we accept the reading of 6 M the grammar is peculiar we have ytwaffdcu as though avdyicr} (ami not «'{ dvdyKijs) had . (1) The finest water and the rarest fire. and the seed that enters it is dry and hot. When the womb is naturally hot and dry. : diacpopei 0. . girls are places . the places are alike in which they grow then they were secreted . though it congeals at first and lives. the other male. produce the most healthy condition for the following reasons. yet it cannot last. At the greatest changes in the seasons of the year neither is fulfilled to the extreme limit the water is not fulfilled to the densest limit at the onsets of the water.. then they grow by the same nourishment. nor is the fire at the onsets of the fire. First. as the same things do not suit both.

ttjv (fiver t€ x /cat Tavrrjv iv vyialvovTes Siare- Xeovcri tov Trdvra %povov. p-^xpi TeacrapaKovra erewv. Xrjcfrdwcriv biro tivos voar)paTO<i 20 vrrep Teaaapd/covTa eVea.ev ovv u/aavTw.e6iaTavTa peTa tt)? wprjs. vSaTO<. kcltci pLi/cpov tov o>v vBaTO<i p. dpLcpoTepa.vBaTOS to XeTTTorarov /cal irvpb<i to apaiorarov 2 ol p.evr]<. npb<.ev ev re 30 icpoBov yivop.aTa ninTovai.. laxvpa f1 ^ yiveTai. oine twv <jLtu>v <al ttotcov iv rolcri BvvavTat yap yevealv re irXeiarriv /cal BetjacrOai a/xcfjorepa rrXrja fxovrjv ya\icb<i 6 /AaXa/ccoTaTOs /cpfjaiv apaioraTos /cal Se%erat ical yiveTai icd\\i<TTO<. /cal iv tov vBaTo<. 3 aTToOvrjoKovoiv 6 : 8i..aTi. AIAITHS 10 BiaiTrjfxacri. cfivXaKi)^ Be iroXXrj'i Beo/xeva' yap Ta? Trjai p. ol Be /cal p^XP yyp w ? T °£ e'cr^aVotr 1.eva rd o~(op.acri avp. xpfjcrOai. ryci tov nvpbs cocravTw?. nvpbs Be i<p6Bov Be yevopevrjs. ov pdXa aTToQvijaicovaiv? OKoaa Be t&v acopudTcov crvy/cprjaiv Xap. roiaiv ovv 8iaiTrip.eydXa<.a<l>vyydvovoi M.(f)epei \pr\aQai tov tolovtov npbs Ta? eopa? toO eVeo? ivavTiovpuevov. as it also does after Ofpnat at the beginning of Chapter XXXI.€Ta/3oXd<. M 274 . i(p6Boiaiv e? voo~r}p. v&clto? p. TOtavTa <rvp/3aivei rv XPV v <$>vo~iv i£ Biayivcoa/ceiv XPV y l /cal 1 omits t« after fj-aXaxdraTos.6/cocroi 8" av fidvei irvpbs tov lo"xypordTOv /cal vharo? tov Ka^ ippu>p.IIEPI (TTaae(Tii>.aTa irvKvordrov. 2 ovyKprjmv XanfSavovra omitted by d. ical XenTOTaTOv tov "irayyTaTOV nvpbs crvy/cprjOevTCov iv tu> crd>p. Total toicti 717)09 nvpos. crvy/cprjaiv \apf3dvovTa irXelarijv ey^ovre<. e^et in p.

1 For both •(finest water and rarest fire) can admit the amplest It is the softest and rarest generation and fullness.REGIMEN. general superiority of 275 M . This passage is a clear proof of the over our other MSS. . and fall into illnesses at the onsets of the water and likewise at those of the fire. xxxii. the writer asserts. (3) When the thickest water and the finest fire have been blended in the body. while such of them as are attacked by some illness after the age of forty do not generally die of 2 it. or through peculiarities of diet. when they are blended together. is "a good life" all his days. that 2 1 The 8ia<f>vyydvovoi of ("rarely escape death") is an obvious correction based upon a misunderstanding of the argument. and one inclined to water when the onset of fire occurs. but need great caution. Accordingly it is beneficial for a man of this type to counteract the seasons of the year in the diet he follows." Such a man. bronze that admits of the most thorough blending and becomes most beautiful even so is it with the finest water and the rarest fire. (2) Such bodies as are blended of the strongest fire and the densest water turn out strong and robust For they are physically. who may be "a bad life. Now those who have this nature continue in good health all the time till they are forty years of age. the foods and drinks that comprise diet." but to the man whose elements are a happy blend of "the finest water and the rarest fire. The verb applies not to the average man over forty. I. some of them till extreme old age. subject to great changes in either direction. the results are such that we must discern a nature cold and moist. changing it gradually as the season itself changes. employing one inclined to fire when the onset of water occurs. These Referring apparently to the ecpotiot of water or of fire may take place at the change from one period of life to another.

vyirjpoTaTot Be ol TrpeafivrepoL Kal t« eyyiOTa BlaiTai oaai 6 yjrv^ovai Kal vypai€KaTepo)v. Kal twv tS)v rjXiKieoyv. vyirjpoTaroc (pOivoTTcopai. KaTappoaoBeis Be BiaiTrja0ai baa ^rjpalvovTa tyu^ei Kal aiTwv Kal nrovcov. o~d>/j.aTa Ta^e'cw?.' rjXiKirjcriv aKLta- TToielaOai ^ovar/cn evetjlijv vocrepcoTarot. vecoTaTau ecaiv Be au^erac Be ToiovToi 6 to. t")KiaTa Be ev rq> (pOivoTroopo). toiovtoictiv Oai 2 Be oKoaa avp. teal BiaiTacrTa^e<w<? yrjpdo-KOvaiv al (frvaies avrai. i. 7rpo? aapKo<.(^epet Tolai depfiaivei Kal fyipalvei Kal rrovoiai Kal gltolgi.r]pr) (pvat^ Kal 6epp. 276 . avfx<pepei ttotojv Kal tou? Be ttovovs tovtols elaco TOV aCOLiaTOS el Be avyKpiiaiv paXXov. pev XeiTTOTaTOv. BevTepov verjvia-Koi. TOialBe yivcoaKeiv vypyjv Kal depfii]V (f)vaiv Ka/xvovat fiev LidXio~Ta 01 ttovovs ToiovToi ev Tffl 50 oTt ev fiev rq> too (j)0ivo"7Twpa> r/pi. ev Be ^r/paalrj'i' avLiLierpir) Tr)$ tu>v he ol i)XiKiea>v voaeptoraTai baai ylvovTai. to WKVoraTOv Te Kal to vSaros uyporarov 7rvpo<i avyKpr/aiv ev tm aoo/iaTi.IIEPI AIAITHS vyprjv ravTa ra aco/xara ev ra> ^eiLicovi vocrex ev tw r)pi r) ev ra> pcorepa t) ev tw depei.r). voae40 pcoraroi Be ol TrpeafivTcnoL Kal ol eyyiara. with t] written over the el-. rjpi v7rep/3oXr) Tr}<.aTO<i paXXov tou? 4 3 et Be Xdfioi iroelaOai i) 737309 ra eXaa>. o-vfj. SiaiTaodcu 9 : M : SiaiTeloOai M. vyelrj Be ev Tjjai tov v8aTO<. 60 Tolai ToiovToiaiv ev tj}o~i tov irvpbs ecfroBoicriv. 1 2 Kal r\ 9. vypaalr)^. Kal TTpbs ra e^co tov acop. toiovtcov ol iralBes.cf>epei Xdftoi 7rvpo<i Te to layvpoTaTov Kal vBaTOS to vovao<.

M Littre wrongly says that 8 omits the word. the body than to the inner parts. 3 4 5 TOVS ttovovs 8 el : TOV TTOVOV Se AojSijt M. for age. and their exercise should be directed more to the outside of . omits kclI ttotojv. because in spring there is excess of moisture. 8c Aaj3oi 8 : rjv 8 8 omits /cat oKooai M: novwv and o'acu 8. regimen should consist of such things as dry and cool. whether it be exercise or food. the youngest are the most unTheir bodies grow quickly.REGIMEN. xxxii. Such persons ought to use a regimen that warms and dries. those nearest these ages. next come youths. sick at the onsets of fire. such persons are most healthy in childhood. when the body is stoutest. and old and the elderly such constitutions age rapidly. while the least healthy are the very summer. bodies are I. the Such persons fall constitution is dry and warm. and are healthy at the It is at the prime of life. As for age. 277 . Their persons prove to be subject to catarrhs. but such healthy. more unhealthy in winter than in As in spring more than in autumn. (4) If the moistest fire and the densest water be blended in the body. and these persons profit more if their exercise be directed to the internal parts of the body. Regimen should be such warm. that these fall sick most It is the same with the most healthy are the aged. (5) If there be blended the strongest fire and the finest water. but in autumn a moderate amount of dryness. least in . M. and onsets of water. drink and exercise. both food. from the following signs discern a nature moist and Such persons are sick most in spring and autumn.

to vypov i'jBi] Be €<? ttjv tov to e? crcop. Be crvyKpijaLv Xafirj irvpos Kal vBaro<.ev ovv Kal OeppLOTara oaa eyytara yevecrios. XXXIII. aTpepltpv Be to acop^a ttjs av^aios eypvai' rral<.IIEPI AIAITHS Kal vovai. tj}<. vocreprj p. Be Oeppiolai Kal £r)poicri. tov ^r/pOTarov.po9 Kal yfrv^po'i. deppolcri p. f. At coBe Be rj\iKiai p. irpot. on rov irvphs iiri2 Kparel r) ecfroBos tov vSaros' ^rjpolai Be. 1 M has OKoaoi rjKiara €K6epy. £r. rrjv av£r)o~iv puev KLV1]aiV TOV TTVpoS. yu-j) ttoXv dirb tcov virapyovTcov (pepovres. otl to KaravdXcoTai to e'/c tov iraiBos. oKOTav aTrj 3 to acopa. Biotc tov p. rjo-vxr) Bia8epp. i) toiclvtcll r)v (pvcries fia/cpoftioi Kal evyrjpoc yivovTai. erea reacrapdKovra voaepal' TralBe? Be vjirjporaroi.v Trapao)(r)oovoi. dXX' eaTrjKev.ev.' rfkiKtat.ev ovv (pvaios Biayvcoaios ovrco %pr) BiayivcoaKeiv 79 crucTTacrto?.ev iv tco Be iv tco rjpt Kal toIgiv vyirjpr) eyyiara coo~avrco<. verjviaKO<.r)pr) TOiavri] (pvais. UVrjp. koX rd iyopeva cbcravTcos. 278 . ea)vrd<.aLvovT€S km ovvTTjKovTes nAeioTrjv ipv£i. oXiyov irpocrayopievoi.aLvovTes. irepl p. Kal av^erai &)<? ttXsIcttov.ev avrai irpos 10 ovv KeKprjTat. i£ dp%rj<.ev deppov r) ecpoBos ovk eri iiriKpaTel.aTO<i. vypolai Kal depfiolai. Kal tcov irbvcov oo~oi ^ictara i/cdep/jLaLvovai x TrXeLaTrjv yjrv^iv irapaavvrtjKovai Kal a^crovaiv ai tov apatoTUTOV 70 Kal ^rv^prj (pdivoircopM. TO Be VTTO TCOV 7TOV00V. Kal rd it poo eyovi a eKaTepoicriv. Blotl eK tovtcov o~vvio~TT]Ke Kal iv tovtoictiv rjvfyjOiy vyporara p. Bianai oo~ai Oeppbal iovcrat vypa'ivovai' Kal irovoi if.

partly for the growth of the body.'4. 3 on k. and partly through exercise. For OKorav ot% d has wartHj.-xxxiii. is dry and cold. warmest are those nearest to birth. XXXIII.t. childhood (and the periods just before Regimen after) is the most healthy time. because of them he is composed Now the moistest and and in them he grew. (6) Should there be a blending of the rarest fire and the driest water. The various ages stand thus in relation A child is blended of moist. when his growth is over. A . 8e. because the onset of the has the mastery. and likewise those next to it. warm elements. such a nature is dry and cold. and moistens. ought one to judge of the nature of the original and constitution of a man. should be such as is warm and at the same time moistens. fJ-ev. unhealthy in autumn and healthy in spring. tov i"8aT0j.REGIMEN. as cools I. but stands. now that ij M has Oepp-os iypos avrjp. partly for the motion of the fire. Exercise should be mild at first. gently warming and not taking too much In this way then from the available strength. xxxii. young man is composed of warm and dry elements warm because the onset of the fire masters the water. oti tov nvpos emKpareei C(f>oBos. unhealthy. old age. dry because the moisture from the child is already spent. and these grow the most. to each other. 2 warm no longer and the body. A man. 879 . with such exercises as warm and dissolve least and produce the most thorough Such natures have long life and a healthy cooling. gradually increasing. "autumn" and "spring" denoting approximate At the age of forty (more or less) they are periods.

ci)Tarov. tion of Littre . XXXV. 192 r. Kal KaOapcriv 10 crdtpaTos eKacrrov p. TTpeoflvTcii ipvxpol Kal vypol * ra /xev dpoeva is omitted by 9 and M. 6 For Kal Kadapoiv 9 has koI dpavai (an interesting haplography from koX Ka9apaiv). irpecr^vTai 3 yjrv^pol Kal vypoC. hiori Trvpos p. r)\i/cirj<. has ovko.IIEPI e-^rv/CTCtl' AIAITHS vewTepr)*. begins r^y Tpo<f>rjv ovpifiepei. hidrycriv p. while fol. 3 Trpeofivrepot tpvxpoiai 9. to he vhcop dirb tov irvpbs to 6 fyipov eKaiepov he ovtco<. 8e Kal e'jaeVotai ^pe'ea^ai. odiru for outcds Fred. -tyvxris 6vopa%opbevrj<s Kal dcppocrvvrjs &he e%ei. 8ia raura oi 8e Kparelrai.irvpos to vyporarov Kal vhaTOf to ffrjpoTaTOV Kpijcriv XafiovTa ev crd>p.ev d7rd\Xa^i<i.rjvbs iroieovrai. K'. 6 There is a large gap in 9 here.r)pwv p. Littre gives this reading on the authority of his MS. See p.ev rrvp e%ei airb tov vharo<i to vypbv. ovko) t?}<? e<J)68ov 2 TOicri ^r/potai Ta>v he irdvj.iKirjs to £i)pbv Kal rod vhaTos 1 eyoov rrjv vypa(rii]v.aTi cf>povip.6repa /cal y\rw)(poTepa hid rdhe.0Teprjai Trjcrc hiairrjcri 5 tov Oeppbov eK tov Xpeovrai. 8 toIol £r)poloi 9 ^yjpolai Kal vypvyolai (sic) M. ori Te dii dpyr\<$ ev TOiovTOiaiv eicdrepa eyevero Kal inro toiovtoov XXXIV. €K he tt)? tt}<? eve dtrb he eiriova^ rjX. hiort to p. rd he Orfkea vyporepycri Kal padvp.oov to. Fol. 21 vypcbv Be Kardaracri^. avTapKecrrarov ovie 1 ovkw is an emenda9 omits from to ^rjpov to 8ia ravra. Kal diro^ipalvecrd ai.aiveo~6ai yevopeva re rd 4 puev apcreva cocrre rfjai e/c0ep- eTwrovcoTeprjcn xprjrai. 284. av^erai. M : M : 280 . rd he drfkea vyporepa depp.ev a7roX (*>pV (TC<!> 20 vharos he ecpohos' /cal i. ends a-no tov v&aTos to v. Ylepl he <ppov7jaio<. 191 v. pev apcreva Kal ^rjporepa.

from the younger age is still in him. : sides purging the heat out of their bodies every facts are as follow month. are referred to. nor yet is " which has been suggested as an equivalent. be. and would translate everywhere "sensitive" and "sensitiveness. cold and moist. result in the most moisture from intelligence." Peck thinks that sensations only. "older men are mastered by cold elements. not mind. and the females moister and colder. when blended in a body." ' ' 28l . The moistest fire and the driest water.-xxxv." is not a satisfactory rendering. while after birth males use a more rigorous regimen. but may possibly be right. XXXV.REGIMEN. and the water the dryness from the fire. whether by the mind or by the " sensitiveness. 1 because fire retreats and there is an onset of water the dry elements have gone and the moist have established themselves. Each is thus most self-sufficing. but females use a regimen that is moister and less strenuous. because the fire has the the water. Intelligence things." is less adapted to the context than that of M. for the born in following reasons originally each sex was such things and grows thereby. and he is mastered by the dry elements because he has not yet got the moisture which advancing years and Old men are the onset of the water will bring. so that they are well warmed and dried. 8 seems to mean the power of the soul to perceive <j}p6vrjais " senses. The fire is not in 1 The reading of 0. Perhaps quick at the uptake. xxxm. The with regard to what are called the intelligence 2 of the soul and the want of it. The males of all species are warmer and drier. it I. But the dryness has rest from growth. is cooled. XXXIV.

oi p. e/c tovtcov Be r) ^frv^V crvyKprjOelcra <f)povip. d(ppovkaTCLTOv avyevoiTO. irpoaey(ei.d)Tepo<. 2 r) 3 An omitted by M. to tf/ciaTa Kivebpevov prj vrr' avdytois. Blotl KpaTebpuevov to irvp virb tov vBcitos /cat 4 /3paBeir]v t^v /civrjcriv iroieopevov. with plurals to follow).ev teal ovtol.oL o° elalv iiriei/eims! al Toiavrai yjrv^al 5 77/309 6 tl av irpoaeywo'iv' el Be bpOays Biciitwto. aaifia Kal to 1 vypbv etptaT^Tat. ivBeearepov he to irvp eir) tov 20 vBaros oXiyov. ovre to 1 vBcop tt}? tcivrjcnos Beop.): to' re M. Kal v8aro<. * Kal omitted by M.. yevoLTO 6 irapd o-vfufiepei Be tS> tolovtg) toZgi irpbs TTvpos BiaiTrjp. 6 Siolltcovto (and Littre. adjective agreeing with vSaros seems to have fallen out here.acn pdXXov xprjcrdai ical pur) TrXrjo-p. el Be irvpbs tov elXncpivecrrdTov teal v8<xto<s 3 avyKp-qaiv XdfSoi.' Oacraov TrdXrjai 1 ovre to Littr^ (with apparently the authority of some Paris MSB. <ppovip. 10 7T0O9 aXXi]Xa T€ KprjdevTa..rjTe iTopuaTwy. 6 tv yap eXd^iaTa roiv 7re\a<? helrat. M ?8? . rb p.evr) tovtcov otcorepovovv av^qoeir) rj 2 p. BpopLoiaiv ovv 30 ^prjadai b^eaiv. o/c&x? toO t€ vypov tcevSiTai to T7]v (pvaiv. Blotl ovtoos e^ovTa avTap/ceaTaTa.- nrapapbvip. irvpos t€ tovto pdXiara tolcti irapeovcrt.o)rdrj] /cal fxvrjpoviKCOTdry]' el Be tlvi irraycoyj) xpeop.apaivoi.IIEPI AIAITHS to irvp tt)? t/oo$t}<? evheeaTepov eirX ttoXv (f)Otrd. vwOpoTepov irpoaTriTTTei irpb<i Ta? alodi')o~ia<.d\iara pr) virb j3irj<. kcu cf)povip.evov Kaxftovraiavro re ovv e/cdrepov ovtg><s avTapKeaTcnov iari. Kal 6%VTepo<.OVT)Crt pLTjTe GlTObV p. ivBeeaTepoi Be tt}? irpoTeprj<i.

But if by the influence of some addition one or the other of these grow or diminish. ' • Before -napa Zwinger adds is : optative 7 av. " them. because the fire. because things blended in the original way are most self1 If there be a blend of the purest fire and sufficing. But such souls are fairly constant in their attention. and the fire fall a little short of the water. xxxv. For that which has least need of its neighbours attends most closely to the things at hand. such persons too are intelligent. but fall short of the former blend. want of nourishment so as to wander far. although Can tivi tradition shows no important variants. water. and by such water as moves the most and not by force. " no expressed object. be right ? Littre's par 1'usage de quelque addition. tylorarai Mack i<f>ioTrJTai Littre : 283 . nor is the water in such need of motion as to be dulled. with no surfeit either of foods or he should take sharp runs. but in the Corpus the plain often ecpaivalent to the optative with av. The soul blended of these is most intelligent and has the best memory. and this kind of man under right regimen may become more intelligent and sharper than natural endowment warrants. falls rather dully on the senses. Such a one is benefited by using a regimen inclining rather towards of drinks. So each is thus most self-sufficing by itself. One might conjecture (without much confidence) xP i °lliv0V or e'px /ie l'?^ 1 It is difficult to the MS.REGIMEN. as is the case with such fire as moves the least and not by necessity. there will result something most unintelligent." seems very strange. as are both when blended with one another. I. mastered by the water and so making slow motion. So fire. so that the body may be emptied of moisture and the moisture may be stayed be satisfied with this sentence. eVtWarai M." with by an addition which uses eiraytayfj xpeofiivrj.

.eToicri j^pfjtr&ai.evcov. b^elai eovcrai. icaheovTai oi tolovtol r)XlOiof are yap helrjs eovcrr)*.ovrjv 2 3 M (perhaps rightly). /3apvvecrdai yap dvdy/crj rrj<i ^jrv^V^ rr) v ^ivrjaiv virb tcov toiovtcov toicti irepnrdTOiai avpLcpepei ^prjcrOav /ecu dirb heiirvov kcu opOpioiai koX dirb rcov hpoficov. es ypiepas M. kcxto. irpocrdyeiv he dirb tcov ipueTcov.vacrioiaiv crvpicpepei y^pr\adai. dirb he tcov yvpjvacrlcov. M rj : to aniov. 284 . firjhe Ta<i hie^ohow. y^plecrOai he crvpLcpopcoTepov rj XoveaOai. 2 el he tivl 6 evheecTTeprjv Tr)v hvvap. citto heiirvov fiev.IIEPI AIAITHS ov he kcu Tpiyjrecri real toIcti toiovtokti yvp. t?}? trepiohov. pur) iy/caTaXeLTnjTai iv t5> opOpov pur) real crcopLdTL to diroicpidev ttj dirb tov Spopuov. fipahvTeprjv /cal 6 to irvp Xdftoi dvdyicr) TavTiqv eivai.epa<. o/ccos Tpocpr)v £r)poTep7]v r) ^vy^r) he^Tai dirb tcov eaiovTcov. okco<. r) Tecrcrapas t<z? eXa^iaTa^. 4 After nvpos some authorities add eirujtapfjat. epueppdaar) fir/he ovpLfiiayr/Tai "^v^rj. avfxdnroicacpepei he /cal ep. with fielova at the end of the sentence. b/ccos OaCprjTai to acofia. fxiupbv irpotTTidevTa tovtoicti ir\eiovas 50 r)p. okcos al hie^ohoi /cevcovTat tov vypov cppdcracovTai ol iropoi rrjs y^v^i)^. pLTjSe crvvTapdaarf rr)v rpocprjv.iv tov vhaT0<i. okco<$ fir) KOiXorepcov tcov 1 iropcov yivop^evcov TrX^ap^ovf]^ 7r\r)pcovTai. Kara ftpayy ftpati Trpocr- ttItttovo-lv al ala@rjo~ie<>. ev he Trjcrt tov 7tu/9o? peiov. TovToioi TrXelovas rj/xepas After yivojiivojv adds irXdova. Xayveveiv he i/Saro? s 4 ecpohcov ytvop. icai eir oX'tyov crvfifiicryovTai hid /3pahvTr)Ta t?}? irepiohov al yap aicrOrjaies t^9 ^fX*} ? oKoaai fiev 1 hi o^\rio<. ei ti ivSeecrrepov oi ttovo hiairprjaaovTai. 40 he. 1 TrXr]afi.

and 6 9 iropos means any "passage" or "way" in the not limited to the pores of the skin. tivi M n 8. and sexual intercourse should take place when the onsets of water occur. and persons of this type For as the circuit is slow. the are called silly. in the . xxxv. however. while 1 The word is body. that the soul may receive drier nourishment from the things that enter. But it is not beneficial for such to use wrestling. for fear lest. If in any case fire receive a power inferior to that of water. that the passages soul is of necessity slower. 285 . Unction is more beneficial to such persons than baths. after exercise. such a early morning. Walks. and their combination is very partial owing to the For the senses of the soul slowness of the circuit.REGIMEN. sooner. in the early morning and after running after dinner. so that the body may be cleansed of impurities left behind owing to any failure of exercise to purify. and after the vomiting gradually to increase the amount of food for more than four days at least. in order that the secretion from running may not be left behind in the body to contaminate the soul. meet their objects spasmodically. the pores 1 becoming too hollow. senses. I. may be emptied of moisture and the pores of the soul may not be obstructed . at the onsets of fire. use vomiting. after dinner. obstruct the passages and It is beneficial also to trouble the nourishment. down by such things. massage or like exercises. less. that act through sight or hearing are quick . are weighed beneficial. : fipahvTeprjv Zwinger and others : ^paxvrip-qv 0M. being quick. however. they be filled with For the motion of the soul is of necessity surfeit.

avpupepei Be tovtoicti TrvpirjaOai /cal eXXeftopoicriv /caOaipeoQai 7rvpirjcria)v. /3e\Tiov<> yivoivTo avpicpepei Be ra BiaiT?]p. ecrTi S' i) p. aiaOdvovTai Te eref) ovBevbs 8 e/c a)9 7 irpocn)/cei tou? (ppoveovTas.avirj toiovtcov 4 eVt BeBiacri Te to.iv Xdfioi. XvireovTat tc eVt toIcti Trpoaij/covcri.ev dtfipovas 6vop.eTcov e/c TrXecovof %povov r) to Trporepov. BeiTai /cal fjr]pacri. TTpoaaywyrjat. /cat Trpoaaycoyfjai ttjciv ep.1 Set.r) cpoftepd.avpupepei Be /cal 6p0a)<. ogeiai. 6 p. /cal epberoiai xprjadai ix tcov irvpir]3 e/c tcov cricov.?] aeiarOfj r) yjrvxh vtto tov irvpbs irecrovTO^. /cal oi toiovtoc ovBev rjcraov.r)<. : tovto d : toiovtcov Littr6. iAdaaoai. rolai anloiai. ^rjpoTe'poiai zeal eXdcraoai.r)<. fipaovrepai /cal aiavdvovTai Be Bi o^p-ios tovtcov p. 6 has Sioi/jios aladdvovrai ko. fj-nep irpoTepov el Be to vBcop ivBeeaTepr/v tt)v Bvvap. a p. Se For roiovTo So M.IIEPI 60 t) AIAITHS 6/c6acu d/cor)<i eltrlv. tov Trvpbs elXi1 2 3 * M has ^TjporepoLai. 2 rolai Be TTovoiGi irXeioai /cal o^vrepoiai.d%ovcriv. /Hi] to fipaBvTepov 5 ovtoi /cXaiovai Te ovBevbs eve/ca. et Be av /cal ovtoi. twv *\rvxpo)v /cal tcvp Beppiwv /cal rj t&v toiovtcov oaa alaOeaOat 1 Bee. al ovv Toiavrcu yjruxai ov irao-yowi tovto Bid irayvoV uKorj<i T7)ra' 70 Bicurfovro. /cal ttj BiaiTrj 9 twv XpfjaOai iaxvao-[.ara airep too irpoTepep.. Trvptrjadai./3povTrjrov<.. tovtovs 80 tfBr) 01 Be ep. ov/c av aiaOoiTO b/colbv ecrriv.r) irpotepov iirlaravTai.ev ovv evaiadrjTOTepai. /cal ravra iroiecov vyieivorepos av /cal (ppovipucoTepos /epaTr)0eLT} eVt irXetov to irvp vtto el'rj. el Be tov eovros vBaros. M 286 . has Trpooaywoi. rfjoiv M. Be Bid -tyavenos. ol p. ov Bvvavrai alcrOdveaOai7)v yap p.

they weep for no reason. persons of this kind perceive as well as others the sensations of cold. even these may improve. Accordingly. and produce a deeper impression. and with exercise more in amount and more vigorous. But if the fire should be mastered to a greater extent by the water in the soul." fire . slowness the power of the water prove insufficient. benefited by vapour baths followed by purging with Rehellebore. by the character. hot and so on. be rightly regulated. The regimen that benefits is the same as in the former case. have XvrreovTos ^ tvtttovtosalTir] oi>8ev ovv M. fear what is not dreadful. those that act through touch are slower. . and the food after the vomiting should be increased at longer intervals than in the former case following such a regimen will make such men more healthy and more intelligent. are pained at what does not affect them. I. but they cannot perceive sensations of sight or hearing unless they are already For unless the soul be shaken familiar with them. we have then cases of what are called by some "senseless" people. and the 8 6 ' ppaxvrepov 0. T7TIT7 ovSevws : : M 8 9 eKKaOalpeaOai M. {Spahvrepov For evexa some MSS. as is the use of vomiting after them. and by others "grossly Now the imbecility of such inclines to stupid. After iCT^vaatTjs M has re TrXev/xovos ovtos- 287 . But if duction of flesh and drying are called for. and their sensations are really not at all those that These persons are sensible persons should feel. the diet to be the same as before.REGIMEN. with food drier and less. it cannot perceive its Souls of such a kind have this defect But if their regimen because of their coarseness. that strikes it. Vapour baths too are beneficial. xxxv.

P. rfj xprjaOai 7T/0O? Kai vSaro<i paXXov.r) 6p6o)$.eroiaiv e« 1 " v7rb /3u. ogvrepyjv pev roaovTcp dvdyKrj elvai rr)v yfrv^v ocrw Oacraov Kivelrai.dXXov rj rfi irporepr/. 6k(o<.rolau 8' Kai ep. avp^pepet. Se rd> roiovrw teal rfj Katciwv Siairrj p. virepfioXas (f>vXaaaop.6 the text After aviTapaoorjTat.^ Store e-nl daaaov eKKpiverai ra rrapayivopueva Kal rrXetova opparac Sid raxyrrjra. Kparr/Oelr) rod v8aro<.cf)epei hiatreopevo? yivoiro dv. r)aaov 8e fiovipov 5 3 rcov irporepov. eXdrroai 8e7 roov 7rXi]o-povd)v.OVS 6.rj vn dXXov nvos avvrapdaarjrai rrj<.? 'XfivjaOai pev dvdyKy. 288 . 6 Trporepcov 9. Kal c^vaiv rj Kpeaai. el S' enl TrXelov r) avyKpy]o-i<i. : is that of M. adds to crtD/xa. iv vytau'ouo-t (ppovipo? r) roiavrrj "tyvx*} kcu Ta%e&)9 90 alaOavofiivr} rS)v rrpoa-Tnirrovruiv Kal ov perairnnovaa TroWa/cis. (pvais pev ovv r) roiavrrj tyvxrjS dyaQr)^' fteXritov 8e Kal o5to? 6p0w<i aoifiacrt o~vp. ttotwv Kal ttovcov. kcll 8p6p.Kal p.roi Trorro vSapearepw Kal Xayvetrjcnv eXaacroai xP~l°@ aL K ^l twv ttovwv ' rolcn Kara <pvcriv pudXiara Kal irXeio-roiai. rjv yap ex$ vyirjpws to acopba 2 100 p. hvvapis viro rov Trvpos.d^q paXXov r) tw dprw. Kal 777309 t«? ala6r']cna<i Oaacrov rrpoo- (frpovipos r) TTiTTTecv.oiai fcapLTTTolai Kal 8iav\ouri Kal irdXij Kal roicriv aXXoiai yvpyaaloiaiv rrctaiv virepfioXijv ovSevbs x Kal rroieopevov.evov aircov kcu. M. "^vy)]<. §lo Otiooov iKKpiverai 6 : Siort Kpivtrai.IIEPI Kpivrj rrjv AIAITHE avyKprjaiv exovros. 8e 6 rep roiovrop Siatrrjadai rf} irphs vSaros Sialrrj 110 p. Kevwrai tjv 3 * yap vTroyrjpios ex~qrai ro owixa.OVLJJ.

but he must in no case fall into excess. the blend of his soul is intelligent. fire I. how. 7 has a long passage. his drink should be well diluted and his sexual intercourse less frequent exercises should be as far as possible natural and there should be plenty of them violent exercise because . drink or exercise. with exercises on the circular and double 1 tracks. which is practically beginning /ndAAoi' vitepko. in proportion to rapid motion. benefited by a regimen inclining more to water than the preceding he must eat barley bread rather than wheaten. the soul must be quicker. it more rapidly passes judgment on the things presented to it. and only when necessary vomiting should be employed after surfeits. wrestling and all other forms of athletics. the body is healthy. whether of food. . floXrjs (f>v\aoooiJ. quickly perceiving without frequent variations the objects that strike it. Such a nature implies a good soul correct regimen.REGIMEN. but be less constant than the souls discussed above. xxxv. it make it too better. the power of the water be further mastered by the its more fire. and fish rather than meat . and bad regimen will Such a person is benefited by following a regimen inclining to water. and by avoiding excess. Before c'k 6 adds 289 . • After vBaros M a repetition of the preceding lines.€vov. have a pure blend. should be sparingly used. For if his body be in a healthy state and be not troubled from any But if source. . and such a soul is intelligent. and strike its sensations more rapidly. ever. in such 1 The BlavXos was a race to the end of the 200 yards track and then back again. will make worse. and on account of its speed Such a person is rushes on to too many objects.1. .

IIEPI AIAITHL o>? pev to (frepei o~a>pa. teal l^OvBloiaiv ev dX/nrj. pevr) rfi ervpepopo) 3 irXeov eTriKpaTijOelt) to vBojp viro 4 tov el Be tivi paWov 5 Trvpos. o^elrj 7 t) oveipctxrcreiv dvdyter)' Tocavrr) "^v^r) ayav. acjxxvea o.1 ttjs <f>wvfjs. eTrio~Traa6evTO<. aWrjs vaaiwv twv diro teal /3i?7? yivopevwv.? eovara rpo(f>rj<. diTQ BeCirvov Be OKoaov e^avaaTrjvai. Kat af/taTO? : v * : 8. See p. teal vBpoel Be pij. eve^L-ijai ev Trjai teat. teal Oeppaiv^Tat Be 77009 r\Kiara. cos avrcos Se ko. pedjjcri dervpepopov 130 paivovjat. avpcfrepei Be roicri tolovtolgl teal tcls Trprj^ias irpr)acreiv (Befipwicocn pdWov r) daiToiai' (TTCuripooTepr] yap t) ^rv^rj rfj Tpo(f>f) teaTapiayo- rj eVSe?. pavirjv teaO'ia- 2 rarai. \aydvoiaiv 7r\i]v tcov tcaOapn/cwv. vtto M aTio Q rt M.. dirb paXa/cov olvov teal \evtcov. avpteal Be 1 daapteeiv Tolat toiovtomtc 7roo9 to (ppovlpovs elvai' yap crap/cos eve^irjv aLpara Be tovto 120 (pXejfMovrjv TTciOr] 7) dvdytCT) yiveaQai' e'9 6k6t<xv ToiavTTj yfrv^rj.teal Total irepnrdTOio-i. toO irvpos. 292. M has imanaoBiiaa without rov nvpos. 290 . tovtwv pev iravTcov TrXr/a povrjs . el BvvanoeyyiaroTaTa tovtov. teal yvppdi^rj Be drpnrTtp efyOolcri.of 6£etr) and 194 r. toIctlv opOpioiai 140 iroWolatv. tcpciTrjdevTos rou vBotos. koX direyeaQai Biairrjcrdai.. 6 re •norelv fieXTiarov. Folio 193 v. yap dirb rcac <p\eypovr}<. of ends with the ovxoiovraf begins -TaoTraoai. dWa T/79 (rap/cos %pr) top teal tolovtov t>"}? ev rfjaiv inro Tcav teperjepaytwv. /cal tovtov 9 6 tea\eovo~i Be avrovs vtto- paivopevovsreal eari Be eyytara pavlrjs to tocovtov (Spa^elx)*. 1 2 3 6 For rail M has /ca/naro?.

boiled vegetables (except those that purge). or from overabundance of flesh. is next door to madness.REGIMEN. Such persons are also benefited if they eat a meal before they go about their duties. such a soul too quick. They are called "half-mad". a way as to empty the body with a minimum of To reduce the flesh of such persons conduces heat. from second hand in H. VTrofxaLvead ai M : avrovs VTrofiaivo/JLevovs Littr£. The first hand reads to vttofialveaOai. instead of doing them without food. m 01 he. their condition. of unkneaded barley bread. as their soul is more stable when it is mixed with it when is its appropriate nourishment than But if in any case the lacks nourishment. and when this happens to a soul of this sort it turns to madness. There should be plenty of walking in the morning. and sardines. for abundance of flesh cannot fail to result in inflammation of the blood. while to di'ink water only is best. should that be possible. in fact. ("others <give^ vTropaiveodau") is a note which has crept into the text. and Littr^'s E has imofj. whether arising from intoxication. or from eating too much meat. otherwise the next best thing is a soft white wine. M 291 .aiveoQai after vnofiaivoThe reading of fievovs. to their intelligence . as even a slight untoward inflammation results in madness. I. Such persons ought to abstain from all these things and from surfeit of every kind. and men of this type inevitably suffer from dreams. but after dinner 4 avayKT) 7 K' : M omits. as well as from violent forms of exercise their diet should consist . as the water has been mastered and the fire attracted. xxxv. water be yet more mastered by the fire.

tw vBan trpoariBevai Svvarbv av laws. XXXVI. /cal rov vBaro? iiriKpareovro'i iv rfj o-vyKprjcrei to irvp av^rjeraf e« tovtcov Be (ppovira>v Be icai pioorepai dcfypovearepai ylvovrai. Bpopotcri Be irvpbs iinKpareovro<i. ra p. wo-irep fiot /cal <ye<y paTrrai' /ecu Bvvarai ere t^9 Bialrti^ /cal 2 f3e\TLO>v koX ye'iposv yiveaBai. 6V otcolwv yap dyyelwv aTTO-^copel /cal ixopwv alrir) irpo'i earlotcola riva 7Tpoa7ri7TTei /cal 6/coiois rial /carap. cnrXovs. f pddvpLos. •n}? €7r//ieXet^? TOiavTi) ^rv^r) (f>povipo)rdrr) av eh]. roiavra <ppoveovo~r Bid rovro ov 3 hvvurov ra roiavra etc Biatrr]<. waavrcos Be /cal 1 2 : fipaxeoiv r) jSpa^e'at TrpooTkOevTa dSvvarov TTpooTidevai Swarov Littre. rr)v SiaLTtjv t'jO'vxf}. KaX p. rO)V o)v Bi ^vyn] Tropeverat.vr]Tai to awpa vtto t?}? copr)<f iiririjBeiov Se rov r)po<. M M p. o/ca><i p.r) elra irrdyeiv rd<.iayerai. pjeOiardvai' cpvcnv yap peraTrXdaai depavea oi>% olov re. T(OV TOIOVTCOV CLTTaVTCOV T) i') (pVO~l<} Bvafievijs.nEPI AIAITHS o/co)<. roiovrcov ov/c iarlv r/ o-vyKp>]o~i<i airtrp ocov 10 €VVOV<i- o%v6vp.o<. Ylepl jxev ovv <f)povipov /cal atypovos 'tyvyrfS T) crvy/cptiais avrr\ alrit) icrriv. /cat eWefiopoiai 737309 /caQaipeiv 150 ptjBe 151 )) 7rpo7rvpir)devTa<. BoXlos..a\\ov Tr)<i xpieadai' avpcpepei Be /cal iv tw x depet ttoXrjpLepas virvoiai ftprjaddi fSpaykai pur) \oio~iv.ev alra fir) ^ijpaivcovTai airo twv cltto Be'nrvov TreptirdroiV. dairov 7rpi]i.r) : Littre after van der Linden. to Be aco/xa /cevwTai vtto rov opdpiov \ovea6ai Be ^Xiepat vSart Trepi/cXvBrjv rj p. wpocmdevai dSvvarov Mack: - 292 .r) enroll] pa(.ia<. tovtov rtoielaBai- etc ravrrj<.

as this type of man. L. to increase the fire. but not to dry the food as the result of walking after dinner. occasional prevent the body being dried up by the In spring it is a good thing to purge with season. and. xxxv. simplicity. must not go about duties fasting. upon that of the objects it encounters and upon that of the It is accordingly imthings with which it mixes. In all these cases the cause is the nature of the : — For such passages through which the soul passes. Peck: ovv hwarov) Linden. it is doubtless possible to to the water. the nature of voice too depends ferently. then. also beneficial to siesta.-xxxvi. as I have now explained. It is Preferable to unction is a tepid shower-bath. like the preceding. Hut in the following cases the blend is not the cause of the characteristic irascibility. hellebore after a vapour bath . M: yovv Littre : dSworoi' (for ovv 293 VOL.REGIMEN. I. . to have in summer a short. ( .IIP M . It is this blending. With this treatment such a soul may be highly intellectual. indolence. that is. for invisible nature cannot be moulded difSimilarly. Mack. the source of greater or less intelligence in souls. craftiness. IV. . then the usual diet should be restored gradually. change the above dispositions through regimen. when the water prevails in These things are the blend. add prevails in his courses. possible to 3 ov A. dispositions of the soul depend upon the nature of the vessels through which it passes. the cause of the soul's inregimen can make this telligence or want of it When the fire blending either better or worse. XXXVI. only just enough to unbend the limbs the object is to empty the body by the morning walk. quarrelsomeness and benevolence.

6 M Peck would read . A. jSeArtoj dovvarov Tzoirjoai. oloti (he) Xeiorepovs Kal . M : TrAeioTtpovs Kal fSpahvrepovs 8 Xeiorepovs Kal fipa)(VTepovs omits tovs Tr6povs Aeiorepovs xai rpaxvrepovs Littre.IIEPI t?}? (f>(t)vfj<. 294 . BtaiT7]S. L. noiiiv. .- St? 1 rov Tt? av y. ol iropoi alrioi okolwv yap av 2 rivcov /civr/rat 6 20 OKOIOVS TIVCLS TrpOGTTLTrTr)? TOtaVTtjV 4 elvai. f /eelvo 6 8e ahvvarov For aunoi d has av£ovrat. npooTTiTTTei 6 : 3 4 77 poaniTTTetv M. Siotl 5 tou? irbpovs ra> Xeiorepovs Kal rpa^vrepovs r]rjp KCIL 7T/909 avdy/cr) ri]v TTvev/uart 25 €K 1 2 Suvarbv Troirjcrai. yap av omitted by 6.aro<. pev f Kal ravrrjv (fycovrjv Bvvarbv kcu fteXrlai Kal %etp&) iroielv. AIAITHL oko'it] 7rv€vp. : ravTTjv 5 K' : ravra DM .. and reads rovs ttovovs. kwo dovvarov tK Query : /cava. SiaiT7)<i aWoiaxrai.

The character of voice inevitably depends upon the nature of the passages through which the air moves. voice. upon the passages of the breath. xxxvi. but the aforesaid characteristics cannot be altered by regimen. but we cannot get at the internal nopot. and upon In the case of the nature of those it encounters. gives Kelva. If with K' (and Mack) we read sense is we can change ravTTjv. 1 1 I am satisfied with no restoration of this sentence. characteristics that cannot a strange use of the kzZvo words to say the least. indeed. nose) that give characteristics to voice. because it is possible to render the passages smoother or rougher for the breath. but requires us characteristics that can be changed and to take tolvto. I. Peck's reading makes good sense logically.REGIMEN. it is possible to make it better or worse. But no MS. and it is hard to see why it should have been changed to Ketvo. and alter kcZvo to K&va the the iropoL (throat. above. = = — : = 295 . along which i/m^7? the characteristics (or vessels) mentioned Keiva travels.

could be worked up and down by a leather thong.\v cXkei. Diels' reading of the next sentence in VII will mean: "As they press below. and then See the the bow was worked just as a saw. which some editors bracket.(. 6 <5e wOel." with reference to irapa naipov lower down. however. In Chapter XVI occurs the sentence Tpu77-u3cru'. fiia£ 6p. s. up it comes. though hand in 6 has written over it irpitpvai. 6 p. although a meaning might be wrung out of the middle voice. authority is very strong.evov are probably passives. a second Dictionary M of Antiquities. Perhaps there is a reference to the working of an auger by means of a bow. terebrum. feel confident enough to adopt the reading Tpvirwat. Timely force works well. Boring with an auger seems an impossible action to represent by c\/<a and w6ci. > 296 . Peck thinks that a horizontal auger misgivings. I do not. and so these editors regard the words as a stupid note which has crept into the text. /?ia£wi/Tcu and /?ia£o//.va. and causes Dr. though it is quite possible that it is right. for it could not admit of going down at a wrong time. untimely force spoils everything. v.APPENDIX and In Chapter VII both give Tpvirwm. But the MS. But though you can pull a thong you cannot push it. the string of which was twisted round the top of the auger.

REGIMEN II .

6repa Kal io-xyporepa elvai r) ev rfjaiv evavTLrjaiv olov TO AlfSvKOV eOvoS 7T/309 TO UoVTlKOV Kal Tfl. olai rpecpovrai 01 dvdpwnoi.7]v Kelpeva fyiporepa tmv irehlwv t<ov opLoicos Keipevcov. ev he Tavrijai rfjcri ^coprjcnv dvdyni) Kal ra eOvea rcov dvOpcoircov Kal rd (f)v6p. to. rd pev yap ovk e^et ardcnv tw 6p/3pl(p ra he e'^et.nEPI AIAITH2 XXXVII.eva ck Trjs 7^9 ^jporepa Kal 6epp. Kal Bioti to dvarrveopev. hioTi eXdaaovi 3 iKpidhas e%er vSari. hioTi (pvopeva Ik t>/9 7^9 vyporepa. eXxei €K twv rrvevpia.rj evvhpa grjpaivet Kal Oeppalver Oeppalvei puev.. grjpbv eov.copecov he Oeaiv Kal (f>vaip eKao~TWV Kara 7ravrb<> pev eiirelv e'^er Trpos p.$p'iip> /ceifiew) OepfxoTeprj tPjs 1 10 737309 Ta9 ap/crovs Keip.ev?/<. to re irvevpa b dvarrveo20 pev 5 irax^repov Sid to vhcop dirb T^9 aKivrjalr)?. < 1 2 iyyvreptat M.ecn)p. 298 . Ta he KolXa Kal p. avral u>he rd Kal ai'XPVpd Kal uilrijXa exovar X^pai f. hioTi KolXa Kal Trepiex €rai i Kai °v hiairvelrai' vypaivei he. XPV whe Kal <*)he 8iayii>coaK€iv. ra he Xipvala Kal eXcohea - vypatvei Kal Oeppalver Oeppalvei p. i) ^.ev. rou ifXiov eariv.i]poTepi] hioTi iyyvTcira) 7rpo9 pearjp:/3pi. otl KolXa Kal Trepiex erai fyipalvei he hid Te t?}9 Tpo<f>fj<i Trjv fj-rjpoTijTa. iyyvr&Tco 6 avrat aural my emendation : : 6 M. 2 he Ka9' ecovrds al kyyiara eKarepojv.

Treptex6. and there is no current of air.eva : M. The races of men and plants in these countries must of necessity be drier. but the others do. as follows The southern countries are hotter and drier than the northern because they are very near the sun. while the air which is breathed is thicker. The way to discern the situation and nature of various districts is. Places which are high and scorched and are situated to the south are drier than plains though so situated. and by reason that the air which is breathed. compare the Libyan race countries. Hollows that are without water dry and heat. Marshy and boggy places moisten and heat. hotter and stronger than those which are in the opposite For example. They heat because they are hollow and encompassed about. 3 * iKaacrous Littr^ 7repjf'x«Ta! : : ihiffaui : ixdcraw M. They moisten. . Countries considered by themselves have the following characters. broadly speaking. are more moist. . 6 hvwKviofktV 8 avacpipofxev M. 2 99 . with the Pontic. being dry. because they have less moisture for they do not retain the rain that falls. on which the inhabitants feed.REGIMEN : II XXXVII. because the things that grow there. and also the races nearest to each. because the water there stagnates.iJ. attracts the moisture from our bodies for . They heat because they are hollow and encompassed they dry both by reason of the dryness of the food.

TrvevfxaTa ty-v^pa 7rep. 3 4 7r/?o? tcov Oepivcav Trvev/xdrcov dep/ibv kclI voaepbv tovto to ywpiov. ovk eyov 7T005 6 ti av vypoTepov irpoairlnTov rpe(f)rjrai.Trovaiv e? Ta$ iv 6771)9 v?jcrov<i. aareai irpoaKelrai. hioTi ovre ftoperjs hiarrvecov Kadaprjv tyjv iiraycovirb tcov depivcov yrjv tov irvev/AdTOS Trapeyei. ovre TTvevp-drwy hiatyvy^eTai. 30 irpoaicenai. he ireXdyia ovk e%et o~Tacriv 43 ^eiacovi.ev layypovypavOeiar]? Kal tyvydeicrris.IIEPI a-co/xaTcov AIAITHS rpo(f)rjv to vypbv e<? ecovTcp. (fivaiv fiev ey^ei •^rvyeiv e'/c ^d t€ tt}? 7% airb ia irvevpuaTa irdvTa vypaiveiv Kai crcojuaTa tcov £cocov Kal Ta <f>vofxeva hid Tahe' civdyKt] Ta irvevfiaTa TavTa Trvelv 10 xiovos Kal KpvaTaWov Kai iraycov layypcov Kal iTOTap. €K rolcriv ycopla da\do~o~i]S vt)o~os avTiKeirai. Tepa tcov TTvevfxdTcav dirb fie^bvcov Kal layypotcl he daBevecrTepa iitto /mewvcov Kal Tepcov. 300 . al gloves 40 kclI irdyot. htoTt. cohe XPV hiayivaocrKeiv. tcov he injacov at [xev tcov elcriv. Uepl he irvevfiaTcov ijvTiva <pvo~iv e%ei Kal hvva/aiv e/cao-Ta. i] kcu. iv rovroiaiv ol (Bopeai rapdcraovai okov he (36pa0ev Kol\a teal vovaovi iroieovacv. to. iv fxev Tfjaiv ^irelpoicnv eyovcn aTacnv Kal to.cova. okov he rolai ywpioiaiv opea irpoaiceZTCU 7roo? 2 1 ol voroi Kal iv TOVTOMTiv av^fxcohees votov. okov he ftopaOev 6pi) voaepol irpoairveovcnv. dadeveaTepcov coairep yap Kal Tolai ^cvoicri Ttvevjxa eveaTiv.cov koI Xifivecov Kal 77)9 Kal tcl p. ovtco Kal toZgiv aWoiai irdat 1 9 omits irphi v6tov. XXXVIII. at he hwyeipuepcoTepai iyyvs rjirelpcov •jrovTiac dXeeivoTepai tov yeip.

has irpb ra>v depi at the end of fol. . nor is the land cooled by the summer winds. . where mountains are situated to the south. The reason is because the snow and ice on the mainland remain. having nothing moister assail in In places order to nourish itself therefrom. there northern winds occasion disorders and sickness. 302. so there is in 2 3 6 M 4 pr/s omits from auxtx. All winds have a power of moistening and cooling both animal and vegetable bodies for this reason because all these winds must come either from snow . Islands which are near the mainland have very severe winters but those which are further out to sea are milder in winter. 301 p. islands situated in in mid-ocean have no snow remaining the winter. xxxvii. or from rivers or lakes. or ice or places severely frozen.u>8ees to rovroKTiv. As there is breath in the animals. or where it is faced by an island to the north. such a district becomes hot and sickly with the summer winds. weaker winds from these conditions less widely extended and less intensified. omits Kal . . if) . 194 r begins XXXVIII.-xxxviii. its II. and send cold winds to the neighbouring islands but . You may distinguish the nature and power of every particular wind in the following way. to own nourishment. Where there are hollows on the north side of a town. . a^Ti/ceiTCM. The stronger winds come from these conditions when widely extended and strongly intensified. the south winds that blow are parching and unhealthy where the mountains are situated to the north. because no north wind blows across to bring a pure current of air. 194 v See Chapter ovKirt ofjiotos Trapayivtrat. or from moist and cold land.REGIMEN. . XXXVIII.

evwv 302 . /cal rroiel rovro ev rfj At/3vr)' rd re yap (pvop. iKp. eKaara<.arai diro roiovrwv ^copicov. ^ijporepa. rolai 8e piev rrpoawrdrw r\Kiara. voaepwrepa. 8ia<pdelperai' ical rolai ol/ceovaiv eyyiara yjrv^poraro^.oio<. OKOV 8id rrp> Bkaiv Trjs %wpT]<.IIEPI rolai fiev AIAITHS 8e 1 eXaaaov. TT]V ware irapayiverai eiri tvjv pi?) OLK€Op.d8a Xafielv ovre eK Trorap-ov. Oepp-orepa. rropeverai re 8id roiovrwv rorrwv.lv 6 fiopeas. 8id<f>opa kcu 20 vypbrepa. on opp. kwVrOV 8vVapblV €%WV.ev ovv eyei -tyvyeiv Bid deaiv 8e ywp'iwv teal rrvevp./3pli)v rnewv.o'iwv rriv (pvaiv tw j3opea. vyteivorepa. XavOdvei dirofyipaivtov are yap ovk e^wv ovre eK 6aXdaaii<. ttoXX))<.i)v koX fyiprjv. 2 kox Toy? dvOpcorrov. rt)v Be alruiv exdarwv whe XPV yivcoaiceiv' 6 p. ifCTTLverai to vypbv vrrb rov y'jXiov d7ro^i)paivop.ev (Bopeas yjrv)^pb<i ical vypo<i rrvel.€V7]V. T07rou?.. rolai Kara p.iv drrohiSovai 6epp. eirl 8e rrdaav ^copijv ovk en 6p.eva e^avaivei. yiverav d\\i]\wv. Kal KpvardXXov kcli rraywv tayypwv oppcwpievos. vypaiveiv rd cpvaiv p. o 8e i-oto? rrvel p>ev dirb rwv op.ara rrdvra. ovv rolaiv eyyiara ywpiotaiv dvdy/cr) roiavriiv 8vvap. ovariva<i o rfkio<i ovk i<pepTT€t.bv ev pikv ^ripbv evOdSe rrapaylveadai.€vo<i 8e avrbv Kal 40 dpatovrar 8ib dvdy/cr) 6epp.dirb yap rov 30 voriov rrbXov rrvewv. rolai piev i/c€iae rrXrjaiov avrov oiKeovaiv dvdy/ci/ rolov rrvelv btcolbv rrep i)p. rrapaylverav oca yap rwv ecpoBwv rov i)Xiov koI vrrb rijv piearjp. eK rwv ^cowv koX e'/c rwv <pvop. Xd>pa<. Si wv rrapaylverai rd rrvevpbara e? rd<. dirb %iovo<. ouo° dwo^rjpaivcov rbv r\epa yfrv^porepa. eKTrivei rr]v LKp-dha.eye&os.

as it cannot get any moisture either from sea or river. The north wind blows cold and the following way. to those who dwell nearest to these places and The least to those who are farthest from them. ice and severe frosts. 3°3 . But winds differ from one moistening nature. adjacent countries it must impart such a hot and drv qualitv. moister. where it parches the For plants. and therefore of necessity it must Therefore in the most reach here hot and dry. : II. . some more accordNow all winds have a cooling and ing to size. when it blows through the approaches of the sun under the south. becomes rare. because it blows from such countries. as it does in Libya. sicklier You may know the cause of each in or healthier. it must of necessity blow to those who dwell there near it after the same manner as But it does not come the the north does to us. heing colder. moist. 1 Before Kara /xtye&os M has 7r?a. drier. south blows sometimes from places that are of the same nature as the north for when it blows from the south pole and starts from much snow. everything else some have less. hotter. same to every country for instance. so that it comes to the habitable earth with its own power. As it dries it the moisture is absorbed by the sun. unless this be destroyed It is most cold by the situation of the place. and passes through places which the sun does not approach to drv the air and consume the moisture. it drinks up the moisture of animals and .REGIMEN. another according to the situation of the counti ies and places through which they come to the various regions. xxxvin. and insensibly dries up the inhabitants.

3°4 . drrb re rov r)Xiov drro^ijpatvopeva koX drrb rr}$ 77}?" ovk eyovra Be rpocprjv OKoBev ertaydyiqrai? rd rrvevpara.eydXa<i 1 60 oifceovaiv eXcbBeai Kal depp. Bvvap. orrov p.IIEPI eKirivei coarj. AIAITHS orav Be to 7reXayo<. ov povov ^rjpaivei. Kara wBe- Be rd<. rrpolbvri rfi> Xoyco Br/Xcoaco. teal Oepp. (pvaiv p. fiXdrrrei Kal rd cf>vrd koX rd %coa. are depths eoov Kal apaioq. ^copcis efcdorras rd rrvevpara eyei rrvevpara e? rd$ rj rrdywv r) rd pev Ik 2 rj daXdaarj? i) ydipas /cat earrirrrovra.ara rcov dvware vovaov<i ep. 70 oaa vrrep rd opea vrreprrlrrrovra rrapayiverai e? Ta9 rrbXias. Kal ra au>p. drrb rv XV rfiiv rrpoeipr/pevcov.TTip. real drrb )£iovos Xip. /cat vyeir/v roiai au>p.dBa rrapeyovra BiBbvra.drcov Bvvdpies e^ovaiv.fi) baa Be rebv Kara yf]V rrapayiverai.aai "^rvy^pbrrjrireal nrapeyei baa pr) vrrep/3dXXei ravra tA? p. Bcori p. dXXa Kal rapdaaei to rrvevpia dvarrveopev.rroielv. rrepaito vypov. troWrjs i>ypaalr)S 1 ep. /cal axfyeXel.rroiei rov deppov tcai rov yfru^pov' ravra Be rrda^ovaiv oaoi ev %copioi<i Be ftXdrrrei.era/3oXd<i ev rolai acopaaiv ep. fjr/porepa irvevpudrcov avdyKT) elvai. rrorap.cov.iv eKaarcov ovrco %pr) yivooaKeiv brrco<. waavrcos 50 Be Kal at rfiyv aXXcov 7rvevp.olaiv 6771/? rrorapioov rd B aXXa rfiiv rrvevpdro)v ocra rrvei layvpfiyv.ev ovv Kal dpcorrcov.rrXr)ai dvdyKij Be rbv vbrov deppbv re Kal vypov elvai. Be XPV 76 rrpbs eKaara rrapeaKevdadai. eK rcov ^cocov eXKOvra Kal to vypov.r) rr/v yoapy]v epbrrirvrwv rcov ^copicov at Oeaies atrial elaiv. rov re rfi) r)epa rrft KaQapov 'r <i 3 eiXi/cpivea ltcp.vicov rd cbvrd ra drravra vypaivei /cat yfrv^ei £(3a.

it fills the country where it The south wind must strikes with much moisture. regions from off the sea. ^pSrepa ra Si ano X'^os. where the situation of the countries does not cause it to be otherwise. But when the wind. all moisten and cool both plants and animals. 1 i/j-irlinoov 8 : iKir'ntTbiv 2 3 4 M has 8 M. being dried both by the sun and the earth. lakes or rivers. and attracting moisture from living creatures. The winds which pass hurt both plants and animals. and are healthy unless they be cold to an excess. being hot and rare. course how we must provide against each. ttws iffrr i<Ttr'iT7T0VTa. 3°5 . not having a place whence to draw nourishment. frost. the way to judge of the nature and power of I will show in the subsequent disvarious winds. has passed the ocean. and a moisture to temper the heat of the soul. plants. and the This is bodies of men. xxxvin. These winds.REGIMEN. II. as they afford a pure and serene air. inhabit marshy and hot places near great rivers. The powers of other winds too are similarly conThe properties of winds due to varieties ditioned. but also disturb the air which we breathe. All other winds which blow from the foresaid places are beneficial. or from snow. : iiraydyrjTai 8 (rird<xr]Tai M : <rira(Tf rat Littre. has KadalpovTa. over mountains to reach cities do not only dry. when they are hurtful by reason of the great changes of cold and heat which they make in Those are subject to these changes who bodies. so as to engender diseases. The winds which come by land must necessarily be drier. The winds which strike of region are as follow. necessarily be hot and moist.

hia^copel he pudXXov 1 2 3 anSiv Se Kal t» irorciv d 6. 10 'larrjcri. to. irepl p.evov yjrv^pbv Kal fyipov. crav elirelv irepi cpvcriv Kal ttjv 8ia Te^vrj*. h' he %r\paivei.v e8e\ois 306 .' ptdXXov Kal "cTTiqcnv brav he irvpcoOcocrt.IIEPI A1AITHS /cal ttotcov 1 XXXIX. 4 teaOaipet yjrv^ei 6 ^vXbs lo-%vpco<. hel yp-v^ai Kal fjt/pr/vai.iv eyovaiv ovre ra yXvKea oXX-tjXocavv ovre tcl \nrapd ovre tcov aWcov tcov tolovtcov ovhev TToWa yap tcov yXvKecov hia^copet. el etyrjaai. el : crirlwv Se Kal irouaroiv M. to he /nev exei eXdaaco. he ovpeiTai. he vypatvei. coaavTcos he teal tcov d\Xcov dirdvTcov eo~Ti he 6o~a aTi/cpei teal hia-^copeiTai. to.ijpiov yyXov Kpidds (i7TTi<TT0v<. Kyot^at cpvaei p. ovv dirdvTcov ov% olov re orfKtodfjvat oirold TLvd ecTTC icatT etcao~Ta he ijvTiva hvva/xiv e^et hihdjjco.ev -^rv^pov Kal vypbv teal 2 dirb tov fjrjpaLvef evi he teal teaOapTi/eov tl 3 el tov he' piev eOeXots d^ypov Tetep. to /xev vypbv teal 5 to he KaOapTLKOv virb tov irvpbs iraveTai. 5e omitted by /xev 6. TfKfxi)piov u\v 6e\eis M : TeK/Aiipiov « \xf.evcp to.ev 17 aXX^v aXXa hvvapav e%ei. tcl to. cbcravTCOS he Kal tcov depp-avTitcwv teal tcov akXcov dirdvTcov. ovk bpOcos yivcbtTKovaiv ov yap ttjv avT7]V hvvap. OKocra he KaTa\ei7rop. tcov teal ri]V Sltcov he hvvapuv e/edcr- Kara %pr) yivc'oaKeiv. XL. cohe ocroi /xev Kara iravTos eire^eipr)- tcov yXvKecov i] Xnrapcov rj dXpuvpcov rj irepl aWov twos tcov tolovtcov t/}? hvvdpuos. aXcpiTov hiairprjcraeTai whe he 10 6 ?} pid^rj iravTohairfj' hvvapuiv he e^ei Xpeop. ta he ovherepa tovtcov. avyKopaaTa aXevpa Tpocpijv pud^a Ton)vhe. 7TTto"a9.

be transposed and placed after i\anov 5e Siax^pe' ? . XL. When. in 1 The meal fact. both what they are by nature and what by art. another. particulars things are laxative. the same with things which are heating and with all other things.a(a iravToSair-f]. things. therefore.T. the decoction of which is very it is more cooling purgative but if it be winnowed. many It is many moistening. and astringent. or fat. to treat in general either of sweet. winnowed barley. together with the bran has less nourishment. but That which is cleaned from stool. . I will show has in particular. you Those who have undertaken should judge of thus. one has one power. - 3°7 . nor to all fat things.u<*C?7 Should the words fj. moist and has something purgative from the drying. or salt of any other such thing. barley meal thus do it. The power II.e. no matter how the cake is prepared such. When it is parched. but it This is proved by boiling unjuice of the husks. xxxix. diuretic are astringent or laxative. of various foods and drinks. all sweet things. . many drying. it is used will necessary to cool and dry. the same with all other kinds.-xl. and that purgative quality is removed by some .Svi'a/xtv K. binding. nor to all For many sweet of any other class. some It is there are some that are neither. xpup-*®"- M Littre. is the power of the barley cake. Since therefore it is impossible to set forth these what power each one things in general. another. XXXIX. which is left is cool and dry. 1 * vTiaas : irrloai : M : iirrifffxevas 6 K Mack • irau€TOi d otxtrai M. or about the power The same power does not belong to are mistaken.REGIMEN. the moist and the fire. Bailey in its own nature is cold. passes better by words The roi^fde seem out of place.

evov. : : * fiet'OV o-revoToiropoi. tov Be v8aTO<. airoyivtrai 6 ei 8e 0eAeis 5e edcKois 6 fJ. irpo(f)vp7]6€Laa. Oi\ris Littre. tV fvdeccs (pvpriaas "ov M. M iirayS/xei'Ov M. : flJ. pavTt). ical i/ry^er -xjrir^ei Blotl rcoiKpi].$e)(ovTai- Kai to aw rq> nrvevpLaTL \eTTTw6p. Whether we take the grammar is abnormal. to S' avrov puevov^ (frvcrav epiTTOiel. ovttu) iSid&pox 01' 6: b~idf3pox<>v ovrus : 9 iirayJ/Mevov 8 ^Xfi./ecu to fiev ava> epvyydverat. 2 6'cra M has or el i M f)v has 6 8 5 T?)S TpO(p7)S M. has \\i\>x^o-dai without \f/vyei without tyvxto-Qai- I give Littre's reading within daggers. 6 evOea><. 1 vyprj iyevero. yaaov Be Biaxcopei. k'Xfcei i% avTi)s to yey evrjp. hiay^uipel Be Treaaerai.IIEPI AIAITHS fxa^a /cal tcadapa rpo^ificorepa.fJ. Kovcprj Be Blotl ttoWi] tj}? Tpocpr/s fiera vBaTl y\rw^pw Blotl Ta^eto? crrevoTepai tov TrvevpLaTos €%<0 anroKplveTai. rj ToiavTrj ctTe yap to a\<piTOv ^rjpbv ebv zeal 1 ^rjpavTiKi]' (itto tov vBaTOS 8ui/3poxov ovtco 8 epLTreabv e? tt)V kolXl^v. vypbv deppubv eov irecpv/ce yap to fiev OeppLov yjrvxpbv 30 eX/ceiv. airoyiveTai^ el Be e@e\oi<. ciTpnrros. fiev Biax^pei.tVOV Al.6i^av M : U M.evov cnroKplveTai etja). the reading of 6 or that of (or required).^ (three times). ovv Trp: TpocfrrjS curb tov au>p. crvpL<pvp7)cra<.aTO<. to Be kutco V7rox<i>pei' 7roXXr. tijv pua^av BiBovai. 6 7 8 awoTrveerai M." M 308 . to Be tyvxpor to OeppLov KaTavaXiaicopuivov Be tov vypov e/e tj}? kolXltj^ avdyKrj ^i-jpaiveadai. tov avv tjj pui^y eaeXObvTOS 1 9 \ yjrvxei yfrvxeo-OaL errayopLeyov. 3 2 yap ai 20 8l€%o8oi ttj rpo<pf) eovaai dWrjv iiriovoav fiev ovk €TTi. 1 wpn<pvp7i0e'io-a is seems to mean " mixed some time before it cooked 2 This is a very perplexing sentence.

translates qui est dans le ventre se consume et se desseche necessairement. while a part remains and causes flatulence. by .REGIMEN. is mixed. . For the passages. and part of it is attenuated and secreted outside with the breath. 2 So when "Le liquide Littre. and cools. coming into the belly attracts its moisture as being hot for it is natural for the hot to attract the The moisture of the cold. and it is light because that a great part of the nourishment is secreted outside with the breath. more nourishing. I am tempted to think that if^x 6 ' enayii/jLevov ("cools when introduced") is a note that has 4(re\06vTos crept into an original text which read rov . being dry. of the nourishment passes out of the If you will give the barley cake as soon as it body. for the barley meal. it is drying. being too narrow for the nourishment. . and some passes out downwards. is light. and it is also hard to distinguish (as Littre does) the vypbv (tray6^vov from the vypbv i<rt\d6u. et celui qui y est appele. 3°9 . and moist only by the water which is mixed with it. se refroidit par le froid de l'eau introduite avec la polenta. and the cold the hot. sprinkled with water but not well kneaded. is lis xl. will not receive a new addition. of this some is belched upwards. \pvxeaOai. But we should certainly require t<5 il/i>x ei and rb tiraySucvov. /coiAirjj/. the bran stool. It cools because passes easily by stool. belly being consumed it must necessarily grow dry. it is moistened with cold water it passes by stool because that it is soon digested. therefore." He takes tci vypo* as the subject of both infinitives and \pvx ei as a noun. and when the water mixed with the barley cake has entered the belly it must grow cool. combining the two readings. and that the subject of both infinitives is r^v : . A great part. but does not pass so well 3 Barley cake made into a paste betimes.

irpoffava\(t>Tai M. Liev £v/xlti)<.i) ci/cprjTov f) Be ydXatcTi Tpocpip. to Be alyeiov /xdXXov Bia^fopel. to Be fioeiov 6 rjo-aov.ev irdvTe<i. o Be tcaOapbs Tpecpei pev p-dXXov.ev aKprjTov ?) M : M. Tpocprjv Be ra> aca/xari are yap ijcrvxf) T7)Kop. <pvo~av Be ovk efinroiel ovBe epvyydveTai.ev. /cal XLII. 6 oiov (oiov $6eiov M. Sta^<u/oet 9 fidXXov Biaxcopet.vpbr)<i tov o^eo<. XLI. apTO$ Be 6 fiev avyicopiaTo^ ^rjpaivei Bia^copei.d£a SiaTrprjao'erai.oi p.evr)<i ai BloBor 2 Biaxoypet fiev ovv 40 /3paSe'&)?. eVi p. this was added honey. r) 42 Siaxtopei Be ical (pvaav ifiTroiei fiaWov. or salt or herbs. /coO(po<s Biaxcoper tcovcpos p. laTrjaiv. oti diro T//9 t. Sexovrat rrjv rpocfyrjv /ntv /xeXni Be deppbaivei Be pbdXXov. : arTjicrov 0. To cyceon was barley meal. Uvpol Icr^vpoTepoi icpi0a>v ical TpocpipLcoBianco peov a i Be r/craov ical avTol /cal o %vA. r) roiavrr) p. orrep ecrTlv t) Tpocpyj' Biaxcopei Be oti 1 x f &lJLtV0V M- * 4 °^ 01 " /nrj : 8io5oi 3 6 M omits crvv aKcpirotcri. rjv 4 to fieXr el he Litj. mixed with water. 3IO . Be TrpofyvprjOeicra Tpnnr) Tpecpet /xev rjaaov. rj Be ^rjpij Tpnnr) %-qpalvei fiev oi>x o/jloiws Bid to 7re7riXr)a0ai tV^u/aS?. to Be 'i-wneiov ical to oveiov ical Tpecpei ical %<nr\aiv' rjcrcrov eirl ical Tpecpei. fj.o?. Poiov fxkv 6: oiov 7 M. tnap to p. Kv/cewv Be crvv dXcpbTOiai 3 llovvov e<f> vSclti fxkv yjrvxei ical Tpecpei.ev oiov 5 lo-Trjai. ovtcov Be tcov dpTwv o Biax^pel Be r)aaov.IIEPI AIAITHL ovv Bel yjrv^ai rj %r)pr)vat rj Biappoir) exo/xevov 1 rj aXXr) tlv\ depixaa'trj. to vypbv ixpoavd7 XcoTai. 1 The base of wine or milk. eV oovw Be Oep/xaivei TT\ei(JTr}v BiBcocnv. Tepoi.

REGIMEN,

II.

XL.-XLH.

it is necessary to cool or to dry a sufferer from diarrhoea or from any sort of inflammation, barley cake of this sort serves well. Barley cake that is dry and well kneaded does not dry so much, by reason that it is more tightly compressed, but it

very nourishing', because as it gently dissolves the passages admit the nourishment so it passes slowly without occasioning wind either downwards or upwards. That which has been mixed beforehand and well kneaded nourishes less, but passes by stool and causes more wind.
is
;

XLI. Cyceon made with barley only 1 added to and nourishes, with wine it heats, nourishes and is astringent. With honey it heats and nourishes less, but is more laxative unless the 2 with unmixed honey it is honey be unmixed With milk all astringent. cyceons are nourishing
water cools
; ;

made with

sheep's milk they are astringent, with goats' milk they are more laxative, with cows' milk less, but with mares' or asses' milk they are more
laxative.

XLI I. Wheat is stronger and more nourishing than barley, but both it and its gruel are less laxative. Bread made of it without separating the bran dries and passes when cleaned 3 from the bran it nourishes more, but is less laxative. Of the various breads themselves the fermented is light and passes. It is light because the moisture is quickly used up owing to the acid of the leaven, and this is the nourishment. 4 It passes, because it is
;

2
3

With aT-riKTOP I.e. "white"

:

" if the honey be unmelted." bread, as opposed to "brown"
is

(ctvjko-

Liicn 6s). * I.e.

the consumption of moisture

nourishment.

3"

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Tfl^ew?
10 fiev

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on Kadapos, koi^o? Be, otc KOVCpOTUTW 7T€(pVpriTai fCdl i^VpMOTai VTTO tovtov Kal TreTTvpcorai' Sm^tooet Be on to yXvKv Kai 8iaxa>pT)Tifcov tov 7rvpov 3 crvp,fxep,iKrai. Kal
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oi /xeyicrToi rpo(pip,a)TaToi,

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dfieXieoov,

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eKKaiovTai biro tov oi Be K\t/3aviTat, Kal oi eyKpvcpiai 20 7ru/30?. ^rjpoTaTOi, oi /xev Bid tt)v ctttoBov, oi Be Bid to oi Be cre/xiBaocrTpaKov eK-nivovTai to vypov. XiTai lo"x,vpoTaTOi toutoov irdvTcov, ert Be fiaXXov Kal Tpocf)ip,oi a<f)6Bpa, ov oi eK tov xorBpov
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6

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eoVTa ov Biaxju>pv TLK(X' £o~Tl, KavaooBea Be Bioti Xnrapa Kal yXvKea Kal davpifyopa dXXrjXoiaiv 8 eovTa, ov Trjs avTr)s KaOetyijaios Beo/xeva, ev tw
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After 5ioti d has Trepi-nKao-osTai ros rais ofioAlanois. This looks like a marginal note ros perhaps represents &pros.
;

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6
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312

REGIMEN,

II.

xlii.

soon digested; but that which is not fermented does not pass so well, but nourishes more. That which is mixed with wheat gruel is lightest, affords good nourishment, and passes. It nourishes because it is made of It is light because it is pure wheat. tempered with what is most light, and is fermented by it and baked. It passes because it is mixed with the sweet and laxative part of the wheat. Of loaves themselves the largest are the most nourishing, because the moisture of these is least consumed by the fire. Those which are baked in an oven are more nourishing than those which are baked on the hearth or on a spit, because that they are less burnt by the fire. Those which are baked in a pan or under the ashes are the most dry the latter by reason of the ashes, the former by reason of the earthen pan which imbibes their moisture. The bread made of finest flour called similasro is the most strengthening of all, except that which is made of groats, which is very nourishing, but does not pass so well by stool. Fine flour mixed with water and drunk is refreshing, and so is the water wherein flour of spelt has been washed over a A decoction of bran when boiled is light and fire. Meal boiled in milk passes passes well by stool. better by stool than that boiled in water by reason of the whey, and especially if it is mixed with laxatives. All foods from meals boiled or fried with honey and oil are heating and windy windy because they are very nourishing and do not pass by stool, heating because in one place are fat, sweet and ill-assorted ingredients, which should not be
; ;

8

Kal aav/j.<popa 8e

a\Kr)\oi.<nv

iovra'

8:

£v/j.<popa

aW-qKots

ovra

M.

3*3

IIEPI
avra> earl.
38 zeal rpocfti/xa,
o-€p,iBaXi<;
2

AIAITHS
KaX %6vBpc<; e^Od, 1 layypd

ov p,evrot Bia^copel.
£e/a

Kov<f)OTepa irvpwv, KaX ra i% avrojv <yivop,eva opoioos toenrep e/c rwv irvpcov, teal Bia^oypel Be puaXXov. fipopos vypaivei real 4 yp-v)(€c ecrOtopevos ical pofyrjpa invopevos? XLIV. Ta irpoo-cpara aX<piTa zeal dX^ra ijrjporepa roiv nraXaitov, Bioti eyyiov tov 7rvp6<; teal tt}? ipyacrLris elai' iraXaiovpeva Be, to ph> Oeppiov eKirvel, ro Be yjrv^pbv eirdyerai. aproi
Tlcprj,

XLIIL

deppol p-ev fyipaivovcri, yp-v%pol Be rjacrov, ecoXoi i 6 Be Ti r]craov, la^vaa'irjv Be riva irapeyovaiv.

XLV.
cpvawBes'
Tr\v

K.vap,oi,

<f>vaco8e<;

rpocprjv

rpo<pipov recti (ttcltikov /cat pev oti ov Be^ovrat ol iropoi aXea eiriovaav' ardo-ip-ov Be on
ttjv

oXiyrjv^ e^et
Be
Triaol

vTroardOpuijv t?}? rpofyrjS.
p,ev tjctgov,

ol
6

(pva&ai

Bia^wpeovai Be

p,aXXov.
(3iv9oi
10

a>\pol teal B6Xi)^oi Bta^cop^TiKcorepoi tovtwv, TJaaov Be (fivaooBees, rp6(pip.oi Be. epe-

XevKol

rpe<fiovai'

to yXvKv' 8 1 yovBpoi KaX KVpi'ifiia, fyiphv KaX aTaaipov, perd avKcov laftvpop tolcn iroveovGiv 9 avrol Be ol
1 2 3
4

Bia^wpeovat, KaX ovpeovrai, /cat rpe<pei p,kv to aapicwBes- ovpelrat Be Key\pwv Bianco pelrat Be to dXpvpov.

ecpebsM..
ri(pri(eia 8:

(rrpvyts

(and 4^ avrris) M.

"

ttu'o/azvos 6: yevo/xevos M. (a>\oi 54 rt riaaou omitted
still less."

by M.

1

suggest

5'

In

'

yesterday's
B 6

0\T)V

M.
5iax<»priTiKu>T£pa.

5iax^pr]TiKo\ 6:

M.

Also

<f>vcrui5ea

and

rp6<f>t/xa.
7

XovSpia

8

KvprifSa^ia. 6'. £ripa leal crrdat/xa M.

xovSpoi- av/irfpia

M.

314

REGIMEN,
cooked

II.

xlii.-xlv.

in the same way. Similago and groats boiled are strengthening and very nourishing, but do not pass by stool. XLIII. The spelts x are lighter than wheat, and 2 those preparations therefrom are as light as

Oats, whether wheat, and more laxative. eaten or drunk as a decoction, moisten and cool. XLIV. Freshly cooked meal and flour are drier than those which are stale, because they are nearer the fire with which they were prepared for as they grow stale the heat exhales and the cold succeeds. Hot bread dries, cold dries less, yesterday's bread somewhat less, and causes a certain amount of

from

;

leanness.

XLV. Beans afford an astringent and flatulent flatulent because that the passages nourishment do not admit the abundant nourishment which is
;

brought, astringent because that it has only a small Peas are less windy residue from its nourishment. and pass better by stool. The chick-pea, called ochrus, and the bean called dolichus pass better by stool than these, and are less windy but

The white chick-pea passes by stool nourishing. The substantial part and urine, and nourishes. nourishes, the sweet passes by urine, and the saline Millet groats and husks are dry passes by stool. and binding with figs they are strong nourishment Whole millet by itself boiled is for hard workers.
;

Triticum monococcum and triticmn spelta. am not satisfied with 0's reading (in the text), nor with Littre's to?s for Xxrnep. An old emendation, twv, has more to be said for it " preparations therefrom are similarly lighter than those from wheat."
2

1

I

:

6

icxvpwv roiai

Tr6i>oi<ri

M. 3*5

nEPI AIAITHS
tceyxpoi
(pa/col
ecf>Ool Tp6(f>ipoi,

ov puevroi hiaj^capeovaiv.

Kavo~oohee<;

pkovcnv
lo"Xypbv
rroiel

ovre

Kai rapaKTiKot, 1 ovre hiax&'icrracnv. opofBoi crdaipov Kai Kai
he
TrXr/pol

Kai

irayyvei
e%et

Kai evxpovv

top

dvOpcoirov.

Xtvov

Kai

2

ardaipov'

n

Kapiros Tpo<fiip,ov Kai -^vktikov.

BunrprjacreTai. TrapaifXrjO'ia oppivov Kapirbs 20 Oeppoi 4>va€i p,ev lo~x v P° v Kai Oeppuov, hia he ri]v

ipyaaiijv
8ia-)((i)pel.

tcoveporepov

epvaipov aireppa hiovpelrai p.dXXov r) hia^wpel. 3 arjaapa aTrXvra 8ia)(a>peiTai, TrXrjpol he /cat •na^vvei' Sia/^fuoei pev hid to axypov to e^co,
aiKvov

/cal tyvKTiKooTepov Kai vypalvei hiaxwpel.

Kai

•nayyvzi he hid ri)v adp/ca' irenrXvpieva he hiaxcopel piev r)(T<TOV^ Tra-fcvveL he Kai TrXtjpoi p,dXXov, avaivei^ he Kai Kaiei hid to Xiirapbv Kai ttIov.

kvikos Sta^&jpet. 30 peXaiva, drdp Kai

6

p.7]K(ov
i)

ardaipov, pudXXov

t)

l&yvpov.
repot
rrj<;

tovtcov

XevK)j' rp6<f)ipov p,evroi Kai he ol xvXol 7 SiaxropyjTLKO)rfj

ipyaaiy (j^vXaaaeiv, 8 tov? ^uXou? a @ he ai OKoaa hiaxu>d^aipeovra tt) crapKi xPV 9 tw p.ev X u ^"& nXeovi, rrj he aapKi prjaai,

crapKo^' hei ovv

oKoaa

pev

fiovXei

Ijrjpalveiv,
'

36 eXdacrovi

Kai evxvXoTeprj. 10
TLepl he tcov ^dxov
11 /3oo<;

XLVI.

XP?) <yivd)(TK€iv.
1

tmv eaOiopevcov whe Kpea laxvpd Kai ardaipa

3
*

2 Tp6<pi)xov Kai omitted by M. KaTappi]KTtK6v M. a-qffa^a &ir\ina Sia-^oipe^Tai omitted by M. 6 avalvet d : vypalvet adds Se. After ^oirov

M

M.

316

REGIMEN,

II.

xlv.-xlvi.

nourishing, but it does not pass by stool. Lentils are heating and trouble the bowels they are neither laxative nor astringent. Bitter vetches are binding, strengthening, fattening, rilling, and give a person a good colour. Linseed is nourishing, astringent,
;

and somewhat refreshing. Clary seed is much of the same nature as linseed. Lupins are in their nature strengthening and heating, but by preparation they become more light and cooling than they are naturally, and pass by stool. Hedge-mustard seed moistens and passes by stool. Cucumber seeds pass better by urine than by stool. Unwashed sesame seeds pass by stool, fill and fatten they pass by stool by reason of their outward skins, they are fattening by reason of their substance when washed they pass less by stool, but they fatten and fill more they dry and heat because they are fat and Wild saffron passes by stool. Poppy is bindoily.
; ; ;

more than the white, but the white also. nourishing, however, and strengthening. Of all these seeds the juices are more laxative than their substance. When, therefore, you have a mind to dry, you must take care in preparation to remove their juices, and to make use of their substance; when you have a mind to loosen, to make use of more of their juices, less of their substance, and only of those that are very succulent. XLVI. As to animals which are eatable, you must know that beef is strong and binding, and hard of
ing, the black
It is
6
8 9 10 11

x v ^°v s

omits kvikos Siox^pet. X v^°^ s M:
:

7

xv

^

&

'•

X UM

'

-M.

Stax^pii^ai 9 5iax&>p«<'' M. ivxvKoripi)i 6: ivxvfj-oTfpa M, &obs 8: &6eia M.

which also has x vH-^

1

-

3^7

IIEPI
Kal Sv<T7r6Trra Trjcn Kal iroXvaifJLov ian 1 fiapea e? to acopua, ydXa /ecu to alfia. Kal to alpba ofioiov,

AIAITH2
koiXltjo-l,

Blotl

Ttayyaifxov

tovto to %q>ov' Kal ra fcpia Kal avral ai aapices Kal to

otcoawv Be to ydXa XeirTOv Kal ai aapices irapaTrX^aiot. Ta Be atyeia KoucpoTepa tovtcov /cal Sia^oopel rd Be veia laybv fiev to) aoo/xaTt p.aXXov.
10
e/iiTrocel

\c7rTa9

tovtcov, Biayaipel he l/cavco<> Bioti cpXefias evei Kal 6Xiyal/.iov<i, aaptca Be 7roXXi]V. apveta Be KovcfroTepa otojv, /cal ep[(f>eia aiyeiu)v,Kal Bioti dvai/noTepa /cal vypoTepa.

[xdWov
Ta<i

fy)pd
/xev

yap Kal la^vpd
cnraXd
y,

<})vo~€L

/cal

to,

"C,&a,

oKOTav

Biax^pel, 6/coTav Be av^i]6fj, ov-% /cat to, p,6(T)^eta twv fioelwv looavTws. oyuotco?. tci Be x 0l P eia T ^ )V crveioyp fiapvTepa' cfivaei yap evaap/cov bv to t,u>ov Kal avaifiov virepfioXijv uypaa[t]<; ^X et r ^ 0)( & v veov fj' OKOTav ovv oi
>

20 iropoL

BexoovTac Tyv Tpocpijv eiriovaav, epup-evov ra Be oveia 0epp.aivet Kal Tapdaaei ttjv KoiXir/v.
p,i)

p,aXXoi>, Kal Ta Kuveia fyipaivet Kal dep/xaivet Kal lo~xvv epuroiel, ov puevTOi, Siaxwpel' aKvXaKeia Be bypaivei Kal Biaxcopet, ovpeiTaL Be vo<i dyplov ^Tjpacvei Kal la^vv rrapex ei p,aXXov. Kal Bia^wpec. iXdcpou Be ^ypalvei jxev, i)craov Be Sta^w/aei, ovpeiTai Be p,dXXov. Xaywa £t]pa dXa>Kal aTaaijxa, ovpr/aiv Be Tiva irapex^i30 ttckcov vypoTepa, Kal ovpetTai Be' Kal eyivu/v

Biaxcopei,

Kal tcov
eVt

7rooXa>v

eVt

Xirireia

B'

KovcpoTepa.

r

yepo~a'iu>v ovprjTiKa, vypalvei Be. VII. ^OpviOuiv Be irepc (bBe ej^ef o~^eo*oi> ti

XL

irdvTa
1

ijrjpoTepa
fftti/na

r)

to,

6

:

<n6fxa

M

:

ev rip

TeTpdiroBa' oKoaa crraBfxcj) Z winger.

yap

3l8

REGIMEN,
digestion,

II.

xlvi.-xlvii.

gross thick blood.

abounds with a heavy to the body, Those the flesh itself, the milk and the blood. animals which have a thin milk, and the blood the
because
this

animal
is

The meat

is

Goats' flesh flesh too of the like nature. lighter than these, and passes better by stool. Swine's flesh affords more strength to the body

same, have

than these and passes well by stool, because this animal has small anaemic veins, but much flesh. Lambs' flesh is lighter than sheep's, and kids' than goats', because they do not abound with so much For animals too which blood, and are more moist.
are naturally dry
stool
;

and strong, when tender, pass by
;

but when they are grown up, not so much it is But young just the same with veal compared to beef. for this animal, pigs' flesh is heavier than pork abounding naturally in flesh and not in blood, has exso when the passages cess of moisture whilst young refuse the entering nourishment, it remains, grows hot, and deranges the belly. The flesh of asses passes
; ;

by

stool,

and that of their
is

horseflesh
heats,
stool.

somewhat
flesh of

lighter.

foals still better, though Dogs' flesh dries,

and

affords strength, but does not pass

by
is

The
still

puppies moistens and passes by
urine.

stool,

more by

Wild

boars'

flesh

drying and strengthening, and passes by stool. Deer's Hesh is drying and passes not so well by stool, but better by urine. Hares' flesh is dry and constipatFoxes' flesh is moister, ing, but is somewhat diuretic.

and passes by urine.
moistens.

Hedgehogs'
it is

is

diuretic
All

and
birds

XLV1I.
almost are

With
drier

birds

as follows.
for

than beasts,

those creatures

3*9

IIEPI

AIAITHS
*

KVCTTIV 0V/C 4%6t 0VT6 OVpel 0VT€ <rta\oXO€t

BlO,

OepfMOTijra

t?}?

/coiXltjs'

dvaXia /cerai

vypbv
evt

e/c

tov awfiaro^

e? tt]V Tpocprjv

yap to tw 6epp,(p,
p,rj

ware oure ovpetTai ovre cnaXo^oel'

ev o'iw Be

2 roiavTT] vypacrir), ^rjpa elvai dvdy/cr]' %t)pbtcitov p-ev ovv (palverai (pdcrcrT]*;, BevTepov TrepBi-

KO<i, Tpirov TrepiaTeprjs /cal d\e/cTpv6vo<; KOL oaa Be (nreppborpvyovos' vyporarov Be %t]v6s. TOiV \oyet ^ijporara erepcov. m/crcr??? Be /cal twv aWwv 6/coaa iv eXeai 3 BiaiTrjrat, rj iv vBao~i, 13 iravra vypd. VIII. Ta>v Be lydvwv ^]p6raT0i fiev olfBe,

10

XL

CTKop-nlo^, Bpdfccov,
Trep/cr),

KaWioovv p,o<i
<pv/c[<;,

dpioaa'

/covcpoi

/co/c/cv^, y\avico$, Be ol irerpaloi a^eBov tl
,

7rdvre<i, olov Ki^Xt],

«&>/3io9,

eXe^uTif

4

ol

TOtovTOi tcov iydvwv /cov<p6repoi T(av irXav^rcov' are yap drpepbl^ovTes dpairjv rrjv crdp/ca eyovaiv teal /coveprjv. ol Be irXavrjTai /cal /cvpLaTOTrXrjyes Tedpvpp,evoi tw irovcp crTepecoreprjv /cal $aQvTepr\v rrjv adpica eypvaiv. vdp/cai Be ical pivai teal
10

o/coaoi Be ev yjrrjo-o-ai /cal to, roiavra Kovcpa. roiai TrTjXcoBecri ical vypolcn 5 -^wploiai t<z? Tpo<pd<; e\ovaiv, olov K6(f)a\oi, /ceaTpaioi, iyxiXves, ol

TOIOVTOI TCOV l^OvCOV

/3apVT€pOL
/cal

eiO~l,

BlOTl

dlTO

tov vBaTO<;
cj)vop,evG)V

/cal

rov irrfkov
Tpocpas

twv

ev tovtois

t<Z9

eyovaiv, d^>

wv

/cal

to
/cal

irvevp.a

icnov

is

tov

avdpanrov

^XaTrret

jBapvvei. 1 L have
cnoXoxoe'ei
K.T.6.
2

ol Be irordp.iot /cal Xifxvaloi

en

fiapvhas:
rb vypbv

adopted here the Std yap Qep^r-qra ttjs

readings of

0.

M

Koi\lr)s ayaAicrKerai

So

0.

M

has

'6to>i

5e

fj.rj

evi

rotavTat vypafflai ^rjpaivetv

avayKt).

320

REGIMEN,

II.

xLvii.-xLviii.

which have no bladder neither make urine nor have spittle, by reason of the heat of the belly. For the moisture of the body is consumed to nourish wherefore they neither urinate nor spit. the heat Therefore that which wants such moisture must The flesh of ringdoves is the necessarily be dry.
;

driest, secondly partridges, thirdly pigeons, cocks and turtles. The flesh of geese is the most moist.

Those which feed on seed are drier than the others. Ducks and other fowls that feed on marshes or
waters are
driest.
all

moist.

to the flesh of fish, these are the 1 scorpion fish, dragon fish, the fish called callionvmos, the piper, the grey fish, the The fish that perch, the fish called thrissa. as the frequent stony places are almost all light, thrush fish, the hake, the gudgeon and elephitis. These are lighter than those which move from place to place, for these remaining quiet have a rare and which wander and are wavelight flesh, but those tossed have a more solid and deeper flesh, being much battered by the toil. The torpedo, skate, turbot and such-Hke are light. All those fish that feed

XLVIII. As

The

in

muddy and marshy

places, as

mullet, cestreus,

and the like are heavier (of digestion), because which they feed upon muddy water and other things The air of which also, entering grow therein. The fish of a person, hurts and oppresses him. The rivers and ponds are heavier than these.
eels
1

The great weever.

3

when the manuscripts were
4

interesting survival of a mistake made in uncials ; EAE2I and EAE2I. Said to be corrupt. Corrected by Coraes to aAtpTjo-r/js.
6

has eae<n

—an

6

vypdiai 6

:

t5p7}\o7<ri

M. 321

nEPI AIAITHS
jepoL tovtcov.
7ro\v7To8e<i he teal trrjirlat kal

ra

rotavra

ovre

Kovcpa,
''

009

BoKei,

eariv

oine

20 Biaxo)prjTi/cd, tov<; 5' ocpOaXfiov^ cnrap,^Xvvovcnv' 1 oi jx&vtoi x vlJL0 tovtcov hiaxcopeovatv. ra he KO<y%v\ia, olov irivvai, XeTrdhes, Tropcpvpai,
KtjpvKes, oarpea, avTrj fiev 77 crap% gijpalvei, oi he xvXol 8iax(opr]TiKoip.ve$ he Kal /creves Kal TeXXivai p,dXXov tovtcov Siaxcopeovcriv' ai he
2

creXa^ea iiypaivei Kal Kal to vypbv Kapdficov SLax^opei. 3 Kal KapKivoi, p,dXXov p,ev Siaxcopei, Kal apKoi, 01 TTOTafiioi, aTap Kal oi daXdacrioi, Kal ovpetTat.^ 30 oi Tcipixot l^r)paivovai Kal icrxvaivovai' tcl he
to.

KviSai jxaXicna' Kal
exlvcov

cod

5 hiax^pel eirieiKecos' fyipoTaTOi p,ev tow Tapix wv 0l BaXdacrioi, hevTepov he oi iroTapioi, vypoTaTOL he 01 XifivaioL' avTcov he tcov Tapixcov,

•Kiova

34 OLirep Kal

Ix&vd
'Tcov

XLIX.

he

£r]poTaTOt,, ovtol Kal Tapixoi? tcov Tidaacrcov, 7 to. t,cocov

8 twv evhov Tpecpo/xevcov dypovofxa £>1poTepa, otl TTovovvTa ^rjpaiveTai Kal iiirb tov ifkiov Kat vtto tov i^y^eo?, Kal tco irvevpuaTL 9 T^ aypia tcov rjfxepcov ^rjpoTepcp xPV Tai 10 to, oXiyocpdya tcov iroXvcpdycov, Kal ^^poTepa, 11 tcov norjepdycov, Kal t« Kapreal tci f^Xw/Jo^a'Yaj

vXovop,a Kal

-

^

1

airanPAvvovcriv 8
avrrj fxkv
rj

:

fiapvvovaiv
6,

M.

2

<rap| ^vpalvei

di avra

ol for Kal has Kapdfiov /xves Kal &pKoi Kal KapKivoi. (before KapKivoi). 4 has Kal Siox^pf*' Kal oiipterat.

3

Kal

apftoi

omitted by

M

M

peis |7jpa M. which also reads

5

irioya 6

:

ir\eiova

M.
:

oi irep Kal j^C^es avraiv 5e rSiv alnewv Se toiv QaXaonLuv ol i^Bves 9 Littre Paris (from MSS.), suggesting Keyofifot irepKai Ix^ves

6

avriiov Se
oil

twv

Tapi'xaii'

M

:

rapixoov

irep/cat

at \eyop.fpai TrriXa/xi/Ses.

322

i M. M 7 For TiOaaaSiv ayp6vojxa has ir6\ea>y. 10 11 XPV Tat has & • M Tpe'peTa." Perhaps we should adopt the conjecture ing of Zwinger. and oysters. but neither can bear the meanthe x^"jpo^aya of 6 nor the Kapiro<j>dya of " hay eating. . ever. themselves those are driest which are considered Pickled fish . because their labours in the sun and the cold dry them. XLIX. purple fish. II. those of the sea. are neither light. 1 This is evidently the sense of the sentence. cockles and tellines pass better than these that are by stool.-xlix. the next those of the rivers. while they breathe an air that small Wild beasts are drier than tame is drier. howShell-fish. sea-nettles do so especially. . xlviii. cuttle and the like nor do to are be. by made from the driest fish. after £y pore pa. the river variety more stool than others. Mussels. but also sea-crabs they are also diuretic. 323 . As to animals which are tamed. . as polypus.REGIMEN. The broth of them. and moisten spawn pass by cartilaginous of urchins and the juice of spiny lobsters pass by arcos too and crabs. have a limpet. passes by stool. thought they but they dull the eyes. . but their broths pass by stool. those which feed in the woods and fields are drier than those fed within doors. 8 ' M : iiypovofia d. trumpet flesh that dries. they pass by stool. while Of pickled fish the moistest are those of the lakes. L '• wp. Kapiro(f>dya x^ 0O P o(i° y a M : x°P 70(P°-y a Zwinger. . /cat to. fish The stool. are drying and attenuating oily ones The driest of pickled fish are are gently laxative. as the pinna.o<pdya' nal ra v\o<J>dya. * eaters than great eaters hay eaters than grass eaters than small drinkers fruit eaters than non-fruit eaters .

Kal Ta rroXvaip. on eyyiara ro yevlaLos.ov Kal o~rdaip.brarai Kal ev fieri KaraKklverai. "TBcop tyvxpov Kal vypov' z olvos deppibv tjrjpow Kal vXtjs.ov Be. 8' ivavrla rwv TToXvirorcav.ov Be.ovra ptdXXov rj ra Xirjv nraXaia Kal ra vea. Kal Kap7T0(pdycov. %(pov.ev al adpKes al puaXiara rroveovaai Kal evaip. Kal pueXava XevK&v.' i on yeveal^ earn. koX ra dpaeva rwv dtjXeiwv. roiv 1 2 e\ei Be Be otvcov /col Kal Kal KaOapriKov diro t?}? p. (bvcrtoBes earl rpo<bip. Be. avrcov Be rS>v ^axov lcr)(yp6raraL p.ov Be. 7roSe?. Kal KecbaXai Be KOV(J)6rara 23 vypbrepai Bid rrjv Trip. on rov yd\aKro<i eanv vttoXolttov. LII.oTaTai is omitted by M. aapKwBes Xnrapbv.ov icryypov p.eXi]v Kal rov eyKecbaXov.ev. ra viroydarpia.orarai. Kreves. Kov^orarai Be rtav 1 crapKOiv al rjKtara iroveovcrai Kal oXiyaip. L. Kal pbves.11EPI 7ro(pdya AIAITHS ra bXiyorrora rwv p. Kal €K tt.ekave<. Kal rwv dvaifiwv ra aKpdt.? <TKir}s. Kal ra Baaea yjfiXcov ra. ffTaa-ifiov omitted by M. Kal bcrat ecrborarai rov £o>ot\ 20 rwv Be dvaipuav eyKecbaXos Kal /xueXo? layypbrara' KOV(porara Be KecbaXai. rov t^coov. on ydXa 2 p.ev. 6 rpo<bip. Kal ra evopya rwv dvbpywv. 324 . on Kai ardaip.a by pore pa.rj 10 Kal oXiyal/xcov. rcav Be iyBvoav ^pbrard eon ra avco.ov Kal <pvcr6i)8e<. LI. on oircp irvrtij avvearrjKev. o! n 3 \pvKTtKOV M : tyvxpbv Kal vypov 6. on eK puKpov ojkov e? ttoXv Bta-^elrai. Kal avartjpol 6\iyaifj. 'ft/a Be opviOoiv la^vpbv Kal rp6(bip. Tvpbs Be la^vpbv Kal KavcrwBes Kal rpocbtlo")(vp6i> p. KavaaiBes B4.

the feet. and are placed most inwardly in the animal.-lii. strong because it is the origin of an animal . An egg is L. . Birds' eggs are strong. Water is cooling and moist. As to the flesh of animals as a class. nourishing because it is the milk of the animal windy. . .REGIMEN. those which abound in blood than great drinkers those which have little or no blood those which are in their vigour than those which are very old or young males than females entire than gelded the black than the white the hairy than those which have little or no hair. 1 For the meaning of fives see Littre's note. . and on which they lie. xux. the lightest those below the stomach the head is more moist by reason of the fat and . II. . The opposite to these are more moist. . the region of the genitals and those Of fish. LI. . that is the strongest which labours most. and it has something purgative from its original Dark and harsh wines are more dry. because it is coagulated by fig juice or rennet. . nourishing and windy. abounds most in Those are lightest blood. 325 VOL. brain. Of the bloodless parts the brain and the marrow are the strongest the lightest parts are the head. Wine is hot and dry. because from small bulk it expands to a great one. the driest parts are that are tendinous. strong. IV. Cheese . are most in the shade. . heating. is binding it is . LI I.) N . which have laboured least. . 1 the upper. have least blood. and substance. (hip. nourishing and strong because it is nearest to a it is nourishing because the fleshy creature's origin part of the milk remains in it it is heating because it is fat binding.

ev Kai layvaivovai Kevcocriv " tou vypov eK tov TTOieofxevoi. M. 1 2 3 4 5 oi/re ovpeovrai omitted by irrvovTCu 8 : irrvovci M. oi Be XcvkoI 5 eiai. o~(op. Bloti eyyvrepoi rov yXevKebs eiai /cal rpocpi/Korepoi. yXvKees pieXaves vyporepoi Kal daOevearepoi* teal ^vaoaaiv vypa10 airjv avart)pol 6epp.aTO'i oti KaOaipei.an ev ru> adtpuari? yXev8 «o<? (pvaa KaleKTapdcraei Kal rrjv koiXlijv vrrdyei' oti eK rov Be Oepfiaivei. ol Se Xenrol yXvicees' ovpeovrai piaXXov Kal oiaxa>peovai Kai oi Se Xenrol ovpaiovrai fiaXXov' Kal ol vypaivovai to ato/ia 6 326 .aXXov t) Siaywpeovcri. teal cfivawai real oi he Biaywpeovai piaXXov. Kal vypaivovai Kal itryyaivovcri. o£o<i yjrvKTiKov. oi ira^ees rwv Xctttcov. Kal aaQevtanpoi 6 After keuicol M adds M : dep/xalvovo'i km.aXXov rj Bia^copeovaiv.aivovai fiev.. ov pvt)v ^rjpaiiovaiv. rjXiKir)<. ovpeovrai Be p. -tyvyovai p.ev. oi veoi fidXXov rwv o'ivcov Biay^copeovai.aii)v : M. Kal •tyvyovai piev Kai layyaivovai Kal vypaivovai to 6 Kal to alpa daOeves iroieovaiv. r))v 8epfi. /cal oi t&v o^ovTes epnroieovre<i. Biori Tre-neipbrepoi oi Be Xe7TTol ovpeovrai p. crcop. oi Bk . 9 rapdaaei Be £eov ev rfj oi o^ivai olvoi y]nj%ovai K0i\lrj Kal Biaywpei. av^ovres 20 o~w/xa. to dvrnraXov t& a\p. dvoBpiwv Kal rf)<i avrr)<. virdyei (pvaa p.a. fxaXaKol pieXaves vypbrepoi. rrji 8ep/xaair)i d : 0.aTO<i vypaivovai Be diro tov eaiovros vBaTo<i avv tw oivg).riEPI AIAITHS 1 ^rjporepoi Kal ovt6 Bianco peovrai ovre ovpeovrai 0VT6 TTTVOVTCtl' 2 ^fJpaiVOVai 8k TT} 6'g p pLCLCT If] 3 TO vypbv eK roil G(joparo<i KaravaXiaKovre^.dXXov Kal oi XevKol Kal oi Xeirrol yXvKees ovpeovrai p.

II. Vinegar is refreshing. rj Bia^wpeovai' Kal tfiv^ovcri p. to ocopa 9. and they pass better by urine than by stool. . those with bouquet pass better by stool than those without. . weaker they cause flatulence because they produce Harsh white wines heat without drying. wines are moister they are flatulent and pass better The sweet dark wines are moister and by stool. . They dry by reason of their heat. attenuate and moisten the body. M has Kevwaet. 7 av^ovrai re es ro dvriTraXov ra> alfiari. 8 /cat <f>voa Kal inrdyei kg. . moisten and attenuate they cool and attenuate by emptying the body of its moisture they moisten from the water that enters with the wine. wind because it heats it empties the body because it disturbs by fermenting in the bowels it purges and passing by stool. but make the blood weak. It causes disturbs the bowels and empties them. Sta^ajpeet M : * 10 on Kadapaiv 6 M. nor by spittle.eov ev rrji kolXitji. 327 . New wines pass by stool better than other wines because they are nearer the must. increasing in the body that which is opposed to the blood. and the thicker wines better than Thin wines pass better by urine. Perhaps some ancient texts had (sc. XevKol Kal ol Xe-nrol yXvKees ovpaiovrai (xdXXov. White the thin. iv rwi ocop-ari 9 : av£ovres re ro avriiraXov rov ato/xaro? to al/xa iv tu>i owfiari M. and more nourishing . wines and thin sweet wines pass better by urine than by stool they cool. . conSoft dark suming the moisture out of the body. because they are riper. lii.ev Kal lo)(valvovai' Kal vypaivovat. Acid wines cool. Must causes wind.evoi and others Kevwaei rov vypov). . d Kevcuat. of wines of the same age. they pass well neither by stool nor by urine.1 eKrapdooerai t.REGIMEN. KaQalpei Littre v KaL Loxvalvovoi omitted t/jvx ovaL P* : by 9. moisture. . Ktvtooiv Troieop. <f>voa Kal eKTapaaaeC Kal rrjv KoiXirjv vrrdyei' 6.

pa<pav\<. Beai./3\vv€i' crraaw? 10 /cat /cpopi/xvov rfj piev b-^jrei dyaOov.olai cpXavpov' icddapaiv yap e/c rov oco/xaTO? 7roX\r]v rroiebp-evov. rd Be <pvXXa r/aaov. LIII.bv /cat Bianco pt]ri/cbv zeal ovpelrai. 'tarsal to vypbv to iv Be jiaXXov /cal crco/iari /cara/cal Bia^wpel Biori Qepp^alvei ov rp6(f)i/jLOV Bpt/nv.aivei /xev on olvcoBes. XiriBe? 37 Biori 2 vypaivovai real vrrdyovai /cat /cat to y\ev/co<i to avrb Troiel.IIEPI 30 Biori rfj/cov AIAITHS tw rj vaXta/cei. Bid to /caOapri/cov' ecpdbv dadevearepov rj u>p:ov' cpvaav Be epnroiel hid rov rrvevp-aros rrjv eirirrjv oyjnv cnrap. avv vBari Be vypaivei rolai Bia-^copel rolai -%o\go6 Be cf)\ey/j. ra> Be ad>p. /cadi]y]r'r)/j. eyjnjfia vypaivei teal vrrdyei. rrpdaov 6epp. rpji-qjiivov M: TrpoaKad^fievov 6: TrpoaKaOf'firjfifvuv (sic) 328 . Biori Oepfibv /cal /cavaoiBe? dare ov Bia^copel' rpo^rjv piev yap ov BiBwai rep acopian ovBe uxpeXeiyv' deppialvov Be ^rjpaivei Bid tov brrbv.a n rfj Bpi/nvrrjrc. ovpelrai. olj'o? Bia^wpel Be puaXkov <b8e rolai cpXey- LIV. vypaivei Be on Tpo<f)t{iov. eirnroXd^ov Be KaOdnep Littr6. Be /cat Bia^wpel' e%et Be ical icaOapnicov vypaivei Be ical o^vpeyfiLijp Travel' vararov Be eaOieiv. Uepl \a%dva>v e\ei. Bia^copel Be /cat ovpelrai. Oepp.arco8eo-iv Xarr/aiv.ari /ca/cov. ayaObv rolai (ToopLacn. r) irpbs rd /cal dpOpiritcd iLoydv)pov 1 pity. rolai 5' 6<fi0aXp.ei>ov eariv. vypaivei. vrrdyet Be on y\v/cv /cat 1 7Ty0o?. Biax^ovaa to <f>Xeyp. MeXt Be Oeppiaiveu /cat /cat ^rjpaivei a/cprjTOv. yXv/cvs 5 fxarirjai. rpvya a-repKpv(pvcrcoai.aivei fxev rjaaov. cr/copoBov 6epp.

. but you must eat it last. but binds those who are phlegmatic. 32 9 . moistens and sends to stool. LIV. sends to stool those of bilious temperament. making a considerable purgation of the body it dulls It promotes stools and urine because of the sight. it is in the because it rather than laxative binding and consumes the moisture no nourishment and is sharp. but bad for the body.-liv. The onion is good for sight. and it repeats and is hard to digest. because must also does . Cress arthritis. to stool vinous. It causes flatulence beis weaker than when raw. moistens because it is nutritious. The radish heartburn. The qualities of vegetables are as follow. the same. Garlic warms. 2 3 BlOTl M : 07T€p 9. sends with wind. But sweet wine tends to send the phlegmatic to stool. . and does not lead to stool giving nourishment or help to the body it warms and The leek warms less. lii. moistens through melting the phlegm by its sharpThe root is bad for ness. It warms affords because it is and sends to boiled-down. but the leaves do so less. stool because it is sweet and moreover fills and Wine from grape-husks moistens. When boiled it the purgative qualities it possesses.REGIMEN. cause it causes stoppage of wind. imoraaw M : emoTTaoi 9. but passes well by urine and by stool it has also a It moistens and it stops certain purgative quality. because it II. dries on account of its juice. LI 1 1. because it is hot and for without burning. passes well by stool and by urine. dissolves body . Boiled-down wine warms. Honey unmixed warms and dries mixed with water it moistens. and For is good for the body though bad for the eyes.

Kal depfiov is omitted by 6. M. Optha^ yjrv^po1 repov irplv rbv brrbv eXetv' dadeveirjv S' eviore 2 Kal araaurjdov 6epp.dXXov r) avrb 8ia%(opeovaiv. Kpdp. ov pievroi Oiavmpel. 1 koXokvvti] Oeppiaivei 8' Kal vypaivei eviore 8: Be two.bv epnroiel rq> acopiari.pOr] Oeppiaivei Oeppiaivei Kal ovpelrai Kai epierowz lar^ai. 6 piivOt] Ka\ap.aKa rd ftXafiepa aocfreXel daTrdpayos ^rjpbv Kal ardaipiov. eXeXiacbaKov arpv)(Vo<.ov £i]pov Kal p. arpayyovpiyv rd (j>dpp. XdrraOov deppialvov hia%(opel. rrp' yovrjv ri]Kei ware r)v TToWdKis eadir) 40 peiv.evov Kal vrrvoiroiel. TTrjyavov ovpelrai pidXXov 30 Oeppuov Kal avarperrriKov ri e^ei. 7 Sia^wprjTiKov. ov vyparv.€vov. Kal evreivetv KcoXvei. Kal b^vpeyp.f3ij Oeppiaivei Kal Bia^wpelaevrXov 6 piev xvXos Sia^copel. di'Spdcpa^is (3Xirov Oeppiov. ware 20 vairv Oeppuov' hia^wpel. Se larrjaiv. 33° . a! 8e pi^ai roiv aevrXwv 8 &ia%(o- prjriKcbrepai.^ rerapiyev p-evr] KviSrj Kadalpei. teal arariKov. crap/co.irji' Travel. AIAITHS Qepfxavrucov /cdp8a/j. 3 Kal ardaipiov.. Kal TTTappibv Travel oa(f>paivop. i/jbiroielv. creXitikov. dv$pd){vi] yj/v)(ei t) Troraivirj. Suaovpelrai 8e Kal rovro' Kal ev^ropiov irapaKopiavov 6epp-bv rrXijaia tovtouti hiarrpi]acrerai. Kal ai pi^ai wKip. 2 s Before depnov 8 adds fjaoov.a\Xov i) Sca^copel. XoXwSea avrb Se dyei. vararov 5' eireo~diop. ri<.i. Kal to acopia dadeves nroiel. TrpoTrivbpievov. Kal KaOaipet.IIEPI hvcnreirrov. -tyvyei Kal e^ovei£rjpbv Kal arariKov. pwaaeiv ovk ed. vov ovpelrai p. Kal rrpbs r) Sta^&)/oeZ. Kai Se 5 Oepp-aivei.ov Kal rrjv ri]Kov' avvLaTi]cri (frXeypa XevKov.

and it has a certain congealing it is a prophylactic quality. but sometimes Anise is hot and it produces weakness in the body. p-ivdrj 8cpp. purge. is II. if eaten passes easily by urine. passes by stool better than does better by Rue and hot passes astringent. preventing Sorrel warms and erections and weakening the body. Nettles fresh cools. Cabbage warms. so as to produce strangury. Lettuce is rather cooling before it has its juice. when preserved it warms. Orach is moist without passes well by stool. well by stool. it congeals white heating and melts the flesh is hot phlegm. Mint warms. Littre: 6: norapir) 5 6 M. passes well by stool and evacuates bilious matters. Mack. often it melts the seed and makes it run. 7 Omitted by pXlroV depfxov. . and stops vomiting. Catmint warms and purges. urine than by stool.REGIMEN. and the smell of it stops sneezing.6v. while 8 ipvxei Littre: 8epp. Mustard and passes well by stool it too passes hardly by urine. Celery and the root passes better by urine than by stool. For 9 M 8.ai. though the vegetable itself is astringent . Basil is the stalk. . biaxcoprjriKov. KvlSr) omits Kadalpei. has kclI. liv. Littre has ov Qi.pp. dry. Blite is warm without passing passing well by stool.1. Beet juice passes well the by stool. Rocket also has effects like those of mustard. Sage is dry and astringent. and when eaten last also causes sleep. . The pumpkin irorap:n]i ttotuvit] Foes (in note). Asparagus against poisons. roots of beet are rather 4 more aperient. Coriander is hot and astringent it stops heartburn.aivei 8 M.vei ko. while if drunk beforehand is dry and astringent. astringent. 33* . Night-shade cools Purslane when and prevents nightly pollutions. ovbiaxwp-qTiKov M.

j3r)<$.aivei he /cat hiax^pel. a/copohov diroftpeypiara. d has [xapddov irpaawv. 69 Xivo£d)ario<. d/cri}*. 8ia%a>pel /cat ovpeirai. ipefiivOcov.aroohea. hiovpelrai.ot hiovprj\}rv/cri/cd. /xapddpov.. bypalvei he /cat rapdaaei to aatpia. bpiyavov deppiaivei.ds /3apeta?. acohes. dvpuov Oeppiov. and M fxapddwv' Trpaaov S3 2 . Kvriaov. /cat virepi/cbv. he KaOapriKol. arpvyyov aeaeXi. v-rro^opelrai pidXXov rj ovpeirai' b/cbaa he eari arpvcpvd rj avarrjpd. /cpidrjs. icvihai' htaxMpyjri/cot (pa/cr/i. ardaip.IIEPI /cat AIAITHL yoyyvXt<i /cavhia^oopel. •tyvyei /cav/caXihes. Uept he oTT(oprj<. a/coXoTrei'hfjiov. fiivar).bicoaa he hpipiea /cat ^rjpd iv b/cbaa he b£ea. /cpi)0p.ov. yXi'iycov Oepiirrdyei 50 p. dyei he (j>Xeyp. ov/c ovpeirai he. tw ri/coi.a' 60 baa he hpip. rrpdaov? dhidvrov. vaacoTros Oeppiaivei /cat virdyei (bXey/iiarcbhea. aeXivov. kvi]KOV' ravra pbdXXov viroxwpelrai rj hiovpelrai.. 2 aropuari. aerdi.^ aepi<. /cpdp.ea /cat eiioohea. aevrXcov.. ravra ^rjpawei' ol he %vp. hvaovpelrai 1 he. Ta LV. OvpL^prj TzapairX^aia hiairpija%o\w?)ea. roiv he dypioov /cat rj Xa~)/ava)V iv TfS aropiari deppiavri/cd evcohea. Krai. baa ravra Beppualvei /cat ovpeirai piaXXov hia^capel' o/coaa /cat Be l>ypt)v cjivaiv e^et /cat yjrvxpijv putpr/v rj bap. ov puevroi hia^wpel. whe ex ei# 1 t 161 ' For hvaovpelrai Before ifivKriKa 2 3 M has has ovpaUrat.

.-lv. . leek. clover. moistening. stool or purge are those of chick-pea. celery. nettles.REGIMEN. it should have been changed to 8ep[iaivei. fennel. barley. liv. those that are warming of a sweet smell. help stools rather cabbage. beet. cold and . endive. and also passes easily by evacuates bilious matters. although the authority Littre's reading (>pvx*h but he does not for it is very strong. . more easily sluggish nature. mint. but it is difficult to see give his authority) may be correct. . way. Diuretic juices are those of samphire. though it does by urine. Hyssop is warming and expels phlegmatic humours. or a strong smell. nightshade. disturbing to the body but it does not pass easily. are that urine those than stool rough by by are binding those that are sharp and of a sweet smell that are sharp and dry in pass easily by urine . Juices that send to bur-parsley. Savory acts in a similar is hot. 333 . and not by urine. elder. Cooling are hart's tongue. moistens. 1 It is difficult to accept this reading. /cat tovto ' >ftvx fl Kai OKoAonevSpiov. pass or harsh. passes easily by stool and urine. lentils. seseli. Marjoram warms. than urine. LV. Of wild in the mouth. Pennyroyal warms and stool. maiden-hair. 1 warms. why 2 "With the reading of 0: "does not pass easily by stool. garlic (in infusions). and passes easily by stool though The turnip is heating. hypericum. II. warm and pass more readily by urine than by stool those that have a moist. mercury. those the mouth are drying those that are acid are cooling. Thyme and evacuates phlegmatic humours. The following are the qualities of These fruits. carthamus." * 6 has dSiavTou /cat ^u'xei aTpvyyov. and vegetables. 2 either by stool or by urine.

a. rfoaov KavoojBees' ai Be ogelai iffVKTiKWTepar oi Be nvpives Travrcov aTa. ireireLpoi hia^peovai KaX ttjv koiXlijv 3 ai he oyfiaX ardatpov. he.9a. axpeXel. 9 has pLrjXa KvBwvia BvoTrerrra 6£ea ire-nova f/aaov e^ei ti otvtttikov. tcl he x\wpa roiv he hvvapn^ elpjjaerai 2 avrwv. M. Biax<npevvTai.T]pa)v. poirjs <y\vfcel. Littr6 reads at olvooBee. has at oivwSees.lpei M. continues oi Be nenoves ovpeovrai. icadaipovcriv' pbrjXa y\vfcea hvaireirra. ova 5 ToiavTi) oTTcopy] 20 hvo-TreiTToV 8 7 Tre7rove<. : M.aip.IIEPI 1 AIAITHS iyfcdpnca i. 7 The text is that of 9.i)\a crrantcd.o? hia%a>pel. 3 4 KaOaipovaiv 9 Ka. KavcrSihes he tl e^ef ai 6 olvdyhees cpvacohees' ai he o^elau "tyvKTLKdyrepai' ctLkvol a)fj. 1 <j)vaQ)hee<.^i/\. fiorpves deppuov KaX vypov For eyKapnia elprjoerai 9 : 9 has Kapmp. 8 9 has oiaxiope'ovoi Be.' rd he dypia p. ru>v potcov <f>vawBees' ai oe 6£elai ifrvKTiKwrepar oi oe irvprjves iraoewv ardaiftot. The reading of is oikvoi wpol Littre has the reading of M.erov<. t) 6epp. 8 For ova 9 has a blank space. he ovpeovrai teal Sta^w- peovac. 6%ea he irewova r/acrov' tcvhiovia 4 oi he ^uXot tcov 10 (Ttvittikcl zeal ov hia^wpeovaiv' Hrfkwv 7T/30? tou? e/xerovi arartKoX KaX ovprjjiKoireal oh/xal Trpos tou? ep. 2 etprjrai. M : M 334 .r)<. 9 6 has 6 olvwBrjs <f>vow8r)s' 17 Be 6£ia tfjuKTiKcorepr)' ol Be TTVpives TTavrojv ordaifiov.a'ivei Treireipot.oX oi he Trvprjves iraakwv ardai/jiov. €(p9d he fiaWov hia)((t)pei' 7rp6f he rr)v opOoTrvoirjv ol re ^uXot avrtbv KaX avrd TTivo^ieva he /cal ixecniXa Kai /cpdvia /cal t) aTarLKr) /cal <TTpv<f>vrj. . he. arrioi peovcnv' %ei/jLepioi depfxaivovai KaX vypaivovcri KaX hia^a)ai he a/c\i]pal ardaifiov d^pdhe<i he. fiopa KaX vypaivei KaX hiayoapel.oi. and tpvxpol Kal SvoTrenToi. Sia^aiprjTiKcorepa.

Sweet apples are indigestible. but are flatulent." i. Fruit generally 1 is II. but when hard they are binding. but when vomiting. "less burning. promotes urine. pass easily by stool." It is from nuts. 4 are indigestible. as napTnixos means "fruitful" or "fruit-bearing. Unripe gourds 5 and urine stool. fresh than when Wild winter pears when ripe pass easily by stool and purge the bowels when unripe they are binding. It ma}' therefore mean here I prefer. Mulberries warm. cornel berries and such fruit generally are binding and astringent. now be given. but has a certain burning Vinous pomegranates are flatulent. medlars. moisten and pass Pears when ripe warm. possible that (yKupina refers to fruit as distinguished oVojoa includes both. passing easily by 1 " with the seed formed. Littre takes as "ripe. gourds pass easily by Grapes are warming and moist. more so when The properties of fruits shall dry." 3 The reading irdvTwv has overwhelming authority. 2 With the reading of M. to make it. is made of them. The smell too of apples is good for Wild apples are astringent." fruit generally. those things "whose seed is in eyKapTua iyKapTTtos means literally. Can it mean " of all fruits " (pomegranates included)? 4 Apparently the cucumber. and the apples themselves when a draught Service berries. are beneficial. 335 " . ripe astringent. For orthopncea their juice. Apple juice stops vomiting and pass easily by stool. and do not ripe are less so. "containing seed within it. pomegranate is laxative. cooked they pass more easily by stool. The juice of the sweet . lv. 5 Apparently the melon. but acid apples when Quinces are astringent. however. 2 The quality.e. The seeds of all 3 are acid are more cooling. moisten and easily by stool. rather relaxing.REGIMEN. themselves." = The reading of 6 (/capTn^a) can scarcely be right.

Tpt(f)ei he i/cav(o<. hioTi ttoXv ijhr/ tov Oeppiov e\ovaiv' ol he o/xcpa/cwBees rjaaov Oepjuaivovai.o<. <f>r)yol LiLtiv.' vypaivei fiev hid to ey)(yXov elvai.' ev dXl he icpea Tapifflpd Tpo<fiip. on oTrwhearara. 1 Oep/xaivei he hid tov yXvKvv 07rbv Kal hia^uipei' ra irpwra to>i> avKwv k<x30 icicna. rp6(f)Lpiov he hid to aapKwhes.ievoi' dara(pihe<. tt]v adpica' ev 6%ei he TeTapi^evpieva Oeppiaivei piev rjaaov hid to oj. 3 Bpv'Cvoi 6 4 % rpo(f>ifia Trenova- : Kal After ai/xa M adds (frrjyrji M : /cat Sia^copeet 6. /cat /cat otjtcl. he Kavacoha. 33*> .I1EPI AIAITHL Kal hia^wpel. layi'aivei he Kal ^rjpaivei Kal hia^wpei iKavcos. Kal hia%a>pei KaOapa eovTa. Ta? he hvvdpiias €KaaT(ov dcpatpelv Kal rrpoaTiOevai 6)he XPV> elhoTa otl 6 irvpl Kal vhaTi irdvTa avviaTaTai LVI. al dpivyhdXai Kavacohes. he irXaTea 2 Tpocf)ip. /xaXcara /xev 01 XevKoi' 01 fiev ovv Oeppiaivovaiv layypws.. Kcipva aTpoyyvXa irapa-nXrjaia' to. Kal epnroiei' ol he j^iTwve^ clvtoov aTaaijxov.a ireirova. Tpo<pipiov he' xavacohes fiev hid to Xnrapov. M : ra Be 7rAaTea Kapea. icaOaipovai he TTivoj. rpoc/nfiov Kal : M Bia^copeei. ai>Kov yXwpbv vypaivei /cal hta)/(opel Kal deppuaivet. Tpecfrei he hia. fyjpalvei pxv hia tov olvov. (3eXTiaTa he ra varara' iy\v/cie<. hia^copel he. hia to aXas 5 toO vypov direaTeprjpieva. Ta fcpea he. (frvcrav rrriova twv icpewv Kavaiohea. hia^aipei he. fyipa av/ca Kavawhea pitv.a pitv rjaaov. ra Be TrAareo neTrova. 10 1 2 So 8 has Stdri ey^vXav eon. hia^copei Tapi^rjpd ev olvw fiev ^rjpaivei Kal Tpecpei. a/cvXoi he teal f3dXavoi hpvivoi 3 aTaTixd utpid' 4 38 e<f)dd rjaaov.

peeled. have the late form to dXas (so Mack and Littre). passes well because of its sweet juice. pass easily by stool Their skins. The green fig moistens. ative. warms and . The first crop of figs is the worst. are binding. Rich meats are burning. passes well by stool and warms . but they attenuate. Sweet grapes are very heating. and cause flatulence. however. stool . LVI. Chestnuts. M Two MSS. Unripe grapes are less warming. burning because they are oily. as it is known that out of fire and water are composed 1 all things.-lvi. 337 . they are less warming because of the vinegar. When preserved in vinegar ing because of the flesh. II.REGIMEN. but pass well by stool. but pass well by Meats preserved in wine are drying and stool. well. salt are less nutritious. because by the time they are sweet they have absorbed much heat. because the brine has deprived them of their moisture. it moistens because it is juicy. but less so when boiled. both animal 2 and Ordinary nuts. but a draught made from them is purgRaisins are burning. Ilex nuts and acorns are binding when raw. nutritious drying because of the wine. but Meats preserved in they are quite nutritious. lv. white grapes are especially so. 6 a'So'ra on omitted by M. . when ripe. Flat they are fleshy. 9 has aAi and to a\a. Dry figs are burning. and pass by stool quite foods severally ought to be diminished or increased in the following way. and nutritious because Round nuts 1 are similar. 8 aXal and to a\es. The powers of dry. and nourishnuts 2 are nutritious when . because such figs have most juice the latest are the best. but pass Almonds are burning but nutritious well by stool.

crTopaTa twv cpXeficov. toIctlv eK " XP a T ^ 0V Kai 1 l tcov dvvBpcov 'Xjcopicov GItIomti Kal Tpocpf] 40 TTopacn Kal ^cooiatv' 1 oKOTav Be KovcpOTepr) rj okws dnvpovfieva r/ (f>col. eyfrcovTa 7roWd/ci<. Kal avyKaiet. ovkovv 5 Bel ttjv Bvvapiv avTov pbvov yvcovai tov T€ CTiTOV Kai TOV 7TO/XaT09 Kai TCOV ^cocov. fyipaivovTa Kal OeppaivovTa.6peva Biori to 1 ardaipa earl vypbv vtto tov irvpos d(prjp7]Tai Kal to oircoBes Kal to Xnrapov oTav ovv e? Trjv KoiXtrjv epiTrear).ofi. coaTe to. tcov dvvBpcov Kal %>)pcov Kal Trviyr/pcov ywp'icov diravTa fyipoTepa Kal OeppoTepa Kal Icr^vv TrXeico 30 irapeyeTai e'9 to acopa.1 \p-v^poTepa. tcov Be Tolai Kal tcov dWcov Xnrapotcrr cnpvcpvcov 20 irdvTcov eK tcov Trpoetprjpevcov %pi) yivcoaKeiv.€va oraTiKa M : ooa TrvpovTai 338 . dXpvpcor Kal eyfrcovTa.6 fieva arnoi^d ion ion 9. to. tcov Be ^ypcov tcov Be ftpeyovTa Kal votl^ovra. km av^erai Kal €9 ravra giticov tcov pev ovv Icryvp&v Siafcpiverai. otuv pev ovv /SovXcovTai trpocreveyKelv dirb tco acopaTi Tpocprjv io")(ypOTeprjv tcov avTcov ctltcov. Be €K Ta? Bte^oBovs tcov vypcov.IIEPI /cat AIAITHE vtto tovtcov ^coa kcu (f>vra. (f>tij£. cpcot. eXKei to vypbv eK T7/9 koiXltjs e'</>' ecovTa. Blotl eK tov Ictov ojkov 4 fiapvTepa Kal irvKVOTepa Kal TrdXvvocnd Icttiv Ta eK tcov Te Kal Kal rj vypcov dpBopevcov yjrv^pcov TavTa Be vypoTepa Kal KovcpoTepa ku. fipe^ovTa Bpip.ecov OKoaa irvpovpeva ?} paXXov tcov cop-cov. 3 io~Tr]ai 2. tcov Be iriKpcov Kal Total yXvKeai BiaKipvcovTa. dXXd KaL TTj<i iraTptBo^ 6 OKo6ev elaiv. tcov Be vyp&v irvpovvTa Kal cpco^ovTa tt)v vypaa'irjv e^aipelv. /ecu Bia\jrv)(ovTa rrjv Bvvapiv dcpaipelv.

to>v vypaiv 9 6 * OVKOVV 9 M. because. all things grow." 2 eV avra we should 6. drying and heating them so as to shut from up the passages for liquids. the juice and the fat. and that through them and into them they are dissolved. Accordingly. Foods grilled or roasted are more binding than raw. II. bulk for bulk. food as this. must 1 Or (reading voXivcurra) "more compressed. vegetable. they are heavier. and provide the body with more strength. because the fire has taken away the moisture. not only of foods themselves." 3 rov vypov M. Perhaps i(f>eojvTo' /ecu ovyKalwv avyKXeuov read i(f>' iwvro. . lvi. So with when they fall into the belly they drag to themselves the moisture from the belly. Things coming and torrid regions are all drier and warmer. soak and boil salt things. mix things mix with sweet. but also of the country from which they come. Take away their power from strong foods by boiling and cooling many times remove moisture from moist things by them soak and moisten dry grilling and roasting bitter and sharp things. without increasing the bulk of the food. drink or meat. ovyKalov /c. : : M M : : 339 .e.REGIMEN. TToAvvaora 9. dry those who wish to give the body a stronger nourishment. more com1 than those from moist pact and more nutritioua and cold. ttoXvvootcl 8 rds TTaTplSas 9 rrjs TrarpiSos M. burning up the mouths of the veins. with singular The subject then would be " such participles following. and astringent things .r. All other cases judge in accordance with oily. whether of corn. it is necessary to know the property. lighter and colder. what has been already said. the latter well-watered are that regions foods being moister. So waterless.

S> KaTavaXicrKeTai. ^rjpaivovTa.a Bid rdBe' 6eppaivop. <j)pi£at. r) alra i) Sia%a)pel. 34° . ra yXvKea Kal ra Bpipea /cat ra dXvKa Kal to. Kal bypaivovra ocra Oepp-alvovra g-rjpalvet.dXXov e? to acopia BiBovTa. TTiKpa Kal ra avcrTrjpd Kal ra aapKcoSea 6epp.evov.aTt Kal yaXyjvL^eiv iroiel.7)pov fiepos trXeov ev avrolai OKoaa e)(€i. to Be e? ttjv rpocprjv t&) T7)<i yjfv^fj^ 6epp.&XXov i) ra £i]pdrpo(j)T)v yap p.aiv6p.aiveiv 7T€(f)VKe.evov Kal XctttvTa yXvKea Kal ra iriova Kal ra Xiirapd vop. Kal ocra ^r/pd icm Kal 6<ra vypd. 2. Ta Be oTvcfiovTa Kal avaTrjvat e'9 oXiyov oyKov eiroLrjcrev to vypov to ev ttj crapKi' Kal to Kevbv iroXv OTav ovv fiovXri air eyeveTo ev tS> crcopiaTi. The vulgate has dsd: 8eM. o~Top.ev ovv t.evcov %pi]o~Teov.vei Kal i^ypaivei' Be vypov fxepos e%e* irXeov. ravra irdvTa 6epp. 2 So 8' 3 9 M. TTiKpa 6 vypa M .evov to o~Sip.ea Kal avaTrjpd Kal (TTpvmva Kal Kal ov Bioti Ta avyKopLio-Ta ^r/pd irX^poi. to Be Bid tov xpoorbs e^coOeiTai 6epp.IIEPI AIAITHS Kal vyporepr). ravTa /nev 6epp. 1 OKocra p. rd Be 5 o£ea Kal Bpip. to 3 puev vtt avTwv tcov (titlcov.a kcvovtui tov vypov. oXiycov 1 TrXrjpcocrai : rj airo rrXeiovcov Kevwaai. irord. ovt€ ittvctiv ovre Biovprjcriv ovre prjcrtv Sia^u)- to crojp.at- vovra vypaivei Kal Biax^P^ p. TTOikov-ra %i)paivei TrXrjpcoTiKa ecrri. avriaraaiv and iv ttj koiMtj.eva irXi-jpol to 4 6epp.aTa tmv cpXefioiv avew^e tc Kal BteKadrjpe' Kal Ta p. avrl50 cnracriv iroieirai e<i ttjv kolXltjv. Bioti e£ oXiyov oy/eov 7roXv%od 60 eo~Ti' deppaivopueva Be Kal Biaxeop. Tot? ere tcov dpBop.ai.ev Ta Be BaKvovTa.ov ev tw acop.

forces its yet another part. f f and dry are not filling. moistening." lost. make the moisture compress itself into a small bulk. hvoKoiuora The true reading has been or dry. Such foods or drinks as warm and nor urine nor stools. others by conin the flesh shiver and tracting. while part is consumed in while giving nourishment to the warmth of the soul.REGIMEN. Things sweet. and. avyKoyncrros intolerable. or bitter. moisten and pass by stool better than things that are dry for being more nourishing to the body they cause a revulsion to the belly. use foods of . ing they fill up the warmth in the body and make it calm. they must use things from well-watered regions. these warm have a greater portion of the moist in all cases warm. lvi. use corn. or whether they are dry or fleshy are naturally heating. or sharp. others by stinging. growing warm way through the skin. seeing that they open and thoroughly cleanse the mouths of the veins and some by drying. producing neither spittle The body the for the following reasons. harsh. by stool. — * yaXrjvi^eLv 8 : avyKomcna. dry. Things sweet. partly by the foods themselves. . and so the void in So when you wish to fill the body becomes great. Things that have in themselves a greater and dry those that portion of the dry. or harsh. or salt. because though of small bulk they are Growing warm and meltcapable of wide diffusion. or fat. astringent. or oily are filling. drink and II. Things acid. or empty with more. pass When . as M yaX-qvia^eiv : M. they need lighter and moister nourishment. means "assorted we need a word meaning harsh " " and Svokoixiotos 34i . and thin. sharp. body dry readily growing warm is emptied of its moisture. moist. meat from waterless regions. 8. with little food.

oiov<$ t<m Kal Oeppd ra? 1 80 Bvvdpias dXXrjXoicriv rj eyovra iv avTU) i^ei. yjrv)£eTai f3e/3pa)KOTa to. iovaa vrroTpi[ip:aaiv ecriovTcov. KaTepyd^eadai. airo tov o-oo/iaTOs Kal -tyvy^ei' cpepei yap la^vaivei TO<i to vypov tt) Oeppbaairj' Kevov p. ra irpoa^ara Trdvra la\vv irapi)(eTai irXelo) rcov dWcov Bid toBc. (f>vaei yap 0epp. Oep/xaivei Kal vypaivei. oti Xnrapd dvop.nEPI AIAITHS 70 ToiovTOicn XprjcrOai. Uepl BeXovTpwv &Be vypaivei vBcoprroTifiov Kal yjrvxei. tci Be iv d\p. BlBcoai yap tw crcopLari vypao~iyv to Be dXpivpbv XovTpbv Oepfiaivei Kal %r\pa'ivei.ev>]^ Be to aw/xa' t»}? aapKos Be tov vypov. fxutZea. Kal irXijpol tov inrdp^ov- .7] o£ei /3e\riw /cal ov KavacoBea. XovTpd TovvavTtov' vypov iovTOs fyipov 342 Kevtp fiev tu> aojp. ra Be evcofia ra> o~Tpo(f)coBea Bioti f) a Set irvpl ravTti T(ov o-i/ra Koikiri BiairpijcrcreTai dadeveareprj to. BiayeovTa 10 ev T(h crcopiaTi virdpyovTa y^rv^pd Be vypd 69 TrXeiova oyKov. Be iv rolaiv /cal /cal crKeva^ofxeva rcavaooSea iTvpcoSea /cal vypd.6v ti ^-^rv^pov eov' fie(Bpa>KOTO$ Be d(paipei eov. e-^ei' LVII.aTi BiBcoai 6epp.ov eXKei airo tov crd)/xa- to Be Oepfxa XovTpd vP/aTiv fxev to vypov. Bioti eyyiov t?}? entireBovos earl. oti eyyiov teal tov ^co^to? eo~Ti' ra Be ecoXa aairpd 8ia%o)pei Kal epevy- fiaXkov ro)v Trpoac^aTOiv.

II. as having a natural heat it draws the moisture from the body. their properties are these. dries. and with Preparations in brine mutually opposite properties. lvi. Hot baths. or vinegar are better and are not burning. when taken fasting. more readily by stool than do fresh because they are Raw things cause colic and nearer to corruption. belching.-lvii. for they carry the moisture from the body owing to their warmth. Drinkable 2 water moistens and cools. because what ought to be digested by the fire is dealt with by the belly. reduce and cool. 2 I. while as the flesh is emptied of its moisture the body is cooled.e. the bodv. d dvrean !'£« M. which is too weak for Meats prepared in the substances that enter it. sauces * are burning and moist. 1 Kdl di'd/xoia is ras Stn'd/xias* cEAAt/Aoictiv ddris e^ovra : ev toj avroH i£ei. as they expand to a greater bulk the moisture already existing in To Cold baths have an opposite effect. just because they are nearer to the But stale and putrid things pass living creature. an empty body they give a certain amount of heat after a meal they take away moisture and fill with 1 . fiery. Fresh foods in all cases give more strength than others. kclI ev tcoi avofioias ras Swd/xia? dAA^Aoiai e^ovra 343 . The vw6TpiufjLa (like the Latin moretum) was a piquant dish of various ingredients grated together. Taken after a meal they warm and moisten. as it gives A salt bath warms and moisture to the body. this kind. what we call "fresh" water. because there are united in one place things oily. warm. As to baths. LVII.REGIMEN.

Xayvei>] ia^vaivei Kal vypaivei Kal Qeppaivei' Qeppaivei pev Bia tov irovov Kal rrjv diroKpiaiv rov vypov. At7ro? Be deppaivei Kal vypaivei Kal fiaKdaaei. vypaivei Be Bid to viroXeirropevov ev ru> croopiari tt}? 12 inro awnj^iof rrji rod irovov. rpo(f)fj<. Kevqj p. ov pievroi ^rjpaivovaiv. aXX* vypaivovai pdXXov Bid rrjv irXrjpoyaiv 3 Kal Bid rrjv avvrrjtjiv rr)? aapKOS rrjv vtto rov irovov' rjv Be ri<i edarj Kcvcuai fxkv rcui owp-ari SCScoaf Oepp-dii iovn tpvxpdv lov fiefipcoKOTos Se d^cupeei depp-ov eovros' Kal ttXtjpoI ipv^pov eoi'Toy rov inrdpxovTOS vypov 6 : Keiiol pev rd>L craj/xari Si'Stuai 9epp." Perhaps the reading originally was something like this.. Littr6. but does not claim to be the original. r)v pur] ri<i rfj varepairj Oepairevrj opOws.ari SiScoai deppov ri fSefipwKoros Se d<f>aipel vypov iouros Kal TrXrjpoi tfivxpov iovros rov We should certainly expect.IIEPI to? ^rjpov. however.vei Kal ipvyet. "E/xeTOt layi'atvovcn Bia rijv K&vwaiv trjs LIX. [Spares irdvre^ diriovres Kal £t]paivovo~i Kal ioyi'aivovaiv. Kal dvr]Xei\jrlrj axravTeos. which probably will never be recovered. a passage of which the The text within daggers - correct ( summary is : — 1 ) Oepp. i]Xios Be Kal irvp ^rjpaivei Bid rdBe' Oepfxd edvra Kal %i]pa eXKei €k rov ad)p. is right when he says: "le sens est determine" par opposition. sentence <pvxpa Se Xovrpd rovvavriov. 2 LVIII. BiBwai <yap pdXXov r) Xap.aro<i to aKirj Be Kal ^vyea rd perpia vypaivei' liypov.ev rat ad)u.] 15 1 AIAITHS dXovairj ^tjpaivei KaravaXiaKopevov rov vypov. is Littr£'s.f3dvei. 10 lo"xyaivei Be Bid rrjv Kevcoaiv.d Xovrpd (a) vrjariv io~xvai. eKXe'ittovto? rov vypov €K rov aioparos.ov ri ifiuxpov ftefipcoKOTi Se dj>aipeerai vypov iosros' Kal TrXr/pol ijivxpov 1 iov rov vTrdpxovros £rjpov M. (b) fiefipwKora OepjiaiveL Kal vypaivei. from the virdpxovros £r)pov. 344 .

they draw the moisture from the body. unless appropriate treatment be applied on the following day they tend rather to moisten through the repletion 2 and through the melting of flesh caused by the fatigue.-lix. All sweats on their departure both dry and reduce. 8 1 (2) ^ivxpo. The " repletion " must mean fulness caused by the added This does not give a very good sense. But if on the morrow one . lvii. 2 Kal avaXujjt-qi ojaavTws 6 Kal avaXrj<f>lt] ojoavrws woavrtos 1 have in my : M : Se Kal 3 7] avrjXeitpirj TrXrjpcuoiv M Littre. moistens and softens. Being warm and dry. They do not. . It warms owing to the fatigue and the excretion of moisture it reduces owing to the evacuation it moistens because of the remnant in the body of the matters melted by the fatigue. . : irucpwoi 9. Shade and moderate cold moisten. The sun and fire dry for the following reason. 1 is the moisture To refrain from baths used up. as II. Xovrpa. tempted to think that the iriKptocri (i.e. Sexual intercourse reduces. LIX.REGIMEN. and so does to refrain from oiling. 51. which tends to extract moisture from glands. n-LKpwo-iv) of is either the correct reading or at least a near corruption of it. translation given the general sense of the passage as I conceive it to have been originally written. LVIII. Perhaps the sharp taste of certain emetics is referred to. dry. and one is emetic. See p. their dryness. which is cold. Oiling warms. dries. as the moisture of the body leaves it. 345 . however. (a) vr\ariv nX-qpol Kal depfiaivet. See critical note on this passage. moistens and warms. for they give more than they receive. (b) PefipcuKOTa iftvxei Kal ^r/palvet. Vomitings reduce through the evacuation of the nourishment.

ovoaiTit] 10-yyaivei Kal £ijpaivei Kal ti]v koiXlijv laTijat. dypvirvir] he ev fiev Tolcn aiTioiai fiXdiTTei. aTpepu^ovaa yap 1) -ty-v^t] ovk avaXiaKet to vypov eK tov acopaTOS' ttovos he fyipaivei Kal to o~a)p.a iroiet. kclI toIgi hpipkai Kal dXpvpolcn teal Xiirapolcri 18 Kal yXvrceat gltioktl Kal iropaai -^pr\adai. ttjv Tpocfyrjv es to cr&pa hia%eovT€<. Kal hiaXvovat.' dirb he tmv opdpiwv TrepnraTwv vttvos paXioTa ^Tjpatvei. Kal toIotl arpvc^volcn real roiaiv avarripolaL anioicri pdXXov -y^prjaOaL' ofcorav he Xvaai Tt)v kolXltjv j3ovXrj. LX.I1EPI AIAITHS rrj ravra KaTavaXcodrjvat Tft) varepalrj e'9 ttjv rpo(f)rjv 6eppS>.a la^vpov Trocel. rrjv fidWov tov icaipov x hivypalvcov. iicdeppaiadpKa.(f)epei. ivBiarpi^eiv ev rota 1 aiTioiaiv &>? nXeicrTOV y^povov avp. ical KOi tjj hiaiT-rj ^ripaivovaiv. r\V fifj p. rrjv he fyipaivwv' GTrjcrai ftovXr]. KevovvTes tov inrap'%0VT0<s vypov' rjv vovT&i o-vvti']kovo~i ttjv pdXXov. . hioTi 1 tw t>}9 ^^X "^ 1 6epp-u> to omits vypbv eK rr/v 8e t?)? The 346 £rjpaiva>v Littre: avnoTriov 6: dvTioTTu>v of d is possibly correct. padvplt) vypaivet Kal dadeves to o-oip. rr\v OKorav pev ovv Taylar^v (payovTa %pr) ep-elv. Kal dadeves iroieovai' fieftpcoKOTa he deppaivovTes vypaivovai. Tttvoi he vrjaTiv p. irplv av vypbv ebv to cn-riov 2 Kara^LJ3aa9fj kutco. ovk ecbaa to aniov 10 T7]Keo-0ar dcriTW he la^vaatrjv pev Tiva hlhcoai. M ^Tjpaivcov. to he 3 crwpa. avvearipcvlav hiaXvei rjav^(o<i hia^wpovaav p. e'yU-eTO?. fiXdiTTei he rjaaov. p.a/cpol ewai.ev 10 tcrT^cri. and £ripalv<ov a gloss. koiXlt/v he irpoaaydyr).ev laj^vaivovai Kal ylrv^ovaiv.

Constipated bowels are relaxed by vomiting. dries and binds the bowels. spreading the nourishment over the body. therefore. through the warmth of the soul the moisture sharp. and to take food and drink that are . before the food can be moistened and drawn downwards the food used should by preference be But when you wish to loosen astringent and dry. TTpiv hivyprjvdrvai. After a meal sleep warms and moistens. dissolves the body and enfeebles it. is injurious. the moisture be consumed by the warmth for nourishment. greasy and sweet.ovi'xrnot took the SeiVvoj/ only . as it prevents the food from dissolving to a fasting person it is less injurious. after ing walks that sleep is drying. as it empties the body of the existing moisture however. Inaction moistens while it tends to reduce flesh. and too relaxed bowels are bound thereby it moistens the former and dries the latter. it is beneficial to keep the food as long as possible. it be proif. lix. if it be not prolonged. the bowels. Taking one meal x a day reduces. After 8e d adds /za/cpol ecoai. fasting reduces and cools. It is especially after early-mornWant of sleep. But labour dries and strengthens the body. it heats and melts the flesh.REGIMEN. does not consume the moisture out of the body. .-lx. being at rest. others took the txptaTov as well. When. take a meal and administer an emetic as quickly as possible. salt. 2 TTpiv 3 tov alrov Kal KaTaoTraodrivai Karat av vypov cov to oiriov /cara/Si/Jacr^i /carcut 6. and increase nourishment gradually. you wish to bind the bowels. vomitings dry. . lets its II. longed. M : 347 . 1 The fi. and weakens the body for the soul. a meal. LX. because. . Sleep when .

Trdvra. iaTriTTTovTos tov yjr6(f)OV aeieTai r\ "^v^rj Kal 7rov€i. baa p. perhaps rightly. The word ir6vos cannot always be represented by the same English equivalent.va dvdpwrros. LXI. irdvTa -^rv^iv tw dvOpoiiray TrapaBiBcoar /cevovp. (pcovys.ov Be ttoXiv at VTrepj3o\al nr^yvvovai.aTO<i 30 iira/CTOv nr\r]pevp. icai ovtws wcTTe fjL7) baa Be Bid^vaiv eyeiv. or even the "pain" caused by toil (usually k6ttos). M.evov yap tov virdpXovTos vypov. Tlepl Be Tftjf irovwv rjVTiva e^ovai Bvvaelal yap oi p-ev raxo (pvaiv. : ttoXv 6. teal tov 6epp. Be Bid /3i?7<r oi p-ev ovv /caT(i <fivaiv avTcov eiaiv 3 o\fno^ tt6vo<. Tpocpyv fir) t/}? "tyv)(fi<i zeal Kparel 'yap tov tov vypov Tt]v adpica p. p. voluntary toil (or "exercise").a.evov yfrv^eTai. Troveovaa Be OeppiaiveTai Kal ^rjpai10 veTai. to icevol BiBovTa.IIEPI KOc\ii)<i 2 AIAITHS KaravaXia icerac ttj 1 Kal t?)? (rap/cos apiarov Be ravavTia Biairp^aaeTai Trop-a Oepjxov iayyaivei 20 ooaavTcos. d/cor/s. Kal -^rv^pov aco/xaTt Kal Ta? /coiXias auviaTijai ijrvgei' rfj iri^ei vypov.epip.rj vTrepfioXrjv iroieovTa. irvevp. /ce/<ev(op. The division of irSvoi into natural 348 1 . @epp. 3 4 Before oifiios : has oi oe.is Toi/jBe' 4 irpoae^ovaa J/ ify-v \i] tco b 6paT(p KiveiTai Kal OeppiaiveTai' 6epp.evov tov vypov. Bid Be ti)<.ai. It may mean "toil" generally.ovoaiTiy.aivovTa awp. Kive'iTai i] ^vxh 1 2 KaravaXia xei 6 770/xa : M KaravaXiOKerai M.epip.ev>i Be ^TipacveTai.. o^to? p.vr)s. d/cor)<.ev ovv Bvvap. 5 M roifjoe 9 has roLavTT) opeofjcevwi.aivop. oi fiiv Bn]yi]aop. to Be virepfidWov yjrvxpbv Kal irvev/xa KCLL aiTlOV KCtl 7T0T0V TTr)ywai TO VJpOV TO €V Tffl vBcop p.

REGIMEN,

II.

lx.-lxi.

To is consumed from out the belly and the flesh. take lunch has effects opposite to those of taking one meal only. Hot water as a diink is a general But reducer of flesh, and cold water likewise. excessive cold, whether of breath, food or drink, congeals the moisture in the body, and binds the for it bowels by the congealing and the cold overpowers the moisture of the soul. Then again excess of heat too causes congealing, to such an
;

extent as to prevent diffusion. Such things as warm the body without affording nourishment, and empty the flesh of its moisture, even when there is no excess, in all cases cause chill in a man for, the is existing moisture being emptied out, the body rilled with breath from outside and grows cold. LXI. I will now discuss the properties of exer;

cises.

1

Some

exercises are natural and

some

violent.

Natural exercises are those of sight, hearing, voice and thought. The nature 2 of sight is as follows. The soul, applying itself to what it can see, is moved and warmed. As it warms it dries, the moisture
noise

having been emptied out. Through hearing, when strikes the soul, the latter is shaken and
it is exercised it is warmed and the thoughts that come to a man the and violent corresponds to no modern division, as is proved by the enumeration of "natural" exercises, while by

exercised, and as
dried.

By

all

"violent" exercise we mean "excessive" exercise, but
#i7)i ir6voi

ol fiia

of " violent." exercises are
2

means rather exercises that are artificial, the result conscious and forced effort. Apparently all muscular

as Sivafiiv essential qualities are referred to in both cases, but it seems preferable to use different equivalents in the translation, as Swa^ti/ refers mostly to the essence of exercises. qualities and Svvapis to the

The word

Suva/xis

means much the same thing

in the first sentence.

The

349

IIEPI
vtto

AIAITHL

tovtwv kcu Beppidiverai Kdl %r)p diver at, Kdl to vypov KardvaXtcTKovaa irovei, Kdl Kevol x t«? tov avOpw-nov. OKoaoi he crapicds, Kdl \e7TTVvei
ttovol
2

(pwvrjs,

r)

Xe'fte?

?)

iravres ovtoi Kiveovai ttjv
17

dvayvoocries ?} (phd'i, yjrv^v Kiveopevr) he

OeppaiverdL Kdl ^tjpdiverai, Kdl to vypov KdTdvaXioKei.

LXII. 01 he
Kdl
ovtoi
fiiaiov.

TTepiiraroi

Kard

(pvaiv piev

elcri,

pidXiara rcov Xqittwv, e^ovat, he ti 3 to*>;oV 6 hvvapiis he avrow eKaarcov

airo heiirvov 7repiTTdTO<; ^qpaivei rrjv re koiXitjv Kdl to crwpd, Kdl tt)i> ydarepd ovk id irieipdv 4 hid TaoV Kivevpievov tov dvdpunrov, yivecrdai Oep/xdiverdi ra anid Kdl to crco/xa' eXKei ovv ttjv iKpidhd t] adp£, Kdl ovk id irepl ttjv koiXitjv avviardcrddi' to piev ovv o~oipid irK/qpovrdi, i) he 10 Koikirj XcTTTiiveTdi. ^ripdiverai he hid. rdhe' Kivevpievov tov aoopidTos Kdl Oeppidivopievov, to XeTTTOTdTOV T?/<; Tpo(pr)<; KdTdVdXcaKeTdi, to piev VTTO TOV aVfKpVTOV deppLOV, TO he 0~VV TCp TrvevpidTi diTOKpiveTdi t<;(i>, to he Kdi hiovpeiTdi' vnoXeiireTdi he to ^ijpoTdTOV dno twv oitiwv ev tu> adopbdTi? cocrTe ttjv K0i\ii]v aTro^paivecrdai Kdl
Trjv

adp.Kd.

vovcri,

Kdl
6

tci

evdyea
20 KOtXir/v

Kdl

Kdl oi SpOpioi irepiTtdToi iayydiTrepl tijv KecpaXijv Kovcpa Te Kai evvKoa irdpdaKevd^ovai, Kdi t?]V

icryydivovo-i piev oti Kivevpievov to awpid OeppiaiveTdi, Kdl to vypov Xeirrvverdi Kdl KdddipeTdi, to piev virb tov 7rvevp.dT0<;, to he pivaaeTdi Kdl %pepnrTeTai, to he e? ttjv Tpocprjv
1

Xvovaiv

2

M transposes Kevol and Xenrvvei. M has Ae'£iy avdyvwoisSo
9.
17

-

fj

coS^

3So

REGIMEN,
soul
it is

II.

lxi.-lxh.

warmed and
it

is

exercised,
thin.
it

man
it

consuming the moisture flesh and it makes a Exercises of the voice, whether speech,
dried
;

empties the

reading or singing,

moves

And as all these move the soul. the and consumes and warm dry, grows

moisture.

LXII. Walking is a natural exercise, much more so than the other exercises, hut there is something The properties of the several kinds violent about it. walk after dinner dries of walking are as follow.

A

the belly and body it prevents the stomach becoming fat for the following reasons. As the man moves, the food and his body grow warm. So the flesh draws the moisture, and prevents it accumuSo the body is filled while lating about the belly. the belly grows thin. The drying is caused thus. As the body moves and grows warm, the finest part of the nourishment is either consumed by the innate heat, or secreted out with the breath or by the What is left behind in the body is the driest urine. and the flesh part from the food, so that the belly reduce [the walks too Early-morning dry up. about the head light, body], and render the parts relax the bright and of good hearing, while they as it moves the because reduce bowels. body They grows hot, and the moisture is thinned and purged, the nose is blown partly by the breath, partly when and the throat cleared, partly being consumed by
;

3

eKaorojv
yiveodai 8
ev

is

omitted
yeviodai
is

by M, which reads

in

its

place

eon.
4
:

M.
and Mack)
:

5
6

T(7t ffuj/xa-ri

omitted by M, perhaps rightly.
evnayfj 6
:

evayta Littre (after Foes, Zwinger

tvirayea

M.
35i

IIEPI
to>

AIA1THS

tt)? tyvxrjs 6epp,a> Karava\taK6Tai' tt)v Be KotXirjv \vovcn, Blotc 6epp,fj invar] tov yjrv^pov 1 dvcoOev, viro^copel to 7rv€Vfj,aT0<i eTreicnrLTTTovTO'i

deppbbv T&) yjrv^pa). Tifv /cov<pa Be ra irepl Ke(f)akr}v TToiet Bid rdBe' orav /cevcoOf} KOlXlrj, eXteei e? ka>vrrjv e/c re tov aXXov crd>p.aTo<; real
?'/

30

e/c

-n}?

fce<fia\r}<i

to vypbv

Oepp,}]

eovcra.

icevovo\Jrt<;

pL€vrj<i

Be tt}?
aKorj'

fce<pa\-?]<; ,

/ecu

r)

icai

atroicaOaipeTca rj re 2 ol Be yiveTai evay/js.
3

cltto

twv

yvp,vao-tu>v

irepirraToi /cadana
ical

ra acopbara
ewi/T69
ttjv

Trapao-K6va^ovo~i
<tvvti)£iv
Tfjf

la^vu,

ovk

aap/cos Tip> vtto tov ttovov avv36 io~Tao~6ai, cChX airotcaOaipovaiv. LXIII. Ttov Be 8p6p,cov BvvaiTai ol pit] /ca/Li7rTol

Kai p.a/cpoi,' e£ oXiyov Trpoaayopievoi, deppiaivovTts ttjv adpKa crvve-tyelv ical hia^elv, ical tosv
atTcov ttjv
crovai,
5

1

hvvap.iv ti]v ev
ical

ttj

aapicl

Karaireo'to,

plpahvTepd Te

ira^yTepa
Tolai

aoopaTa

Trapaa/cevd^ovcri
0epeo<;. ol

twv Tpoywv
ev

Be

TroWd
r)

eaOiovai avp,<j)opwTepoi,
Be

ical %etp,a)vo<i

p.d\\ov

BpopLoi ttjv p,ev Bvvap.iv Tr/v ai)Ti]v eyovai, Odaaov Be BiaBeppLat6 10 vovt€<; vypoTepa to, aoopuaTa Troieovcriv, d^pocoIpiaTLQ)
1

tw

depurji

eovaa rov ipv^pov
.

.

.

.

emamTTTovros

:

Oeppirj

eovaa
ijtvxpov.
2

.

.

eamnrovros M.
:

Some MSS. have
M.
:

deppuov for

yiverai. euayTj? 6

3

ytvovrai evayees

lo^ya
4

(which also reads KadapwraTa)

loxvaivovai

M.
6
:

tcov Se opop.a>v ovvavrai' ol fiev Kapnrrol teal pLanpoi.

ra>v

Se Bpopicov yivovrai- ol fiev /xa/cpol /cat Kapvuroi M, with Svvavrai after Sta^e'eiv. aKapLTrroi and /x^ Kapurroi have been suggested by early editors.
5

For Karaneoaovot, 6 has

KaraTreoaei,

and

f$a9vrepa

for

TTaxincpa.

352

REGIMEN,
They

II.

lxii.-lxiii.

the heat of the soul for the nourishment thereof. relax the bowels because, cold breath rushing into them from above while they are hot, the heat It makes light the parts gives way before the cold. about the head for the following reasons. When the bowels have been emptied, being hot they draw to themselves the moisture from the body generally, and especially from the head when the head is emptied sight and hearing are purged, and the man
;

becomes bright. 1 Walks after gymnastics render the body pure and thin, prevent the flesh melted by exercise from collecting together, and purge it away. LXIII. Of running exercises, such as are not double 2 and long, if increased gradually, have the power to heat, concoct and dissolve the flesh they digest the power of the foods that is in the flesh, making the body slower and more gross than do circular runnings, but they are more beneficial to big eaters, and in winter rather than in summer. Running in a cloak has the same power, but heating more rapidly it makes the body more moist but less
;

1 It is tempting to give tuayris here and above an active It is not possible, however, to sense, "with clear vision." find a parallel, except perhaps Euripides, Supp. 652 ioTt\v 6(ar^s irvpyov ehayri KafiJiv, where 611077) may mean, not "clearly seen," but "affording a clear view." "Affording a clear view," however, is not the same thing as " having
:

good eyesight." "
sense of
2

So one has to fall back upon the general or "clear." Perhaps "alert." exercise consisted in running along a double track to a goal and back again to a starting-point. It was of a fixed length and could not be "increased
bright" The " double "
"

gradually

as readily as could distances along a single track.
*

M

has

n&Wov

8e Ziad^pfxalvovai

/ecu.

353

IIEPI

AIAITHS

repa

Be,

irvevp,a

to

Bioti ovk diroKaQaipet irpocnriTTTov to elXiKpwes, dXX' iv ra> avra> ey-

yvpbvd^eTai W€vp.aTf avpfyepet ovv toIci ^rjpolai naOeXelv ttjv teal Tolai Tro\vo~dpKOLo~iv, 6o"Tt9 adp/ca /3ov\erai Kal toicti TTpeafivTepoicri Bid 1 rod o~(op:aro<;. ol Be BlavXot Kal vinjepioi 2 yjrvtjiv rrjv /xev adpica rjaaov Bta^eovcnv, la^vali ovai
t

Be p,dX\ov, Biori to?? elaw 3 tj)<? yfrv^rjs piepeaiv ol oWe? avTio-rrwcnv'1 etc T?}? aapico<i to vypov ol 20 /cal to awpua \e7rrvvovo~i /cal fyipa'ivovaiv.
ttovoi

Be rpoyoi rrjv p,ev adp/ca iJKiara Bia-^eovaiv, 5 layyaLvovcn Be ical TrpoaareXXovai tt\v re aap/<a Kal ttjv KOiXlrjv pidXiGTa, Biotl o^vrdrco t<w
25

e<£'

irvevpuaTi xpcop,evoi ecovTOvs.

Tayiora to vypov eX/covaiv

LXIV. Ta
G

e£a7TLV7]<;,

Be rrrapaaeiap,ara ^rjpoiai p.ev Kal davpLcfaopa' a7rdap.ara yap eparoiel Bid

roBe.
1

reOeppLaa puevov
:

to

aatpia,

to

p,ev

Bepp.a

t/iu^tv 9 Siai/ni^eiv M. 2 oi Se Si'auAoi Kal rjneipot. ittttoi.. oi Se SiauAoi Kal VTrrjepioc 9 is The 'Ittttoi of oi Se Si'auAoi Kal {mrjepioi. Ittttoi Littre\ probably a corruption of virriepioi. 3 eiocu 9: eooi M: e£oj Littre, with inferior MS. authority. 4 clvclottwolv Zwinger. avTiOTTwoiv avTioTraivTes 9 5 SiaareAAouoi M. trpos oriXXovot 9 8 After i^aTTivrjs adds ovk eVirqSeia Kal. It also has Littre Sid Te9epp.aap.evoi', while 6 has Te9epp.aop.evov only.

Sid

:

M

:

M

M

:

:

:

M

reads hiare9epp.aap.evov.

This means that the body becomes thinner but less The SiavAos was a Kaptnls Sp6pos of roughly 200 yards each way, i.e. of 400 yards in all. 2 Both the reading and the interpretation of this sentence " are uncertain. quarterProbably the mental strain of the mile" is referred to; it is the most strenuous of the foot races, and may well be said to be concerned with the "inner
flabby.

1

354

REGIMEN,

II.

lxiii.-lxiv.

tanned, because this is not cleansed by meeting the rush of pure air, but remains in the same air while it So this kind of running is beneficial to is exercised. those who have a dry body, to those who have excess of flesh which they wish to reduce, and, because of the coldness of their bodies, to those who are getting on in years. The double course, with the body exposed to the air, dissolves the flesh less, but reduces the body more, 1 because the exercises, being concerned with the inner parts 2 of the soul, draw by revulsion the moisture out of the flesh, and render the body thin and dry. Running in a circle dissolves the flesh least, but reduces and contracts the flesh and the belly most, because, as it causes the most rapid respiration, it is the quickest to draw the moisture to itself. LXIV. Swinging the arms, for persons of dry flesh, and when jerky, is inexpedient, as it causes The body having sprains, in the following way. been warmed, 3 this swinging makes the skin considerparts of soul." Probably the reading e£co is an attempt to connect psychologically this mental strain with the profuse perspiration caused by the 8iav\os. I believe that 'lirrcoi is a mere corruption of vir-qipioi, but its adoption may have been a desire to explain the introduction of "mental encouraged " by the comparative inaction of riding suggests an exercises active mental factor. 3 This sentence appears to contain such an undoubted instance of a nominaticus pendens that it renders less likely my substitution (in Chapter LXII) of Oepiifj iovaj] for Oeppir) iovcra One way out of the in order to avoid such an anacoluthon. take as the subject grammatical difficulty would be to " bodily heat," but it TeOepnaafievov to acjfxa, in the sense of seems too violent to say crco/xa Xarrvvei. Another way would be to read 8«z redepfiaafxevov (with M). The chief objection to this is that local Sid with the accusative appears to be confined to the poets. Fortunately the general sense is clear, that the flesh becomes hot, dry and brittle.
;

355

nEPI AIAITHS
la)(vptb<i XeiTTvvei, tt)v Be

adptca rfaaov

o~vvio~Tr)cri

ray rpoy^ayv, Kevoi Be tyjv adpva tov vypov. t« Be dvaKiv)']p,ara Kal dvatcovfyia pcara ttjv p.ev
rjKUTTa BiaOeppiaivei, trapo^vvei Be Kal aoifia teal tjjv yfrv^rj'v, Kal tov Trvevpajos Kevoi. ttuXij Be Kal rplyjns rotcri p.ev etjco tov
crdpica
1

to

10 aco/xaTO<i

rrape^ei tov ttovov p,dXXov, Oep/xaivei

Be

ttjv

adpKa Kal aTepeol Kal av^eadai

rroiel

Bid ToBe' ra p.ev GTeped (fivaei Tpiftop.eva] aw2 dcrai (pXe/3e<; tcrT^crtf, Ta Be KoiXa au^eTai, eleri' 6epp,aiv6pLevai Be ai adpKes Kal f;rjpaivop,evai ek.KOvo~iv e'0' ecovTaq tijv Tpo(p?]v Bid twv

•nbpwv?
7rdXrj
Ti]v

etT<z

av^ovTat.

d\ivBr]o-i<;
%r\pa'ivei

Biairp^arcreTai,

Be

Trapa7rXi]cna p,dX\ov Bid

koviv Kal aapKol r/craov. aKpoxeipiafios* la^vaivei Kal Ta? o~dpKa<; eXtcei dvco, Kal Kwpv20 Kop-a^ii] Kal yeipovop'vt) irapairXTqcna BiaTrpy]o~creTai. Trvevp,aTo<; Be KaTao-yeai^ tou? wopov? BiavajKaaai Kal to Bepp.a XeirTvvai Kal to vypov e'/c tov Bep/j.aTO<? e^coaai BvvaTai. LXV. Ta ev Kovei Kal Ta iv eXai<p 5 yvpivdcna

23

Bia<pepei ToaovBe' kovis p,ev yjrvxpov, eXaiov Be OeppuoV ev piev tw ^eipbwvi to eXaiov av^ipbdiTepov, Bloti to "^rv\o<i KcoXvei (pepeiv diro tov aoap.aTO'i' ev Be tm Qepei to eXaiov inrepftoXrjv
0eppLaaii]<;
Tr)<;
1

coprjs

t/jkci ttjv crdpKa, OTav vtto eK0epp,aivr)Tai Kal tov eXaiov Kal tov

iroievv

6

M has

8ia9epfj.atvov<jiv

reads rfjs yovv oapKos to fiev ttvkvov jpifiojievov £wi0Ta.Taf ra Be KolXa av^erai Kal oKoaai <f>Aefies eiai jc.t.I. This appears to be an attempt to mend the grammar of the corrupt sentence preceding. It has probably crept into the text from the margin.

2

After avferat

M

and

later kcvovoi.

356

REGIMEN,

II. lxiv.-lxv.

ably thinner, but contracts the flesh less than running in a circle, and empties the flesh of its moisture. x Sparring and raising the body heat the flesh least, but they stimulate both body and soul, while they empty the body of breath. Wrestling and rubbing give exercise more to the exterior pai'ts of the body, but they warm the flesh, harden it and

make it grow, for the following reason. Parts that are naturally hard are compressed by rubbing, while hollow parts grow, such as are veins. For the flesh, growing warm and dry, draws to itself the nourishment through the
passages, and then it grows. Wrestling in the dust has effects like to those of ordinary wrestling, but it dries more because of the dust, and it increases flesh less. Wrestling with the fingers reduces and draws the flesh upwards the punch-ball and arm exercises have like effects. Holding the breath has the property of forcing open the passages, of thinning the skin, and of expelling therefrom the moisture. LXV. Exercises in dust differ from those in oil thus. Dust is cold, oil is warm. In winter oil promotes growth more, because it prevents the cold from being carried from the body. In summer, oil, producing excess of heat, melts the flesh, when the latter is heated by the season, by the oil and by the
;

it

I take Or, "the arms." The lexica neglect this word. to refer either to raising the body from a prone position or to arm exercises.
1

3

TTopwv
4 5 8

:

<f>\epwi>
:

M.
aKpo\eipi^
8'

a.Kpo)(€ipi<7p.6s

M.

eV Kovi-qi koX fAaicoL

TTOUVV 6

:

M. TTOl€Vp.€VOV M.

357
VOL. IV.
(HIP.)

O

nEPI AIAITHS
ttovov.
r)

he kovi<; eyyvp-vd^ecrOai
1

ev

ra>

Oepei

aoipua ovk ia 10 €/cOepp,aiveadai e? vTrepfioXrjv' ev he tm ^eipLooin 2 evhiaTpifSeiv he ev hia^rvKTiKov Kal Kpvp,vcohe<i

av^i/xci)T6pov

yfru^ovaa

yap to
m

Tjj

Kovei

//.era

tov<z ttovov; ev

tco

Oepei,

oXiyov

puev

xpovov

cocpeXet

^vyovaa, ttoXvv

he virep^r}-

palvei Kal ja aajp.aTa aKXojpd Kal ^vXcohea uTroheiKvvei. Tpl-yjns e\aiov crvv vhaTi fiaXdaaei
16

Kal ov id iroXXd

3

hia6epp.aiveadai.

LXVI. Ylepl he kottcov tcov ev toictl crcbp,acnv yivop.evwv cohe e^er ol puev dyvp^vacnoi tcov dvOpcoircov citto TravTos ttovov kottlcoctl' ovhev
yap tov
ttovov'
to.

a(vp,aTO<;

hiaTreTTovr/Tai

7rpo?

ovhev a

he yeyvpuvaapueva tcov crcopbaTcov vtto 4 TCOV drjOcOV 5 TTOVCOV KOTTld' ra he Kal VTTO TCOV

awqOcov
t<x

fiev

ovv

yvpivacrlcov kottlo,, inrepftoXfj xprjcrdp.eva. 6 eo~Tiv' ?; e'ihea tcov kottcov TavTa

he hvvapus avTcov cohe e%er ol p,ev ovv dyvfiva10 cttoi

vypijv tt)v 6

adpKa
tov

e^ovTes, OTav

ttovi)o~cocti,

Qeppaivopukvov
dcfiidcriv'

cto/taTO?, avinrj^Lv

TroXXrjv

ovv dv ifjihptocrr) rj Kal avv 7Tvevp,aTi diTOKaOapdfi, ov irapk^ei ttovov aXXov tco KevcoOevTt tov crco/naTos irapd to e#o<?" 6 ti rj dv ep,pieivr/ Trjs o~vvti]£io<;, ov piovov tw h> KevwdevTi tov acbp,aTO<i Trapd to edos irapeyei ttovov? dXXd Kal tw he^apuevco to vypov' ov yap
tl pLev
ecTTi o~vvTpocf)ov
s

tco acbp,aTi,

dXXa

TroXepnov.

e?

p,ev hrj Tfl
1

dcrapKa tmv acop^aTcov ov crvvujTaTai
:

M has iyyv/.Lvd^eTai, he after ev and av^ifj-wTepos.
upvfxvwSes 6
icpvpicoSes
:

2

M.

3
1

ovk ea ttoXXcl 8 ov heivoJs ea M. For vno Linden and Mack would read and (probably

rightly).

358

REGIMEN,
exercise.

II.

lxv.-lxvi.

In

summer

it

is

exercise

in

dust that

promotes growth more, for by cooling the body it But in winter prevents its being heated to excess. dust is chilling, or even freezing. To remain in the
dust after exei*cise in summer benefits by its cooling if it be for property, if it be for a short time long, it dries the body to excess and renders it hard as wood. Rubbing with oil and water softens the body, and prevents its becoming over-heated. LXVI. The fatigue pains that arise in the body Men out of training suffer these pains are as follow. after the slightest exercise, as no part of their body has been inured to any exercise but trained bodies feel fatigue pains after unusual exercises, some even after usual exercises if they be excessive. These are the various kinds of fatigue pains their properties
;
; ;

are
is

as

follow.

Untrained
exercise

moist,

after

people, undergo a

whose

flesh

considerable

Now whatever melting, as the body grows warm. of this melted substance passes out as sweat, or is purged away with the breath, causes pain only to the part of the body that has been emptied contrary to custom but such part of it as remains behind causes pain not only to the part of the body emptied contrary to custom, but also to the part that has received the moisture, as it is not congenial to the body but hostile to it. It tends to gather, not at the fleshless, but at the fleshy parts of the body, in
;

6
a.-q9ojv
6 7

9

:

avedimwv M.
roiavrd M.
8'
rjv

Tafi-ra

d

:

M

has OTt
K.T.e.
:

e/Mfievrji

tt}s

anoKptfotos ov 7ra/3t^et rov

novov
8

ovvTpo(f>ov d

ovjxjiopov

M.
359

IIEPI
20 o/iotw?, e? Be

AIAITHS
ware rovroiai
are
oi]

ra

irape\eiv
1

e«w?

ireploBov,

ovk eyov arpefxi^ov eK0epp,aii'erai avro re icai
av

aap/ccohea, egexarj.

ttovov

ra TrpoairtTnovTa'

ijv p,ev ovv iro\v yevrjrai rb aiTOKpidev, €KpciTrjcre icai rod vyiaLvovros, ware 2 crvveKdeppLavdrjval rb tt&v atop.a, Kal everrobrjae

rrvperbv la^upov. deppiavOevros yap rod ai'piaT09 kcu err Lair acrdevros, ra^eirjv eiroiriae 4 ri]v ireploBov ra iv tw acop,ari, icai to tc awp,a KaOaiperai vtto rod irvevpbaro^, /cal to ctvv30 6ctt>;/co9 Xeirrvveral Kal re 6epp.aivop.evov 5 e/c t?}s" e^coOelrai crap/cbs e£to vtto rb Beppa,

3

aWo

oirep IBpcos KaXelrai Oeppos.

Oevros,
cpvcTLV

to

re
6

alp.a
teal

rovrov KaOiararat e?
rrvperb<;

S'

airoicpi-

rr]v

Kara
kcu
6

fdvrjaiv,

6

avii)cri,

Traverat fiaXurra rpiralos. %pr) Be tou? rotovrovs kottovs 7 coBe OepaireveiV Trvpirjai kcu Xovrpotai uepfioi&l Bia\vovra rb avvearijKos, 8 aTTOKaOaCa)? fiiaioitriv, TrepiirdroicTL re p.rj
k6tto<;

pcovraL, Kai oXtyocririrjaL KCU Icr^vacrirjat avvi40 ariivai t?}? o~apKo<; ri/v Kevcocriv, Kal dXeicpeaOai 9
purj fSiacwi rdlai j^piapacri rotaiv n 12 IBpcorLKOtai ^piecrOai koi p.a\aKevvelv avp,<fierolcTi Be curb rwv dveOiarcov yup.va^op.evoio'Lv pei. rrovcov Bid rciBe yiverai 6 kottos' 6 av p.i]

rat

ekaiw

rjavxfj tto\vv )(povov, okcos
10

Bia6epp.aivcovrat,

Kal

n

1 3 4 5

ndpoSov 6 nepioSov M. ta^updv is omitted by d.
:

2

to tt&v 9

:

oXov to

M.

eVotTyaaro 6 : tnoiTjoe has ovve^uiOierai.

M.

M

6 lias ttjv iv
6 8

and
:

M

to. ev.

Kcivrjai 6

ovaraaiv M.
^.17.


10

d\itj>eodai 6

:

rpi^eodai

M

M

omits t«

dvaOep/iaLveTai

M.

360

and what The whole toIoiv iSiam/coicH 6 : Toiai ISpamKOiai' ix. and by hot baths. fiaXaKewilv Littre : fiaXaKvvetv M. blood has been attracted and heated. becoming warm. sentence is grammatically loose it decide how far avii<f>epei extends infinitives (if any) are imperatival. so that the whole body For when the is heated and a high fever follows. Now as it has no circulation. Littre says "on soutient la reduction de la chair. as do also the things that touch it. such a way as to cause them pain until it has passed out. in order to effect purgation. by restricted diet and by practices that cause leanness it is beneficial to apply oil gently to the body for a long time. the blood is restored to its natural motion. KlvqaLv) upon the early history of the circulation But M's avoraoiv is quite probably correct. Now if the secretion prove abundant it overpowers even that which is healthy. that the heating be not violent. 1 I retain fl's Kelvrjat.lv 9 : teal roicn fJ. and the fatigue pains cease about the Pains of this sort should be treated thus. and to lie on a soft bed. and the body generally is cleansed by the breath. to influence." but . (i. while the collected moisture. 11 is difficult. Any . Break up the collected humour by vapour baths. this can scarcely represent owiordvai. Those in training suffer fatigue pains from unaccustomed exercises for the following reasons. it remains still and grows hot. third day. the fever subsides. to use sudorific unguents. and is When the secretion of this is called "hot sweat. II.aAa.aXaKWf.KTi- Kolai 18 M. light 2 If correct it throws of the blood.REGIMEN. lxvi. 361 . its of this for instance. and make firm the reduced flesh 2 by gentle walks. the things in the body set up a rapid circulation." 1 over. is thinned and forced outwards from the flesh to the skin.e.

(ocnrep 2 dyvpbvdo'Twv Trpbs ovv pev avvTi]Kea6di Gap/co.aivopevov \e7TTvvr)Tai teal d. ytyverat 8 6 OKOTav Se irXeiov tov ot'oiv Se TrXetov tov Kaipov novqarji 8 okotuv Se irXeiiov tov Kaipov ttovos j) Kaipov novos rji : : M : Littr6. ol he dirb tcov avvi'/dwv yvp.a\9aKOV XovTpov avTov 70 hearvelv &>9 irXelaTa Kal iravToha-rra o~iTia. M M tov TrpooOcv M. x irphs ov irovelv. Total he XovTpclai p.ouos tuy Kai o/xoia.vaauov KQTCOl T(hhe TW TOOTTW y'lVOVTai' CiTTO pL€l> 0"U/X5 oTav he irXelov p. fiev ovv yovv 8.>] TrvpeTOV paKpoTepov ixde pair every dpBws. 50 diroKpiveaOai Kal avvlaraaOai axrirep tu> irporep<p.r)$' dyvpuvaaTov ylvr\Tai. V7repe£rjpr)ve Trjv KevcoOetaa he tov dXyel Kal (ppiaaei vypov. Kal 1 3 i 2 : : tottov ttovov 8.i) vypalvrjTat. Xph &£ Trp6)T0v pAv p. Kal to ciWo aS)p. 362 .oloo^ &>9 Kal T049 epLirpoaOev* t?}? he 7rvpii]o~ics ovhev heiTai' ol vrovoi yap iKavol diroKaOalpeiv to 6epp:aivovTe<. Kal tt) Tpi^jrei 6p. tjv p. okco<. vypyjv avayKii elvai 7Ty0o? tovtov rbv tottov.aiveTai crapKa' Te Kai KaOiaTaTai. avp. 5 Kiveerai M. tov Kaipov G Tf0V7)arj. 3 Oepfiotat Kal tovtoioi avp. 9epp.a p.r)he 7To\\a> Oeppcw avTov Ik tov tS> XovTpw u>] acpoopa 7 dyav \ovaai.vaaioiac yjpr)a6ai Tolai avvrjOeaiv.i] to aw/Ad.0101 £vp:<f>epei Kal tovtov xpeeodai M. roioi depp.$epei he depaireveodai <SoV roloi p. d>s «al tovs efnrpoodev 8 : d/i.ev yvp.IIEPI ireTTOv^Ki] AIAITHS crapKa elOiarai e/caaTa' tt)v Kal avdy/ci] Ti)V p.(pepei ^prjaOat. Kal e? Ti9 6epp.eTpov Ttovov «07T09 ov yiverar to <rvi'€GTi]icb<. \eirTvveiv Kal 60 crvaTav. etTa irlaai Kai olvov.7TOKa6aipr]Tai. p.

with the reading It must be confessed. grows hot. so that the collected humour may grow warm. 1 So the flesh must of necessity melt. just as persons out of training are moist generally throughout. practised. should be washed in a bath not too copious nor yet over-hot then after the bath give him to drink a soft wine he should eat as heartily as possible of a many-coursed dinner. painful and shivery. unFirst the patient less proper treatment be applied. and drink copiously of a soft . is the general sense of the passage. lxvi. become thin.' eiTa ttiocls M. as the exercises. as in Beneficial treatment of such cases the former case. however. are sufficient to thin and purge away the humour that has collected. while the body generally may become neither moist nor yet It is beneficial to employ hot baths unexercised. there is no need of vapour baths. But in these cases also. Fatigue pains from accustomed exercises arise in the following way." MSS. Accustomed exercises should be is as follows. being emptied of its moisture. had 7 AoCaar elra ireioai 6 : Xoveodai. Moderate toil is not followed by pain but when immoderate it dries the flesh overmuch. and purge itself away. yeveoQai one would without hesitation read ttovov. 3<>3 . with rubbing as before. secrete itself and collect itself. being warming. just as persons out of training become moist with any exercise. and falls into a longish fever. II. the flesh must become moist with this exercise.REGIMEN. and this flesh. unexercised part of the body must of necessity have its flesh rnoist." and grammaticstrange to express (with npos) But how can flesh be ally the reading ttovov is superior. . and translate: "whatever be the unusual exercise. that the accusative is " place where. . " " moist in relation to one particular exercise ? If for elvai the 1 This tottov.

1 dp^ahjv BlaiTav o'vwl Se fxaXaKcoi.evov to awpba e? virep^oXr/v 80 etfvypfjvai hvvarai arep vTrepfioXr)? el p.. to Be pdBiov' o-'iTiav i^7]paap. ev av ei%ev ovrco' vvv Be to p-ev dBvvatov.aTo<.p.aX0aKW<.IIEPI 7T0T&) AIAITHS S' vBapel.evov <ydp to o~wp. tov ttovov omitted by d.ev ovv BvvaTOv rjv. eXKet to avp. ph> ovv inrepftdXXov vypov e^epevyeTai r) adplj.eTOV.' npocrdyeiv rjav^r] rolcn aiTLOiai <pXe/3e<> /cal y^povov fie%pi apOojcriv elra e%e- Kal Tolai TTovoioi toIcti avv/]0ecnv €? rjpepa? e£. : 364 .vecraaQai. iv ravTrjai Be KaraaTrjcrai e? to avvrjOes Kal ctitov Kal ttotov.rj Bid r) /3t»7? (f)app. TrXrjpwOev Be Kal vypavdev. xpieadai ttoXXoji 2 3 i^avaoTavTa M M. epareo'ovTwv TravToBairoyv. Be irpoaaywyfi y^priadpuevo^ KaTaaTt'jae^ to awp-a e? 95 *)o~v)(fj. 1 <fia\6arc(b oivw TrXeco ^pr/aOai /cat iroXXa). to Be avp. i)v p.eTpov ovk dcfaiiaiv.o<. d(f)it]0't irdXiv tvjv VTTep^oXrjv' 90 to r) Be kolXli] Kevi) eovaa dvTicnra. 2 KadevBeiv e^avaarcivra oXiyov eira p.a. rr/v vTrepfioXrjv avaaras 0.(po- 4 pov avTO €(ovT(p eKaaTOv tov o~(op. Bvvapnv Be e%et r} Oepaireir/ TOirjvBe' dve^r/pacrp. tov ctltov ttj aupLpLerplr) d. KevcoQeio-rjs tt}? KoCXirj? vivo tov ep. elr evBiaTpiijrai TrXr/pcoOelcrai av al pbeiTG). Ti]v virep^oX^v tov ttovov 3 yvovTa* oKoar) Tt? eo~Ti. eKiio~Tov gItov.dK(i)v ttj rj irovwv ti)v 11 dXXrj<i tlvos 5 dvTLO-7rdcri.

For the body. 2 or of some revulsion." " and exercises. having having been emptied by the emetic. wine. So the flesh rejects the excessive moisture. exercises a revulsion. 1 2 usual food Or. let a longish and in- then he should gone a Then increase sleep on a soft bed. in a state of dryness. being empty. lxvi. all would be well thus. the belly short stroll. but it does not cast away that which is of an appropriate amount. 365 .(f>epov 6 eXtcei efiireaovTcov TravTooancov.' * aiTcjv : eajVTwi d £vjj. II. Then let him vomit. 1 gradually his food and usual exercises for six days. KaTeoTTjoe to oxu/xa t^v oiaxrav M. interval pass. of exercises. By employing gradation. "fatigue. until the veins become filled flated. this is impossible. in which you must restore him to his usual food and drink. you will restore the body gently to its old regimen. after the entrance of all sorts of food.REGIMEN. tu>v e/j. well diluted . The treatment has the property of moistening without excess the body which has been dried to Now if it were possible to discover the excess. and. but the other course is easy. on being filled and moistened. But as it is. draws to itself what is beneficial from the several foods for the several parts of the body. while the belly.7reaovTcov rravToSaTTcov to av[«f>opov d<j>' wv Aa/i/3avei avro to avro ecourait M. Or. unless it be under the constraint of drugs. it casts away the excess. amount of the excess and cure it by an appropriate amount of food.

rcov re copecov al per a err a cries. 7rpoKara\ap/3dveiv re uyelrjv. dvOpcortcov Stdcpopoi. Kal cos %ph GKaara e^aKelaOai. 2 auras 6. iroWal al Sia<f>opai' 6 : iroWi] Siafiopa M. 3 66 .5 TTvpoL re yap rrvpcov Kal oivos otvov Kal rdXXa 6 ols hiaireofxeOa.avrcov re rcov alrcov 7roXXal al Siacpopal. &(TT6 TTpOS TO TrXtjOoS TOV CTLrOU Ti)v crupper plrjv rcov rrovcov rroielaOai.oi e'tprjrai. Kal rou eviaurov al Karaardenes. a\\r)\as 6 &\\as : : M M./3eL7)V. aural 2 ecourcov 77-009 rrpcorov pbev al cpvaces rcov 10 Kal yap 1 £r)pal auras 3 Kal 7rpbs dXX/jXas 4 pidXXov Kal rjaaov £)jpal. dXXd yap al Biayvcoaies 8 epoiye i^eupr/pevai elal rcov eiriKpareovrcov ev rco acopuan. Kal irpoaOev AIAITH2 Ylepl 8ialri]s dvOpco7rlv>]s. coairep p. i avTal aurai 8.ij pit] itjapaprdvoi Kal ttoXXukls' raura Se cpappaKcov . ware rds vovaovs % it poanreXd^eiv el ris rrdvv pueydXa p. Kal rcov rrveupdrcov al p. re ol ttovoi eiriKparecoat rcov alrcov.riEPI LXVII. Kal uypal coaaurcos. cruyypdyjrai puev 01. Kal al aXXat irdaat' erreira al rjXiKiai ou rcov avrcov BeopLevat' ert 8e Kal rcov yjoplcov al decries.rroXXa yap ra KcoXuovra. 1 After yap iooi/Tas 8 6 M M adds : al.era/3oXal. rjv re rd i'jv 20 alra rcov rrovcov.^ olov T£ 69 aKpt. rrdvra hidfyopa eovra diroKcoXvec pi] 7 8vvarbv eXvdi e? dKpi/3eir]v auyeoucraf ypacpf/vai.

Moreover. and those of the various other articles of diet. In such cases there is . all prevent its being possible to la)' down But the discovery rigidly exact rules in writing. the differences between wheat and wheat. it is impossible to regimen of men with such a nicety as to make the this. There are many things to prevent differ . wine and wine.Ta. the changes of the seasons. whether exercises overpower food or food overpowers exercises how to cure each excess. As treat of the III I have said above.{eiii fir) * irpoyi'wcnes M. the constitutions of men dry constitutions. irpoo-ireKa^siv re 307 .REGIMEN LXVII. one another. irpoKa. that I have made is how to diagnose what is the overpowering element in the body. the shiftings of the winds. or Then the various ages with those of any other kind. vovtrovs irpoo-7re\o.veii' re vyicir)V SiayvJicries ware ras <pvo~ets' 8: irpoicaTafiavddveiv re vyie'as ras ras vovaovs M. for instance. exercises exactly proportionate to the amount of food. and the constitution of the Foods themselves exhibit many differences year. there are the situations of districts.r) omitted by M. and to insure good health so as to prevent the approach of disease. First. unless very serious and many blunders be made.Aauf3a. are compared with themselves or more or less dry as as compared with Similarly with moist constitutions. have different needs. * 8 oh 6 : oaa M. . : 7 /u.

10 i/c tovtolcl Br/ avp. a>Be vrrevavTiovpuevov 20 Tolai BiaiTi')p.?. 3 68 . o-vXkoyrjv tov re irapd to crvpicpopov. (frdivoTTcopov' %eip.ev diro TrXeidBcov Buenos d<XP l lo~V/J € Pi' 1V> rjapi>vrj<i. p. rfj re OaXaaaovpylrjcTL re Trjai 7rpo<. rjp Be diro lar)' pLepit]^ ^XP C trXeidBcov eViToA. rjv wponov irdvv p. TipSiTov /xev ovv Total ttoWoIcti tmv avOpooiTcov o~vyypd\lra> i£ 6>v fiaXiara dv d)(f>eXoIvto oXtLVS^ OITOIGI T6 koI Trop. 2 rod After uyos M M adds '6pcv : el ris to rov opOov d.ov. pwcpov dpiaTr/v Tt? tt]p KOiXirjv e^r). •^-v^pr/v Te /cal avveaTtjKVirjv. Bvvarai fiev 1 Bvvarov to Be i/nol evprjrai. AIAITHS ovB' vtto go? eari S' aaaa twv ovv (pappbaKcov vyid^eaOat.ev pLOVOOiTLrjGi %pr) Bidyeiv.?.a)va p. evpedrjvai.(pepet 7T/30? ttjv wprjv. ^etpbwva. LXVIII.}].t)v Tolai Be BiaiT7iuaai xprjaOcu Tolai i-ijpavTi1 eyytffTa. rolcriv dvay- ohonropirjcrL re rfjai 2 7r/>o? dvdy/cas.epea Biaipeco.IIEPI BetTai y']Brj. 3 yfrv%6Bialry puevoL re Trapa to d>cf)e\ip. (3iov.ovTO)v e? S)Be BiairyaOar tov 5 pcev ovv^ iviavrov pLLiXtaTa Teaaapa p.. (pOivoTrcopov ev Be diro dpKToupov p>£Xpt> 7rXeidBa>v Bvo~io<.evoL aWy aKaraardrrp xpeofievoi.ev ovv tw yeipb&ivi avp. direp yivcoa/covaiv 61 ttoWol. 6ak7r6p. 6 Oepos Be diro TrXeidBcov p>e\pi dp/CTovpov eViToX?}?.(pepet tcov vTrapx. i)p. eyyiara tov bpov 27 a/cpi{3es' ovBevi. puj ^fjprjv 7 Be p. ttovokji T€ /caioiaiv.aai Tolai TTpoGTvyovai ^pcovTai.acnv ^prjadai. depos. rjjy.

and the sea-voyages required the wherewithal to live the persons who suffer heat to contrary to what is beneficial and cold contrary what is useful. irregular. Now first of all I shall write. need of drugs.REGIMEN. to the utmost limit my discoveries have been made. summer. I divide the so far as their circumstances allow. spring from the equinox to the rising summer from the Pleiads to the rising of Arcturus. So as far as it is possible to make discoveries. the setting of the Pleiads to the spring equinox.-lxviii. — 3 So M. but absolute accuracy has been attained LXVTII. for the such great majority of men. while some there are that not even drugs can cure. — year into the four parts most generally recognised Winter lasts from winter.4voi so attractive that of it is difficult r\ irapa rb ffv^^pov. the walking that is to collect necessary. autumn from Arcturus to the setting of the Pleiads. III. autumn. meal a day only. : %v imroKris vir€p/3o.\rjs 0. Now in winter it is beneficial to counteract the cold and congealed season by living according to the First a man should have one following regimen. by nobody. making use of a regimen generally These are benefited by living as follows. 7 6 «i M. spring. a reading to choose between it and that M. 4 5 ovv is omitted by M. Smpe'au is 6 : SuxiptaHTiv. the means of helping as use any ordinary food and drink. unless he have a very dry belly The in that case let him take a light luncheon. the exercises that are absolutely necessary. articles of diet to be used are such as are of a drying . Siatptouffiv LittrtS. lxvii. but has 7]\iov/j. : M The M : 36 9 . of the Pleiads. reading in the text is that of Mack.

Kai toZgi 5e ^qpavTiKolcri 8 : rolcri ^ripolffi ko\ abaT-qpolat 3 re omitted aprouiTirji re 8: apTocrireeiv 5e M. 8 8. drro Kovcpcop 3 irpoaavayKci^ovTa' rdiai re TrepnrdTOiaiv dirb tcov yv/xvaoicov o^eaiv. dirodp^ofievov.ev vypoTepovs TpU tov pL7}v6s. xprjaOai 8e Kai Xayveirj irXeov e'<? TavTrjv tt)v copiiv. Kai rf) irdXr) iv iXaico /xaKpfj. toIctl re 8pofioiai 1 KaynTTolcnv e£ oXiyov irpoadyovTa. T0VS 8e £i]poTepov<i 81$ diro ltLtcov 7ravTo8a7rcov. /cat \vXo7ai Kai po§i)p. to Oepfibv avfMcpopcoTepov. fiev eKTrovtfcrr) OKOTav 8e iOeXr) tt aXaicrT iv py . Kai tou? Trpeo-fivrepov*. dirb 8e rov 8eiirvov (Spahear iv iv dXerj.aXXovrj tovs vecoTepovs.aXXov. KCU Total irojxaai fieXaaiv atcprjTecrTepoicri Kai iXdaaocri' Xa^dvoLcriv &)? i]Kiara XP'h ^^V p Tolai Oepp. ^rv^pco XovecrOco' rjv 8e ciXXco tlvI ttovco xprja-qTai. : ffKATIpOKOlTtrflffl M. irpoadyovra iravovTa Te i-jav^fi' Kai a KXrjpoKoiTirjcri 5 Kai % 1 Kai vvKTOJ3aTir]o-L WKTohpojxlriai' xprjcrOai avficpepei' 40 Oeppualvei' nrdvTa 9 yap Tavra 8 ioyyaivei Kai ^pieaOai Te r)v TrXelco.7)pol(Ti.aaiv 30 &><? 7]Kiara' rolai 8e irovoiai TroXXolaiv diraai. Kai toIctlv OTTTolai TCOV O^TCOV fJbdXXoV rj 6(f>0OLai. by M. ^p^crdai 8e Kai Tolatv ip. 37° . e'« 8e tcov i/jueTCOv Trpocrdyeiv Tjavyrj 7T/30? 1 2 to eWicTfievov aiTiov e? rj/uLepa? Tpels. dpToaiTLj] re p.avTikoccti real f. oXiyov e? to acpoSpov. * 6 irpocrdyofra (without is to) <r/cA7)p6UI'(7)l(Tl M M. : irpus ixiravra is to 8.lr)i<ri vvKTofipo/uir]i(Ti xp' ffr $ al T * T " vheitut 8: xP^ €ff ^ aL Te t^lm M. bpQploicri re iroXkolcr iv 4 ' if. XoveaOat. 6 7 yvKToBaSlrjiai 8 : KOivofiaTlrjicrL Kai Kvvo8po/j.eToicri. AIAITHS Kai OepfiavTiKolcri Kai avyKOfiicrTo'iai Kai 2 aKprjTOioiv.IIEPI /cola/. tou? p. p. M.

When a bath is desired. short Avalks in the sun . twice a month by dry constitutions." rendered here by Littre "de substances I (after Foes) "mixed. as we term it. Emetics are to be used three times a month by moist constitutions. unctions should be copious. . slightly diluted wine. and roasted to boiled meats drink should be dark. begun with light exercises and gradually made long sharp walks after exercises. of a warming character. except such as are warming and dry. limited in quantity vegetables should be reduced to a minimum. . course should be more frequent at this season. nature. quiet to begin with. lxviii." "of unbolted meal" (as in Ancient Medicine)." to which it applies. 371 . and so should barley water and barley gruel. is that it limits too much the foods I think (with Foes) that "a mixed diet. own objection to translating ovyKOfitoTos (with Littre) "coarse.REGIMEN." suppose that the objection to the latter is its apparent But ovyKofuaros applies to inconsistency with aKprjToiaiv. increasing until they are violent. grossieres. after any other Sexual interexercise. wrestling after being oiled. avyKopioros is 1 by Liddle and Scott foods and aKpr/ros to wine. : • . a hot bath is more beneficial. and for older men more than for the younger. assorted 1 and unwheaten bread is to be preferred to barley diluted cake. is referred to. and then gently finishing. III. after a meal of all soi'ts of food after the emetic three days should pass in slowly increasing the food to the after . It is beneficial to sleep on a hard bed and to take night walks and night runs. dinner many walks in the early morning. Exercises should be many and of all kinds running on the double track increased gradually . let it be cold after exercise in the palaestra . for all these things reduce and warm . My XoveaOai : Kovffaffdai M.

8e ical tolcti ttovoicti ttoXXolcti ravTi]v diraaiv' 7 inrep^oXr/v yap ovk to 8e 8 e^ei. ttoXv?" 1 9 i] p. t]V kottol eyyivcoinai' p.ev yap M.ij 8i8dcrKco tov? ISicoras. airb aiTusv h omitted by M. oXiyo?' ovriva 8e dvairaveaOai.a 8iadeppbai8p6/xoiai ical ev tco aXXco Xpovco.evo<i' yap oi/8e tco au>p.aTa VTTO TOV TTOVOV. ical TOicrt o~cop. 2 omitted by M. v7rep/3o\i]V <pvXao-cr6p. ir\Tjff fxovri i (Tv/j. 3 -v/ru^et /cal 8i86vac 8e ttXt/v airo ct'itcov yvfivaaicov. 5 i)p. ol tovto 8wti reKpnqpiov outgo? e^et cppdaco' 70 aT)]Ku[y]<.nEPI AIAITHE 50 TOicrt ttovoigi icovcpOTepoicn ical iXacraocri tovtov tov xpovov' dnb 8e fioeicov Kai ^otpeicov Kpecov 1 tcov ciXXcov 6 Tl av virepftdWr/ irX^crpLOvf].aivea0ai dvdyKr/ ra crcop. 3 * (wvtov Vapcrewi' 6 : KaQapuv eoivrbv : airb rSiv aniwv M. OTav ap^r/Tai to 60 veaOai. pei' ^copicov ical tco 4 pieTaXXayr}? epbelv (Bekriov.<p6zeal cnrb puedt]^ Kai oltcov fieraf3u\ri$ ical ' 2 crvp. rj epbelv ical /ecu dirb Tvpco8ecov /eat yXvKecov Xnrapcov dvedlaTcov 7rXr/apL0vi]<i Sfielv crvp. typa" coprjs (3pa8eco$ ovv 8iaOepp. Kai TOV VypOV pulKpOV Tl fiepOS aTTotcplvecrOat tov virdp^ovTO?' eiTa tov ^povov ovTiva p-ev irovelv d-rro8e8oTai.epr] ^pa^etrj. tt)? ~ eovaij? tyvXPV** Kai avve irapa-nX^aia TreirovOe ical to. Kapirocfropeiv.cpepei..ari pur) yeipbd^eadai pbrj ev ovk dyadbv 6 rfj copy rj) yap rd 8ev8pea ^eipLaadevra ev 1 copy SvraTai Xprjcr&ai ri]V coprjv ovS avrd eppcoadai. 372 .<pepei 6: ir\r)(T(TOfiiv-v M. ecovTov Oapaecov. ev 5 aW* ev re Tolaiv opOpuoiai Trepnrdroicnv.

and during the other For it is times. fatigue-pains follow . or any food causing excessive surfeit also after excess of unaccustomed foods. change of food or change of One may expose oneself confidently to residence. in running. and only a small part of the available moisture is excreted. irovitiv airoStSoTat 6 \6yos' ovuva 5e aiairavfadai ttoKvs 9. sweet or fat. when the body has begun to warm up. Then the time devoted to exercise is little. this is the sign that I teach laymen. airoSiSoTai o\(yos. but exposure is wise in early-morning walks. III. Kapwo<t>0[>eh' 6 : icap^bv (pepztv M. During this season. as in winter days are short and nights are long. ovTiva 5e avaitovtrai. . usual amount. just as trees that have not felt winter's cold can neither bear fruit nor themselves be vigorous. xei/xa. though excess should be avoided. 8 * to omitted by M. fj. perforce warms up slowly under exercise.£e<T9ai &v tt) ayadhv yap tmi adixari x e '/t "C €cr ^ a ' ^ yvixva^crdai uiprji 7 6 wprjt' : iu rrjt M. take also plenty of all sorts of For there is no risk of excess. and the reason I will now proceed to explain. Further. and exercises should be lighter and fewer during this time.REGIMEN. iro\vi. except after food and exercise. cheesy. have ovk ayaQov -yap Toil ffwtxaTi yu?. not good for the body not to be exposed to the cold of winter. it is better to take an emetic after drunkenness. and that devoted to rest is much.ii/ oi'Tiva fiiv Trovffi. Emetics are beneficial after beef. lxviii. unless exercise. pork. M : 'ivriva. 373 . As the season is cold and congealed. cold. animals too So the body the qualities of the season. For these reasons neither the length nor the character of the exercise can be So in this way should this season be excessive.

coairep Kal ravrr/ rfj copy ovv.. irveeiv Ka ^ T V elra 8e {itpvpov tt)s 5)pi)S apKTuvpov imroArii' Kal xeAi5<W SpTjt ^5r. Biairrj pier a paXiara eivai. ^aivardai. 8 100 ovrco Kai rov dvdpunrov' iirel yap yvcoprjv eyei. ai vvKre<i Be fipayy7 Oeppm'] re Kal fypii. Kal r) wpr) r) imovcra Be re Kal evKp^ro^.epa<. )(PV °vv.erd Be ravra wprj dirb avrfj yBrj rpOTrfjs Biairy t^ecpvpov KaiSeKa.IIEPI 7] AIAITHS paKprj' Bid ravra ovk eyei virep^o\rjv 6 %povo<.epa<. rrpoadyovra rjo-vyr) irpos ro rjp. Bova lopr) r)pepa<i piaXaKcorept) ?. Kal roaavras r)p.' 6 374 . ffBr) paXaKcorepai al rjpepai Kal paKporepai. Kal fxa\aKoiTepi\ ((pzireaBai.t2 (paiveaOai. rpujKovra Bvo.j wprji' XPV &V' i]ixspas iret'Te/fcuSeKa' : ££<pvpov StaiTr] fieTa. ijS')] TroiKiXcorepov 90 pacriv erreadai 4 Bel ovv Kal rolcri Biairr']BiaTroiKiXXovra pbaXaKco5 repoiai Kal Kovcporepoiai. Bel r) rrapeovaa rpo<pipo<. rf) p. ypr) ovv ravrrjv rr)v copijv ovrco BiairF]cr6ai. tt}? crapKos rijv av^rjaiv Bel vyirjprjv rrapao~K6vd£eiv. repai. wprj' yprj Br) Kal rfj rr)<. rolcri re airioiai Kal rolai 6 Trovoiai. rov iyopevov Be ypovov 3 yBrj dyeiv peypis i at] pep [)]<. dWas Kal XprjcrOai. rfj otpr) OKorav Be laypepir) yevrjrai. rd BevBpea -n apaa Kevd^erai iv avrd avrols yvoopirjv. wprjs i^eireaOai i)p. . irevreelra Be dpKrovpov irnroXij. dirb rrXeidoe evcppovrj 1 80 paKovTci (pv\a/cr) Bcov Bvaios yue^pt? r)\iov rpoirwv rjpepas recrcraBe rr)v rporrr)v iv recraapa<. Kal %eA. 6epo<$. a>? pur} i£a7rivi]s rrjv Blairav perafidXrj. ovk eyovra axpeXelyv es to av^t]aiv re Kal o-Kitfv.' irepl to? r)\iov rrvelv. BieXelv rov y^pbvov e? piepea e% Kara 1 <rv(ppoi>T)i 2 6 : j>i/| M. Kal o tt6vo<.

avra. topi) f/5r]' 5e7 ovu k<x\ ttji Siairrjt /nera rrjs wprjTrtvTCKaiSeKa eired' apKrovpov eViToAj) Kal xeAiSora (pepetjdai Ka'i eirerrdciL T)/j. ought to prepare an It is accordingly increase of flesh that is healthy. 4 manu H. the III. and for the same number of days after the solstice the same regimen should be adopted. seeing that he does possess intelligence. avTois 6 avrolai M 375 .REGIMEN. .4pas 77877 M. restit- al. prepare for themselves growth shade to help them in summer. the season. the nights shorter the coming and dry. not be changed order that in regimen may necessary. varying right to assimilate regimen to it with the milder and lighter foods and exercises. even so man. Accordingly. 6 Before ir6voi(ri Littre has iroToiai 8 without giving : authority. lxviii. the actual season is nourishing and tem. : 3 ayeiy 6M 0: didyeiv Littre. and it is now the season for the swallow to appear from this time onwards live a more varied life for It is accordingly thirty-two days until the equinox. suddenly. of passed. the days are now milder and season is hot longer. and intelligence." eireo-flcu XP«^«' M. from the setting Near the solstice Pleiads to the solstice. to divide the time into six parts of eight /xahaKwrepri t. who says: "Sidyeiv om. the equinox has come. just as trees. itself the greatest possible caution is required. which have no perate. . ' flMomit. After this interval it is now time for the west wind to blow. Then Arcturus rises. for forty-four days. 5 /naAaKoorepotat M : <pav\OTepoi<ri Littre (without giving «-o! authority). When with a gentle gradation until spring comes. 77 M omits before iiriov<ra. and the season is milder so for fifteen days regimen should be assimilated to the season..

iXdaaov<i' dvrl rcov dprcov irpoariQeaOai. vhapeatv. /cal rfj rrdXi] avv ra> e'Xata) iv rrp rjXia> ^prjaOai' iv e/cdari) 110 he copy e/caara rcov hiairrjpdrcov p.aX0a/c?]V iv XpovM pte%pi rrjv TrXeidSoov eV/roX^?. Trpoac'cyeiv.eQ igt avai Kara putcpov drro p.. icai rcov 6\p~a ra Xaydvcov rcov e-yjravcov dvicrd^eiv ra ecbOd rolcriv /cat OTTTolai. /cal rolcriv epieroiai. r. > cnroiai ptaXa/ccorepotat ical /caSapco/cat iXdaaocri ypijaOai. rt /cat iva- piari)v {ii/cpov. /cal virvoiaiv dirh 130 rov 1 2 dpiarov (dpayeai. rcov rrXeovs. XevKolaiv. ravry he irporpvpyrfj 5 drpiirrorepp. elra rfj pid^rj repoiai irXeiov i] rep aprcp. dpiarcp he oXtjco.epa<. rolai re iropiamv vhapearkpoicri /cal Xev/corepoiai. dcppohtatoiat he iXdaaoai. oTrca 120 av /caracrTijcrT] to aco/xa aeaap/ccoptei'ov /cadapfj crap/ct. Svo notfeoBai 6 : nal rolai ttxirotffi' rb fxtv irpuirov 4k twv Suo 376 . rolai he iroptaat p. Xovrpolcn re xprjcrOat. to ptev irpcorov e/c rcov rpicov hvo 7roieia6ai. iv pcev ovv 1 rfj 7rpcorr) fiotprj XPV rwv re Txovwv dcpaipelv /cal rolcri Xonrolcriv 1 r]rnwrepoiai %prjcr0cu.nEPI AIAITH2 oktoo fjp.aXa/colai. ical rrXya puovya iv a>9 For M has 6^ut^)oi<ti.intt'Tf'po((ri has robs irAelovs and Littre has tout before £\d<r(rovs ro7(Tir i/uLeroifft' "rb M (eM 3 omit). /cal rroielaOai' rolai re XPV hiairav i]8r} Set 4 77-/90? rovro c ^v eVetSap irXeids iirtreiXr). Ka\ fiev ivpSiTov e/c ruiv rpiStv. /cal rrjv hi'atrav p. roicru re atrloiai p. rovrco rip iv rovrco 6 epos.aXatccoical repoiai tcaOapwrepoiai.ev /cal rcov 2 rov heiirvov /cal rrjs /cal Trepirrdrcov dcpaipelv. z elra Sod irXeiovos ypovov. rcov he opB picov p>d£r)<.

with foods softer and purer. for they give opposite meanings to 7Tpoj>vprjTos and 2 arpiTTTos. and only a short sleep after 1 it . The various readings may represent attempts to smooth away the difficulty. Take barley cake instead of wheaten bread. and also your At first vomit twice instead of thrice. and drinks more diluted and whiter. Littre docs Perhaps robs ipirovs should punctuation must be changed. and here- be adapted to that season. one month. luncheon. be read . while . So when that constellation has risen. and such as one adopts should be of a milder type. in emetics. Walks should be lessened. So in the first portion one ought to lessen the exercises. items of regimen should be changed gradually. eat softer. and : Littre records irpocrtpvpat tr\. and eat boiled vegetables make boiled meats equal to roast use baths have a little luncheon use sexual intercourse less. Perhaps -rrpo^vp-qros refers to the kneading of the dough and aTpi-mos to the coarseness of the flour. more barley-cake than wheaten bread. avoid as Namely. has irputpvpatTrji. diluted wines take little barley . . days apiece. regimen should be mild during rising of the Pleiads. . white. those after dinner more. after regimen should this period until the Then it is summer. Either the text i3 wrong or else the dictionaries are at fault. . 377 . So apparently Littre\ Troteea-dai M. See page 371. III. with wrestling in In each season the various the sun. the same period. and that well-kneaded but not of finelv crushed 2 drink soft.REGIMEN. if not. purer and less food. Littre's Set 6 M xon M. 4 6 not record the reading of 9. nopipvpai ttj. irpucjji/peT'^. the body oiled. early-morning walks less. 1 then at longer intervals. so as to furnish the body with permanent pure flesh. . lxviii.

Possibly iKaiws 2 3 correct.evov he y^povov htamjoeTai irorcj) iKai'cj) For is rip M has toiv ttotwv tKavats. baa ^rjpd tovtq) t&> ypovco d<paipi]oeL Kai Oeppud Kac fieXava Kai eXveKa. ttX^v tcov OeppavTtKwv XpijarjTai' fy-jpwv' ep-eroiat 7r\r)crfiovi] r]Ki(7Ta' 140 oirwpr) lo~£ v P OTe P ov firj yprjadai. he Tr)<$ /3£Xtiov ovv direyeadat' el avOpwnivr}*. 150 toIgi rj boov e^avaaTrjvac' rjXiovs TTepiTrcLTOiGiV 7TOTap.iv. ukws tfiaaTa Siadep/xalvoiTo' r\ yap aKivSyati After After 4 M 378 . 1 Kai tovs cipTOVS.oi T7J irpun he ypijaOai he (pvXdaaeaOai. baa rj j^Loves diroTrveovaLv.iepolai yprjaQai. ' b*lyot<Ti irovKvv XP& V0V Ka ' toIcti nepnra. (pvcrios' he xp&ro Tt9. AIAITHS real Twv oniony. BepfxavTiKchv 6 adds k<x\ twv %i\pavriitSbV icai twv. tov eyop. (tItcov xpeopievos r)Ki<JT Tolat Te ttovoigl toIgl TpoyoiGi )(p7] yvp. yprjaOai he Kai 3 Kai roicriv wpbolai. Kavo-GoSeaiv adds ica) %7)p&v. rjKiara dvayKairj rivl ^rjpaairj to o~a)p.vd^ea6at Kai hiavXoiGiv oXiyoiai put) rroXvv %povov. ypijtrffai' pur) t5> ttotw he 1 itcavcp &><> eirl ctVft) rjv oY r}p. TavTrf he Tporrecov. ttXijv e'lTi cr/iUKpbv fjhovi}*. 7]KiaTa eKOepfxaivrjTai' r) yap dXivhrjais (BeXTcov rj ol Tpbypi" ^rjpaivovai* yap to aoy/i'i KevovvTes tov vypov' dirb heiirvov he p. okox.eprj<.a \prjo~8ai he rotai Xaydvoioi rolaiv 2 e<p6olac. irXr/v tcov Kavaojhecov. real Tolat TrepiiT art 01 a iv ev cr/af).r) TrepiiraTelv dXX. -^ru^ea to. p-era twv dv e^auapTavoi. 5 6 icai to.Toiaiv ev ffKifji' rrjt re nd\r]i 4v Kovei. irpwia Kai Ta e? Xipbvai rj ti]v ecrireprjv. Trj re TrdXrj ev Kovei. hcabTj) TrpooaveyeTW pue^pi^ rjXiov oKats ev irdvTa cLKpr-jTa. rjv p>r) Tf? iyyevr/Tao' Tocat he dcppoSialoiaiv &>9 he r) XovTpotai he )(K.IIEPI rjKioTa to) "TTive.

reduced to a minimum. beware of the sun and of morning and evening chills. but if .a<reiv. are heating eat also raw vegetables.1 to. so as to cut out during this period everything dry. is preferable to circular running. and baths should be tepid. and wrestling on dust. it .lvt)Tai' rpoxof ecntepTji'. jSeA-r iov" Ka\ ol rpoxol Tolffi Xpivov koX tyvxovoiv 6 6 Trepi7r<zTo«n 5e fUeXTtov ipvxovai 6 : b^lyoicri irovAvv iu ffxuu' ttjj re Trd\r]i 4v k6vsi is T) yap a\iv$T]ais BeAriov % ol Littre's. far as possible surfeits of food. it is better to abstain one should take it. dust the in wrestling as this dries the body by emptying it of its moisture. except such as Refrain from emetics. black. Is to irpwia' M rd iv r<f teal M. Keep to this regimen until the solstice. however. hot. from Accordingly. is ri)v : irp(ji\ ko. lxviii.\ t«x eV TJ] kairtpri Littre. lakes or snow. exercises. so as For to avoid overheating as much as possible. and drink plentifully But during the day drink as little as an imperious possible. rtyv kattipr\v 6 : irpw'i ko. but in the early morning walks should be taken one should. such as are given off by rivers. in Sexual intercourse should be cases of surfeit. III. except During the period just a little for pleasure's sake. okuis ^KLffra tKficptxa. by eating it with As for food the harm is reduced to a minimum. After dinner walking should be restricted to a short stroll. . or undiluted. M lias <pv\6.REGIMEN. The text to. except those that dryness. 379 . with food. unless the body experience Eat boiled vegetables. except are warming and dry. But the season's fruit is too strong for the human constitution. practice on the circular track and in the double stade should be infrequent and short. walking should be in the shade. as well as wheaten bread.

' a\er)<. t?}? rwv i/n/^e<yi/ Kal (pvXaaaopuevov rd$ p. iroielaOai. pbr/h' vTrdp^ei avrotai rcov aXXcov dpLeXrjaaai 1 rrj<. and that before Oeptr&v. XevKolai Kal KaOapolai. * 6 For Suo-ios d has \vaios.COVa €V (pOlVOirCOpivfj.aX0aKOiai he Kal fii] vhapeai. evevt]K0vra rpels.l>OW(ip(Ol M. eadtjrt. 3 has iv rj^prii hvoiv feovaaiv M ij irffTrjicovra. iv eXala>. iv dXerj' Oep/xo- Oeppiorepoiat Kat 170 rjaaov vypoiat. vyielrjs Tftjl eiripieXeladar orw 5 he T7)l (pdlVOTTWplVrjl 6'. rjavxv rrpoadyovra' rf) nrdXr) rfj tou9 rrepcndrov. and has CKpaipevvra for iKpaipeovra.ar'ta> rrpoicivrjaavra rfj re rpiyjret.aX0aKOiai Kal vypolau Kat tyvKriKolai. ev r)p.pr)a9ai pur) e<? vcpatpeovra. 380 . TT/ rrpoaa1 ryOVTCL 7T/30? TOV ^€t..epivov<. Tavra rrapaiveoi ra> rrXijOei rwv dvdpdiirwv.IIEPI AIAITHS Tola i p.epiTj<.p. rwv he deptvwv 2 yeipiepioiai x. rfj re Xovatrj re xprjoOcu. cKpatpeiv.e- htairr)<i. For ory M has oT<rt. OKoaoiacv e'f dvdjKr]? etKr) rbv j3lov hiareXelv eari. Kal rolai Kal tovs vnvovs atriocai i)p. rolai he aKpov. rolai re \ay(dvoi<ri %r)polaiv rjaaov re.era/3oXci<. aXXj] hialrrj rrpoadyetv irdar/. <z7ro he lat]pL€pirj<. w0>X e LV' XP^ a ^ aL ^ e ey T °VT(p tw ypovep Kal Kal ev lp. Kat rolai rrop^aai pteXavrepoiai. Kal KaOapolai.epai<s hvolv heovaaiv rrevrrjdiro lai]p. 2 M omits this 5« (f)6l. p.epa<. %eiyu. 177 Kovra 3 p-expt> irXeidhcov Si/cno? ptev LXIX. /ie%pi9 ap/crovpov em160 roXfjs koX lo-rjpLepirjs r)p. whe -^prj hiairrjaOai. 07T&)? Karaar>]aei pivi)<i a>9 eyyiara 4 rr)<.

Such is my advice to the great mass of mankind. who of necessity live a haphazard life without the chance of neglecting everything to But concentrate on taking care of their health. vegetables dry and less in quantity in every respect adopt a regimen departing gradually from that of summer and embracing that of winter. . owing to changes in habits. with tion during the autumn season to the winter. for instance. winter regimen. . . vegetables or fruit while freedom from KciBapds does not refer to hygienic purity but to admixture. to find adequate and English equivalents for the Greek vocabulary of foods drinks. and with the use of a thick garment to guard against sudden changes of heat and cold. nopa refers mainly to wine. soft and not diluted. LXIX." but does not include meat. atria. white and pure. taken in the sun baths should be warm omit sleep food should be warmer. Walks should be increasing the vigour gradually. that follows let regimen consist of things soft. for ninety-three days From the the rising of Arcturus and the equinox. 1 . moist. 1 drinks darker. The present seems a suitable place to point out that it is impossible. gentle wine. have massage and practise wrestling with the body oiled. must for convenience be rendered "food. Finally.REGIMEN. III. after some preliminary exercise in a cloak. a gradaequinox regimen should be as follows. until cooling. practically the only drink favoured by the Greeks (they appear to have been less fond of milk than ourselves). lxviii. avoiding extremes in such a way as to take the forty-eight days from the equinox to the setting of the Pleiads in to the reaching the closest possible approximation . not fiery. During this period. coarse or harsh. but a mild. 3** . and so fteAas will refer " to what we call " red wines. less moist.-lxix. in the day-time and pure. while fiaXOaKos will certainly " not mean a " soft drink.

elvac.ev irXrjpee*. 6 my conjecture : has irpoh'ia.o? tovto Trapea/cevaarai ical hieyvwaTai. \6yov 6 For trvvtlvai M has ^vvdelvai.'yvwcreis 0M.veiv. M omits ai)Tb.a0ovcriv. At plves 7r\do~0-OVTCU O. LXX. he ttco 3 €7re)£eLpi]a€ avvelvai. dxpe'K. ho/ceovcri p.ov he Tolcri p.evt).ev yap tov dirb Kpareto-dai oirorepovovv vovaoi eyyivovrai' 20 he eirl tov lad^eiv irpb<. eo? ovhevbs cirep hlana 10 eljev pi] pievi] dvvcnbv * earl pboi Tourot? to dXrjOeaTrpbs Tarov t6)v hvvcncov tt poorly p. aWa he hidyvcoais p.aTO<i iKavro<. wpo'iSvTOS tov 5e 6 : irpo'ioi'TL tcDi Mt> Littre has 6 after avve'tvai.7T0 teal d. irpoaeaTiv.ev rrpb tov hidyva>cri<i Kparel o-wpidrwv rous ttovovs. pLerpiax. e%ei Trpbs Tre-TTovQe. ttoWov T(ov Kpivco 6 avTo t'l 5 t&v irpb-repov ovhe 4 ra irpos arravra Se elvai d^tov earc he irpo/cdp.ip. ravrrjv p. dX\~>)\a' dirb p. ovhel<. 382 .a fcaXov p-ev epuol tu> ebpbvTi. puvaaoinai he ovhev' oTav he irepnrarelv 1 2 3 1 dp^wvTai tov opdpov XP^ V0}1 For tovtois M has Toureovs. i) irorepov ttovoi to ctitlov 7) ot t« airta. hei^oo old eaTi yiverai teal ho/ceovcri TOiaiv dvdpdnroiaiv vyialveiv ?/Seeo? irovelv tb hvvateal puevoicu 25 eyovaiv. 7rpb<. teal xpoop.IIEPI AIAITHS 6'0eA. and Siayvibaeis. Tohe he to i%evprip. oil ovhev ear iv oi/re ^p^pLUTcov ovre twv aWcov t?}? vyieirjs.ev ovv irpolovTO'i tov \6yov 2 hrjXwo-Q). 7 dWr/Xa vyelt) real Tavra zeal hrj t« ethea eo~9iovo~Lv o~a>/iaTO? eire^eipu. 5?.Tep Tfi irpofydcrios (paveprj? e/x- TOV SeiTTVOV Kal TOV VTTVOV.

can take their exercise. in value be of I it to respect great judge though It comprises prognosis before of 2 everything else.REGIMEN." Such a sense could be attributed to the word here (" healthy or unhealthy looks"). different conditions 3 I will set forth. and is useful to those who have learnt it." 2 Or "in comparison with.'' Or. E. and they seem to be full without there being need to blow the nose. lxix. ola yiverai 8 : bKuia yiyverai M. What This discovery it is 1 will set forth in the sequel. or whether the two are duly For it is from the overpowering of one proportioned. But when these persons have begun to walk in the " to set it forth in a 1 treatise." Professor A. The nostrils without obvious cause become blocked after dinner and after sleep. and explain their nature and their arising in men who appear to be in health. with the reading of M. and are in good condition and of a healthy complexion. I can add to his blessings a regimen that I have discovered. whether food overpowers exercise. whether exercise overpowers food. one that approximates to the truth as closely as is possible. but no one of my prex decessors has even attempted to understand it. reflects glory on myself its discoverer. LXX. eat with an appetite.-lxx. while from their being Now these evenly balanced comes good health. illness and diagnosis of what is the matter with the body. a man is thus favourably situated. Taylor Faria Socratica) maintains that in the Corpus efSos has the ( meaning "physical shape or appearance." 3 Littre translates "formes. but 7 it hardly suits old ion kox iarr /cat yiverai. and is convinced that neither wealth nor anything else is of any value without health. or the other that diseases arise. when III. 383 . " to compose an essay about it.

nEPI AIAITHS Kal yvfivd^ecrdat. ?} iruperol tottov 5 7) ti B av TVXV "^otijaa^ Kara.ovfi<. avXXeyofxeva.ev Br) 7 tov TrvevfjbaTOS. rj rrX7ia/iovr] eerrf. /ecu i) (f)piKa>8ee<i. tovto aiTifjTai ovk alriov eov tovto) yap /eparevvTa to.i]o-fiovri<i earl Kplai. elBevai OTi Kparel to. rjcraov aiTTovTai. : ir\r]fffjiovn lated Littre's text. TrpoiovTos Be tov xpovov Kal ra ftXetyapa fiapea 1 Xa/x'to'XpvGi.Q-XP 0i7 Te (with viroyivtTai) for Kal f). i) ovv M l r6wov i) : xpovov M. aiTia tovs ttovovs. Kara o-fii/cpbv avXXeyo/xevt] 1) TrXrjafiov?) e'9 vovaov Trpoij6 dXX" ov ^pr) TrpoteaOai p-expi tovtov. xpr) Be tov tolovtov e/cOepawSe* eKirovrjaai iv toIgi yv/xvaaioiai Tolaiv elOia/.v£ai yap Kal ffteXa Tr\T}a/j.^aTpepLi^ovTos tov aco/juaTOS.' 10 tov ttovov. : 6 irpobyaysv 7 irXtiijfxov^i Herri- tfyxyev 8 M. ippayvvovai 9 tou? TTopov? fj. 3 Te tovtoigiv BvvavTat. M* M. M.ievoiaiv a«07r&)?. fxv^a yap 8 20 Kal aiaXov 7r\. but gloss. Oepfico Xovad/xevov i^epcecrai evOvs gitoioi xpriadpLevov iravToBairolTrevdfjvai 1 2 7)ff<rov wffvep tvfffibs 8 : anroi'rai 8 £vo-fj. persuaded that the words are a /j. 4 fcarappooi tciveovTCU Ka8' o ri av Tv^rj tov .r) : M. dnoKpiverac Oepfiaivofievov he airo XeirTwofxevov. dXX' ofcoTav yvq> tcl irpoiTa rSiv TeK[xi]pio}v.Trex ovTCU 3 4 5 axpJia' 8.ovrjs ecrrt Kpiffis M. 8 9 am I have transecrri M. kcl\ to fieT(07rov wairep ^vafios 2 re g'ltcov irlveiv re twv ftdvti. vrroylvovrjaaov a\poiat 10 rat. yayev. 10 airb Q vnb (ppuyvvouat 8 <ppd<raov<ri M. TroXXr}^ ii'eouo~r)<i t/}? irXrja /j. tovtov rbv Kaipov. anla tovs ttovovj tcara apaKpov TrXr/a fjLOvrj KivrjOeiaa. 384 . Tore \xvaaoviai fcal tttvovgi. a. : '.

(the humour) thins and separates He must take his a patient should be treated thus." the I cansense would be excellent and the grammar normal. earl is grammatically possible. have a warm bath. lxx. usual exercise thoroughly yet without fatigue. they of surfeit. and vomit immediately after eating a . . possibly. either catarrhs or aguish fevers. . But place occupied by the surfeit that the sufferer always lays the blame unjustly on the of the illness. then they blow the nose and spit. according to the was aroused.REGIMEN. and probably rightly." idiomatically strange. find any support for this meaning of arroKpiverai. construction. to let things drift disease. is owpa. as soon as one has re- cognised the first of the signs." scholar will absolute. the crisis block up the passages of the breath. as time goes on the eyelids too are seizes the forehead heavy. i Now as the body is at rest. . but to realise. "test. the surfeit inside being considerable but being warmed by exercise. 1 2 Or. 1 morning or to take exercise. that exercises are over- powered by foods that gather together little by little. and as it were an itching and less capacity for food for less have appetite they drink their complexion fades and there come on . and the surfeit gathering together little by little brings on One ought not. . "and. 5 Such itself out. however. this is an undoubted "nominative not. but correctness." The this accordingly be cautious in altering sentences containing See page 355. a I have translated Littre's reading. 385 . Unless the MSS. But the grammar is If the curious. * Or. 3 For mucus and saliva are whereby comes surfeit. middle could mean "gives off a secretion from itself. however. as the natural subject of anroKpiveTcu. 6 So Littre. reading be violently changed. III. to this point. with little belief in its The $ . thing he may happen to do at the time In such a case 2 food overpowers exercises.

M. o/cox? av arvtyr) 30 aTOjxara twv (f)\ef3cov Kal pn/Bev eiriKaTaairaaOfj. M .rf} Be varepair) irepiTraTi-jaaTW <f)dpvyya Total p. 40 anioiai irpoaayerw rjau^f]. to. 5 rolai Be yvpLvaaLoiaiv eXdaaoat.iKpbv eirHpayeTw Kal tov BeiTrvov d<peXelv to ijpaav ov eia>0e Benrveiv tt) Be TpiTr] TOv<i puev TTovovi airoSoTai p. TrpoaayeTo) KaTa to avTcf i)v Be 8 48 pii)(pi<i av dvaXXayfj t% TrXrjapLOV))*. 8 8epfJ. epieadTO) irdXiv Kal 7 Kal eK TpiTOV.oi rjs.evov<i tou9 eWio~Tocai Be TrdvTas Kal roi"> irepiTraTovs. Kal t. Be Trovoiai LXXI. Total TrXeioaiv rjv Be purj Ka6eo~Ti]Kr) to. vtto 9 tCov ct'itwv.iacnb. rjv Oepos 6 fp tjv Be per) Oepos ?J. 2 (Trv\pr]i 8 : 3 * ilavaaras 8 avvciTv(pr)i : a. ffnicat waft ofiairo^ai Kal iroirjo'cu e/xeuaj. Kal Kov(f)orepoiaiv y) irpoadev Kat. hairoLaiv : i^efxevaai evdvs' aircum xP rl (r ^fJ ft' '' ttclvtoSiaTrovricTapra iv roiffi yvfivavloiai TOiffl eldi(T/j.ev TrepiTTciTOicnv rolcriv avTolcu %pr)crdcr0co.i 8' vffTepairji 8: is Se t)]v vffr(paln)v 386 .ivoi<rt - ax6irws depfidii Xouaafxevov TravToSairnKn: Biaxovt^(ravTa Xovadaevov. T€K{n']pia Trj<i Tr\r]ap.. TOidBe 1 Ei'crl Be Tives oc twv OTav KpaTe(i)VTai 10 ttovoi dvOpooircov o'iTtves. dvdpiaTOS BiayeTOi.")? irdo-^ovaLV' dp%opLevt]s ttXi]o~ poin)<. eTTiXoiira Tolai pcev aiTioiaiv iXdacroai. r\v fiev ovv airo tovtov iKavws €XJ]> depaireveaOw to. BiaXiirow Bvo rj pie pas «<£' 779 eKOpLccraTO to ciTia. . Littre.% M. from the second hand in H.ei>ov. oircos ttj irepLirTrj a-no tov epieTov KopnelTai to q-ltiov to elOtapuevov. p.ii kouffa[/. . tT. okoicC yivercu airo e/xercov elra €^avaara<i 3 4 iv a\er) oXiya. M.IIEPI criv 1 AIAITHS 2 Ik Be tov efxerov /cXvacu to aTO/ma Kal ttjp o'i'vw avaTrjprb. iKirovrjaai iv rolai yvfivaaloiar Totdiv ilBia^ivoiaiv andirons.

when exercise food. Reduce the usual dinner by one half. the patient wait for two days after the return to the usual diet. the patient should rid of the surfeit. let But if the signs of surfeit do not disappear. 10 ko. yuexf aTraX\ay?)i 8: fJ. and prevent any result of the Then vomiting from being drawn down afterwards. ?)!/ 5e 8 s &" a-ira\. 8 %v dtpos i}r %v 5e /j. but One should less and lighter exercise than before. experience the following by overpowered of the surfeit they symptoms. and follow the same proEven if a third vomiting be gressive increase. III. 387 . so as to contract the mouths of the veins. let his treatment hereafter be to take less food and more exercise." 8 : depos 5ji. result the patient's condition be satisfactory. 1 very varied meal.(XP' 6 xp7]0-a<7#auT]v fir] xpfWflat : M.\ ToiaSe 6: To«£5e M : ToiavTa Littrt5 (no authority given). of d's reading does not warrant our rejecting 2 i. if it be not take no luncheon if it be summer summer. a light luncheon should be eaten. . M. 7 ko. Kayn Littro. vomit again. 6 " astringent.1 ek rpirou M.TTb M : OTrb e. continue until he is necessary. There is 1 The harsh asyndeton it. At the beginning LXXI. lxx. On the third day all usual exercises and walks should be resumed. . until the usual food is If as a restored on the fifth day from the vomiting. On the next day one should take the same walks. After vomiting flush the mouth and throat with a harsh 2 wine.REGIMEN. Kai etc rplrou 9 : $v 5e fi^j.r) depot ?it.-i are some men who. one should go out for a short walk in the sun.-lxxi.e. 9 '{. and food should be gradually increased.€XI>^ airaWayrji M: fJ.

is 2 vypavBeiarjs is omitted by 0M. roiavra oKorav opfi i) yjrv)(ij. i)Bee<. ivoaoirolrjtrev' 6: oti 8e /cal «a! t5 v6crr]/xa.a.8et? ol vttvoi. KpvTTTOpLevi]*. aXX" dvdy/cii 4 Tapdaaecrdai tov dvdpatirov. eyjilS ^Bf) TOV okoit) eoTiv 6 ri Be rj^et vbai)p. olai tov aoipaTos 6 ti dv tv^tj. dBrjXov dv eXOrj diroKpio't'i teal drov av 5 a\\' ou %pi) Kpanjcrr}. av6Kptffts' 5j|e( 8 v6cn]/j. Eo"Tt ' TrXrjapLOvrfi- Be 1 ytie'/oo? ti Be koX rd roidBe TexpLijpia dXyel to ao)p. rfjai OepaTreirjaiv wairep tov irpoTepov 7 irXeiovos Be ypovov ical XipoeK0epa7r€v0rji>ai.8 to Be : evylyvovrat 6 e-niylvoi'Tcu M. and from the second hand of E. dW' b/corav eiriyvS) 6 nrpcoTa. ica\ Botcelv /tcr^ea-6ai.a okov av KpaTTjai-ji &Sr]\oy 6koitj yap avtAOrji tovto. dirb/3Lt)<! ^elrat to al/xa. oti 7)|ei M. dirb rcov rapaaaei Ti)v \pv^)]v.oKola <ydp riva Trdayei to aw/xa. 2. oyp-wi. avrolaiv eyyivovTai?2 /cal i]jxepr]^ 3 eTTiicoipiwvTar 6 Be vttvoi ylveTai real T779 crap/cbs vypavOeiay]^. V fnd\a SrjKov' buola yap av $\dr]i anoKpicrts' tovto. OVV 6? TOVTO TjKrj 0)v9 pOiTTO^. tovto ivno-07TOii]aev. /cal to 7Tvevp. h'6ar)o~ev' M.a. rr/<. 3 * added by Littre yaXrivi^erai 8 : ya\rjvi£ei doKteiv 6 : 5o«€ei M. Kafivetv jap 20 TrpoeaOai rbv (fypoveovra. yaXrjVL^eTcu Be 10 p.a oiai fiev dirav. otov %v KpaTTJ<rai 388 . LXXII.nEPI AIAITHS vttvoi fia/cpol teal ti rrj<. b/corav t?/9 rrj Kpiaiv ")tcs <Tt.3 Ta KTOvirjs Selrai.T(ov dcfurjaiv eiaa) vtto rfj vrrevavTiovp-evi] Tpocpf] irepioBov. ovk en Bi) Kara tovtov tov ypovov /.rj Se^rai ifii] Biayeopievov eVt to croifia tyjv ttXtjo-^ov^v.

struggling. when the body can no longer contain the surfeit. when a man has reached this condition he is now near to an illness. it now gives out a secretion inwards through the force of the circulation.Tos o ti kv tuxj? omitted by d. so are the visions of the soul when sight is cut off. but the patient perforce is disturbed and thinks that he is For as the experiences of the body are. IV. and they slumber for a part of the day.t 6 T7js tt)s &cnr(p rbv Trporep(. The symptoms of surfeit are sometimes . So at this period the sleeps are no longer pleasant. should not let things drift. The sleep is the result of the flesh becoming moist 1 the blood disBut solves. as follow. Oepairtiriicnv wairep 06pu7reiTjs i\t(rOat. diffusing itself.T]pia>v. What illness will come is not yet known. etc. LXXII. although more time is required and strict abstinence from food.) P . have fall upon them long and pleasant sleeps. (HIP.. 2 which. rod awfj. disturbs the soul. being opposed to the nourishment from food. ' 8epant[r)s ex € J ^ a '> 6?]>'ai 8 rbf irpijirov iK6epairevd?)va. 361.a.dtpa.REGIMEN. The body aches. 427. and the breath. "As the tiesh. but as soon as he recognises the first signs.-LXXH. LXXI. * 7 After iviyv$ Ti/ffi M has tSiv TfK/j." that is. the blood dissolves. The wise man. Accordingly.v tK. body that happens to 1 With the reading of 0M "The flesh goes to sleep. 389 VOL. in in others that part only of the : some cases all over. he should carry out a cure by the same remedies as in the first case.rrevQf)vcuKa $h tovtov unrirep rhv np6repoi' £icdepa. is calm. as it depends upon the nature of the secretion and the part that it overpowers. 241. etc. III.Treu- M : : ^ Littre. however." 2 For the 7repi'o8os see pp.

ovv kottitjv.). irTiadvr)*. " aAvKolo-tv akKoiGiv roio-i aAAoiai M: Littre 6ko?ov : says vulg.\\' 7) Littre (with apparently the authority of some Paris MS. %fA." without naming 6 6 MSS. Trpoacpepeiv /ni]Sev aXXo 6 17 vScop ovv ev TavTiiai iravtjv puev rj/xepecov Tpiwv KoiKpoLat arjTar rj r)v he /xt]. rjv he pur) irpovorjOel^ e? TTvpetov d(pLKi)Tai. kcu depaireveaOai tm TyooVft)* pLaXiara fit]. aA/yo? earlv olovel paOvfitTjai re Kal irXTjapLOi'fjai OepairevovTai. fxa\afcj)cri irvpifjai.<w 7 rj yap 1 reTayOTato? : efihopbalos €Ko~T/)<reTai OepaTreveadai' Kal s olovel 6 3 4 After Tolaiv icplv 2 av is omitted by M. dXXd XovTpolat re Kal aLTOiai -xpiiad/jLevoi e? TrepnrXev/xovcrjv KareaTrjaav to voarj/xa.0 ij 6 : omitted by M. Kal e? klvSvvov tov ea^arov 10 d(j)iKveovTai.a. some MSS. SiaXvaavra to ^prjad/xevov Bpifiecri o"co. el Be /mev irvpiridevTa Xovcrd/xevov TroXXrb Kal dep/nw. M. dXXa 3 %pt] 7rpofi7]0ela6ac Trplv e\ ra? TcpSe vovoowi dcpi/cvecovrai. irepiiraT^aai bXiyov Trpco'c "fcpbvov eirena KaraSapSelv 8e rolai irepnrdTOHri rroXXolcriv 5 e^ bXiyov 20 7rpoadyovra %prjo0ai Kal rolac yvfivaaloiai Kal Trjat 7rpoaay(oyfjai Kaddirep Kal Trporepov lo"%vaaii]<. Kal ev e^avaaravra dXerj. Se tovto irXe'tCT^ SetTai Kal TrepnruTcov.IIEPI AIAITHS 1 kottos. (not 0M) add hv.iois e85oyua?os Littre (with apparently some i'j authority). p>e%pi av 2 e<? irvperbv afyiKvkwvrai' Kal ovheirco ovhe tovto yivooaKovaiv. 7 M 7/ : yap rerapTOLOS' r) Kal v Terapralos : eBSofiaios reTapraiois 7) tfih'o/J. elra rotaiv dXXoiaiv 4 rcov aiTiwv e^epueaai ev. toco-i irpwrov fiev Kal irXeiaroKTiv. 39° .8o/ceovT€<. : TroAAoTcnv 0XA.aa &)? pudXiaTa. or MSS. a\\' 77 a\\o M t) a.

Accordingly. . followed by sleep.REGIMEN. 1 2 Or (with the reading aXvKoiaiv). as of course the treatment is spread over several days. afterwards of the other kinds x of food. and with the same gradual increases as in the former case. under the impression that they are suffering fatigue pains. and fall into the direst But what is necessary is to exercise forethought before the diseases attack. go down in that time. the next best thing being copious hot baths. at first of harsh foods and very copious. and gradually increased exercises should be light. though short to begin with. an ambiguity that often occurs in Epidemics I and 77/. . Even then they fail to realise the true state of affairs. It is douhtful in the Corpus whether ttoXvs refers to quantity or to number." So Littre. after meals. and to adopt the following treatment. And if through lack of forethought there is an attack of fever. and on the fourth or the seventh day he will sweat and be emit of the peril. but indulging in baths and food they turn the illness into pneumonia. lxxii. Such a state requires severe reduction of flesh and plenty of walking exercise. III. 39i . be affected. until they fall into a fever. and then. 8 /ecu 8 : i) M : (i Littre. Take by preference gentle vapour baths. nothing should If the fever be given for three days except water. "of salt foods. with some Paris authority. these patients adopt a treatment of rest and over-feeding. "Many" is a possible meaning here. The ache resembles the pain of fatigue. treat the patient with barley water. there should be a thorough emptying of the body by vomiting after this there should be taken a short stroll in the In the morning walks should sun. be long 2 . . so as to dilate the body as much as possible. well and good if it does not.

i^avay30 tcd^ovai yap..aX6aKolatv etf) 4 iip^epwi Setea' tolcti Se 6-^rotcri 8ia)£ci)p?]rifeoiaiv.rj evelvai.yi0elaOai &>oV rjv p. XovecrOac 5 Se ^Xiep(p.aK07rorelv. teal 2 tea/eot.v iroLelcrdat ra^vrep^v. 392 . Uciaxovat. eivcu e'£ r) es to rrapavritea. Xayveirjs 6 Be direxeo'dai.ev rj ra^vrdrt] Oepairelrjel Be p.. LXXIII. teal 20 re trdXrj ev eXaicp' dirb rov dptcrrov dpiarw re ^pyjaBco piii vrrvas drro rov Belrrvov he ooov e^avaarrjvai itcavbv teal rb pcev XoveaOai. rovroicriv verav 10 varepov Se p. : omits kokoI and reads voieto t)ai) nicrjt. dXXa Oevra xpi) rrpop. Botcel teov(p6repo<.7) fiovXotro cpapp. avTicrTrcoaa rijv re KoiXirjv avrr) teal fiapvverar leivSwoL re erriieeivrai oteov dv pay ft rj 7rXijo-/xov/i. re teoiXi)] ecptararai eviore' cMppoSiaidar). teal Be rives teal roidBe airb rrjv rd fiXecpapa T€ TOi? ?] teefpaXijv aXyeovcn teal ftapvirlrrrec avrolaiv drrh rov BellTVOV.1IEPI AIAITHS e^iBpobaer dyadbv Be rotai xpLcrpiacri -^prjaOai rolaiv iSpcoritcoiaiv inrb rd$ tcpLcna<. oteorav Be. TaxvTfpTjv d raxtiv (before M.ovrjv teefyaXrj e^Larriai.dX\ov jBapvn)v irXiicr p. but probably 2 3 M has (sic) which (without is dittography. 7r\rja-p. Toiai 6fca)<. may the vir6KeiTcu. tcpar/jaet. €V V7TVOIS rapdaaovrai. to Se xpieaQai.ev 3 ftovXrjrai Trpotrvpiri- rrjv 6epaireiv.ovrj^' vovrai. 1 Kill Soteel 6epp. elra irpoadyeiv aiTLOiai Kov<poi<ri teal p. i) Karon teal teoiXir) rrjv tcecfiaXrip rfj Kara) avriarrdaei' teal rolcn Spopboiai /3paSeai rfj Tolcriv opOpioiai rrepirrdroiaiv puaKpcb' itcavolai. eXXe/36p<p tcadapQ-qvai. rovro Stacpdelpei. Xovcrdpuevov 1 After rapdcTcrovrat e has te accent) be correct. avrt] p.

After sexual intercourse they seem to be for the moment more at ease.-lxxiii. . acting by revulsion on the surfeit. rax'iTipr) M. If the quicker treatment is desired. For XovsoQai Ta. after a vapour bath purge with hellebore. a short sleep after it. and meats that open the bowels.Tri 6 has \ova8tu. as they briAg on sweating. and the surfeit infects that part where it has broken out. The head aches and feels heavy their eyelids close after dinner they are distressed in their sleep they appear to be feverish. It is good to use sudorific unguents at the approach of a crisis. longish early-morning walks. and for ten days gradually increase light and soft foods. 1 III. . 393 . Nasty dangers threaten. makes the bowels consti. but afterwards the feeling of heaviness increases. In certain cases the sufferers from surfeit experience the following symptoms. But forethought of the following kind is required. trouble. and abstain from sexual intercourse. and occasionally the bowels are constipated. LXXIII. After dinner a stroll is sufficient. and pated and Take luncheon and wrestling with the body oiled. chapter. In these cases the head. the baths tepid. Use baths and unguents. 1 : trouble 2 4 utpoKTi 6 (not : (nrTolffi 5 8 as LittrtS says) : (Tirioicri M." This refers to the hellebore mentioned earlier in the In the Corpus "drugs" are purges. itself becomes heavy. that the lower belly may overpower the head by the revulsion below. Practise slow runs. wish to avoid drug-taking.REGIMEN. 2 he should take a hot With the reading of Littre "he will get rid of the if he sweat. This is the But if the patient quickest method of treatment. lxxii.xw~d.

eperov teal tt aat 3 citto rSiv opotcov poo dyetv Kara tcouto' %pr)aaai Be rovrotatv eVi rearaapa^ e/3BopdBa<i. KaOiararat.ovr)v e? r/pepa<.cr p. efcpdrr)o~e rb virdpyov rcov e-weto eveyQ evrwv 10 /cal e^edepfirjve. teal read' rjpeprjv eKaorifv av^avbpevov iayrvpqv yevrj.?. /cal eiroirjoe 1 2 erdpa^ev dtrav rb acopa. Kadtardvat re rrjv Biairav 69 to ovvrjdes Kara piKpbv. eppevouaa r) rpod>rj (pvaav vrrb efiiroiet' brav Be dptari]or). giv. rfj irpoaOevra air'twv. LXXIV. Kov<f)6repov iljeXavBotceovoiv dtrrfhSKd'^dai' ro Be 7roXv rrXeov e? rrjv varepairjv irapaylverat. e<w9 dv Btappoirjv iroAAaii M. okcos ro 39 owpa dvaKopiarjrat. tovs re eperovs avv irXeiovt XP° V V iroieloBat. rat. 394 . epteaat atriotai xprj&dfiepov rotat Bptfiezeal vypotcri y\v/cecri /cat 2 e£ eperov Be boov e^avaarf]i>atrrepntdroto-t irpaeat irpoodyeiv 30 vaaiotai e/3B6prj dXfivpolatv. orav Be yap rov ioyyporepov ro verat. dep/x&i 6: ifxecrai ffiriotat Kal yAvKeat /col aA/xvpoioi M. a{ pr) crdpxes Be^ovrat. Be rolat 7Tpco't /cat rolat e£- yvpBe Ttottj- yeypappevoiaiv 7rA. id re atria ev eXdaaovt irpoodyeiv. pdXtara yap ev roaovrw -^pbvw KaOtararar etra Trpoodyeiv rotai re airotat kcu rolat •novoioi.IIEPI 1 AIAITHS Oepptw.f) oKoaoiaiv he pev koiXit] Karaireoaet ro atriov. Tiverat Be teal rotdhe arrb •jrXrjapovi}'. teal rovro yap bvopd^erai.

what is already present overpowers the things added from without. it is not surprising that the 1 one food. (c) salt and moist. generates heat. (c) salt foods perhaps (a) acid and At any rate moist. For such is the name given to it. . manuscript M omits two epithets. disturbs the whole body and causes diarrhoea. after vomiting let him go for a short stroll. for the lighter is expelled by the stronger. causes flatulence. and the trouble seems to have been got rid of. After luncheon. 395 . and then vomit is progressive increase. III. and the exercises described above. Lxxin. When LXXIV. bath. for a period of six days. so that the body may recreate itself. but the flesh rejects the nutriment.REGIMEN. (b) sweet foods. increase the interval between vomitings lessen the .-Lxxiv. and gradually increase them. (b) sweet and moist. time taken in increasing food to the normal. 8 noirioai : irotricraoQai M. the flatulence subsides. generally opposed to yAvKvs. remaining inside. the belly digests the food. the surfeit becomes strong. for this after which make the same Follow this regimen for four about the time required for a re. On the seventh day add a surfeit of like foods. . But when. moist. but on the next day the symptoms recur much intensified. weeks. the four qualities (which to a Greek of 400 B. and then vomit after eating foods that are x sharp. sweet and salt . In the morning let him take gentle walks to begin with. Then gradually increase food and exercise covery. Littr6 translates as though all four epithets applied to The Greek suggests (a) foods sharp (acid) and moist. owing to the daily growth. and restore the regimen to what is usual little by little.C. Surfeitshowsalsothefollowingsymptoms. were subAs Spi/ivs is stances) had to he combined in one meal.

M. epvyydveTai tov ctZtov wpov. ttovo<. * r6v re M : t<Jt€ 0. dWd Xpi] TrpofXTjOeiaOai ical to dpiarov dcpaipetaOai real tov BeLirvov to tp'itov pepos' toZctl Be -novoicn jfkeloai. ical 9 8 tcov ttovwv "rrpwTov pev ovv XPV &P T(P 1 2 Qeppfy ' ^ xprjcrOai ^v/xlttj. dirb Te tcoi> yvpvacriuiv /cal opOpov oTav 3 8' rjpepai Be/ca yevcovrai. irpoa- OeaOai /cal tov ctltov to o/coTav Be epeTOV ijptcrv tov dcpaipe6evTo<. paitjv tovtw irapaa /cevderac Te 10 Trj<i Trj KoiXiy deppaalryv diro 8iaiT7)<. /cal epeTov tov ctitov irpos irpoo'dywv tovto) t&> vytea iroirjo'et'. vovcro? ^aXeirr] /cal eTri/CLvBvvos. tov tov Xoittov ev 6 TTon'iaaaOai. Troir}o~a<j9ai. eXdaaco pev rj 7TyOO? tc\ acTa.cn Be 28 ttovoio-i 8appelv LXXV. y_povw- ToZ. /cal Trpoo~dyeiv^ e? -qpepat Teo~o~apa$' Te 5 o~itov aWrj Se/ca? yevrjTai. Be Oeppaivopevov tov awpaTO? Kadapais Bpipea <yev7)Tai. rj Be koiXlt) Bia^wpeX. /cal TrpoaOeaOai. VlveTai Be ical TOiciBe' e'9 ttjv vcrTe- tov ctltov epvyydveTai dopov cnep o^vpeyptTjs.nEPI AIAITHS 1 okotclv avrr) /jLOvvt) acnrelaa 97 rpocfrr) viro^mpfj. BiaOpviTTOVTa For vnoxt»pv Toiai ias x w P* fl - 5e $p6/A0iot KK^iaat : : Kai ttjiol TraKrjiai i<ai roiai nept- irdrotai 3 * M. to re evTepov ^verai /cal eX/covrai /cal tovto Be BvaevTepir/ Sia^copelrai alpaicoBea. Trjcn 7ra\r}ai real Tolai Bpopoiai /cal 20 nepnraTOicri 2 %pr)&6ai. eyyi'veTai' tovtolctlv r) KoCKit] fyvyjpr) eovaa ov BvvaTai KaTaireaaeiv tov ctItov ev tt) vvktL' o/cotov ovv Bel ovv KLVT]0fj. irpoodrivat irpoo8eo6ai irpoadyeiv irpooayaye'iv M. tcaXeiTai.. Be ovBel<. 396 . 7 tov tolovtov irie^cov. o/x&>9 Se i/cava)?.

v -qv : mtdde 8 K\i](T/j. When another ten days are gone. So first one should use warm. the purging becomes harsh. 6 7 : 0appe7 (edpp'i ?) 0.oi'rf is t)jv air 6 re. cannot digest the food in the night. up undigested. 1 For orjifiis see p. wrestling. After 0epfxSli Ka\ : M adds * (TWyKOfllffTcil M. both after the gymnastic practice and in the early morning. take an emetic. v<nepa. Such a case as this you can without fear exercise rigorously. fermented bread. . the bowel is scraped. without heartburn.Se is tt\v M M vffrepa. 409. But when. but not proportionate to the food eaten. being cold. lunch omitted disease. there are no fatigue pains.lr\v Littr6 (with some authority). the disorder so long as the waste products 1 only of food pass by stool. and gradually increasing the food you will effect a cure in this interval of time. take an emetic. So when it is disturbed it brings up the food undigested.-lxxv. ulcers form and the stools passed are bloody this disorder is called dysentery. running and walks. add one half of the food that has been taken away.REGIMEN. a difficult and dangerous Precautions must be taken. When ten days are gone. There also occurs the following kind of On the following day the food is brought surfeit. III. So for such a patient it is necessary to procure warmth for the belly both from regimen and from exercises. add the food that is still lacking. LXXV. Use more exercises. and gradually increase the food for four days. as the body grows hot. 397 . 0appe7i> : roiciSe is Ti]V v<TTipa'iTjv roia. and dinner lessened by one-third. and In these cases the belly. lxxiv. copious stools are passed.

TTToicriv. rolcri rrpoat Trepnrdroicri TrXelcrroiaiv. t€ irlocrtv velots birrolffi' VOltJL f(pdo7(TL. LXXVI. plvas dvepirei 6%v. ftXirco 4 ttotoIctl re d/cp/jroLcriv. "AXXoi d^poovcri.a\a/cfj ev eXairp. e£ oklyov rrpoadyoiv. oXiyov vcrrepov he 7 rives rotdhe irdcryovcriv* <pdyu>criv. : 1 M 2 rolcri roiffi Se : icai tolai irAetocrt 8 /tr)5e 9 : pal M.ev he ravrrjs rrjs OepaOdcrcrov.IIEPI e? AIAITHS e\ £(op. orav epvyydvovaiv ro 6£v. airb heiirvov he oXiyoicri. vtto t/}? rrepiohov evavriovrai rfj rpocfrfj. icai.r]8e epicfycov \a%dvoicri he rrpdcroicri re re /cal e(f)@(p crfcopohoicriv /cal KoXo/cvvry' ecpOoicri /cal <hp. /cal vovaovs vhpeocrap/cos ro drro/ca6aipop. rovroicri rd au>p. olov dfcpoKco\ioi(TL Tolcriv rolal re irioo~iv veloiaiv veloiai. zeal ydverai. virvoiai re drro rcov dvapicrrr)v re rrjv irpcoripj.olcri. rolcri he 3 2 yoipeioicri p. * TJjlTl TT/S T€ KO\OKVVT1)S pOSSibly T€ KOXOKVVTrftTl.ara ov /cadapd ecrriv rov ttovov rrXelov ro avvrr/Kopievov rrj<./cal ro crv/cov /nerd rcov crtrcov dyaOov. real hrj epipievov p.?) iroWoicri icai o~/cv\d/c(ov p.^ Total re hpop. 9 eijooOelrai. /cal drro^vvei. 398 . rolcri he 27 fipahvrepov. <>M: KOi KOfKOKVVTTf lAitvk '.eirj' %pr/a0ai he x re real rolcri aap/cdoheaiv. irdXrj re p.ev ovv rpocfri] epvyrj (Bidder ai.a 10 rq> dv6pd)iT(p d^poiav epnroiel. avrb he vtto ro hepp. ^picrpbaai 7r\eioai.TOlCri T6 M. e/c KaBlararai rolcri p.evov 8 rovro aKpoKwhioiat Ixupois 6. OTTTolcri. \ovrpolcrl re oXiyoiai. Siiqbdoicrt. 20 yvpbvacriwv. vtto yap r) real e? rd<.ov olvov fieXava rj veiov rolai re fyOvcriv e(p0olcriv iv aX/xrj hpip. 6 a/cprjros re ireirjs iiT aiirS).oicri /cap.

Drink should be undiluted. few baths.REGIMEN. So the nourishment is belched up. tov ttovov Ka0atp6/j. Now this excess. more 1 anointings than usual.Kp-!]Tnt<riv a. and no luncheon should be taken at first." re rrjv irpwTTjv 6 5 iroToicri re a. o# : btfa is M. l'ecovery. forces it along. which. 399 however. and the pumpkin. and renders it acid.a<rl re a. remaining in the body. in others LXXVI.KpriTC(Tr4pot(rf vtrvoiai re 7 LiaKpoiffi avaptffTT}(rlT)i<ri tt\v irp<i>TT}V 6 M. and neat wine therewith. crumbling fish III. plenty of early-morning walks.pi. M. but be sparing of sucking-pig. Also boiled in acrid brine. In other cases the following symptoms are experienced. in some cases rapid. * di/rb 5e rb uirb rb Sep/xa 6 avrb Si vnb tov Sep/xaTos . gentle wrestling with the body oiled.6s- The text : that of M. and the flesh of puppies Vegetables should be leeks and onions. but only short ones after dinner. has t« for yap. Figs with food are This treatment good. and acid belching shortly after food. increased gradually. the acid matter rising into the nose. There should be sleep after exercises. and boiled and raw. running in the double course. and the excess is pushed out under the skin.-lxxvi. : 5e 6 re M. lxxv. is antagonistic to the nourishment. kids. In such cases the body is impure. For the flesh melted by the fatigue is greater than that purged away by the circulation.(vov d. such as pig's feet well boiled and fat roast pork. causing in the patient paleness 1 Or. it into dark wine or into pork broth. boiled blite brings slower. There is paleness.vapio~Tr)v : ir6/j. "long. <rvfT7]K0fxev7)s tt)s 8 a-rrb yap rb a-rrb Tr\e(ovos £6vros' ira. Use also fleshy meats.

xprjadat Be ical d-no BeLirvov. iv t£ xpvcdw omitted by 0. ipKirflfiaurt avaKiv^ixacn Zwinger.iroKpi<rus. eXXefiopov iriaavra irpoa- dyeiv. and uirb 400 . M has 6 for airb. d\l . 7] has a. : 4 5 6 7 For SiaT/ji^j) M has ivSiarpiPTji.riEPI TroeiSeas. . depaTveveadaa to Xotirbv Totat irpoai)KOvatv rjv Be ti 29 viroXotrrov fj. SeKuTT) Be /cat r)ptepr) irpoaayeTO) utto tov ifiefoi) avOa ifxelrw.ovTis. For iyKoviSfAfvos M has ckicoi'Ioiv iwivois. wcnrep Xearepri virb t/}? irpoTepov yey pcnrrai. omitted by M. AIAITHS irpop^qBelaOai o>6V r) dXXd ptot j^pr) ptev ra^vrepr) 1 Oepaireirj. depptco /ievo? Be %p tea-day orav dvdpiaTOS Kal Be ev Be Xoveadai Xoveadai- BictTeXetTO) tovtov tov rjv ptev ptrjvl /cadiaTtJTcu. rf. ^pi'-jadw ttj depcnrelr]. .' r) Be dacpaBtatTijaiof aioV irpaiTov p. elra irpoa2 dyecv e'9 r)ptepa<i kirrd to aniov to eWiaptevov. Kara tcovto' koX to rpirov Be rpo^oiaiv oXiyotai 3 dxravro)<i iroiyaaTW Totat koI 4 20 teal 6£eat dvaKtv^ptaat /cat rpiyjrei. Klal Be Ttves olaiv e? o^vpey/^tai ytvovTCtr TOVTOtaiv ev /cptais LXXVII. ^pbvov. kcu ttoXXt} xpjjcrOa) ev t<m yvptvaaiw. diro rrjv vaTepatr/v ttj 7 vvktI dirookotciv TrXr]aptovrj<i ytveTata£>pta. ovv TU> KlVrjdf) €K TOV 1 2 3 V7TVOV TO TTVKVOTepW For is is a<r<pa\e<rrepi] 8 has PpaSurepri.ev Xovadptevov depptw epteTOv irotrjaaaOat. irXetaTotat Be rolaiv 6 opQpiotaiv eynovibdeXrj. koX BictTptfif) b to tat re 7repi7rdroiai ttoXdXu>Bi]aet "fcpr)a6w Xolaiv dirb twv yvptvaatatv. before airdnpiois.s before Tt\r]<r/j.

On the tenth day after the emetic another should be taken. Plenty of walking alter exercises.REGIMEN. breathing more rapidly it lorces to be faulty. 40 X . long practice in the gymnasium and wrestling in dust. a secretion arises in the night from surfeit. seeing the difficulty. is by the following regimen. let the patient continue the treatment. When the patient wishes to bathe. When this is so. . then an emetic. but if the illness has not completely 1 disappeared. with arm exercises. The treatment should be repeated a third time. would revive an old reading (or conjecture) and add TTporepov before Ofpa-rreir]. let the patient take hereafter the fitting treatment. lxxvii. when the body has moved 1 after sleep. During this time no luncheon should be taken. In some cases the morrow brings heartburn. . The quicker method of treatment is to give a draught of hellebore and then to adopt the progressive diet that I have already described. "If the patient recover in a month. followed by the same gradual increase of food. If recovery occur in a month. Accordingly. The safer method. LXXVII. III. massage. let the water be hot. just possible that this clause is merely a misplaced variant oiXpijoQw 17? <77porepov> deparreiTj. should "fitting follow complete recovery ? Ermerins. but especially in the The body should be anointed when early morning. First a hot bath should be taken. • and dropsical diseases. The following precautions should be taken. continue the treatment. covered with dust. after dinner." treatment The argument appears " Why . lxxvi. and then the usual diet should be regained by a gradual increase spread over seven davs. if not. This does not touch the It is difficulty of the clause depa-neviadoi TrpocnJKovaiv. and in the original text there was an wposiopcsis after KadioTfJTai. well and good . however. Short but sharp runs should be taken in the circular course.

dlT 6 K p 10~X? JLV6Tai OLTTO T?]S O~apK0<S ttoWi] vypP/s eovo"r}<i'^ elia rrjv pev Tpo(pr)v i) dirb Trjs crdpj. OTav Ta crma vttvov." It is d/eporhi rhv irp6T€pov 0M ratber awkward. LXXVIII. p^XP 1 ^^pear}' dvdpcoirov teal 6epSiren a he teovcfioTepos iyeveTO' irovo'i he ovhels ev tw acopaTi epavepos' dxpolri he eveeni' irpoiovTOf he tov XP 0V0V irovot tc yivovTai teal vovaoi.vb<s he Tp6)/oicn. rjv prj Ti? irpop^Oeir) %pi](rr)Tai.(pi* pec he teal tovtoictlv coairep teal ra> nrporepw irXeioai rolai he irovoiat tovtov depairevdrjvaL10 xpfjcrdai. 0epp. yvp. avp. irov7]aavTe i. 1 Tpiyjreai : he teal 7 irdXrj oXiyr). e%airivr]<.. possible. TOiat he 20 hpopotat TOtcrc pev irXe'to-TOLcri teapLirTOiaiv ev 6 teal Tolai hiav\oicn teat Tolat IpaTiw.aLV>jTai teal hia~%ey)Tai dirb irpooTOV Oeppaivopev)] ? tt)? aaptebs viro Te twv amwv hid TOV VTTVOV.ev Tolai irvtevocrdpteoiai 1 creopaTCOv. ov &6)£€Tai irvtevr) eovcra. 7rvevfiari xprjad/xevov. to npSrepoi'. Oeppbv re teal 6$jv e/e avv tu> e^u> tovtov vovaoi yivovTai. o~vvt)]£iv tt}? aapteos iroWrjv i 5 iiroL>]o~av. : 3 iroAAijs iiyprjs iovoris 6 TroAAr] vypaa'n] M. XPV &€ tovs toiovtovs whe 6epa- ireveiv depeXecv twv gitoov to Tpnov pepo<i' Tolai he crnoicn XPV°~@ al toigi hpipeai teal ^ypotai teai avaTiipolot teal evcohe&i teal ovp^TiKoiat. to he T€ arapteb? diroiepiOev 2 evavTiovpevov tt) Tpocpf] teat ftia^bpevov e£co 10 4 irvlyei tov palvei.IIEPI • AIAITHL fiid^eTai irvevpaTt. but understand a verb to govern re is omitted by M. 2 t<£ irpoiepcj) Littre. irdo~x oucri he tovtoioi irapairXijcna teal otebaoi dyvpvaoTOi eovTes. 402 . TlveTai he Tiai to>v teal Toidhe.

4 6 f £a> M teal : elffa 6. but the patient must increase the amount of exercise. In course of Similar time. unless precautions be taken. causing a Such persons must copious melting of their flesh. Reduce their food by one.-lxxviii. and wrestling with the . The following symptoms also occur. In such cases it is beneficial to take the same treatment as that last described. In persons of firm flesh. pain and disease occur. dry. be treated thus. however. warms and chokes the man until he has vomited it forth. the flesh warming owing to the food and through the sleep. For bklyri has airaKi]i {sic). while the secretion from the flesh. when the food warms and melts during first sleep. tt)s avvTrj^i aapnhs ttuW^v exolricruv crapes ttoW^v M : eiroiri<rai'TO 6 : ffvvrij^iv tt)s <rvvrr)£iv rrjs crapubs fiiaiav Ka\ 7roAA. 403 . and no pain is felt in the body though the complexion is pale. suddenly take violent exercise. Running should be mostly on double tracks.i>oiat 8e «al M.aTioHTi yv/uivhs 5e" 7 Kal 6: iv l/xcnlaii yup. The food to be used should be acrid. when out of training. while the double stade and circular course should be run stripped use massage. being opposed to the nourishment and forced out. a copious secretion comes from the moist flesh. astringent. lxxvii. out with the breath hot and acid matter. a little wrestling. 1 From come diseases.?V eVoiT)(rav Littre\ 6 iu 1/j. Relief follows the vomiting. aromatic and diuretic.REGIMEN. with the cloak worn.third. Then the flesh owing to its firmness will not receive the nourishment. 1 Perhaps a ti has dropped out of the text here owing to the inlluence of 7rveJ/naTi or re. symptoms are experienced by those who. this III. LXXVIII.

o-8w 8 adds tov o-itov.v6arii. olov \ievT(pir)v ovoe M : 404 . : omitting aiTiov. 69 vovaovs 10 Te epirnrTovaiv. ovhe at KoiXiai he tovto p. 30 to y]piav tov aiTov /ecu e/xeTov Troiijaaadai.ia.ev irpopij- Oeio-Oai' 1 avpfyepei tovtw 9. : 6 • After KOfj. €K he Tod* efieTov ££. kolciada$u> 5 to d<f)aipe0ev ctctlov arrav Total he irovoiai 37 /cal Tolai 7) TrepnraToiai (fivcris vyii]<> ecrTat.Kpoxcpt<r- (xoiaiv. ovhia.Kpox*Lpicns is omitted by crirloicrt Ermerins omits a. dXXd to>v ^pri p. irpocrdyeiv e\ rjpepa<i Teocrapa*. Udaxovai j/copel avToiai to ctitiov vypov airetrTov ov hta 6 irovov ovheva voatipa. to ctitov oTav he r/pepcu he/ca yevcovTai drro tov ejieTov.io-a. e? r)pipa<. olov XeievTepirjv. he Tives /cal Toidhe.dXio~Ta irdayovai irapi^ei' oaai yfrv)(pal koX by pal eicriv hid pev ovv ^rv^poT>/Ta ov <rvve\\rel. 2 Toiovroiaiv 8 : M airh 3 4 tov o-irov omitted by M. aiTcov a. al Te he KoiXiai hiatyde'ipovTai.oTov \avTipi:)>' oi>5e 8 ofo" i K \ei(VTeptris Littre^ Ermeiius.ITEPI AIAITH2 1 kcu KoipuKopa^i'ti veipia poiaiv (a/cpo^eiprcrt"? rolai he irepiirdToio-iv diro rtov avfKpopcoTepov) yvpvao'iwv iroWolai teat.hia- LXXIX. he ToiavTii Trpoae^eTOi ical ttovov irXeiovo's heiTai i) gitov. etriTijheiov fcevcoaiv yap tov vypov iroievpevos apaiol ttiv o-dptca' avLMpepei he avapujTov Bid/yeiv ^prjcrOai he TOiai TOiovTOiaiv 2 ev ypeprjac he/ca' elra rrpoaOeaOai 3 tov a$aipe6evTO<. Tolaiv opOpioiai kcli diro heitrvov (frctivfjs he tt6vo<. hid he vypoT^iTa hia^copel' to ovv acoLia TpvyeTai Tpo(f)r)v ov Xapftdvov T7]v irpoa/)/covo~av. e'/c 8e rov 8 e/cacrToi/ M.

while the bowels become diseased and Precautions ought to be taken. while the state of the bowels is not caused by one of the diseases that commonly do cause it. restore food to the full original amount." 1 2 The reading olov 4k Mevrepi-qs was probably due to a corrector who scented an inconsistency between oh 5m v6ar]/j. yet illnesses follow this disordered condition unless precautions be taken. Follow this treatment for ten days then add half the food taken away. cises.-lxxix. and the A constitution of such a patient will recover.a and 4s voiaovs re 4/j. keeping.Tr'nrTovcnv later on. however. This sentence may be a marginal note that has crept Ermerins' emendation is probably correct. 1 with long walks after exerVoice the early morning and after dinner. When ten days have elapsed since taking the emetic. lxxviii. and So the body the moistness makes the bowels loose. bowels that are cold and moist that show these symptoms. LXXIX. The true meaning of the passage is that. 2 and no pain is felt. in from luncheon. . The . wastes away through not receiving its proper nourishment. following by some patients. continue thus After the for six days and administer an emetic. hands (hand-wrestling and the punch-ball are more than usually valuable). exercises are useful. nature needs more exercise than food. "Hand-wrestling and punch-ball are better than ira\r\. emetic increase the food gradually for four days. It is beneficial in this case to reduce food by one- into the text. the exercises and the walks. for by evacuating the moisture It is beneficial to abstain they rarefy the flesh.REGIMEN. III. 405 . The coldness prevents digestion. undigested there symptoms are experienced Their food passes watery and is no illness like lientery to cause It is especially the trouble. illnesses occur.

Kal e/xeTov 7roirjada6o). rj iytcpvcpiai.evov 9 ovtoi For iav av(Trr]pbv 6 u>s 2 8 * has Oepjj. Kal roiv icai iyQvwv ra vcoriala /cat ovpaia.epai eirrd. KXiftaviTai. Kal irpocrayeTco e? Teaaapas rj/nepas to glt'iov tt) Be Xoveadac dvdpicrTOS Be dXXrj e/3Bo/u. Kai eK tov TTepiirdrov Koip. has eipdoiai. rota Kvveioioiv birroi<Ti A Kal <^acrcr?. cb? TeTapiy^evpuevoiaiv ev dXal 3 Kal o^ei- 20 Xa^dvoiai he iJKiaTa5 olvto Be fMeXavt aKpi]- Kal roiai TrepnrdroMjiv diro TecrTepa) avcrrrjpu)T€ TOV BeLTTVOV iroXXolo'L Kal TolaiV opOp'lOKJl. omitted by 0. irpoaOeada) to r)fxio~v tov o'itov tov 8 dtyaipeOevTOS. ecfrOolcri Kal otttoZgl.G Bpopuoiai Be ttoXXij- Kapuiriolaiv Ik irpoaaywyr)^. ev dXpurj.da$(i). ra Be /ce<f)d\aia 2 viroyaarpia iav a>? vyporepa' Kal tou? p.bt'.IIEPI d<f>eXeiv AIAITHS eo~Tco to rptrov /xepo^' Be ra alra aprot avytco/AiaTol a^u/ubOL. ev 6£er Kal toIol /cpeaai /cat.? Kal twv Xonrwv tolovtoov opviOwv. Bca%oopr]p.r) KOjxiaaaOw dirav Kal efieTOV ttuXlv 34 TTOLiio-dfxevos irpoaayeToi «ara tcovto. For For a\<r\ 6 dtTTuifft 6 M omits 5e and 406 . Kal to crw/xa ovk eitavpia Kop. tou? Be 07ttov<. has a\et. Kal irdXrj fSpayeir) Kal ev ra> eXaia> Kal ev rf) Kovei. LXXX. KOiXirj<.ev e<p6ov<.kcrrco Be Kal rphfri . a/cpTji-effTf'p^ av<TT7)p$. okcos 7 BiaOeppbaivopievr) 77 crdp^ 1 a7ro^r]paiv)]TaL re Kal to vypbv eK avTiaird' dXei<pea6ai Be avficfiepei rrj<.a "AXXotai Be Tiac yiveTai ToidBe' to dar/TTTOv o~Ct(ov TpvyeTai twv 1 Bianco pet. 1 Beppuol e? olvov avaTr/pbv epLJBaiTTopLevoi. rj pbdXXov BiayeTO)' orav Be yevcovrai 30 i)p.

should be dark.-lxxx. and the body wastes away. The food should consist of unleavened bread. III. Koipiiadwi oVa>s M. dry and but little diluted. both in oil and in dust. Of fish the parts about the back and tail those about the head and belly are too moist and should not be Fish may be boiled in brine or grilled with taken. Usually okoos 6: M has the rod -k- forms of the relatives 8 • and 6 the others. 407 . getting no profit from • 7 : KoifjLa<r6cu M. and follow it by a similar gradual increase. boiled or roasted. diet to what it was originally. Anointing is more beneThe patient should not take ficial than bathing. . After seven days have passed.t<xu After Troniadcrdiv 6 adils ffirov- For ouk iiravpto-KOfiiyoy 8 lias iiravpiaKsrai. Long walks should be taken after dinner and in the early morning. lxxix. third. and the food increased A week later restore the gradually for four days. In some other cases appear the following symptoms. Vegetables to be reduced to a minimum. to fj/j. one-half of the food that has been taken away then an emetic should be drunk. baked in a pot or under ashes. Wine . plenty of massage. so that the flesh may become hot and dry. restore luncheon. dipped warm into a dry wine. There should be a little wrestling.REGIMEN. made from unbolted meal. Meat may be preserved in either salt or vinegar. The stools that pass are undigested. with sleep after the walk. vinegar. and draw by revulsion the moisture from the belly. again. and of other such-like birds. The double Let there be track should be gradually increased. Dog's flesh roasted the flesh of pigeons. LXXX. administer an emetic .

irdayovat ravra. Kal role iv 10 l^Ovatv ecpOolaiv iv inTOTplpupaai.-Tol. avpcpepei. Kal Kpkaaiv ecpOolaiv veloiai. Ta aiTia.r)Te yvpLvaaioiai. Kal ttovov ov Tcapeyei' ol Be Tcves diroKXeiovTat tcov Trpoai]20 i^avaoTTjuai- y^prjaOai- 1 Before vovaovs 8rj M has ras.. 2 3 rovToot 6 : 5e run toioi/tcoi M. T]fj. Kal Tolaiv aKpoKcoXloiai 3 teal tcov BiecpOoiai. 408 .tcov Be aiTcov dcf>eXelv to tp'itov yuepo?* iv rjpepyai. /cal Tolaiv dX/xvpolaiv olvoiat Be p. 0: Kal Kal Tolai fiiv &Kpots oiefdo7<i. Rial Be Tives olai to Bca~)(copr]pa vypbv Kal <Tccr^7ro? Bia^copel.i/cp<jv toIol Be yvpsvaaloiai •jrXeioai y^pi)aQai. real Tolai irioaiv oTTTolai. Bij tovtco 2 apjoiai icaOapolaiv LTrvirrjai y^pr\a6ai. TrdXrj Be peTa tov Bpopov iv iXaicp' 5 TreptTraTOiac Be p.rj ttoXXolaiv cltto tcov yvpvaaicov diro Beiirvov Be oaov SpOpov Be irXeioai irepiirdToiai XoveaOco Be deppucp' y^pi')oQco Be teal y^piapuaaiv vttvov Be TrXeiova BlBotco Kal paXaKevve'iTco' %pr) Be Kal dcppoSiaidaat n. LXXXI. aycoyfj'. has iraA. ey ye : 4/x(f>opf7adai ro7irt aiTLoiai' 6 6 M M Littre. Tolaiv aXXcos vyiaivovat Kal yvpva^opevoiai.eXaai puaXaKolar Kal tcov {3oTpvu)V Kal tcov avKcov iv t ola i a it oiai A Xpr) Be Kal evapiaT?]v p.7) re and before iXaiy. /cal tcov dXvKcov Tolaiv Bpipecov vypaivovot.IIEPI AIAITHS Be TrpoiovTos tov y^povov ep^iritTTOvaiv e? 1 vovaovs' tovtoutiv ai KoiXtai yfrv^pal Kal ^rjpar oKorav ovv pii]T€ oiTOiai Trpocn'jfcovcn ^pecavrai p.ai- 6 : ro7at 5« airloiar Tail M M.KpoKw\ioi(Ti oii(pdoiai Kal Toicn irAeiaToiat 6ttto7<ti 4 (v Tojcri at.fpr]iai Se'/ctr has to Tiraprov /xepos iv koI. Be 6 25 BeKa Buo irpoadyetv ai/Tov 7rpo<.-roiai 5e irloacv i(p8o7ar ro7aiv a. Bpbpoiai tcapLTTTolaiv e/c irpoavaraToiai re Tpbyoiai.

lxxx. In some cases the stools are watery and of waste matter 2 the general health is good." while without aeavtros means that there is plenty of waste matter." . but in the early morning longer walks. double-track running should be the last running should gradually increased. exer. Ermerins translates both &-k€tttos and ao-oirros by "incoctus. Take twelve days to bring food back one-third. here to 2 The process whereby the digestive organs make waste matter was called a^is. while be on the circular track after the running should . So when these cases the bowels are cold and dry. to normal. however. as it is hardly to be disI suppose that it refers tinguished from a\vic6s. Hence both Sireirros and aminos mean undigested. cise is 1 taken and no pain is felt. of such as are moistening. rompu. oven-baked.vpbs is difficult." "corcoctus. Let the bath be warm." osoi)-n6s by "conLittre lias "non digereV' "non corrompu. Unguents should be used. Let sleep be plentiful and on a soft bed. acrid. fat meats roasted. Exercises should be Wines A above the average. boiled fish in sauce. their symptoms are those kind of person is benefited by taking bread of bolted meal. boiled pork. Some Reduce food by sexual intercourse is necessary. cises." 409 . little food. extremities thoroughly boiled. the process "of digestion Tresis. After the exercises there should be short walks. come wrestling with the body oiled. and also grapes and some Some to be dark and soft. The word a\fj. In In course of time such people fall ill. LXXXI. apparently the food is turned to undigested food in it waste without normal assimilation. salt foods 1 piquant sauces. exerthey take neither suitable food nor suitable This I have said.-lxxxi. the food. with be taken to figs luncheon too should be eaten. pungent dishes generally. III.REGIMEN. Others. after dinner mere strolls.

p.t. irepio-Tepi]^. ecf)0olat p. rcov re aiTwv tnroicXelovTai. Be 6 /cal dXlvBrjai^ eTriTrjBeir) pi) ttoXXi].vpolcn../cpeacrt Be toZoiv opviOLoiGLV. irovov re Trape^ei. 10 crrrjcrai Be dWd ^aXeTrbi' J]Bi] yiveTat ^pr) irporepov 7rpop. 2 irepBi/ccov Be /cal aketcTopLBwv otttoIctiv fjBvvToicri. teal Ta? adp/ca<.IIEPI AIAJTHS kovtwv irpolovTOS Be tov j^povov. b^rjpoiai 3 Ermerins after adds koI roiai ayploart #ira<n. eirKTirarai rfj Oepfxaair] rj /coiXtr). ttovgov rfl re v7rep/3o\i]V davpepopwv eyy evopevcov..^pr/aBai Be pid^r/cri 1 7rpo(f)vp7]Tfjai TpiTTTjiai. ovv BiaiTjj Bel yjrv^ai icai fyiprjvai..r)8e TrdXti' d/cpo(f)6oio~iv 3 o^rjpolai- 5 /cal yeipovopir) /cal /ccopv/copa-^trj %eipiapb<.4. pijre Xnrapolcn pi']Te d\p. This 4 may be correct. r /cal dirb Beiirvov 777)09 77-/309 30 ra aiTia irXeiaToiai. r) re koiKIt] i£e\fcovTai. 20 \ay&otat ecpOoicriv ev vBaTt. twv re ctltcov to rptTOV pepo<. irpocraytffBce M. /cal toIviv dypioiai \aydvoiaiv baa yp^v/CTi/cd. 410 .Tolac Be tov /cal airb yvpvaa'iov ^pi'iadw TTepnrciTOio-L irpb<i tov irbvov i/cavolai.rj6eia0ai yvbvra ttjv koi\i>)v depfirjv /cal vyprjv irapa to Trpoar)/cov. r)$vvToiffi d.ev <fidao-rj<. Tolau TevrXoiai KaOeBe pe\avi avaryjpwoXvat yvpvaaioiai re Tpbyoiaw o^ear rpi-tyis p^rj i iroWr) 7rpo(reaTCi). irp&Tov puev XPV T ^ yvpvdaia ra iipiiaea acfreXeiv. avTTjv.^pyjadco Be /cal oiTTolai.a<i' e%iv ovtco BiaiTrjOel? rjpepas Be/ca it po a deaden tov tc M has the singular. /cal Tolcjiv lyOvai toIo~i ^T]poTtiTOiaiv e<p6olai. avrt^vvTOKTi 2 M : /ndfai k. d\\' oXuyr). /cal irpco'i avppeTpws' Xovadw Be )(XiepS> Be 1 ttjv aTpep.

pain is . roasted. accordingly. Exercises to be sharp runs on the round track." iirirriSfia oLKpoxeiprjcris M. adopt 6 very uncertain. cannot attend to their duties. be dark and dry. cises. arm exercises. M : iirtTr)Seir)i 9. food by one-third. exercise that are adequate considering the fatigue after dinner they should be as long as possible considering the food in the morning they should be proportioned to the habit of body. 1 best to The text here make sense . 411 . with the knowledge that the belly is over-hot and over-watery. and that there has been excess of unsuitable exerbelly. . . Fish of the driest kinds. . and all ' wild vegetables. .. partridges and chickens Eat hares boiled in water. punch-ball and wrestling in the dust are suitWalks are to be taken after able when not in excess. They may also be grilled. Barley cake should be eaten. must be such as to and dry the belly. with seasoning. but only a little. that are neither rich nor salt. not much. No wrestling proper but hand-wrestling. the reading of Ermerins : "vegetables that are coolis my ing. As to the flesh of birds. Massage. may be eaten boiled. cool Regimen. exercise should be reduced by one-half. lxxxi. and I have done It is tempting to of the reading of 6. Precautions should be taken early. belly by its heat draws the felt . doves and pigeons should be boiled. the grain ground and wellkneaded. In course of time the flesh to itself.REGIMEN. of this regimen restore half of the food and one. First. such as beet . there is loss of appetite ulcers form in the and hereafter the diarrhoea is difficult to arrest. The bath After ten days should be tepid and taken quietly. beet and such wild vegetables as are cooling 1 Wine should thoroughly boiled and with vinegar. III.

tov it6vov ev$eeo~Tepov Littre real tov twv it&vwv olvov.10V M : : 412 . irpocrayeTw.co pev a trvpSiV T(p T€ X V P'V Xaxdvoiai Te xP*]°~@ ai ttXijv twv Bpi/xecov Kal 1 StarptfieTu} 2 3 M : Siarpifif 0. re pid^r) 7rpo<pvpr]Tf} pavrfj Kai apro) criTaviwv 6 T ")V friTvpcov e ^u p. yevrjTai.fi TrpoprjdelaOai tt) yivd>o~KOVTa ^r/paair/ KparetTai (ovOpcoirof. ir\^v ran/ ttAt]v ivSeeffTepov I have printed Littre's text ir6vwv ivSeio-Teoov Ermerins. Kal deppr) \ap.evo<. 10 oKOTav e? touto e\Or/.a ttooIovtos he tov XP 0V0U Kai TTtxpov yiveTat. TtpoadeaQw tov gItov tov \olttov f Kal rebv ol'vcov to iroTifxov.o<.. htaiTrjcrOat. ovv XPV avTOV . dX\a XPV oti ifpOTepov depp. Kal to aropa LXXXII. Kal ohvvrjv T€ Trapeyet. /<a- Bdirep yeypamar fiovoaiTelv he tovtov tov xpovov avp<pepet p-^-XP 1 ^ v KaTaarfj.' eyri T o kvTepov vypaair/v.eTov nrpoaaefieuTco ttjv Tax^Trjv 2 tov alrov Kal to yeToo e? r)pepa<i reacrapas ttotov 3 Kal tov itovov fiepi^oov orav he heKa<.IIEPI AIA1TH2 GIT0V TO TJ/jLLCTV KCU TOiV TTOVWV TO Tp'lTOV /X6/W Kal hfierov ironjadcrdw drro twv %rjp5>v Kal crrpv(pvwv. Ta? hie£6hov$. /ecu prj hiarpifteTa iic x iv tg> o-itlw. Kal 6 Tt av <f)dyr} rj Trig e^epel' Te\evtwv he Kal Koirpov i/xel' 5 ovtos ov /3l(oo-i/j. riacrapas is omitted real by 6./3dvei. rh ttotov is omitted by M. 8iax<*>p>ip. aWa he rod ip. "AWoiai Kavpevov to fyipov. ttXtjv tcov ttovwv evheeaTe- 40 42 pov 4 f Kal eperov 7roo]o-dp. 4 Kal twv to TT0TI/. Kal r) okotov yap tov pur) koiXitj XaTaTai Kal oup)]o-i<. ire pi aTTOTraTov TrepioiSrjaav dirotppdaaei. : Kal twv a'nwv ffiTwv irpos tov itovov ii'deevTepwsKal twv otvwv TO TrSrifLOV. he tig i iji]p6v Kal avyKeylverai.

After the emetic for 1 four days increase gradually by (equal) portions are When ten exercise. with the knowledge that the patient So his diet should is overpowered by a dry heat. days food. Vegetables should be taken except those that are acrid and dry. dung life When this point is reached despaired of. 4*3 . Precautions should be taken betimes. but not quite all the should follow with exercises.REGIMEN. 8 TeAeuT&v . 2 The Greek admits the rendering." size ' 1 The word " ' suffers. xvfiit 0: \v\S>i M." may merely emphafieplfrv. Finally. eV«« omitted by 0. while fever comes on and everything eaten or drunk is vomited. in course of time becoming bitter also. but not quite enough But the sense of the passage to match the exercise. consist of barley cake. and passed. and they should be too is brought up. 2 as After an emetic proceed progressively. meal one this only a day until health period during is restored. after a meal of dry and astringent food. well-kneaded and sprinkled. drink add the rest of food and drink. which must not remain long in the stomach . It is beneficial to take has been described. and the mouth becomes dry. For when the intestines have no moisture. may be dividing them. the notion of progressive increase implied in irpoaayeTw.-lxxxii. 8 . III. In some other cases the stools pass dry and burnt up. LXXXII. they swell around the faeces and block up the passages. in fact the emetic all speed. An emetic should be taken third of the exercise. . with buck-wheat bread fermented with the gruel of its bran. lxxxi. while bowels and kidneys cease to act. between daggers and given a translation that represents the general sense. causing pain.

/cal vtti'w re piera rrj epierov diro yXv/cecov /cal Xnrapmv dXpLvpojv /cal ttiovcov.nEPI AIAITHE /cal %r]po)v e^ravolai' /cal rcov l\dvwv rolai /covcpordroiaiv ecpOolai' /cal rolai /cecpaXaioiai rwv l^Ovcov /cal /capdfioov fival teal iyivoiai /cal rolai /cap/civoiai.dtfieXeadw he ra>v ttovwv /cal ovtos e£ dp")(r)<. /cal tjijpovs he (3pe%as iv vhari. firjh dvdpiaros karoo' orav he rjpepai hetca 5 irXeiova^yevcovrai.ovi] ivy koiXltjs TrXrjppieXeia.aXa/ca). tou? epbGTOWi' eira irpoaayerco to air'iov e? i)piepa<. For iroi7]<ydada> reads ironjoaTee.olai real avrolai ecpOolai roiovroiaiv /cal vypordroiar epi- /cpeaai he rolaiv 1 veioiaiv d/cpo/ccoXtotaiv iplcpcov /cal dpvcov /cal a/cvXd/ccov ecpOolaiv lydvcav he rolai irorapnoiai /cal Xipivaioiaiv ecpOolaiv oivco p. : Koiirav 6 (perhaps rightly).^ ivhiarpi/3eT(o he a>9 irXelarov %povov iv rolai airioiai 7rpb<. 414 . 1 ovrio i/nrpoodlois 2 * onlaiv M M : efiirpoaBiSioiatv 9. vhapel' rolai he rrovoiai p.rj iroXXolai pirjhe rayeaiv. TToirjadaBco 3 /cal 40 rpels. rcov ttovwv rrpoaayeaOw ovv diro tov airov rj tj)? rjv piev r/ 7rXr)ap. ipieadrco' fjv he pa). a\\ r)avyoiaiv drraai' rolai he irepiirdroiai rrpwi piev ^pijadco. /cal rcov /coy^vXicov rolai 20 yyp. tou? i)piiaea<s rcov rrpoaOev. wphs rrjv e^iv i/cavoiai /cal diro yvpivaaiov 7T/30? tov irovov aup-pLerpoiatv diro heirrvov he pir) rrepirr areirw \ovTpolo~i he 30 ^pijadco /cal vivvoiai piaXa/colai /cal dpiarw' rrpoauioiaiv to apiarov p.r] pia/cpco' oncopr} re 2 vypaivovarj piera rwv atriwv ^prjaOay /cal Tola iv ipefiivdoiai Tolai yXwpolai. 44 OepaireveaOco tov eTrlXonrov y^pbvov.

boiled. gentle sleep. " * B For For iri6vwv M reads -nXeiSviav. Baths should be taken. and luncheon. . After ten days let him resume gradually the greater part If now after food there be exof the exercises. M reads irpoaayir<i>." 1 The reading of M. Let him also take an emetic after a meal of 1 sweet. let an emetic be taken. Moistening fruit should be eaten with food. and. Walks are long nor sharp. " " Perhaps the former is fatty. from the very first. but the sleep after luncheon should not be long. also boiled. not forgetting to take luncheon. perienced surfeit. and cockles themselves of the most watery kind. Chickpeas should be taken when fresh if dried let them be first soaked in water. crabs. III. Fish must be of the lightest and boiled. Otherwise. may sea-urchins. Soft wine. fatty foods let this meal lie in the stomach as long as possible consistently with vomiting Then let the patient increase the food for it up. Exercises neither boiled. lxxxii." irAeiivwv. puppies. Mussels. irpo uayeadw 415 . proportioned to the fatigue after dinner no walk must be taken. rich. This patient too must reduce. may more than usually copious. and flesh of kids. pigs' fore-feet boiled. well-diluted." the latter sickly. but gentle in all cases. the same treatment should be continued for the rest of the time. soups from cockles. three days. to be taken in the morning. . He eat the heads of fish and of lobsters. after exercise. salt. his former exercise by one-half. Among meats. It is hard to distinguish iriSvaiv from KnvapSiv.REGIMEN. or a disorder of the belly. . long enough for the habit of body. lambs and Fish from rivers and lakes. be right.

For xPV^dai M has xpvoaadai.T]piwv ri.. kcl\ tco eXalco dXeupecrOco vttvoictI T€ pbaXaKolcri hiayeTco. x tcov t>)v irepnrdTcov eyjivovTat tcov TrXetoves p. has 0apvveTat' tovtoii So 6. 22 irevTe tov9 ttqvovs rrpoaayeTco Etcrt he Tives o't cpplcrcrovaiv etc tcov 7 LXXXIV. airb /ceil TiveTai he ical TOtdhe' cppltcat. ev r]p. ypiaQ. Tolcri he XoveaOco he a'lTOiCTi xprjadcyOco coairep eWicrTO' 6 ev tco vhaTi20 xXiaptp.vov orav yevrjTai Tayiara tcov retckcu avai pityaiievov oXiya. he e<? irvperov a^i/cvelrai (fipi/cwhea. <yvpbvaaicov. has dtpfiws. M 416 . toctovtco OKoaco 2 iceveo- he to re crcopua /cat 77 icefyaXr) tov cpplaaei y^povov /cal /3apvverai' TrpoiovTo*.e/30?. For Iko.evov TreplirdTcp he citto henrvov.vQ> M has 'iKaviis. elra virvco yprjaOai e? tt/v 3 dirb tov apicrTov i/cavco'* earreprjv 5 he KOix^oiai xprjadpLevov yvpLvacrloicn 0epp. icai eireihav eKhvacovTai irdXiv 8 ^XP l hicnrovijcroocnv' 1 2 oTav he tyvxrjTCit.yuG. hiaTpifteiv he fir} xprjo~0ai ypovov T?} kciX he varepair) dcpeXeaOco tcov <yvpLvao~Liov irdvTcov tcov TreptrrdTcov to TptTov yu. irXeov tov elBia\xevov. cfypicraei' 3 4 6 For bpdpicav M reads opdpov. ov XPV irpo'Uadai e? touto. For Oepucp M irXeioves.evov KecjiaXrjv fSapvvovrai oi Trepiiraroi T779 crvp^/xeTpiri^' 6pdpicov. teal apicrTov iroiTjaaadab Trporepov cohe•nielv iicavbv olvov pLaXa/eov.epr)o~i he KCLTa putcpov. dXX* efcOepcnreveo-Qai vypov tov dXX' 10 p.co Xov- adpuevov heiirvrjaai to el6icrp.nEPI AIAITHS LXXXIII.

" 2 Or "after. not to one of the symptoms. symptoms not " one symptom. The teeth seems to refer. 8 7 M M omits omits tHiv yvfj. LXXX1V. from the time they put off their clothes to the time they finish.va<rl<nv -n6i>ous . and in He must take the water anoint himself with oil. III. means. his sleep on a soft bed.REGIMEN." but something of the symptoms. Some have rigors as a result of 2 their exercises. Instead of letting things slide thus far. 417 . ." I take the are tj The : clauses after koI to explain Ik tS>v yufivaffiuv. a\ct<pt<Tt)io." in which case koI means "and. in fact. The reason for the rigors and the heaviness is because the body and the head are emptied of their moisture. but "as soon as the to their first appearance in a slight form appear at all. with plenty of soft wine to drink.-lxxxiv. and then a long sleep after the In the evening light exercises should be luncheon." " tvv Ttnnypiuv rt. and reads Trpocruyi<rQu>. 8 For «/(8i)ffcocToi M has tKSujjToi. following treatment should be carried out before. by Let the patient take his bath tepid. take a heartier luncheon than usual. In course of time the patient falls into a fever attended the by rigors. the patient should just pass away the On the next day reduce all the exercises and time. a hot bath and the usual dinner. The following symptoms also occur. and spend five days in resuming his exercises little by little. the walks one-third. . but the usual food should be eaten. Rigors come on after the early-morning walk. and the rigors 1 renewed on cooling down. No walk taken. after dinner. that is to say. with heaviness of the head proportionate to the excess of the walking over the proper amount. lxxxiii. On the first appearance of the symptoms 1 let the patient have a little unction and a little massage. LXXX1II.

iaea<.a~\arca)T€poicu ical vhapearepotatv o/corav he TrapeXOcoaiv ^p. 10 irXrjv rcov 5 irepnrdrcov. 2 3 * TrpoaUo-Oai omits rotat irpSeadai. rrdvrcov he rovrcov rcov reKpa-jptcov oi ttovoi Kpareovat rcov aircov.av0t<. icai depaireiri rj avrrj. M (which omits omitting re.?) irdXtv ptera 20 InvepfSaiXr) yevr/rai. avpt<pepet he rov- rotai ptaXafcevvetv pteOvaOrjvat OepptoiXovrelv. tuiv is reads vironTiji. .iaea' yjrvyporepotai. rrpos rov? ttovovs. . 418 . LXXXV. /cat). teat rotat rrop^aat p. orav he e^eypr\rai. a>? p. ra £' ov. he TrepbTrrr) TTcivra<i rovro dirohos rovs ttovovs /covcporepovs /cal eXdaaovas. rcov rjp.IIEPI AIAITHS fipvyptos re to crco/xa e'^er inrvcoaaei re.ev e/chiaiTijaaaOai Tract rcov 10 yvp. ptrj e? vTrep/3o\r]v dcppohtatdaat re orav VTrorrly^ paOvptfjaat. yap . 1 For iax v l>oi M : has . Total yap irdayovat ravra ra 3 rcov atrtcov retcpypta oi wovoi tcpeaaovs elal ovv €Vtot ov ravra irdvra he dviad^eiv XPV' rrdayovatv.vacncov dcfreXecrOco irdvra airoiaiv %p)]o-0co rolai vyporepoiai re /cal ?} ra ?)p. So M. elal.rreptTrrrj he aXXy r/fxipy roix. rrevre. (pavKot. dXXct ra ptev. yprj real cohe* 1 real Xdaaeadai ovv dWa he p-r) it poteaO at irpcorov cf)\vapel.epai rrpoaOeadco rcov ttovcov to rpirov ptepos d<patpe6ivrcov rotat he a'troiai yprjadco rotatv avrotat. p. -)(ao~ fidrcu ttoW&kw e/c he rod vttvou to fi\e$>apa ftapea' irpolovros he rov %povov /cal Trvperol emylvovrai layvpob. dira^ i) his. <f>v2 69 rovro. rcov Xotircov rrovcov rrpoadeaOco. 6 omitted by M.

lxxxiv. is The patient sleepy. to depart from the MSS. So care must be taken not to let things drift so far. exercises. First drop all exercises or reduce them by one-half. as we really know too little about Greek idioms of this type to be quite sure that the phrase rb aw/xa would be impossible in this context. to have sexual intercourse after a moderate indulgence in wine. and to slack off' their exercises. drink of the milder sort. and the up he yawns frequently. but not to excess. with delirium. and the following change of regimen should be adopted. When patients exhibit these symptoms exercises are in excess of food. add one-third of sleep or twice. LXXXV. but let them be less strenuous and less prolonged. The food After another five taken should be the same. chatter. however. and the words are strange. on a soft bed. to get drunk once to warm. except walking. well diluted. a due In some cases restored. 419 . 1 III. exercises overpower food. let the patient the exercises that have been dropped. I am loth. Accordingly. but only But with all these symptoms some of them. be must correspondence not all the symptoms are experienced. 1 Ermerins deletes rb ffco/xa. and after waking After sleep the eyelids are In course of time high fever too comes on heavy. should although supported by all the MSS. days restore one-half of the remaining After another five resume all the exercises. and the treatment is the These patients ought to take their baths same. in order that excess may not recur. Perhaps we read rb arSfia. When five days are passed.REGIMEN.-lxxxv.. All the food taken should be of the moister and more cooling sort.

6pfj aKovo-Ta? /3aB[^€i.iur]. ai/Tjjt oiavoia. Y 1 2 3 tiM: So 8 : M has wp^^ei" 5e {] rb 0.elTai.aTO<i vrn-jpeaiai rj kvl X07&).UaTOS Llttr& * ko. to irpi)yfji. -^ravec. iravTa avTrj SiaTrprfo-aeTat.1 opr\ 8 : KaSoprt M.ev ra> acopiaTi VTrripeTeovaa. irpij^eat iravTOS 2 awpaTOS' aiifr) Be itovTrj? ?. •ndvTa? Kai . to pev yap aa>p.eydXi]v eypvra Bvvapav evpijaei ">\rv)(r) iirl rj 737)09 cnravra. Bidvoia ov 3 brav Be to o~a)p. * BiotKel tov ecovT*}? 10 Kiveopev)} Kai iypi]yopeovaa oIkov. tov o-dopaTos. oBonropirf. rolatv Ylepl twv TeKpijpiwv op6w<. TO /146/J7J TOV 0~<&. ilCi^iplVOVCTa lrdvra 6 : iire^epirovaa ra fficpuxra : 6 M omits.wohi. Kai Ta<i tov o~co pharos irpr)%ia<i dirdaa<.epos eKaarq) oyjrei. yap iypvjyopori p.. i) Be eyp^yopeovaa ywd>aK6i 6 T£ Ta opaTa Kai dvovet to. eyvco/ce. 8 OKoaai 9 tov o~cop.riEPI AIAITH2 H TO TETAPTON riEPI ENYnNION Be LXXXVI. ov yiverac avTrj ecovTrjs. -ndur^i tov ai^aros S. eawTrjs ov ylverat 8: out.a KaOevBov ovk alaOdveTai. aX)C aicofi. ttoWcl pept^op. rcov ev VTTvoicriv oarif p. tov tyavaei. ev9vp. XvTreiTai. 5e aiiTT}s 8 : t) Sidvoia ov yiverat * M. 420 . tj yJrvXV ytveTat. V XV €V rcP vttvm TavTa iU i] Trj'i yu%>7?.aTa M iyprjyopeovaa. diroBlBcoo-L ti 1 p.a jjav^darj.

The words to trp-nyfiara. functions of body and of soul are performed by .) Q . and is never her own mistress. being set in motion and awake. for the disturbed state of the manuscript tradition. 9. hears what is audible. assigning a part of it to each come in sleep will find faculty of the to walking. but But when the mind never enjoys independence. which 9 has after fypriyopeovna. 9. IV. ponders. 7 aKovfi 9 kv\ 6i<6(rat : 8 9 \6yw Mack M dtaxovfi M. For when the body is awake the soul is its servant. feels pain. and For of herself performs all the acts of the body. to touch. " 1 The pervading the body. In a word. 1 take to be a note on rbv kwvrrs oIkov which has crept into the The unusual form iypriyopeovaa may possiblj' account text. iv 6\lyw. acts of the whole body . 1 administers her own household.REGIMEN OR IV DREAMS LXXXVI. : bKiaa. M : iv d\lya> iovaa. the soul. body and to — to hearing. the body when asleep has no perception but the soul when awake has cognizance of all things — sees what is visible." reading of M would mean. He who signs that has learnt aright about the that they have an important influence upon all things. the body is at rest. to sight. : lu iravra' ravTa 9: ruina itavra M. all the touches. 421 VOL. but divides her attention among many things. walks. (fllP.

12 the -ui of tovs and Oeous has been erased. 16 drro8iavoca^ lb 69 Ttjv evfipovijv 2 u OKoaa <ro<pir)s. 6 Some MSS. . In 6 the -law of 8t olenv has been erased.ev ei>x^odac ayaOov 12 Kai avrov avXXapfidvovra tovs 0eov<i XecaOac. The vulgate has e£>x f. . comment. inrep/3oAV twv and so Dicls vvould k.aivci r) iroXeo-t f) ihiwrrjcn Kaica r) ayaOa] pi] 8l avroov dpapTir)v. 8 : 01 ob56rt 6. In 10 II (ij^ao-eai M. Trpoo-mxaiva. (tu. G ovv is omitted by the first hand 816x1 ovv 0M : perhaps rightly.7]o-povr)<i Kevoocrios virepftoXrjv 4 tcoz> avpcpvrwv.t. irapai8 vkovie<i prj ti KaKOV Xd/3r]. So M. 6 has rvyxavowri. 422 . • fyvXa'ao-Oai M. twv I "E%et 8e To.r0 a' itfiirov koX \ir)v ior)v aya86v. 5 So M.? irepl tovtov a>8e' 13 evvnviwv rj dv6pco7rov omits 3 Trpygtas rov r}pepivd<. ovd' 6 ti av eirtrvxaHTiv av apaipTwo-i. read apoo-rnxaivti. . dXXa Oeolaivevx^oOac oW o ti 16 KeXevovo-c teal to p.A. 11 Bel 8e iirifca- LXXXVIII. r) perajBoX^v twv arf&emv. 19 AIAITHS enrio-'rarai oaris ovv icpiveiv 1 TCtvTa 6p06)<i peya pepos eirlvrcnat.\ elal r) ' ot /cpivovai irepl tcov OKoaa Be r) yfri>xh toiovtwv Tex vl l v 3 €X 0VT€<i rov awpaTos Tradtjpara r) Trpocrrjpaivei. Ta 8' ovSerepa. read t) 17 d-Kpt^r) omits y rex v V v .. M has etfyerrflai 8ft /fai iryaOiv. 7 ouSoti oiSoiv 6 . 7rX. . /cpivovo-i pev Kai ravra. LXXXVII. oi S' ovv ov 8c8daKov1^ 9 aivaiS XPV <pv\do-o-eo-6at. ^vXdaaeaOac he.u<K'tcoi Ermerins for Kevuiffios has Kaawn-ios. without authorities or in H. teal ra pev tvjx^ V0V(TI 5 ra 8e a pa pi dv oven.IIEPI BiairptjaaeTCti. 5' Siv Diels. - 4 has before inrepfioXhv. ctoc/ji^?. 'Oicoaa pev ovv twv evvnviwv 2 Qeld ecni fcal Trpocnqp. Kai ovBerepa tovtcov yivco7 > 10 o-Kovac 8c 6 ti 6 yiverai.

the soul during sleep. e 13 14 18 16 In % M appears here the title ypeptvas M : '1-rriroKpa. have interpreters in those who But possess the art of dealing with such things. 2 to be taken to prevent yet they give no instruction how to take to the precautions. avrwv must be KaKa. but only recommend prayers gods. sometimes withBut in neither case do they know out success. emended to airwu or iwurwv. evrppovriP M : (ppovtlu After (v(ppovt)v M has tvuirvia£tTat koTipt\v. LXXXVIII. knows to interpret these acts aright knows a great of wisdom. representing them as 1 " non causes translation. these also the diviners interpret. how IV. or change to unaccustomed things. not to ayadd. the cause. but while calling on the gods a man should himself lend a hand. but it might be better to put a colon or full-stop at ap-dpToiat and a comma at \&fir).REGIMEN. of" surfeit or of depletion. Whoever. and private persons things evil 1 things good." But such a meaning can apply only If the words be kept. otherwise the order of the words is The words within daggers I have omitted from my wrong.ttviw KI\ kcr-rrepivas 6. I have taken irapaivtoines as a slight anacoluthon for irapatveovai. 2 The punctuation of this passage is uncertain. either of their success or of their failure. $. excess. therefore.-Lxxxvni. Lxxxvi. all the physical symptoms foretold by the soul.Tovs ir hv\. Now such dreams as are divine. This is the truth of the matter. 423 . t) Siai'olas 6 : Sidvoia ev M. or foretell to cities or to They recommend precautions harm. sometimes with. So Littre and Ermerins. part LXXXVII. of things natural. Littre translates par la faute des to parties interessees. Prayer indeed is good. Such dreams as repeat in the night a man's actions or thoughts in the day-time.

ovre Tr\t)o. Trofqaaadai /cal toIo~i aiToiai /covcpoio~i irpoadyeiv e'<? rjp. pev ovv T779 Trp/jttos err' cnroTpeTreiv Set elre 7 ov k pivot' to Se aayua deparreveaOai crvpp. this is quite possibly correct. epeTov re 20 o~vp. Diels would read koX t)i> ix\v larxypf). Sloti 10 TrpoaireaovTi.epa<. : ' 9: t) h"^ Ka tw (with ffrjfialvrii) M : rapa\ov 6 rapaxhv M./neTpoicn 7r/)o? ti]V irpocra10 twv ctltwv' Se dadeveaTepov to ywyrjv i)v u inzevavTiov yevrjTai. 6 tjv Se (f>avXi]. fxdxv- 2 wffirep M : uirep 9.ij. which the vulgate places after M.IIEPI AIAITIIS SlScoat rjp. Kara -rpoirov fj yivop. o-up. Scttis 9 iTnyup.eva<i 1 eirpriydt) i/3ov\evdr) dvBpcoira) tt}? axnrep eVt 3 8ifcaia> 2 7rpi]yfj. daOevecnepov.evrji tijv tyv)(r)v. 9 has Ka\ yv jV%i/pS laxvpbv rb <jS>iia. irevTe. orav Se 7rpo? Ta9 /cal rjpepiva? iyyivrjTai Trprj^ia? vTrevavTiwrai to evvirvia irepl avroiv r) p^d-^V V vitcrj* iv to) aoypari' teal rjp pev crrjpalvei Tapayov 5 la^yph J]> io~%vpbv rrepl to /ca/cov.vd^eTai. lax v p6 v sc rbv rapaxov (njixaivzi). real tolcti irepiitdTOicri opdpioiai iroWolat /cal 6%eo~iv etc irpoaaycayrjs xprjcrdai.epa<. : M. fir). ( - M 424 . diroKpials fjv Tt? yevopcevi] eTapa^e pev ovv lo"xypbv rj to ivavTicoOev. has ovre for tire.epivolo~i.povr} /epaT7]delcra ovre /cevcocret ovre d\\w ovSevl e^coOev ar\paivei. d(f>e\cov t6v epcerov to 1 3 yivofievas 8 yev6(ieva 4wi 9 : iv M. fiovXevco' 7rA/>7 a povf}<> yap 8 twos eyyevop. teal toIcti yvpvaaloiaiv. 4 7] fiaxv 1 the text 5 6 % viki) is Diels'. fiovXevpacriv.<pepei. 7 Both 8 and omit 5h.ari. ravra t5> rj dyadd' vyieirjv yap tyv%r) irapafievei rolcnv r)p.

especially when we remember that "ditficilior lectio potior. But when dreams are contrary to the acts of the day. as 0. Littre's reduce food " dans une Sacaiy juste affaire. occurring naturally. when in training. to take in the early — morning long. lxxxviii. a violent feeble struggle meaning a violent mischief.ud£c o0ai 10 11 M. For a disturbance of the soul has been caused by a secretion arising from some surfeit that has ocNow if the contrast be violent. UlTiVaVTLOV unttavTicoOfv 425 . 2 The reading iTTiyvixvd&vdai is the easier. ijtis Diels. 9 oaTis en yvfivd^Tandi iiriyv/. as few Greeks were ever "out of training. meaning. but I do advise treatment of the body. because health. IV.tt6k[>i(Tis yiyovtv ris. just as they were done or 1 act these planned during the day in a normal are good for a man. 8 airovfjicis rls yevo/j-ivrji : o." only " sanity of the act or thought. (titwv : artrtcov '. however. 2 so If the as to match the gradual increase of food. to discard the reading of so good a MS. a disturbance in the body is indicated." It is hard. it is curred. a As to whether struggle a less serious mischief. beneficial to take an emetic. M. M. increasing them graduand to adapt exercises. omit the 1 emetic. the act should be averted or not I do not decide. ally. contrast be milder. They signify the soul abides by the purposes of the day. TjTiS M : anoKptins iyhtT6 tis." hardly bring out the which has no reference to but to the ethics. to increase gradually a light diet for five days.REGIMEN." and Ermerins' "in re iusta. sharp walks. and there occurs about them some struggle or triumph." The word is difficult. and is overpowered neither by surfeit nor by depletion nor by any attack from without.

ev to)v la^vporepcov la^vpoTep^v. 2 * rb M. clot pa 7 rapax 7 5 ']- \{\iov real aeXijvrjv ical ovpavov KaOapa ical evayea.ev ovv r) e£a> 77/009 9 Tr)<i 10 r) r) TT€pio8o<. M. 8 Sok4oi 10 «"{co : : SokoItj M.aTtoiai 1 3 TUV anSiv irpoaaydyov : rov (Tiriov M. utto 8e tcop daOevearepoyv KovcpoTeprjv. el i)v doQeveoiepov' he d^avl^eadai pev vir r)epo<i ical vhaTos 7} i) i) eVicr^evecpeXrjs. " suo motu 1 "Agiles" Littre agitata" Ennerins. : and f)v before nadapa and 6pfi£fj.evi]v rr)v tw e> e^w 10 7repi(f)opi]v eairernaiicevai. : -i(tlv 6 7 &<Trpa bpdifxiva M affTt pas M. dyaOd' vyceir/v yap tu> au>pan an)paivei diro ttuvtcov tmv virap^oi'TOiv %pr) 8ia(f>v\daaeiv ravrrjv rijv e£ip ry el 8e ri tovtcov virevavTiov irapeovcrrj Bialry. 8e crrpxaivei diroKpiaiv ev la-^ypoTepov' ad)pari vyprjv /cal <f>~\. xpiiaBoo M. rpotrov ercaara.i with has Kal rolai BeoZcri tvx^ffBat..eyp. 6 re pev ovv 80/ceoc 8 rwv i) darpcov fiXdineaOai crOai irepioSov. yevono.eva 0. Kara. AIAITHS tcov alrcov. as though tvayta came from uyot.oio-iv ev toIgiv lp. ical 1 a(f)e\€ 3 ical tovto 2 nrpoadyov traKiv eVt irkvff' r)pepas' tt}<? r/ real irepnrdroicn Tne^eiv ' rolai (fycovr/s 30 TTovoiai xpfj<r0cu* ical KaTaaTrjaeTai LXXXIX. rfkiov 8e r) p*kar). 426 . vovcrov Tiva tS> acop. 8e tovto) Tolal tc 8pop. .IIEPI rpirov fiepos rjcrv^r) rolcrt.<pepet.aTi crr)p. M opaio/xeva : has k<x\ toicsi 0eot<riv ei>xe<rOa. ^aXa^ty?'. M. iirloxeoBai M : iirtxeadai ^cro. crvp. aenpeov p. Diels. ae\r)vv)<i 8e t<z tcoZXa.aLvei. diro ical 6 opeopeva dWd p.aT(o8ea yevop. -tart 5 After rapaxv erased.

To stars is see the sun. to disappear. 3 When any one of the heavenly bodies appears to be disfigured. use voice-exercises. or to be arrested in its revolution. wearing clear . the moon in the sphere next the hollow. the malign influence is comparatively weak if through rain also or hail. But adhering to the regimen followed at the time. by which we are surrounded. resuming this by a gentle. a moist and phlegm like secretion. in There is supposed to be a connexion between the spheres which the stars move and the " circuits" or circulations in the body described in Regimen I. and the disturbance will cease. if it be through mist or cloud. Housman. gradual increase spread over five days. and bright. * 427 . has fallen to the outer circuit. arising in the 4 It is benebody. 431. by a third.-lxxxix. heavens and in the proper order. LXXXIX. the illness. lxxxviii.REGIMEN. a contrast a violent illness. it indicates a physical illness. " of the eight concentric spheres. rot /cotAa means the concavity of the inmost sphere. See p. the fixed stars in the eighth and outermost. 8 The moon was supposed to be in the first and lowest 2 . Insist on vigorous walks. ficial for this man to make his runs long. rb virapxov in this book often mean an apparition in a dream. moon. I owe this note to the kindness of Professor A. a slighter contrast a lighter The stars are in the outer sphere. the sun in the fourth. IV. sun in the middle sphere. if there be a contrast between the dream and violent reality. 1 each eius De la part de tout ce qui y est " Littre " omniumque partium" Ermerins. E. the influence is more In any case it is indicated that powerful. as it indicates physical health in all its 2 but this condition must be maintained by signs. good.

that is. roLcn Se e£<w o'itoioi icrrl rb ^pyjadai ^r/polai. omits Kal rolcri- 1 "Non temperes" Littre. 1 bXlyov wpoadyovTa. ftxrauTft)?. 428 . twv tc aiTcov dcpaipeaei 1 zeal tt\ zeal Ty irpoaayoiyy 2 4 ooaavTon'i. 40 a/x. zeal Tolai irepiirdigiSpooarj TOiaiv diro tov yvpcvaaiov TroWotai.(f)epei.vpo)v /cal p. a>9 fidXiara. tc aiTov ttj d<j)aipiaei zeal irpoaaycoyfj Sid tovto Se elaco dvTiairaaTeov. zeal diapiaTirjai. Tpuxolffi omits M M iruptiicrei 8. (riTtiiv 0.0OTt/3&)9 poTepov tovto r\Sr) zeal Svae^aycoyoTepov Set Se zeal Ta9 dvTiaTrdaiai iroielo~6ai.aTO<. Diels. : n6poi<riv 6.aXa/ecbv o~ltu>v' toio~l 6 tc b^eai /ecu Tolai irepnrdTOiai' Tpo")(oiGiv Tolai tov re Try? (poovfjs irovoiai. a/cprjTOitrc. zeal dvd- picrrov Sidyeiv rcov re 2 cltcov e'9 3 d<pe\6fievov 1 to rpiTOV fiepos irpoadyeiv 8e SozeoLr) layypoTepov eivcu tt)v irevB fj/xepas' el zeal irvplr)* ^pr/adai' yap zeddapaiv Sid tov Biori iv rrj ^/jwto? irepufiopf) crvp. Tolai fy]paivovo~i /xdXiaTa.IIEPI 'Xprjadai 20 67rco<i AIArTHS eg iroWoicFiv.era> re 5 xpijaOcu dirb twv Spip-eeov /ecu d\p. : eireiTa efrSpcbaei Littre.(f)epei TTOietaOai. eicro) rrjv zeal Se ti avTicnraaiv TToielaOat avp. /3\a/3o9° 8pifieo~iv. irvp-rj 6 8 M : re 6 added by Diels. Tolai Spo/xoiai Total tc zeapLTTTolai zeal Tolai 8 Tpoyoiai ypfjadai zeal Toiai irepnrdTOiai Toiaiv dXXoiai irovoiai irdai. (Tltcov re M Se 6. SiuTi 777509 t<x /eolXa tov ad>p. to ftXaftepbv el Be 6 77X109 toiovto ti 7 ndayoi. with their properties unmitigated by the addition of other ingredients. aeXrjvrj irdayoi. el irovoiai 30 tovtcov rj av<nr)poicnv. 3 6 7 M: tj. layyi(f>dvrj. €p. rolat.

the same reduction and gradual increase of food. Should the trouble appear to be of the more potent kind. and to administer an emetic after foods that are acrid. and after exercise to take long walks luncheon should be left out. acrid.REGIMEN^ IV lxxxix his cloak the while. 2 it is beneficial to effect the revulsion inwards. The revulsion must be directed inwards because the harm showed itself at the hollow parts of the body. which. Reduce food by one-third. voice-exercises. p. and to assimilate this prescription to the preceding. as the mischief . But if it be the sun that manifests the phenomena. the outer circuit. it is expedient to make the purgation through the skin. does not contain voice- 429 . to employ running on the double track and on the round track. of the signs. and take . . and the influence of iiaavToos to extend 3 2 Or "any one Littre . to increase them gradually." See note 1. exercisea. The foods employed are to be dry. five days in gradually resuming the normal quantity. But if it be the moon that shows these signs at all. There should be sharp circular runs. however. use also the vapour-bath for. on the ground that the revulsion is directed inwards. that he may perspire as freely as possible. It is necessary to effect the revulsions in both directions. After an emetic should come another lies in . . The reading of 6 looks like an attempt to extend this influence back to the beginning of the sentence. The articles I take to be generic.TOKTi. salt and soft. the malady is more potent. 417. walks and all other exercises. and harder to eliminate. omits rolai re rp6xoi<n Kepnra. backwards only as far as rod re (rtrov. the same reduction and gradual increase of food. omission of luncheon. 3 walks. astringent and unmixed 2 the exercises such as are the most drying.

drroKpiaiv at]ovv Kparolrj to brrdpyovra. omits Ofp/xwv. .aXaKevveirW dXlvB^ais' 8 rS)v paOvpLe'noi irXy-jV etc 70 diro BeiiTvov Trepnrareira)' 1 2 Kara dyadbv <f>vaiv ttovoov' Be Kal irvpir}- Kal has 0Ai8i. Kivhvvos /xavr/vat top avOpwrrov. purjBt iroXXolai VTTVoiai p. Ermerins.ev eXXeftopw KaOapOevra^ BiairfjaBaf el Be (irf.r) XevKuv. Kal virvolai. klvBvvos e? Odvarov e.dXiara p. avpupepei Be rovrotai irciai p. oirov rfj 7T/JO? vBaros Biairrj avp. Xerrrov. Kal daOevea BoKel Kal t^? Kpareladai.(f>epei ^pi)a0ai. 430 . i]V p. nrXeiarotat XpyaOco Kal Bpopioiaiv iv Ifxaricp TrXeiaroiaf rpl^ri<i 81 p. [i^ 7 M 0: 8e fXTi M: 8' oZv Littre. %>jpavTiKara <pvaiv rolat. omitted by 0M. d. Be BicoKeiv. p. cpevyeiv Be Ta^ew?. p-e^pi el Be 7rvpoei8e<> ro v7revavrtovp.aXaxov. p. %pt] klvBwov twv ttovcov ^tjpaalt]^ Trjs irepLoBov e? vovaov ep. oruxaivti M omits.r/ depa60 rrevdrj. el p.Kwv. .>) TTiveiv. Tr) re Biairy rfj vypordrrj* ^prjadai. aelv* aXXa 50 arjpiaivet. yoXi)<./3eTai. First added by Zwinger.o)v. puaiver el fiev vovaov arjpaii'et' 5 el Be Kal cMpavi&iro ra Kparevjxeva.K r9)<$ vovaov Be rpecj^dfjvai Sokoli] e? <pvyr]v rb el iXOeiv. tt/i) vyporepi]i /xaAaK'H 6i 5 «««/ oil (without Kparolr) ra . dXpivpojv' TTovoiai Be BpipLecov.TIEPI e^epueaavra elvai el Be aldpir)^ 2 AIAITHS Trpbs t<z9 avris vtto irpoadyeiv 1 irevre- iovaijs 0X{. rolai re Xovrpdlai Kal paOvpbiij irXeiovi. but has dtp^avTiKwv after fyipavTi.ire- dcpaipetv.i]8e ttuXij. M. brrdpyov. and Ermerins reads ovv for 8 ov. 6 Be p.evov Karaarrj. Sokolt] elvat Kal Qeppubv. : 3 1 iinttaiiv 6 neaelv M.tcw and Soktji. 7 vBapea' uTre^eadat Be 0epp. rov<. ku)v.r) eorco.

transpose translate: ko.REGIMEN. a clear sky the heavenly hodies are crushed. a disease is indicated. In all these cases it is most beneficial to be purged with hellebore before submitting to regimen. What is necessary is to reduce food." 2 Would the word "Thing" (capital T) represent by rb tnri. The next best course is to adopt a watery regimen. But if in gradual increase spread over five days. acrid. rest except after 3 the natural exercises let there be a walk after dinner. Let there be plenty and long runs with the cloak Let there be no massage. There should be abstinence from things that are put to stars. a secretion of bile is indicated. drying and of natural exercises . IV. also annihilated. until there is a recovery. is by the there salt. soft and diluted. no ordinary worn. Now if the force 2 If the vanquished be win. a good thing too 1 to take a vapour. thin. seeming to be weak and overpowered by the dryness of the 1 revolution. lxxxix. flight. to employ the moistest regimen. unless he be treated. and no wrestling on dust. it indicates a danger of falling into a disease. But if the force 2 seem to be and to flee quickly. wrestling.px " ? mysterious influence suggested » Or (with Ik omitted) " from. the etc. It is hot. hostile influence appear to be fiery and hot.1 After the cri)fiaivei. there is a danger that the disease will have a fatal issue. pursued a danger that the patient will become delirious. we must to before " and they are overpowered. and it indicates.bath. If with Ermerins we read Kparelrat. and to abstain from wine unless it be white. baths and increased If the rest. and sleep. Long sleeps on a soft bed. 43 1 ." 8 Ik is omitted by M.

vi}<.vSpbv Kal 77/009 90 ecnreprjv T7)V yfjv to. rj/mepa^ Svo SO Kal KaTctcrT)']G€Tai' el 6 11 S' av e? vovcrov irnneiv.cf)epei yjrvyrjv Tpcnreadai 7r/?09 Ta<? <yeXoia$.IIEPI A1A1THS aOav Kal Tj/xepecov Trvpifjv Tptr/Kovra St qkotclv Se TrXripcoOfj. but that is no reason for rejecting the reading in a work in which a strict adherence to 43 2 . 6 Ti S' av tovtcov p. ravra crry/xaiWt p. rpt? iv rq> p.ev icaOapa Kal Xapurpd Kal 7rpo9 vei' kco (fieperai. puiXiara /xev Se Se firj. pbrj. r) €9 ddXaaaav ?} e'9 dvco. voarjp. e'9 1 Sokt) 5 rj (fiepeadai. M reads '6n yap. M omits Saaoj nvas.€pip.eXav Kal dp. epuelv e/c t?}? firj TrXripcoOfj' aXXois aXXw.' yjrv^f]<. e? ti)v adpKa T7]V KoiXirjv diTOKpivopeva 6 xt S' av ev ra> crcopLaTi ' eKKpii'rjrai ck t//9 4 ^<w. vyel>]v cn}p. irepioSov direpevyop-eva irdvja iic t?}? irepioSov eKirtTrret. of Ta9 vovaovi' pevpbara' 6a a Se OdXaa-aav..r)vl ifiecrdTco dirb rcov jXvKecov Kal vSaoKocra Se rovroov irXavdrai peoav Kal KOV(pcov. 2 crvp. oicbaa p. i) rpeis. el aXXa? rivd? Se e'/c a<? 3 o Tt /jLciXicrTa rjadtjaeTai OeTjcrdfievos. kolXl7]<. oaa Se e'9 yfjv. perhaps rightly. 2 3 4 6 M has rpanrivai Kal for TpairiaOai. kcvSwos t?}? 7reptcf)opfi<. tbv and 6 omits and M has /xaWov after &vw. rdpa^iv tiva arjpiaLvei vtto tovtw padvp/qaaV ti)v Trpos Oecoplas.ara' 8. eKiriiTTeiv SoKtj tcov aarpcov. irpoarii. 1 p. /«/ into For the &Wots &\\u>s with riva after M has &\\o Te aWrji avdyK7)s.ev ava> <pepop. 7\ \pvxys- 1 I take &\Aois aWws to be an adverbial phrase independent syntactically of the rest of the sentence.ai- KaOapov evebv Kara <pvatv a<£' Kai 7^P T<* ei? 6p6S)<i ex €t eairepas Trpb<i Kal to.eva Ke<paXr]<. I can discover no exact parallel for this.

a heavenly body seems to be dark and dull. Until thirty vapour-bath an emetic is to be drunk. or into the sea. and when the time has come for this full satisfaction. should it be pure and bright. . and to move towards the west. and the motion towards the east. lxxxix." Professor D. indicates Whenever the heavenly bodies wander some in one way and others in another.REGIMEN. Whenever a wise there is a risk of falling ill. into the belly and substances disgorged into the But whenever flesh all fall away from the circuit. if not. S. heavenly body appears to fall away from its orbit. it means fluxes of the head when into the sea. &\\ore &\\ws. anxiety. it is a sign of health. often abnormal. For whenever a pure substance in the body is secreted from the circuit in the natural motion from west In fact secretions to east. and recovery will take place." Perhaps mean. about. if possible. Perhaps we should read. soul should be turned to the contemplation of comic things. for two Othei*or three days. " in the way the particular &\Kois may refer to the dreamers dreamer may happen to see them. watery and light foods. disease is indicated. : 433 . 1 it a disturbance of the soul arising from The Rest is beneficial in such a case. " now in one direction and now in another. or into When the earth. IV. let an emetic be taken three times a month after a meal of sweet. days are gone the appetite should not be fully satisfied. diseases of the bowels when . the motion is upwards. Robertson assures me that the last interpretation is the only one But the Greek of lleyimen is consistent with aWois &\\ws. M's reading would with the same sense. syntax is not always followed. it is right and proper. to such other things as will bring most pleasure when looked at. or upwards.

tovtov evavTiov Boktj opi)v.fidveiv KaOapov Kadapov. or omit irpo<rax8rirai (understanding xpv ^ ai )troi is not in M . 6 ti B dv es to o~wp. dyadbv irpbs vyeurjv' &7]fiaiv€i yap to. nominatives. avpxfiepei 07Tft)<? tovtw Tpo-^oiaiv 6%eai ro? Xprjo-dai. 2 Either read have datives rj) Both 8 and kov<j>t). however. avvTrj£i<. 6.r) Kadapov firjBe Biacpaves. piev yevrjTai. irvevpaTi Be oj? eXa^iaTT] tov irvKvoTUTU) dixo Be to>v ypi]o~dpLei'o<i eKKpivrj to irapeXOov' r) UOTpo^cov /cal irepnrdTOicriv o^eaiv.IIEPI cfiv/jLara AIAITHS ra ev rfj pbdXicna arjpiaivei crap/cl TovTOiat crvpityepei to TpiTov fxepos (pvopieva. however.<t pLOvrjV outs Bia Kevwaiv.a eatovTa elvai Kadapd. vovaov arjpiaLvei.a\a/cl] Kovfyri 8' Trpo<jayBii)Tw Bo/cj) e\ i)p. ovTe Kadapov (rr/piatvet. ovk dyaOoV voai]pov 3 eaeXijXvdevar o~a>p. evBlrj. . o ti dv Trapd Oeov Xap. Be dXX e^codev e7ray(oyr}.epa<> tov is nrevre. 1 to avro.a aripiaivei e? to yap ti ical %pi] ovv oio-irep tov irpoiepov Oepanevdrjvai el Be BoicoLri veadai vBaTi piaXOafcrp ev tovtov. o~d>piaTO<. Sioti i/c Bid 7tA. ev dXXrjo-i Be irevre KopilaaaOai to real e'/zeera? ctitlov' irdXiv TrpocrwyecrOco kclto.?.epa<i Teaaapas. <tltov d^eXecrdai. which has. 100 e<pe^ecrdai 6 ti S' dv twv ovpavicov Bo^y aoi piev real vypbv ebv vyiaiveiv tov aWepos to e? tov avOpcoirov Kadapov eo~Ti. Be irpoadyetv r)p. 2 Biana p. ep. npoaaxOriru could take a dative. ff Possibly. 1 /cal fir) acpoBpa f3pe"xeo-dai . pirjBe 8eivco<. 434 . 8ie<f>i£eff8ai. toiovtov Be real r) yfrv^V OPV olbv irep iayXdev' 6 tl 6" dv pieXav r) koX p.eaai>Ta<.

meaning or not. Whatsoever a man seems to receive pure from a pure god is good for health for it indicates that the matter is pure that enters the body. But whatever he seems to see that is the opposite thereof is not good for it indicates that something diseased has entered the body. 435 . because what descends from the ether on to the person is pure. and that by breathing as rapidly as possible the patient may secrete the foreign body. Should it seem to rain with a gentle shower from a clear sky. After these runs let there be sharp walks. Diet to be soft and light 2 for four days. and the soul too sees it in its true character as it entered the body. Whenever a heavenly body seems to settle on you. lxxxix. But should the heavenly body be dark. 1 2 That is. the normal resumed in another five. into the earth. with neither a violent diet being . that there mav be as little melting of the body as possible. IV. flesh. Another emetic should be followed by the same gradual increase. 8 v6<rov yap M. it indicates disease caused neither by surfeit nor by depletion. impure and not transparent.REGIMEN. Accordingly the treatment in this case should be the same ns the former. it indicates health. most usually tumours growing in the In such cases it is beneficial to reduce food by one-third and to take an emetic. if it be pure x and moist. sharp runs on the round track." Perhaps we should add "gradually increased" (irpocraxIt is often uncertain whether irpovdyw carries this 0t)to>). but by the entrance of something from It is beneficial in this case to take without. . to be followed by a gradual increase of food for five days. "clear.

rravreXa><.8e rolat evavrioiai rolai diro133 rpoiraloiai. /cat 8ev8pea 0a\eovra icai iro\virorapovs peovras Kara pLijre rpoirov v8arc ica6apG> irXeovc pLrjre iXdaaovc rov irpocn')KOi>ro<i. ical to aco/na /card rpoirov trdcra^ re t<z? irepi68ov<> /cal ra? irpocraywyds /cal rovrwv virevavnov el 8e t<z? diroKplaei. ravra rrdvra cnqpaivei 10 vyei'qv ru> dvOpdiirm. iirl Tlpocrr)p. Aa 130 ovpaviw. /cal rrjv ical rd yrjv oprjv \elrjv KaXays icapira /cal /cal tfpepa. "bowdlerized" by some Christian enthusiast. who has 2 M 436 . tw o~d>p. /3Xa/3o? arjpaivei ri ev pbev /cal a/cor}? /3\airrop. All Krrjala). criroiai 8e okiyoicrt. eVi. 68oiiropelv daifiaXa)*. M has 1 re 9 has been have followed in this passage. iirl fiev rolai ayaOolai HXi&).ari' cn/ao? irepl rrjv /ce<pa\t]v vovcrov 1 crr)p.r) icadapG). 'AOrjva /crrjcriT]. 'AiroWayvt.a'ivei(titIoktI rolcriv b\'iyoicri ovv bpdploiai irepitrdroiai iravras tovtovs. n 6pa>ro. /cat rovrcov rdvavria.aivei 8e /ecu rd8e e? vyelrjv /cal /cal rwv 4 yfjs b%v opfjv /cal re dcr<pa\w<i o£u rpe^eiv ical 3 dieoveiv. yeipthva vovcrov aripLCLivei diro rov Trvevparos rov eira/crov- aWa %pr) /cal rovrov waavrws 8iairi)0r}vai. ical Tfj ical rjpwaiv.^ elvai. AIAITHS yap avfi/xerpov /cal dyadbv arjpalvei icadapbv to TTvevp.€voov. %o\t)v p. 'Eppij. rovrov} irepl /xev ovv ra>v ovpavicov aiipe'iwv ovrio yivoocr/covra XPV rrpopn^OelaOai /ecu e/c8iacrrjcrdai real roiai deolcnv evyeadai. acpoBpa vecrOai el 8e re v8ari /cal elvai. (j)6/3ov. /cal 5 ra<i tcprfvas /cal rd (f)peara waavrca. rayy drep elpyao~p. ra XC.a e/c rov rjepos eXrfkvdevai.IIEPI 120 ^ei/xd^etv. dirorporcaia 2 ^aXeird elvat irdvra.ivr)v.

it indicates some hearing be impaired. with change of in the case of regimen and prayers to the gods in just . to the Averters of evil. (rj\i<p 8 o£u omitted by M. with water that is pure. that dangers may be XC. quickly and the earth level and well tilled. In it indicates disease in the region of the head. Hermes and to Apollo. diet and secretions are But if anything be seen that proper and normal. precautions must be taken. 6 * i<al omitted by M. to Heroes. Protectress of Home. good to signs. and diet must be very strictly limited. is terrible storm.-xc. lxxxix. and that the body with all its circuits. If sight or harm erased the -aiv of Oeolatv. To to walk surely. In this case also the same regimen must be employed. earth. which has re after ras. storm and tempest. to see is the reverse of these things. to Athena. violent rain. to run surely. rivers flowing naturally. measure and pure. it indicates that the breath has a good sign . following too are signs that foretell see and hear clearly the things on the all signs. . . and also about a line and a quarter 'AirdWaivt) to avoid the heathen deities. without fear. . 437 . to Zeus. trees that are luxuriant. raxv omitted by M. and the water be foul. downpour nor a it IV.REGIMEN. it indicates disease from the breath that comes from without. these indicate health for the dreamer. and springs and wells that are similar. So with this knowledge about the heavenly bodies. to the Sun. Protector of Home. in the case of adverse Earth and to the averted. and neither higher nor lower than it should All be. addition to the preceding regimen the dreamer in the body. for air come from the If the reverse occur. to Heavenly Zeus. The health. covered with fruit and cultivated.

1 2 3 4 omits toV cKfAeajc SiaiVj. kXacr- rd Be yfrvx^^ tc hcm aov Be peovre<. .aiver rolcriv ovv dirb rcov yvpuvaalcov rrepnrdroitTi TrXeloai 3 XprjaTe'iv. .ev Be peovres fir} Kadapto* crrjp. p. 7T/309 rfj /cal rfj nrdXr) 1 rrXelovi Be irporeprj Biairy. yivop. rb Be pieicoaai.evcov. rpoirov /zj. epberoicriv drrb Belrrvov TrXeloai xpr/crreov 7T/oo? rfj rcov a/ceXecov Be f3Xa7rrop. Sf rax*"* " T 'J' ^ e rpa\iiT) M.. Kadapui M.- /cal KOinpniai r) /cal p. vtto rcov vypcov /cal rj yjru^pcov ftXdirrerar r)v Be re9i)Xrj fxev.evob aipuiros TrepioBov 30 ar/p.alvovcn. aT 0V &' XP VOVTfTfOV B irtf/xaivei 9. vrrb rcov Oepy. crai rr/v voaeovrv Be vyeli^v /cal puera/clv>]<Jiv rov 8 vyiaivovrt pberacrrr)rep puev ovv Biatrav o~vp. rapa~)(/i v Bel Be rfj Biairrj rb p. ol/cl>] vyiaivovn da9eveii]v VTrdp)/ovro<i.cpepei' ep-ecrdrco Be rrpcorov. r * M.IIEPI /cal rolcriv AIAITHS Trporeprj Biairrj. T7) l 43* .ev peovres VTrepftoXijv. d/capTra Be fj. BevBpwv d/capirla a ire pp.ev>] koiXliis etc/ca9aipeiv.alvovaiteal 6 Kadalperai Be vtto rcov irvevpuari ttvkvco rrjv ical rp6%(ov Kvcrrcvri rcov 7 Treptrrdrcov Bia/civeopeva.cov ical %r/pcov rd fxev ovv deppLdiveiv /cal ^rjpaiveiv rolcn Biairijfiaat. vovaov ai]fialvei. Kara. eXXei^iv 5 av^rjaai. yi) Xprjareov 20 rpayelr) 2 ov icaBaprjv rr-jv crdp/ca arjp. 6 . XPV> irorapiol Be vypalveiv.aivei.' dXXa ^PV rolac 8ia)£coprfri/colo-i arjpbalvet.aro<i rov dv9 pcorrivov Xoppoovvra Biatpflopijv Bi/Xol.ev yP] 40 /civevpuevi] <jr)p. avnarracrreov. /cprjvac (ppeara ire pi dXXa %prj rolaiv ovpr/n/colaiv QdXaaaa Be rapacraop.ev ovv <fivXrd BevBpa. rrXeov p.aXa/colaiv e/ctcaOalpetv.i)v p.

dry influences. rivers are abnormal they indicate a circulation of the blood high water excess of blood. 439 . which stir them up by accelerated respiration. and a change from disease to health when he is sick. has tt. IV. Springs and cisterns indicate some trouble of the bladder it . Let him first take an emetic. xc. Impure streams indicate disturbance of the bowels. K))fjva. by hot.REGIMEN. the harm is caused by moist. the revulsion should be made with emetics. Trembling of the earth or of a house indicates illness when the dreamer is in health. A troubled sea indicates disease of the belly it should be . soft aperients. that he may resume nourish6 7 ^laKivovfxfva 9 : M avaicu ev/xeva 5e M. So it is beneficial to change the regimen of a healthy dreamer. thoroughly purged by light. The impurities are removed by running on the round track and by walks. . and moistening. For the earth to be rough indicates that the flesh is impure. Fruitless trees signify corruption of the human seed. So the walks after exercises must be made longer. If* it be the legs that are injured. men should be thoroughly purged by diuretics.i KaX (ppfara trvivfjara Trepl t))p Kvarw tI minoli 8 olv M : vvv tJ. Now if the trees are shedding their leaves. low water defect of blood. should take longer walks in the early morning and after dinner. Regi. In the former case regimen must be directed towards warming and drying in the latter towards cooling . and in addition to the preceding regimen there should be more wrestling. cold influences if leaves abound without any fruit. When should be made to increase the latter and lessen the former.

el paOvpLeiro). 2 aiap'orriffei M : trjifftv avapunrncri 6.a Kal. dXXd klvBvvos la^vpov voai)ixaro<i dvrnvyelv /cal Oavaatpiov %r)paabi)<. iveovcrrjs dXXa teal avapiariijcri 3 ^prj rolaiv ipLeioiai /cal Trjcriv rolai ttovokxl teal loiai Bianr\- fiaai £i]poL(TC' eirena oXtyoicriv. 440 . vypaaii)<s iroXXr)<. "O tl 6' dv Ti? irepl avTOU opfj /card rpoirov 1 xpv erai T7)t i<al 8.evr]v oprjv 50 iv t«w (TWjtiflTr 2 daOeveovrt yrjv drro vBaTOS rj OaXdaarj^ vovaov atiiiaivei. Kal instead of airoicri. rotat re ttovoicl irXcLocn.rfj vTrepfioXijv yap rovrto Be /cat oe fjijpaiveiv Biairy. ttotcc Be irXeovi vBapelXeu/ca).i/cpov airb 1 Trdv to cr&>/ua. 3 4 8 bhiyoiffiv is ical After After kcu M M has -nam roiai fxaXaKtnoi omitted by has 8fp/j. tyv^os Tf} /cal i) /cat rfXiov (xeaOw evyeaOai Be Be Ko\v[ij3f)v Botcei.<pepet 9 atj/xaivei. 8 'Kp/.if) ical (pvXaarjpwcnvJ 7] iv XipLvrj iv daXdacrrj ev TroTdfiolai vypao~ir)<i ovk dyadov avp. tou re crirov oaa tc %r]pd 4 Bpip. d.aXaK€VP€lto).' TTvpecraovn Be dyatfov afiivvvrai yap to deppbv 69 vtto tmv vypcov. p. /tat 5 anoicn 60 KoiKpoicnv oXiyoicn.ievi]V dyadov. /cara/cXv%op. - Be avp<pepei ^pijaOai rfj avrfj Biairy fiediaTarai. dcfieXeiv.ea /cal ovpr)Ti/cd' Biairyadai re tt}? re /ca6e(f)d(p TT-Tiadvr}<$ tQ> ^vXw. Trpocrdyeiv e£ oXlycov /cal ovBe fieXaivav oprjv rrjv yr)v ovBe KaTa/c6/cav/. VTrapxovcrr)? Kwelrat. yap iiBr) to aco/xa e/e rod rrapeovros. 6 Xovrpolcn TroWolar /x?. ciaiTOs XoveaOo}.IIEPI AIAITHL yap ra> t?]S iva irpoarBe^rjTai avTis /card p. XCI. yap /cat inrepfioXrjV cn)pLaivei iv rf} crap/ci' dXXa xpi) Toy? re ttovow.

for the body is already changing from its present To see the earth flooded by water or condition. case also benefit comes from a drying regimen and increased exercises. What is necessary is to take emetics. A sick dreamer benefits by continuing the same regimen. Hermes and the If the dreamer thinks that he is diving Heroes. sea signifies a disease. taken on an empty stomach. Regimen should consist of barley-water well boiled. to avoid luncheon. and numerous baths. but there is a danger of catching a violent. . it is not a good In this sign. for the heat is being suppressed by the moisture. What is necessary is to give up exercises and such food as is dry and acrid and diuretic. to exercise and to adopt a dry diet. Pray to Earth. XCI. Then there should be a gradual increase of food. light and scanty meals. or even a fatal disease. for it indicates excess of moisture. After Tro\\o7(rt The " Christian " corrector of . ment again little by little. It is not good either to see the earth black or scorched. for it indicates excess of dryness in the flesh. r)poo<riv. or in a river. in the sea. Soicotr) 9 has roiai re ir6voiai XPV°9<*'' * omits rt. little by little. M 6 has struck out the words rj. xc. in a lake. and little to begin with. But for a fever patient these dreams are a good sign.-xci.REGIMEN. The sight of something connected with the 6 7 . copious white wine well No bath should be diluted. has depuoTai. as there is much moisture in the body. IV. 441 . the bed should be soft and rest abundant. for it is the present nourishment that is troubling all the body. Chill and the sun should be avoided. : 8 a M SoKeeiv M.

Ermerins. Kpiaw 1 aiTtcov davvijOcov arjpalvei 7rXr)apovr]V ical diroteal ^oXepav ical vovaov KLv8vvd>8ea' dXXd eVSeSuo-flai Littre. tcl ^pi) 8e 10 ical iiriKivhwcorepa^ dXXd ical rd icaiva paXdcraeiv ical vypaiveiv. i/c rj prj tcadapovs ov/c fj Xapfidvovrds iiriTTjSecov 69 ri rj (frepovTas t?}? oIkltjs. dyadov. O/coaa 8e dXXopopcpa ical acopara $>ai- verat ev rotcriv vttvoicti (po/Sel top dvOpwnov.IIEPI AIAITHS /xrjre yivopevov. -rrpoadyeiv epeaavra. raiv peXewv 2 rj eXaaaov. XCII.ova<.t(v followed by to Se. ical ttj Tpo<pfj rfj paXaxfj re ical icoixprj vovaov rd yap eaiovra 13 XCIII. Trj ov/c dyaOov dXXd to pev %p7] avtjeiv Stairy. /cal teal twv acopdrcov rwv diroOavovTwv al yap o-ireppara yiverar ravra 8k fcaOapd eaep-neiv e\ to awpa vyeirjv o-r/paivei. : Xpi] eperov iroirjo aadai ical irpoadyeiv e? fjpepas -rriv 2 3 M 6 1 It ne(ov is tempting to think that Ermerins is right in reading and iKaooov. The sentence thus becomes far more 442 . 7TyOO? Tr/i/ (fivcriv rr]V ecovrov ptjre pe^w eXaaaco. el 8e TovvavTtov Tt? opwrj yvpvovs rj peXavoelp. peraXXayyjv crrj/naivei. arjftaivei yap 10 to crcopa fBXaftepd' dXXd %pr) rolcri rpbyoiai /cal Tolai TrepnrdToiaiv d-noicaQaLpeoOai. Tou? 8k dtroQavovra^ 6pr)v /caOapovs ev ipanoicn XevKOiaiv dyadov. vitdpxovoav 0M has to /. ical Xapj3dveLV ri trap peXava voaepcorepa avTcov KaOapov vyelrjv arjpalvei /cal Twv ecriovTcov d-no Tpocpal fcal av%r)cri€<. to 8e peiovv. has re before Kai and reads emKlvSwa. dyaOov Trpos vyeiijv &r)fmbvei' ical x ical inroSeacv eadrjTa XevKrjv ttjv inrdp^ovaav 6 ri 8' dv fj pel^ov rr)v icaXXicrTrjv.

Monstrous bodies that are seen in sleep and frighten a man indicate a surfeit of unaccustomed food. growth and clothed in black. 1 is a good sign for the health. and after an increase a soft and light diet. is also a good sign. followed idiomatic. But anything too large or too small for the limbs is not What is necessary is in the latter case to good. a bilious Mux and a dangerous disease. What is necessary is an emetic. emetic gradually to XCII I. or bringing something out of the house. on the contrary. pure 443 . the things What is necessary entering the body being harmful. and to receive something clean from them indicates both health of body and the healthiness of the things that enter it. person that is normal.-xcm. For from the dead . XCII. To be wearing white clothes. a secretion. is to purge them away by runs on the round track and by walks." " " Neat" or " seems to be the meaning in the first case. But if. or to enter the come nourishment. and to render it consistently by one English word is impossible. what New seed. one should see them naked. and for these 2 body clean indicates health. in the former to diminish. Littre uses "pur" in both these cases. xci. IV. the sign is unfavourable." 2 The word icadapus is difficult. though the sense is not materially altered: "neither too large nor too small for the physique. tidy " " in the other. and the most beautiful shoes.REGIMEN. disease moisten. or taking something. Ermerins has "nitidus" and " purus. To see the dead clean 2 and in white cloaks is a good sign. increase by regimen. and for which the physique is neither too large nor too small. as it indicates disease. or not clean. Black objects indicate a worse and more dangerous is necessary is to soften and to objects indicate a change.

^ atrlwv 9 has tvSeiav ffrnxaivet ^/v\7s Kal rptxpris a. ^prjadai.IIEPI AIAITHS p. oaa Be eiriaraaiv Trefyofiripevos.r) irewe aiToiaiv Bpipecrt.a. tt\t)v dirb Beiirvov irepLTrdruiv y^pijaOai Be Kal 0eppio\ov(TLr) Kal (frvXacraecrdeo.aivei fcpia Be rd 1 p. twv 10 Kal roiv irovwv rolai Kara (pvaiv paXiara.y]8e TOicri ^ijpolcrt fiijre roiai Beppolai. 444 .e\iri ireiroir]cnjpaLver] Goaavrcos arjp.alvovaiv. vBcop TTii>6p. virepfidXr^.i*yi(nr)s virfp&o\ris lie reads eVSet'as virep^o\i]v before <rvfx<pepei and eVSei'ar before vtrep8o\^v. : 2 3 M aniwv % tro^i. For he adds ou f.evoi 20 KaOapov /3\dTTTei. rov a (paro<. avvBeiTao U7r' ?) vTTevavTii}v rfj oaa a>]palvei TrepioBw yeyovevai iv ru> awpari' epelv avpifyepei Kal layyaiveiv Kal TrepLTrarelv olroiai KOiKpouri.dyeTai ifrvfijai rj vyprjvai to awp. fj.ev twv enrccov avptpepei' t/30</>?}<> yap v7rep/3o\i)v 4 Kal dproi rvpS> Kal p. (pevyei rd Be aX\a irdvra fiXdiner oKoaa Be BoKel dvOpcoiro^ Oeoopetv rcov ^v^i)? iTridup.it]v arjpaivei.Bujxir\v. peylcrTi} . Kal Kevjeirai r ai]paiv€L virb ^ypaatrj^- aupcpepei Be Be p. rd Be daOevearepa r)aaov wcnTep yap eaOiopevov dyadov.?]T€ &)9 Kovfyordroiai. 4 Littre would rewrite the passage between daggers. Littre and Ertnerins read i/^xts ltn8vfxif\v. ovtco Kal opeop.evov dcpacpelv ovv evBeiav ar)p. diroKpiatv bn6rav ttotOiv' : %v M. paOvpiycriv r']\iov Be /ecu v/rO^o? OKorav 1 Be ev to> vttvw eadleiv o~vv>]0(dp Bokt) rj TTiveiv rcov troTwv 2 r) ctltlcov. .TOiv M. Kal irpoadyeiv ck rov 1 dWov. iroWotai p. ov avvrjdoov.evov p. 3 rpo^q Kal ifrv%1}$ ddvplrjv^ la^vpoTara.

cool and moisten the body. so eating in a dream is a good sign. for an excess of nourishment is indicated. although they yield a possible I cannot solve the sense. Fighting. to reduce walk. with such exercises as are most natural. neither dry nor hot. difficulties satisfactorily. prepared with cheese and honey.REGIMEN. IV. to eat light foods. excepting walks after dinner. But the bold emendations of Littre. . . but a great many are removed by tioaov to after bpe6^vov transposing the sentence Kpia " To eat in then get the following sequence of ideas. to take an emetic. f l The meaning is the same when bread is eaten. which a translation of 6. Whenever a man thinks that he beholds familiar Whenever objects. The dreamer should take hot baths and rest. are most unlikely to be correct. and after the It is easy to see that the passage within daggers." is . it indicates that the blood is It is in this case beneficial to arrested by dryness. for five days. a less excess. For just as eating is So it is good. To drink clean water in dreams is no sign of harm. beneficial to reduce the quantity of food. Whenever in his sleep a man thinks he is eating or drinking his usual food or drink. he runs away in fear. dreams one's usual food is a good sign but to dream one is eating strong meat indicates excess. neither abundant nor acrid. by a gradual increase. of the lightest food possible. it indicates a want of nourishment and depression of the soul. It is beneficial to the 1 flesh. circuit. or to be pierced or bound by another. and avoid the sun and cold. cannot represent the original. We . it indicates a desire of the soul. but it is to drink any other kind. 445 . and diet should be reduced. xcm. f Meats if they be very strong show a very great excess if they be weaker. indicates that there has occurred in the body a secretion opposed to the .

41 rolcn deoiaiv. ttotci- fxwv 8iaj3daie<.epa<i AIAITHS 1 recraapa. koX Trovoiai rolat tcara (f)vaiv iroXXotcn ttXijv aTrh rov Seiirvov. irpoadyeiv rjav^rj e? fj/xepas irevre. 0M omit.1 here. vyiavel rov ftlov.Lrjv. kclI evprjrai 40 hiaira a>9 co? p:oi Svvarov eupetv avdpcoirov ibvra avv vivre. zeal irXdvoi 2 ical ^aXeiral ravra arj/xawovtriv.*. ifkiov -v/rtn^o?.. Before koX Q has km anoiai. r}/u.evas 2 3 Littre I insert ko.(pepei dXXop.IIEPI 30 ifierov Trpbs dva/3d<rie<. teal oirXiTai iroXe/Jnoi /cat repara avp.opcpa vovcrov crrj^aivet rj /xavLrjv. 1 M has es With ri/j. tovtouti ^pcofievo'i (pvXdaaeaOai. 446 .. airoiaiv oXiyoiai Kov<poicri puiXaicolcri ^prjadat 3 tcai ip-eroiai. Oep/xoXovairjv. f>q9vp. yiypcLTnai.

Wanderings and difficult ascents have the same meaning. but hot baths. beneficial to take small meals of light. cold and sun are to be avoided. with plenty of natural exercise except after dinner. and gently to increase food for five days. rest. IV. soft food.REGIMEN. enemy men-at-arms and It is strange monsters indicate disease or raving. as for far as it is possible mere man to discover it. 447 . and emetics. Using these means in the way I have described a man will live a healthy life in fact I have discovered : regimen. emetic to increase food gradually for four days. Crossing rivers. xcm. with the gods' help.

.

JONES . H.HERACLEITUS ON THE UNIVERSE WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY W. S.

.

INTRODUCTION
Greek philosophy began in wonder at the repeated miracle of motion and change, and first manifested itself in an effort to discover the material (<£uo-is) out of which the universe is made, phenomena being regarded as the transient modifications of this
permanent
in that
it

reality.

It differed

from earlier thought
;

discarded the myth, or fairy story, as an it explanation, and substituted rational causation differed from later science in that it proceeded from

an unproved postulate, 1 upon which it built deduc2 tively, attaching little importance to observation of phenomena, and still less to experiment. In considering the history of early philosophy we must remember that the age of mythology did not pass away suddenly and completely. Mythological figures, indeed, disappear, but the artistic spirit of the romancer, which demands a complete picture,

Greek philosopher to indulge his imagination supplying details for which he had no warrant from experience and observation. 3 Another fact to be borne in mind is that the conception of imled the
in
1 2

Called later on inr60e<ris. Deductive science preceded inductive, probably because

of the influence of mathematics, the first science to reach a high state of development.
3

Heracleitua seems freer from this fault than

many

other

early philosophers.

45'

INTRODUCTION
material existence was as yet unformed
;

soul

and

mind were looked upon as matter. too, of logic and grammar were still
consequently

The

sciences,

men were

often

to be born, and deceived by false

analogies and verbal fallacies. The first impulse to philosophic thought came, not 1 unnaturally, from a contemplation of the earth and

Thales cosmologies succeeded cosmogonies. sky of Miletus (floruit 585 B.C.) looked upon the world
;

water modifying itself; Anaximander 2 (560 B.C.) "the Boundless" modifying itself in two opposite directions Anaximenes 3 (546 B.C.) as air modifying itself in two directions by thickening and thinning. 4 In Western Greece the Pythagorean brotherhood,
as as
;

founded in the latter part of the sixth century, began under the influence of mathematical studies to
lay stress

upon the

The Ionian

dualities apparent in the world. 5 school of material monists had their

1 Observation of the sky was more common in days when there were no almanacs, no clocks, and no compass. 2 Also of Miletus. His "Boundless" (rb &ireipov) may have been a kind of mist or cloud. 3 Also of Miletus. Pre-Socratic philosophy bears many traces of its Eastern birth, notably the religious tinge in its

phraseology. 4 In other words, Anaximenes took a quantitative view of change. i The Pythagoreans apparently began with the pair See Aristotle, Metaphysics, A 986a. Other even)(odd. (perhaps later) members of the brotherhood increased the

number

of pairs

:

limit)(unlmrited, odd)(even, one)(multitude,
right)(left,

male)(female,

rest)(motion. straight)(bent, light)(darkness, good )( bad, square)(oblong.

452

INTRODUCTION
last representative in
is

said to

have flourished
B.C.).

(504-500
his life,

We know
title

Heracleitus of Ephesus. He in the sixty-ninth Olympiad
practically nothing about

and the

come down

of his writings, which have to us only in fragments, has not been

preserved. Heracleitus
ancients,

was

called

"the

dark"

by
;

the

who had all his work before them to the moderns, who possess only isolated sentences, he is

darker still. It is both confusing and depressing to read the treatises of Lassalle, Teichmiiller and Pfleiderer, and to see how the most opposite and inconsistent conclusions can be drawn by learned and intelligent men from exactly the same evidence. But in spite of all this diversity of opinion there is gradually shaping itself a more stable view of the doctrine of Heracleitus in its main outlines, although the details are still obscure, and may, in fact, in some cases never be elucidated. It seems reasonable to suppose, when we consider the period in which he lived, that the phenomenon of change was the primary interest of his researches. His contribution to the problem was to point out that change is constant and perpetual. For no two seconds together is a thing ever the same. There is no pause in change it is as much a continuum as is time. All things are for ever passing into something
;

else.

In this eternal flux the only really constant thing the principle of change itself, yet in some way or other fire, according to Heracleitus, has an individuality of its own which gives it precedence over all other things. The world " was ever, is now, and ever shall be an ever-living Fire, in measures being
is

453
VOL. TV.
(HIP.)

R

INTRODUCTION
kindled and in measures going out." Nothing could be plainer than this declaration of the eternal nature of fire, and nothing could be more logically inconsistHence ent with the doctrine of perpetual Mux. several scholars have held that the fire of Heracleitus is not the fire which burns and crackles, but warm vital force or something even more abstract still. Such a conception seems alien from the thought of the period, and the most recent research regards the Heracleitean fire as the ordinary fire of the every-day world. It is perhaps rash to hazard a guess when so many scholars have been baffled, but it may be that Heracleitus consciously or unconsciously identiIf so, there is less inconsistfied fire and change. ency in regarding fire as an eternal reality, though it is bad interpretation to twist facts in order to

we are a Greek philosopher self-consistent not warranted in assuming that all early philosophy was consistent. Perhaps the fragments of Heracleitus do not support my guess, but the Heracleitean treatise Regimen I expressly states that the Sv7a/us In any case, symbolically of fire is to cause motion. 1 or actually, fire is a good example of physical transFuel is supplied from below, the flames formation.
make
;

and fumes.
with
fire
;

its nature, and finally it rises as smoke The most obvious and the most rapid changes with which we are familiar are all connected

quickly alter

it

The sun seems
(ire, and it is advance and
1

destroys, it cleanses and it renews. to be a great mass of the very best the sun that transforms, by its alternate retreat, the face of the earth from
iii.

Regimen

7,

ch.

In this treatise SiW.ius often means
identities

and the sentence referred to virtually change and fire.
essence,

454

INTRODUCTION
season to season and from day to day. The world is an ever-living fire it is always becoming all things, and all things are always returning into it. There is thus a twofold way in nature, to fire and from fire, and this leads us to the most fundamental
;

thought of Heracleitus, the "attunement" or harmonious unity resulting from the strife of 1 There is a "road up" to fire and a opposites. " road down " from fire, and these two roads are "one and the same." If they are one and the same, there must be a perpetual strain resulting from two,
the
as it were, opposite forces. The way up fights with way down. It is like the tension in a bowThe flight of the string or in the cord of a harp.

the same as the other. " God is day and winter and summer, war and peace, surfeit night, and hunger." What Heracleitus really meant, and should have said, is that day and night, with all other opposites, are two sides of the same process,

arrow, the note of the string, are due solely to This conopposite tension (TraXiVrovos dpfiovir]). ception of universal strife dominated the theory of Heracleitus to such an extent that it is sometimes pushed to illogical extremes. 2 Each opposite is tending to turn into its opposite, and so in a sense

each

is

inseparably conjoined like concavity and convexity. Neither is possible without the other. Any ex1

See in particular Philo, Rer. Div. Her. 43

:

%v

yap rh

oh yap afitpotv tu>v ivavrlw, ov TfitjOevTos yvuptp.a ra ivavrla. tout tffrtv o (pacriv "EAAT/ves tov fxiyav koI aolbtpiov irap avrois

'HpaicAetTOV KecpaKatov Trjs avrov xpoo'Tfiaa.p.svov <pi\oo~o<pias ai>x^ v o>s i<p evpecrei Kairrj * Strictly speaking, the two opposites should produce a third thing, as male and female produce the offspring, but there is no third thing produced by (say) night and day.
;

455

INTRODUCTION
other.

of one will be the explanation of the " the common that we should seek to which that manifests itself now as one tiling know,

planation

It is

'•'

and now as

its opposite. are told by Diogenes Laertius that the book of Heracleitus was divided into three parts, one

We

dealing with the universe, one with politics and one with theology. 1 Bywater has attempted with fair success to arrange the fragments under these three heads, his sections being Nos. 1-90, 91-97, 98-130. We have only a few fragments dealing with ethics

and

politics,

and

it is difficult

to extract from

them

a

standpoint, but this was certainly dependent on the physical theory. Heracleitus lays " By this he meant, in great stress on the common." the case of the State, the law, but it is harder to conjecture what meaning he attached to it in the The most attractive excase of the individual. 2 He planation hitherto given is that of Patrick. holds that Heracleitus pleaded for unity with nature through obedience to the law of "the common." Communion with the fields and trees could teach
definite

ethical

men more

than discussing virtue and justice. Heracleitus stood for the instinctive, the unconscious, the " The naive. philosophy and ethics of Heracleitus, " 3 over as we have seen, stood in vital opposition to

much inwardness and painful self-inspection, absence of trust in our instincts and of the healthful study of nature. may be sure,
self-consciousness, too

We

Diogenes Laertius, IX. 5. Tlw Fragments of the Work of Heraclilus of Ephesus on See especiNature, by G. T. W. Patrick, Baltimore, 1889.
2

1

ally pp. 73-83. 8 Op. cit. p. 77.

456

INTRODUCTION
too, that Heracleitus warned his readers not to expect too much. Perfect bliss is unattainable, for satisfaction is impossible without want, health im-

plies disease,

The

and rest implies painful effort. religious teaching of Heracleitus appears to

have been directed against customs and ritual rather than against the immoral legends of Homer and Hesiod. He attacks idolatry, mystery-mongers and There is thus no evipurification through blood. dence that he was a prophet of Orphism and the His mysteries connected with that way of belief. God must have been the " ever-living Fire," but he appears to have believed that heroic men, who died through excess of fire (i.e. in battle or other brave struggle), and not through excess of water (i.e. through sottish habits or decay), became the So gods guardians of the living and of the dead. and men are in a sense one. " They live each others' life and die each others' death."
Patrick lays stress, and rightly, upon the stern, of many of the fragments. Hebrew seer. He despised all his contemporaries, both the common people and their would-be teachers. Hesiod, Pythagoras, Xenophanes and Hecataeus, all are attacked and condemned. As for the vulgar many, they are spoken of with contempt for their blindness, stupidity and grossness. " Thus the content of Heracleitus' message to his countrymen was ethical. It was a call to men everywhere to wake up, to purify their 1 fiapftdpovs il/vxds, and to see things in their reality." It was to this message, in all probability, that he

prophetic character Heracleitus is like a

1

Op.

cit., p.

59.

457

INTRODUCTION
that

word Ao'yos. Many commentators think " reason " or " law." This was Xoyos means certainly the meaning attached to the word in the ethical system of the Stoics, but although this school
refers in the

borrowed largely from Heracleitus, they developed and indeed transformed his thought, adapting it to the more advanced conceptions of their own day.

We

are,

in

fact,

tempted

to look at

Heracleitus

through Stoic eyes, and so it is necessary to guard against this danger whenever we are dealing with an ancient statement about Heracleitus that comes from or through a Stoic source. Our evidence for the doctrines of Heracleitus falls into two classes. We have first the fragments quoted by later writers, with their comments thereon. Then we have the so-called doxographies, or summaries of the views of philosophers. Several of these exist, but they are all derived, directly or indirectly, from a lost work of Theophrastus called In the case of Heracleitus our chief &v<tikcu 8o£ai. doxographical evidence is contained in the ninth book of the scrappy series of lives of philosophers The that goes by the name of Diogenes Laertius. compiler, whoever he was, probably lived in the
third century a.d.

have followed Bywater in numbering the fragthough occasionally I do not adopt his Sincere thanks are due to the Delegates readings. of the Oxford University Press for allowing me to
I

ments,

use Bywater's numbering and references.

458

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1807. 1848.

Schleiermacher, Herakleitos.
Also HerdkUiische Bernays (Jac). Heraclitea. Sliidien in Mus. Rh. 1850, and Die Heraklitischen Briefe, 1869. Lassalle (Ferd.), Die Philosophic des Dunkeln von Ephesos.

1858.

Herakleitos

1873.
1876. 1877. 1886.

Schuster (Paul), Heraklit von Ephesus in Actis
soc. phil. Lips., ed. Fr. Ritschelius.

Teichmiiller, Neue Stud.

1889. 1909.

z. Gesch der Begriffe 1878). Bywater (I.), Heracliti Ephesii Reliquiae. Pfleiderer, Die Philosophic des Heraklit von Ephesus im Lichfe der Mysteticnidee. Patrick (G. T. W.), The Fragments of the Work of Heraclitus of Ephesus. Diels (H.), Herakleitos von Ephesos.

(Heft

II,

chen, Bd.

See also Eduard Zeller, Die Philosophic der GrieI, and John Burnet, Early Greek
Philosophy.

459

LIFE OF HERACLITUS 1
Heracutus, son of Bloson or, according to some, of Heracon, was a native of Ephesus. He flourished in the 69th Olympiad. 2 He was lofty-minded beyond 3 and all other men, over-weening, as is clear from " Much his book in which he says learning does not teach understanding else would it have taught Hesiod and Pythagoras, or, again, Xenophanes and Hecataeus." 4 For "this one thing is wisdom, to understand thought, as that which guides all the world everywhere." 5 And he vised to say that " Homer deserved to be chased out of the lists and beaten with rods, and Archilochus likewise.'' 6 " There is more need to Again he would say 7 extinguish insolence than an outbreak of fire," and " The people must fight for the law as for city: ;

:

1

in the
is
8 3

Taken from R. D. Hicks' translation of Diogenes Laertius Loeb Classical Library. The spelling " Heraclitus " " D." = Diels and " B." = retained. Bywater.
504-500
B.C.

The biographers used by our author

laid evident stress

on this characteristic of the Ephesian, for §§ 1-3 (excepting two fragments cited in § 2) dwell on this single theme. As to the criticism of Pythagoras ef. Clem. Alex. Strom, i. 129 s.f., who, dealing with chronology, says that Heraclitus was later than Pythagoras, for Pythagoras is mentioned by him. 6 4 Fr. 41 1)., 19 B. Fr. 40 D., 16 B. 6 » Fr. 43 I>., 103 B. Fr. 42 1)., 119 B.

460

LIFE OF HERACLITUS
walls." 1 He attacks the Ephesians, too, for banish" The Ephesians ing his friend Herrnodorus he says would do well to end their lives, every grown man of them, and leave the city to beardless boys, for that they have driven out Herrnodorus, the worthiest
:

:

man among them,

'

saying,
;

We

will

have

none

who is worthiest among us or if there be any such " 2 let him go elsewhere and consort with others.' And when he was requested by them to make laws,
he scorned the request because the state was already He would retire in the grip of a bad constitution. to the temple of Artemis and play at knuckle-bones and when the Ephesians stood with the boys round him and looked on, " Why, you rascals," he Is it not better to do said, "are vou astonished? " this than to take part in your civil life? Finally, he became a hater of his kind and wandered on the mountains, and there he continued to live, making his diet of grass and herbs. However, when this gave him dropsy, he made his way back to the city and put this riddle to the physicians, whether they were competent to create a drought after heavy
;

rain.

They could make nothing of
in a

this,

whereupon

he buried himself

cowshed, expecting that the noxious damp humour would be drawn out of him by the warmth of the manure. But, as even this was of no avail, he died at the age of sixty. There is a piece of my own about him as follows 3
1

:

3

Fr. 44 D., 100 B. Anth. Pal. vii. 127.

*

Fr. 121 D., 114 B.

Often have I wondered how it came about that Heraclitus endured to live in this miserable fashion and then to die. For a fell disease flooded his body with water, quenched the light in his eyes and brought on darkness.

461

LIFE OF HERACLITUS
Hermippus, too, says that he asked the doctors whether anyone could by emptying the intestines draw off the moisture and when they said it was impossible, he put himself in the sun and bade his servants plaster him over with cow-dung. Being thus stretched and prone, he died the next day and was buried in the market-place. Neanthes of
;

Cyzicus states that, being unable to tear off the dung, he remained as he was and, being unrecognisable when so transformed, he was devoured by dogs. He was exceptional from his boyhood for when a youth he used to say that he knew nothing, although when he was grown up he claimed that he knew He was nobody's pupil, but he declared everything. that he " inquired of himself," x and learned everything from himself. Some, however, had said that he had been a pupil of Xenophanes, as we learn from Sotion, who also tells us that Ariston in his book On Heraclitus declares that he was cured of And the dropsy and died of another disease.
;

as his, it is a conNature, but is divided into three discourses, one on the universe, another on politics, and a third on theology. This book he deposited in the temple of Artemis and, according to some, he

Hippobotus has the same story. As to the work which passes
tinuous treatise

On

deliberately made it the more obscure in order that none but adepts should approach it, and
lest

familiarity

2 philosopher Timon
1

Of our should breed contempt. 3 Avords a in these sketch gives
:

8

Fr. 101 D., 80 B. Of. II. i. 247, 248.

a

Fr. 43

L>.

In their midst uprose shrill, cuckoo-like, a mob-reviler, riddling Heraclitus.

462

22 B. 1 Fr. and into fire they are again resolved further. 46 D. all that is is limited and forms one world.. 463 . fire is we may state . however.. 2 Sometimes. Here is a general summary of his doctrines. 8 F. his utterances are clear and distinct. . and declares the sun to be no larger " Of than it appears.. 90 D. 132 B. has also given an account of all the orderly happenings . and existent things are brought into harmony by the clash of opposing currents again. Cf. of opposites. after him. 71 B. So great fame did his book win that a sect was founded and called the Heracliteans. All things are composed of fire. Another of his sayings is soul thou shalt never find boundaries. For brevity and weightiness . while a strange medley. so that even the dullest can easily understand and derive therefrom elevation of soul." 1 Self-conceit he used to call a falling sickness (epilepsy) and eyesight a lying sense. Fr. his exposition is incomparable. the element. all things are exchange for fire and come into being by rarefaction and condensation 3 but of this he gives no clear : Coming now to them as follows his particular tenets. 45 D. As a proof of it down work are magnanimity Antisthenes in his Successio?is of Philosophers cites the fact that he renounced his claim to the kingship in favour of his brother. in the universe. not if thou : trackest it on every path so deep is its cause. Further. all He things are filled with souls and divinities.LIFE OF HERACLITUS Theophrastus puts some his parts of his other parts make to melancholy that half-finished. all things come about by destiny. and the sum of things flows like a stream. All things come into being by conflict explanation.

Change he called a pathway up and down. does not make clear the nature of the surrounding element. Exhalations arise from earth as well as from sea . path. 80 D. This process he calls . Fr. Of the opposites that which tends to birth or creation is called war and strife. and from water the rest He reduces nearly everyof the series is derived. the downward He exhalations. For and thus gives Then again earth is liquefied. birth of the world. and keeps a proportionate distance from us.LIFE OF HERACLITUS And it is alternately born from resolved into fire in fixed cycles to this is fire all and again and determined by destiny. those from sea are bright and pure. which is nearer to the earth. thing to exhalation from the sea. in which the bright exhalations collect and produce flames. the moist element by the others. These are the stars. That is why it gives us more heat and light. the other stars are further from the earth and for that reason give it less light and heat. moves in a clear and untroubled region. and condensing turns into water water again when congealed turns into earth. rise to water. The flame of the sun is the brightest and the hottest . however.. 62 B- 464 . this fire by contracting turns into moisture. and this determines the eternity. that there are in it bowls with their concavities turned towards us. however. and that which tends to destruction by 1 fire is called concord and peace. Fire is fed by the bright those from earth dark. This pi*ocess is the upward path. He says. Eclipses of the sun and moon occur when the bowls are turned 1 Cf. traverses a region which is not pure. The moon. The sun.

story told by Ariston of Socrates. Lachmann. by the various exhalations. some is The Muses. v. and possibly. 2 . "a guide I \ of conduct. C-'oph. 9. e). I have mentioned in my Life of Socrates. is Plato. 1 However. then.F. 2 calls it required a Delian diver title given to it by by others Concerning Nature it The . ^ He • 1 i 4^5 . reading. But cf. as M. and his remarks when he came upon the book of Heraclitus. * Nauck. seasons and years. at yovv 'Id8es Movaai StapprfSr/v Aeyovoi). alluding to Heraclitus. by Lucretius. ad toe. 22. whereas the pi*eponderance of moisture due to the dark His explanations exhalation brings about winter. 287. 657. followed by Clement of Alexandria (Strom. where " Musae " is the MS. These. of other phenomena are in harmony with this. T. produces day. speaks of "Ionian TT P 11 11 f~* f A 1 7. Ernout thinks. 682 P. but Diodotus 3 A others 1 2 helm unerring for the rule of life . Thus the bright exhalation.LIFE OF HERACLITUS to the upwards the monthly phases of the moon are due bowl turning round in its place little by little. the keel of the whole ii. who further said not to be drowned in it. months. Seleucus the grammarian says that a certain Croton relates in his book called The Diver that the said work of Heraclitus was first brought into Greece by one Crates. He gives no account of the nature of the earth. Adesp.G. were his opinions. i.. the opposite exhalation when it has got the mastery causes night the increase of warmth due to the bright exhalation produces summer. Day and night. Muses" 1 242 . of the bowls. The which Euripides brought him. nor even for . t . rains and winds and other similar phenomema are accounted . set aflame in the hollow orb of the sun.

my court there is secured for you every privilege and daily conversation of a good and worthy kind. and a life in keeping with your counsels. they neglect their excellent precepts But at for good hearing and learning. wishes Come to enjoy your instruction and Greek culture. Accordingly King Darius. 466 . greeting. it seems to contain a power of speculation on the whole universe and all that goes on within it. Greeks as a rule are not prone to mark their wise men nay. certain parts. greeting. you chatter. so that even those who are the most conversant with literature are at a loss to know what is the right interpretation of your work. for one and to let all alike. " Why." Darius. by reason of wicked folly." . while. they devote themselves to avarice and thirst for popularity. 65 o$tos fiaoiXea Aapeiov rrapaKaXovvra rjxeiv els Uepaas virepeZSev. which depends upon motion most divine but for the most part judgement is suspended. Alex. was eager to make : " King Darius." silence. . son ot Hystaspes. when asked why he kept his acquaintance. We are told that. But of Darius is mentioned by Clem. " All men upon earth hold aloof from truth and justice. Strom. For the then with all speed to see me at my palace. son of Hystaspes. to Heraclitus the wise man " You are the author of a treatise On Nature which In is hard to understand and hard to interpret. son of Hystaspes. and wrote to him as follows x he replied. which make " Heraclitus of Ephesus to King Darius. of Ephesus. The story is not made more plausible by the two forged letters to which it must have given rise. 1 The request i.LIFE OF HERACLITUS world. if it be interpreted word for word. too.

2 serving merely for illustration. Dionysius. and is perhaps the source of the first sentence of § 52 also. notwithstanding that the Ephesians thought little of him. 8 Anth. The latter affirms that it is not a treatise upon nature. mentions him in his 1 and the commentators on Defence of Socrates his work are very numerous. could not come to Persia. but for such as illiterate? 1 This work is again quoted in ix. is using through another of his sources. He is the subject of many epigrams. being content with little. being forgetful of all wickedness. 57. L. and. Nicomedes. and because I have a horror of splendour. when that little is to my mind. he preferred his own home the more. 37 and ix. and again Pausanius Avho was called the imitator of Heraclitus. including as they do Antisthenes and Heraclides of Pontus. * Apparently D." So independent was he even when dealing with a king. ye It was not for you I toiled. 128. and amongst them of this one 3 : do ye drag me up and down.LIFE OF HERACLITUS I. us that Scythinus. shunning the general satiety which is closely joined with envy. vii. of Phalerum. the satirical Hieronymus tells poet. the very same citation from Diodotus which he has given Heraclitus I. too. says that he despised even the Athenians. Demetrius. Diodotus. undertook to put the discourse of Heraclitus into verse. and among the grammarians. Pal. Cleanthes and Sphaerus the Stoic. in his book on Men of the Same Name. am Why verbatim in § 12. the physical part Demetrius . but upon government. 467 . although held by them in the highest estimation .

long. that thou art lying. Laertius deserves our gratitude for inserting this little poem. but them he cannot take And now A . (4) a Lesbian (5) a jester who wrote a history of Macedonia who adopted this profession after having . awake For Death. and moved me to tears. no hand on them. and Death. Gloom is there and darkness devoid of light. Heraclitus. my dear old Carian guest. he taketh all away. 80. that insatiate ravisher. but the countless hosts do not make a single one. they told me you were dead. 3 . when 1 remembered how often we two watched the sun go down upon our talk. yet do thy 'Nightingales' live on. One man in my sight is a match for thirty thousand. I wept as 1 remembered how often you and I Had tired the sun with talking and sent him down the sky. yea in the halls of Persephone. Heraclitus. who wrote a hymn of praise to the twelve gods (3) an elegiac poet of Halicarnassus. 540. In bare prose told me of thy death. p. 7. This I proclaim. : They told me. ix. Heraclitus the Ephesian's book the path is hard to travel. But if an initiate be your guide the path shines brighter than sunlight. my Halicarnassian friend. been a musician." Perhaps " Nightingales " was the title of a work. vii. : " One From Cory's Jonica. Pal. . I ween. long ago. * Anth. : Another runs as follows x Do not be in too great a hurry to get to the end of : Five men have borne the name of Heraclitus our philosopher (2) a lyric poet. especially on so slight a pretext. 1 3 Anth. thy nightingales. They brought me bitter news to hear and bitter tears to shed. art dust long. handful of grey ashes. Still are thy pleasant voices. But though thou. Pal.LIFE OF HERACLITUS understand me. long ago at rest. on whom Callimachus wrote the following epitaph 2 : (1) . shall lay 468 .

.

HPAKAEITOY E$E2IOY I1EPI TOT IIANT02. Siaipeoav e/caaTOV Kara (fiver iv Kal T0 ^"> aWov? dvdpd>TTov<i (f)pd%a>v ok(os ^X €l" ^ \av9dvei oKoaa iyepdevTes 9 6/coaa I.oAoyelv <rc<p6v iartv. The conjectures in the text do not arouse tv iravTa eiSeyai. <f)i)(Tiv Ref.oAoyovo~iv. 6 HpaKkeirSs ^>r\ffr 6/u. I. Haer. Staiperbv aSiaipeTov.evoov yap irdvTwv Kara tov \6yov rovSe cnreipoicri ioi/caat. though But if elvai be gloss on \6yov. yivop. been corrupted to eiSeVai? I am think that Bergk's restoration is might well be a why should it have on the whole inclined to nearer to the actual words 470 . yevr)TOV ayevr]TOv. Hippolytus tivai e/toO a\\a tov Suyftaros axovaavras ' iravTa irdi'Tes elSevat.cv any strong confidence. S6y/j. ireipa)p.Tos &Kovo~uvTas o/xoAoyeeiv oti tv to o~o<f>ov eo~Ttv. is that of The order of the fragments By water. eu Trdvra elvat. 9: Hpa«AejTos ^kv ovv <eV> rb iruv. Ovk dvrirov adavaTov. b~ta<f>ep6/j.aTos correct.ov rod Soy. ev Kal oti tovto ovk Iffaai aWa ov8e 6fj. elvai a conjecture of Miller. 6eov SiKatov. II. OKooaTrep evSovre? iTriXavdavovrai. ' Troieovai. ix. Bergk would reconstruct thus: Z'ikuov ovk i/j. eirifiijicptTai o>5e Trees' Ov ^vvlacriv '6ku>s iv emvrip OfxoAoyeer iraKiuTpoiros ap/xovir) 'dKincrnep t6£ov Kal Avprjs \6yov is a conjecture of Bernays. Tov Se Xoyov rovS" iovros alel a^vveroi dWd ylvovTai avBpwnoi /ecu irpoaOev rj aKovaai Kal a/covcravT€<i to irpwrov. itaripa vl6v.evot Ka\ irricov Kal epyoov roiovricov okolcov iyo) Suiyevpai. of Heracleitus. \6yov aluiva. Ou/c tov \6yov aKovcravra<i ifiev 2 6[Ao\oyeeiv ao(f)6i> iari.ua.

Ocsch. Haer. See Rhetoric. 13. 1407. G. resolved into fire vom Logon. they are II. . E. just as they forget what they do this when asleep. Aristotle Rhetoric iii. II St6vros. 14. d. men seem as though they had no experience thereof. Lehre Aall. Eusebius Praep. p. b 14. and to confess that For \6yos see Heinze. Ph. but to the Word. all all things are one. dividing each thing according to its nature and setting forth how it The rest of men know not what they really is. iovros means "true" in Ionic with words like \6yos. Ref. xiii.HERACLEITUS ON THE UNIVERSE I. . 132 Clement of Alex. Hipp. 680. (except those of Sextus) read tov p. For although all things happen in accordance with Word. not to me . v. Sextus Empiricus adversus Mathematicos vii. I have tried in my translation to bring out the play on words in aireipoun (oiKaai ireipdi)/j. when they make experiment with such words and works as I relate.evoi. ix. 5. See Burnet. 5. 47* . 716 . 630 "All things are one" because and come from fire. which is ever true. do when awake.tvi>eToi yivovTai. The MSS. i. Strom. note on Fragment II. III. Ev. 9. Aristotle was in doubt whether aUX should be taken with iovros or with a. Logosidee 1896. 1873 Zeller. This Word. men prove as incapable of understanding when they hear it for the first time as before they have heard it at all. It is wise to listen.

ecovTotai 2 VI. dXXd Clem. 5. Strom. Clem. dveXiriaTOV ovk i^evpi)o~ei. 14. VII. /ecu IV. 'Ayxi/3ao-iriv. oyTe Xeyei ovre /cpviTTei. p. ii. Orac. Alex. 472 . p. 437. adv. XI. Clem. Ov (fypoveovai iy/cvpeovai 3 Be hoiceovai. p. Theodoretus Therap. 17. IX. Alex. 46. p. Some would put the comma fXTrrjai Schuster and Bywater.v. VI. X. My. V. U aval. p. Xpvabv 2 ol Bi^tj/xevoi yrjv iroWrjv opvcr- a ovai IX. iv.it. Euseb. 'Eav VIII. v. 72 and lxxxi. Emp. 15. p. fit] eXTTijai. Iamblichus de Stobaeus Flor. i. 404. Stobaeus Florilegium . p. KpvTTTecrOai. Theniistius Or. 432 fiopliopov \pvxas Marcus Antoninus iv. Clem. v. Plutarch de Pytk. Strom. 51. xiii. v. p. Alex. i^ovTcov. ii. ii. 15. <t>vo~i<i X.nEPI TOT IIANTOS ' III. Suidas s. 52. Toiavra iroWoi okogoioi ovoe fxaOovres yivooa/covcn. 3 arj/xaivei. 2. VII. ex ovros Beniays. 681. P. /3ap/3dpov<. Strom. p. p. 15 . Strom. 69. Alex. iii. 13. Alex. 21. Sextus iv. vii. ov to [xavretov ecrri to ev AeX(/>0£?. 565 . 4. AJL. VIII. Strom. yfrv%d<. dve%epeuvr]TOv ebv koX diropov. V. III.E. The sources have ehin)TaL and ix-nl^re. 442. 718 . after aveXitiaTov instead of before it. Katcol fidpTvpes avOpcoiroicri 6<fi6a\fiol 2 cora. (piXei. 56. 'A/covcrai ovk e-TTKTrdixevoL oiiS elirelv. 2. i. teal evpicrxovai oXiyov. Theodoretus Therap. Math. IV. Clem. 2 (pciTis 'A%vv€Tot aKovaavTes Kaxfioicu eol/caar avTolai piaprvpeei Trapeopras a-nelvai. 126 .

Heracleitus is laying stress upon the importance of the constructive imagination in scientific enquiry what the early Christians might have called "faith. This passage is not a general attack on the senses it merely lays stress on the need of an intelligent soul to The clever emendation of interpret the sense-impressions. as it is hard to be sought out and difficult. See Fragments XIX. to see why the Stoics could maintain that their pantheism was founded on Heracleitus. XCI. of The stupid when they have heard are "like the them does the proverb bear witness that ears to when present they are absent. but merely <f>v<Tis the truth about the Universe. XCII. . H. Nature is wont to hide herself. Bad witnesses are eyes and men." i. nor do they have knowledge them when they have learned. If you do not expect it." much earth to find a little VIII. It is easy. X. "when mud holds the soul. XI. but sets forth by signs. soul is moist. seems to be referring to (a) the correct apprehension of phenomena and (b) the difference between unintelligent learning and understanding. deaf. Gold-seekers — dig gold.e. VII. Bernays would mean: when the V. 473 .ON THE UNIVERSE III. VI. though they seem to themselves so to do. Critical discussion. IV. is not necessarily an abstraction here. IX. Knowing neither how to listen nor how to speak. if they have souls that understand not their language. however. Many do not interpret aright such things as of they encounter. and therefore (on Heracleitean principles) dull and stupid. you will not find out the unexpected. The Lord whose is the oracle in Delphi neither declares nor hides.

ix.evo(pdv€a KaX 'Et/earalov. p. ev ol? iravTcov ttXcotwv ical iropevTWv yeyovoTWV ovk av €Tt irpeTTOV eitj "rroirjTais ical pvOoypdcpois yprjaOat oirep ol irpo rjpcov dp. Clem. Polybius 19. cf. a/cor) pdd^Gis. irepl t5)v irXeiaTOiV. 40. tov 'HpdtcXeiTOV. 474 . "Oacov 2 TTpOTlfJLeCO. i. p. 1 XV. XVI.dprvai irepl twv dyvoovpevcov. 397.evoi /3e/3aia>Ta<.dp- Tcpe?. XVI.IIEPI TOT IIANTOS 8e fiaivofxevw /cal XII. Ref. XIII. Alex. p.<fiia/3riTovpeva>v p. a7r/cn-ov? 6 irapeyop. %i/3vWa Xacrra yofiivTj 4 icai aro/xari dyi<p0ey- a-KaWcoTricrra a/xvpiaTa rfj yikioov ireav efy/cveerai (pcovfj 8ia tov deov. Hipp. Plutarch de Pyth. 1 . XII. ffaer. 9. . XIII. Polybius iv. Kara. ravra iya> Alv. o\jn<. Orac. 12. Athenaeus 1 xiii. 610 b Aulus Gelliua praef. iovro yap toiov ecrTi twv vvv /caiptov. ix. 27. xii. Bywater prints the end. this fragment with a question mark at XV.iv ov SiBdcr/cer yap av eSiSa^e koX Tivdayoprjv avr£$ re E. Strom. 'HctloSov 3 YloXvpLadlrj voov eyf. 2 'O<p0a\jjLol tcov 6)Tcov d/cpi{3eaTepoi p. Diogenes Laertius 373 . 6.

XIII. Bywater's punctuation would make the I to value highly those things that are meaning to be learnt by sight or hearing?" an attack upon the accuracy and value of the senses. unadorned and unperfumed. proving themselves. to his oracular style. heard and learnt. these honour especially. to say nothing of his wonderful 475 . unreliable supporters of disputed points. But H.ON THE UNIVERSE XII. As is plain from the following fragment. or XVI. but with her voice she extends over a thousand years because of the God. as Heracleitus has it. First-hand information better than hearsay. does not distrust the senses. Particularly at the present time. as well as Xenophanes and Hecataeus. It is unfair to the mathematical achievements of Pythagoras and scarcely does justice to the theological acumen of Xenophanes. as in most things our predecessors did. The I things that can be seen. : "Am — XIV. Much learning does not teach understanding. it would not be right to use as evidence for the unknown the works of poets and mythologists. this is an attack on confusing second hand information with true understanding and education. This and the following two fragments emphasise the importance of personal research. In this and the preceding H. but only sense impressions interpreted in a stupid way. it would have taught Hesiod and Pythagoras. The Sibyl with raving mouth utters things mirthless. which religious emotion of his age. when all places can be reached by water or by land. as contrasted with learning from authority. seems to be calling attention was in part due to the strong There is much that is oracular in Aeschylus and Pindar. XV. Eyes are more accurate witnesses than is ears.

p. crvyypa(f)a<. 3 axrTe yivooa/ceiv oti aocpov iart irdvTWV Keywpiapikvov. 3 irptjaTrip. One MS. .ev irpwrov 6dXao~o~a' yrj. KCLKOTeyyiriv. 14. p. 712. XVIII. 476 Strom. 132 Plutarch de 5.evov p. iii. v. XIX. TroXvpbaOcrjv. 711 Aristotle de Caelo. p. eTriaraaOai yvo&pxp) rj 2 /cvfiepvarai iravra Std iravrcov. \daarj<. Alex. Stobaeus Flor. Ti<i Koo-yuoy rnvSe tov aurbv dirdvTwv ovre OeSiv ovt€ ecrTt /cal dvdpdnrwv iiroiijae. 81. dXX' r)v alel Kai earai nrvp delt^wov. TjcTKTjcre UvOayopr/s Mvrjcrdp^ov feat laropir)v avdpcoffcov fidXiara irdvrwv.o~v to 8e ij/xicrv XVII.nEPI TOY IIANTOS XVII. XIX. By water reads inolriae and Burnet firoiriffaro. 6a- to r)pa.erpa. has iirolyo-tp and one iiroirja-aTo. p. ' Ei> to o~o<pov. cf. Diogenes Laertius viii. Clem. ix. XX. XXI. dtTTOfievov fierpa 4 /ecu ciTToa fievvvp. Procreatione XXI. iiroirjcraTO 4 ao(f>L7]v. exXe^decovrou pbevo? TavTas ra<. v. Clem. Simplicius in Anim. ov$ei<. iqKovaa. Diogenes Laertius . XX. Strom. Alex. 1. 'Okogcov Xoyovs rac €9 tovto. Tlvpbs Be rpoiral p. cupi/cvee- XVIII. 14. . 1014. 6.

That is. and choosing out these writings claimed as his own a wisdom that was only much learning. the famous "road up and down" (or at any rate is it) . An attack on book-learning that is merely the acquisition Diels rejects the fragment of second-hand information. XIX. was ever was. XVIII. Of all those whose discourses I have heard. Wisdom is one thing to know the thought whereby all things are steered through all things. The transformations of Fire of sea half This is are. 477 . refers to the flux. the best illustration of with its three stages — earth. : See Fragment XVI. is. first. 29. sea earth and half fiery storm-cloud. Pythagoras. a mischievous art. (In Stob. This has been interpreted to mean that true wisdom is attained by none. 41) aX\a XP° V(i> ^fjTovvres ijievploKovaiv apxrjs -navra Oeol Bv-qrois irapihu^av. But the reading eVoiijaaro for iTroi-qaev does away with this objection. or that general opinions do not contain real wisdom. which is the same made neither by a god nor by man. practised research more than any other man. ever-living Fire. a/ieivov. water. son of Mnesarchus. not one attains to this. chiefly because it makes Pythagoras a writer of books. This world. in measures being kindled and in measures going out. — to understand the doctrine of opposites and of perpetual change. XXI.ON THE UNIVERSE anticipation of the ov rot air' modern doctrine of scientific progress. fierpa approximate correspondence between the things that are becoming fire and the things that are coming out of The balance of nature is not disturbed by perpetual fire. XVII. as spurious. Flor. XX. but and for it all. The use of Koafios to mean " world " is Pythagorean. to realise that wisdom is a thing apart from all. and shall be.

ix. Odvarov. Eaer. Clem. See also Plutarch de EI 18. ii. iiTLKovpoi eijevpijaovac. 720. (acrirep y^pvaov ^pi]pLara kcu xpt]p. p. 11.IIEPI TOT IIANTOE avTa/j. XXVII. 2 Ylavra to Trvp irreXOov Kpiviet /cal KaTaXqyJreTat.€L^erai XXII. Haer. Haer. xiv. 2 fX7]. p. XXIX. Maximus Tyr. and yrj is The MSS. p. XXIII. Hipp. Xprjcr/xoavvj] fcopos. Hipp. Diog. 8 . Byvvater retains the old order. Clem. 13. p. Ref. 242.dTwv real tjv rj xpvaos. Alex. 478 . xli. XXVII. Plutarch XXV. 10. Evang.t09 ovx VTTep/3/jaerat fierpa- 8e 'E/j/vue? /juv 8lki]<. p. Ta /jli-j hvvov 7T0T6 7T(o? civ 77? XdOoi . In any case earth is referred to. 392. E. p. e? tov clvtov \oyov a/colos irpoaOev . Paedag. XXIII. 3SS Eusebius Praep. el XXIX. Strom. ®d\aacra Sia^eeTai 2 pierpeerai. XXII. 10. Philo de Victim. 10. 3 Tivpos rcavja teal Trvp diravrcov. 14. v. P. 10. iv. 3 yt) Toy v8(ito<>. de EI 9. . . Se TrdvTa ola/cc^ei icepavvos. ix. Plutarch de EI 8. xiii. whence Schuster reads 755". ZjT) Trvp tov aepos uavenov. 676. p. Clement read yrj after yevtcdai. 389. Ref. . £77 AAV. 3. Ref. above Diels reads as In the texts atpos and yrjs are transposed. ix. XXVIII. p. p. of See Burnet. 4. 6. 489. 712. and M. 604. XXIV. XXIV. Alex. ix. XXVI. Anton. p. To XXVIII. tcac ar/p tov irvphs ddvaTov vhoop %fj rbv yP]<. Plutarch de Exit. probably the subject of Siaxeerai. XXVI. Laert. Euseb. "HA. Hipp. . 229. yeveaOai. 46.

above the sea is the sun. and air lives the the death of earth. The sun out. The subject is yq. Chap. XXIII. will find will XXIX. XXIV. and the whole fragment means that along the "road up" the proportion of the "measures" remains constant. All things are exchanged for Fire and Fire even as goods for gold and gold for It is goods. XXVI. sets ? How can you hide from that which never steers all things. and is measured to the same proportion as before it became earth. XXII. III. Want E. The thunderbolt not overstep his measures otherwise the Erinyes. is is the sea. On the earth half composed for all things. . representing way This explanation of irp-qaTTJp I owe to Burnet. it has advanced will judge and For the "advances" of fire see irepl Siatrijs I. XXV. him See the notes to XX and XXIIL 479 . the destruction of all things periodically by fire. XXVII. Fire lives the death of . . The amount of earth in the universe remains " measures" of water approximately the same. to become fire.g. . death of Fire water lives air. Sea of earth transforming itself to water and latter the water on its half of fiery cloud. because the of earth turning to to earth the "measures" equal turning water. Fire when convict all things. Such statements as the one above led the Stoics to develop their theory of ^/nrvpaxm. surfeit. XXVIII.ON THE UNIVERSE fire. earth that of water. helpers of Justice. the "want" of earth for water to increase it equals the "surfeit" of earth which makes some of it turn to water. . melted into sea. to be followed by a re-birth and restoration of all things.

334 B. XXXII. Strabo i. bpi^eiv Kal /3pa{3euetv dvaSeiKVwai Kal dvafyaiveiv fi€Ta/3o\a<i Kai copa? at Trdvra fyepovai. 23.. but considers them to be a part of the narrator's XXX. Plat. /cara Ttm9 Kal e/cXeiyjrei^. 4. de Fortuna . 7. 98. Ovtco? ovv dvayfcaiav 7rpb<. Aphrod. p.' /xaprvpel 5' at'T&j Kal Hpa/cXetro? /ecu Ar)p. 2 'Hou? kcu rr}<? repfiara eveica t] dpKTO$. Plutarch Aquae et Ignis Comp.IIEPI TOT IIANTOS ko-Treprj? XXX. p. Clem. p. Kad 'YipaKkeiTOv. Kal teal oiv cr/co7ro?. Neo9 ifi v/mepr) 7]\io<. Bywater does not include the words eVe/ra aarpeev in the text. 87. See the comments of Alex.oKpiTO'i./xo9 eV tt} irepl 5 10 66 ev avrbv Kal Kal 'UpoSoTOS dav/nd^et. ovhe (f>avtcov Kal Xwv ovSe [xiKpoiv. KLV7]cn<. explanation. ii.?^) TrpcoTos daTpoXoyrjaai Kal ifkiaKas rpoira<i irpoenrelv. Aristotle Meteor. . p. 957. and Cf. w? (prjcriv EuS?. Also Proclus in Tirnaeum. ' twv dWa 2 crvvepyos. XXXIII. 480 . ©aA. p 3.ero(f)a. p. 3. 1 XXXIV. 1007. Alex. p. 2. 355.e<yl(JTu>v KvpiooTaTtov Tft) yye/xovi Kal nrpooTat 6e(p yiverai acTTpoXoyov/iievoov laropia' "B. viii. 6. tjv. Plutarch Qu. p. ii. royv Et r/\io<> rjv. a 9. XXXI. aWoov darpwv evdypovt] av XXXII. Protrept. rbv ovpavbv ex 001 GUfiTrXoKijv Kal avpap/aoy^v 6 Xpovos oi>x a7rXw? eari /clvijais dW\ &airep Kal eipyjrai.vr]<. and of Olympiodorus. . Ao/cet Se (soil. 1 2 Diogenes Laert. i. iv rd^et fierpov e^ot/ay S)v 6 y']\to<i iiriaTaTijq irkpaia Kal irepibhovs. 2 teal ai'TLov apfcrov ovpos fit) aWpiov Aio?. XXXI.

is because of the perpetual flux. limits and periods. Thales the first is supposed by some to have been astronomer and the first to foretell the eclipses and turnings of the sun. warder. So time. having a necessary connection and union with the firmament. The Bear. reason both Xenophanes and Herodotus pay him respectful honour. XXXI. the South Pole. in spite of the other stars. there would be is night. bring all things. and both Heracleitus and Democritus bear witness to him. judge. but. according to Heracleitus. as Eudemus declares For this in his account of astronomical discoveries. 481 . not in trivial or small things. is not motion merely. The sun This is new every day. overseer and to determine. and the whole passage a protest against the Pythagorean view of a southern hemisphere. bright The " boundary of bright Zeus" is. If there were no sun. but in the greatest and most important. and limits of the East and West are the opposite the Bear is the boundary of Zeus. measure. XXXII. motion in an order having Of which the sun. ex- XXXIII. another is kindled at sunrise.ON THE UNIVERSE XXX. One sun tinguished at sunset . being appoint and declare the changes and seasons. as I have said. Burnet takes it to be the horizon. is a helper of the leader and first God. which. according to Diels. XXXIV.

Horapoiai 2 epfiairis' Sis Tolai avTolai ovk av erepa yap <ical erepa> imppeec vSara. in Orbe Lunac 28. Plutarch de Fac. of XLI. Aristotle de Sensu 5. p. Ref. 126. p. p. Aristotle Meta. 2 aireicn. Tzetzes ad Exeg. p. XXXVII. Vind. 1010 a 13. opt is 3 teal ev<pp6vi]v ovk eyuvcoaKe' eari yap ev. Plutarch Quaest. 392. At yjrv^al ocrp. av hiayvolev. 443. p.Mvrai feaB" XXXIX. iv. 912 .a)v 6 epos. p. XXXVI. x€tp. 2. Haer. XLII. <7u» : Hipp. AiSda/caXos TrXecartov 'HctloBos' rj/xeprjv tovtov irrlaravTai 7rXeiara elSevai. Diels reads oKuairep XXXV. XLI. 2 plves Et irdvra ra ovra Kairvos yevooTO. 10. Kopos Xipos' aWoioinai 8e OKUxrirep Trvp. nat. de sera Num. 559 . 482 . 10. with Bernays. in Iliada. Haer. ix. irpocreiai /cat XLI.IIEPI TOT IIANT02 6*e XXXV. ovo/xd^e4 rat Kad rjSovrjv k>cd(TTOV. as beiug obviously a corrupt form XXXIX. See Plato Cratylus 402 A. ahrjv. Hipp. vypbv avaiverai. 943. O TroXepos #609 VP-zpil GvfypovTj. Oeppubv 2 yfrv^erai. elpt'jvrj. Bywater adds 6vw/xa after ffv^/xiy^. XL. XXXVIII. and 15. Scholiast. ix. XXXVII. 5. de EI 18. KapipaXeov pori^eraL. XXXVIII. OKorav avppiyrj Ovoopaai. p. XL. Plutarch de EI 18. and Zeller adds ai)p in the same place. 392. XXXVI. Ref. XklSptjcti teal avvdyei. I omit this. p. a 21. Ta yjrv^pd deperai.

0' ^bovyv l/cotrroi. XLI. surfeit and hunger. XXXIX. are really one. 483 . Cold things become warm. It scatters and gathers. the If all existing things nostrils were to become would distinguish them. though he did not understand day and night. very many things. XXXVII. when it is mixed with spices. moisture dries. But he undergoes transformations. two opposites. In Theogony 124 Hesiod calls clay the daughter of night. The They one. the parched gets wet." and I am not certain that this is not the "Unity of "savour. is named after the savour of each. Souls smell in Hades. could mean "according to individual caprice. or. smoke. just as fire. it comes and goes. It is difficult to see what sense can be given to this fragment except that in Hades souls are a smoky exhalation." and : meaning here. I have followed him. war and peace. According to Heracleitus day and night. two aspects of the same XXXVI. though with some hesitation. ko. especially as the reading of the second sentence is dubious. XXXVIII. Burnet renders ^So^rj opposites" again. and so come under the sense of smell. for other waters are ever flowing on to you. "are made holy. God is day and night. For they are think that he knew we should say. as thing. XL. winter and summer. warmth cools.ON THE UNIVERSE XXXV. Pfleiderer suggested ootovvTcu. You could not step twice into the same rivers ." a thought foreign to Heracleitus. teacher of most men is Hesiod.

309. ^vviacn OKox. The one refers to the shape of the bow. e7ri^t)TOvai (fxicrKcov Kal Kal avTOiv tovtcov dvcorepov 7 pev epav pev op. Ov 6p. 1 5 ivavrlcov ovtcov. Haer. p. Ref. hovXovs iiroirjae XLV. the latter to the tension in the bow-string. Kal tou? pkv Oeovs ehei^e p. 9). he prefers the latter and Diels the former. and the Ven. Kal 'HpciKXetTos cravTi' a>9 epis €K re decov Kal av6 pwirtav arro- Xono' ov yap av eivat dppoviav pur) 6Vto? 6^eo<. 370. XLIV. Hipp.vpnnhr)<f XLIII. p. 107. Haer.€vov 6p(3pov Kal 'HpaKXeno? to dvrl^ovv irecrelv e? yatav avp<pepoi>. 104 A. de An. not have said both iraXlfTpoTros and iraXlvrovos .IIEPI TOT IIANTOZ eTTLTtp-a t&> iroir)- XLIII. Kal eK tcjv hiacjiepovToyv KaXXlo~Ti]v 2 dppoviav. Bywater reads iraAlvrpovos (as in Plut. Categ. Plutarch de .oXoyeer 3 Kal Xvprjs. Kal fiapeos. and Hipp. (pvaiKwrepov' E. Plato Symposium 187 A. 48. _ XLIV. Iliad xviii. Kal irdvra Kar epiv yiveaOai. tov$ Tou? he iXevBepovs. epav he aepvov ovpavov 7rXr)povp./3pov yatav ^rjpavdelaav. 484 . iravrcov €<ttc IToXe/to? irdvrwv pev 7raTi)p he ftaaiXevs. htacpepopevov ea>vrw iraXivTovos appiovirj oKcoairep to^ou irepl XLVI. XLV. p. ix. 1026. Sophist 242 d Procreatiune 27. iraXiyrovos yap ap/xovui Ref. Iside. See Eustathius Scholiast. Pr. ix. 9. p. p. also on Simpliciua in Arist. A. ovhe ra ^u>a avev 07)\eo<> Kal appevos. Plutarch de Iside 45.ev 4 tovs he avdpwTTovs.ov uKwcrirep Avpr)s Kal Tofou Ka8' Burnet thinks (rightly) that Heracleitus could 'UpdicXeiTov. k6<t/j. de Anion.

26." and that "all things are born through strife. viii. bow and of the harp. iv." and that "from things that differ comes that the fairest attunement. War is the father of all and the king of all some he has marked out to be gods and some . Stewart on Aristotle. With from opposite shapes." and "high heaven. Aristotle." like that of the the reading TraXivrpoiros the meaning is : "a harmony XLVI. p. Eth. Nic.) . Euripides says that "the parched earth is in love with rain. and no animals without the opposites male and female." beneficial. XL1V. for In reference to these very things they look deeper and more natural principles. p.ON THE UNIVERSE XLIII. They understand not how that which is at itself variance with agrees with itself. And Heracleitus rebukes the poet who " would that strife might perish from among gods and men. attunement without the opposites high and low. 2. loves to fall to And Heracleitus says that "the opposite is earth. \ic. Eth. There is attunement of opposite tensions. vii. (hip. £16. 11 61M. Eth. 1. to be men. 1235a. with rain fulfilled." Burnet thinks that there is a reference to the medical theory of "like is cured by unlike" in the first of these See also quotations from Heracleitus (to avri^ow ovptytpov). - 485 vol." For there could be (he said) no says. some he has made slaves and some free. End. 1104. XLV. 1 2 Aristotle.

Nie.1 acortjpiou. 117G« 6. koX oXedpiov. iuxta parietes reponendus est. Hipp. 178 F.ua iari 2 Ka\ 7} avTrj. XLVII. . 5. v. ix. Vvacfaecov ooos evOela kclI ukoXli] /. p. LIII. %d\aaaa vBaip fcaOapcorarov /cal pnapwraroi'. p. ix. de Anion. Bop/36 pro yaipeiv. 545 Meyer. R. 401. LII. ix. Hipp. 102G. ut sit quo aves se perfundant nam his rebus plumam pinnasque emendant.ev 3 dvOpco-rrois Be airoTOV 7r6rip. Ref. Prolrept. Bywater yva<peicx> Bernays. 486 . credimus Ephesio Heraclito qui ait : : 2 6 cohortales aves pulvere (vel cinere) lavari. 9. si modo sues coeno. ubicunque cohortem porticus vel tectum protegit. Haer. 14. Procreatiooie 27. Clem. 10. Strom.riEPI TOT IIANTOS XLVII. ix. . Alex. p. p. 10. LT. L. 1 2 v. LIV. avSpas L. lydvai p.dWovrj y^pvaov. Siccus etiam pulvis et cinis. yva<peuv ypa<p4wv MSS. XLIX. Diog. 73. Haer. ev pidXa iroWcov 'la-ropa^ $Choelvat. Columella de R. By water's discovery. "XLVIII. Haer. XLVIII. 733. viii. p. XLIX. 'Qvol avppLCiT av gXoli'to p. Clem. p. Cf. Alex. Mr/ elfci} irepl roiv /xejlcncov av/x{3a2 XcofxeOa. Albertus Magnus de Veget. Laert. x. ix (18S0). 75. See Journal of Philology. LIV. Heraclitus dixit quod si felicitas esset in delectationibus corporis boves felices diceremus. Plutarch Ref. Athenaeus 10. p. 1 3 cum inveniant orobum ad comedendum. 4. Aristotle Eth.a is LI. LI. Hipp. 2 a6(f>ovi Xpr. Lla. vi. Ref. LII. 230.ov ko. Ap/jLOi'ti] d(fjavr)<i (pavepfjs Kpeiacrccv.

LI. XLIX. 487 . Let us not make random guesses about the greatest things. to men it is undrinkable and deadly. if only we believe improve their plumage and wings. Asses would prefer straw to gold." in the natural invisible attunement is superior to XLVIII. Heracleitus said that if happiness consisted call oxen happy when bodily delights we should they find bitter vetches to eat. which both revolved and also moved in a straight line. that the birds may have a place to for with these things they sprinkle themselves. Men who love wisdom must have knowledge of very many things. Heracleitus the Ephesian." L1V. The way of the This is a reference to the motion of the fuller's comb. This apparently means that the attunement of opposites " world is a superior " harmony to that which we hear from musical instruments.ON THE UNIVERSE XLVII. to fishes it is drinkable and healthful. Dry dust also and ashes must be placed near the walls wherever the porch or roof protects the chicken-run. Here we have the "unity of opposites" in a slightly in different form. LII. not inconsistent with iroXvfxaBirj roov *x eiv °" SiSaa/cei. not enough. Lla. LIII. iro\v/j.a8hi is it. who says: "pigs wash in mud and barnyard fowls in dust (or ash). a^aocia means "tune" rather than "harmony. Sea-water is both very pure and very foul. The the visible. yet the true philosophei have straight and the crooked cloth-carders is one and the same. To delight in mud. This will is Though L.

690. 2 pi) 7)V. 568. 473 . Uav ep7r€Tov LVI. 401 a 8 (with the reading ttiv yrjy). LVIII. Stobaeus Eel. Ref. Strom. p. 3. p. Stobaeus Eel. Hippolytus Ref. ix. LX. : en-cur eWrcu Bernays i. ffwatyies Diels ffvvd^ etas MSS. 488 . Clem.ffa. 34. Zeller retains p. 6. p. corrupt Many rots voffous suggested readings — Kal (to.€Tai. LX. for the MS. ev eari)' yovv iarpoi. oi LVII. and Hipp. Ayadov /ecu kclkov tuvtov. (TTOvvTas LIX. LIX. p. tow? dppco- 6 piaOov a^iov p. tV yrjv. ix.r]Sev \ap/3dveiv irapa tcov dppcoarovvTiov.a ovk dv ?}8ecrav.!). repvovres eiraiTLeovrai Kaiovre<i Travrt] fSaaavl^ovres kclku><. Tia\ii>TOvo<.vovs. reading Aristotle de ivair iHovrai. avvahov BiaSov €K ttuvtcov Swages Kal e'£ ev6<. for the i6crovs and Kal fSa. Mundo p. 396 b 12 . 2 TrXryyfi vip. See By water's 5. 10. 1 iv. Aristotle de Mundo i. Alex.5 ovvop. It is unlikely Porphyrius de Antro Nymph. 2. p. 29. 10. 369. 15. Hacr. See Plutarch de Tranquill. 185 b 20. LVII. At«/. Aristotle Phys. el ravra LV.nEPI TOY riANTOH LV. apfjiovirj Koap. Kara. that the aphorism occurred with both -KaKivrovos and KaXivT poTtos . puevov 3 ev ovXa Kal ov^l ov\a. ravra epya1 ^opevoi ra dyaOd Kal fTa<? voaovs^. Haer. See XLV.ov OKcocnrep \vpr/s Kal to^ov. aup<f>epohiafyepopLevov. 86 (with the reading ttAtjy. Kal dyaObv Kal kcik6i> (scil. i. p. ^>i]alv 6 H/aa/cA-eiro?. LVI. 2. de Iside 45. ras have been note. KaKa) ras voaovs. LVIII. rravra.

489 . Couples are wholes and not wholes. At any burn. Men would not have known the name Justice were it of not for these things. in that they effect such doctors. as LVT. agrees disagrees. LIX.^uov 8ia<pep6" what is drawn together and what is drawn asunder. Men do not know what is Diels in Berl. KaOdirep Troi/meves kttJctj vXiryfi ve/J-oyres. Goodness and badness rate are one. and have to be forced to it." /xevoi' and takes all three pairs to be explanatory of owdtpics. cut. benefits f in sickness. But cf. 1901. creature is driven to pasture with The reading 7ft'. 497b. what LX. The reading owatyeias could be taken as a potential optative without &v. Agamemnon 358 and Plato. f With hcamuprat the meaning is: "complain that the patients do not give them an adequate return. This refers . See Critias 109 B. will refer to the "crawling creatures" (worms) which feed on earth. is That is. LVII I. Good and bad are the same.ON THE UNIVERSE LV. is of opposite See Fragment XLV. Burnet renders avfjL(pfp6fj. as Heracleitus says. good for them. and from the sick a cruelly rack the sick. (a) to a thing being good for some and bad for to goodness and badness being two aspects oi others (b) the same thing. preferred by Zeller and Pfleiderer. p. The attunement of the world is that of the harp or bow. tV tensions. 188." See Plato. Aeschylus. justice known only through injustice. LVII. Every blows. the concordant is discordant. From all things one and from one all things. Sitzb. asking to get fee that is not their deserts. Republic VI.

s. iii. LXIII. B. 49 ap. appiovlav Kal oirep HpaKXeiros Xeyei. Clem. Ev lS to ao(J)hv fiovvov XeyeaOat ovk iOeXei 2 Kal iOeXei Zip'bs ovvopa. 2 oKoaa he evhovres vttvos.ev doiKa vTreiXrjcpacriv. LXII.dyai i]plv aXXu><.a /3io?. P. 14. LXV.eva rrdvray^ * * * *.eva nrdvra Kar epiv Kal f xpeoopeva^. iv. LXIV.ev Sena he deo> avvreXel yap drravra 6 0eos Trpos twv oXcov. a he hiKaia. 312. LXVI. dXX' repirei. Strom. i. Schol. Clem. Origen contra Celsum vi. 49 Elyinol. Schol.ev. 17S. p. LXIII. ov/c cnrpeTres' yap ovhe yevvala epya p. ©aVaTo? eari oKoaa iyepOevres opeop. p. Elhevai XPh T0V Kal 3 h'tKi-jv epiv Kal yivop. re ra> 7r6Xep-oc real p. Alex.v.Cov ra ovpLcftepovra. LXIV. 5.IIEPI TOT IIANTOS cbaaiv. 1 troXepLOv eovra %vvov. Alex. p. "Eari yap elp. LXVI. p.ei> 6eu> tca\a heivd. v. 4.. epyov he Odvaros. 520. 122. iii. fo? rip p. 718. ravra rrdvra Kal 9 dyada Kal hircaia. p. Stobaeus Eel. 42. Bo/cel. olKOvop. ToO 2 /3iov ovvop. Strom. /8iJs. magnum .app. LXV. Cramer A. i. in 120 Bekk. 3. II. 490 . p. Eustathms in Iliad. 1 i. in Iliad. LXII. el LXI. avOpcorroi oe a p. TroXepuwv 'A7rpe7re9 repirei tou<? tcl Oeovs 6ea.

is stages. said. . omnis vita. . just as those we see in sleep are slumber. irvp aieifaov. "Ununi illud principium mundi est materia causa lex signiticat illud . Ai'kt?. God makes everything contribute to the attunement of wholes. but in the For sight of God even these things are not terrible. and puts a great deal of Heracleitus' teaching into regimen. Life. and that everything comes into being by strife and . Water. A pun on $il>$ (bow) and \°Aos (life). § 40. to (p6etp6ueva and icpiv6fieva. but its work death. . unde manat omnis motus. of wars delights the gods. \6yos : varia nomina. other things just. Gr.ON THE UNIVERSE LXI. as he dispenses the things that benefit." Hitter and This is admirably Preller. res non diversa. Zevs.os. . omnis intellectus. even as Heracleitus says that to God all things are fair and good and just. I'hi. Bleep. LXIV.iVa nas been emended to Ka.Taxpeujj. Death. Whatsoever things we see when awake death. They say that it is unseemly that the sight But it is not unseemly. Idem three sentences. Fire. LXI I. LXV. Hist. For there are things foreordained wholly.svo. note a. LXVL The name is of the bow is life. Diels thinks that the original are we see when dead is life. Wars and fighting for noble deeds delight them. oo<p6v. We must know that war is common to all and that strife is justice." went on to say that "what The road up and down has three or. The one and only wisdom both unwilling and willing to be spoken of under the name of Zeus. seem to our thoughtlessness (?) terrible. but men have supposed that some things are unjust. but no reading commends itself as really probable. The corrupt xP e<*>V. LXIII. 491 . Earth.

In several cases {e. de Antro Nymph. Strom. 4. 10. Mundi 21. (or parts LXVII. Stobaeus Flor. Hacr. 2. Porphyry ap. LXXII. Hipp Ref Haer. Hipp. 392 . LXXI. LXXIV.g. Philo de Incorr. Numenius ap. p. in Tim. i. By water.. 41. 3 yap Odvarov vhcop yevecrOai. LXVIII. 75 Stobaeus Eel. 'S. p. v. Bekk. ov/c e7rai'oov 3 fSaivei. Haer. . LXVIII. Schol. 10. Patrick vi. p. ix.IIEPI TOT IIANTOE Ovtjtol. y¥v)(f](Ti repifris vypfjai yeveaOai. Laert ix. dyerai Traihbs dvi)/3ov cr<f)aWop. Alex. 10. LXXIV. Ast) the fragment occurs in the form avyr/ Another very old form. Diog. LXX. B. 489 Cleomedes vep\ /j. E-u i. 6.eTed>paiu i. p. 7.ei>o<. v.. p. Stobaeus Flor. p. LXXI. LXXIII. LXX. 'Avrjp otcoT^ dv pLeOuaOfj. tyvxf}*. xli. Diog. AOdvaroi ^wi/T6<? dvrjTol dOdvaroi. p. of it) Avrj tyv%i) crofpoordTr] Ref. going back at least to Phiio. 120 (in the form auij Zvpb $vx*l coronary) koI apiary). Hermeias in Plato Phaedr. Proclu3 c. The fragment See are quoted by many authors. Tyr. LXVII. fiiov top i/ceivwv Odvarov tov he tyv%fi<Ti e/celvoov 3 T€@l'€WTe<. or Diels. p. de Defectu Orac. 995. vypyjv rijv yjrv%r)V e^cov. LXXIII. II. Laert. Max. tyvxb <To<pa>TiTi} 492 . 746. ix 8. vharc he Odvaros yr)v yeveaOar e'« 77)9 he vhcop yiverai. I'orph}^. e'£ vharos he ^v^ij. 16. LXIX. 200. Plutarch Romulus 28. 41. 509. where l^pr? is a gloss). 120. 'Ohbs dvco Karco pia /cal oovtt).Tri Kal apiary. v. xiv. £vpv tyoxv (ro<pwTa. Clem. Treipara ovrc dv e^evpoto irdcrav j3advv Xoyov e%e^. teal dplarrj. 432. viro oter) 2 eTTiTTopevopevos bhov' outgo LXXII. is ov yr) ^vp'h.VVOV dpXV Kal TTtpCLI. Ref. ix. 73. Hipp. 36 LXIX. Plutarch de Cam.

and the rest of death is pleasant. LXXII. the is really a way to the joy of a new life. tXirep ttjv ai'aOvixlacrty. The Zripy—avyb and LXXVI. 405 a. led LXXIII. koI apiary. referring to a point on the circumference of LXXI. their being dead is the others' life. so deep a measure it has. de Anima I.ON THE UNIVERSE LXVII. Being perfect in tense it strictly means "being dead. A dry soul is wisest and best." i. re'pij/is of intoxication. LXXV 493 . ' LXVII I. the way down to death Or (finally). passage cannot be altogether without a reference to the See the next fragment. is are common. Immortal mortals. 25: kcl\ HpaxXtiTos Be t£ 7jy rriv ap%/V eivul (prjtri xpvxvv. TdAAa crvvioTr)(riv. stumbling. one living the others' death and dying the others' life. soul. having his soul moist. 2. The limits of soul you could not discover though you journeyed the whole way. not knowing where he walks. mortal immortals. The beginning and end Heracleitus a circle. Or.e. It is delight to souls to become moist. is one and LXX." as in Fragment XXIII. LXIX. For it is death to souls to become water. The road up and the road down the same. Perhaps because the change to moisture means death. For the sake of symmetry in English I have translated reOi'eccTes rather inaccurately. The best commentar}' on this is Aristotle. and death to water to become earth. ^ph—ol steps in the corruption seem to be ally— a&v See Bywater's notes on 77) Ztiprj. But from earth comes water. LXXIV. Burnet renders \6yov "measure. A man when he has become drunk is by a mere stripling. and from water.

ix.r. 2 aplarr}. . LXXVII. Hac. ev ev^povr) (pdos. 10. ReJ. oko)<. . tout' eivai Kmv Kal Tedin-jKG'i. LXXXI. Proclus in Tim. 2 "AvOpcoTros.{3aivopev Kal ovk tpftaivopev. 2 7rat8o? ?'. airreraL aTrocrf3epvvTai. Strom. LXXX. Clem. 22. Honi. noarovnos. p. 20. 9. Atcov 7rai? eari irai^oiv Tveaaevcov /3ao~i\iiti]. 1 Plutarch. 282 Suidas s. Kal to iypijyopb? Kal to KaOev^ov. 628. i. p. Alex. 58. ^rv^T] ao^oiTaTrj Kal LXXVII. 24 and Seneca Epp. 101 f.^ yi) ^rjpr). fOu 2 apiari). 494 . LXXX. Hore yap 6 Odvarcx. Ill Hipp. .IIEPI TOT IIANTOS %r)pi] LXXV. Alex. 106.lv avrois ovk eariv Kal fj (frrjcriv 'HpdfcXeiTos. 2 re 'JLSi&jcrdprjv ipewwrov. p. Plutarch adv. ad Apoll. Or. Dio Chrysoft. Heraclitus Alleg. 5 p. 1118. iv -iip. Consol. Colot.v. p. LXXVIII. Kal vkov Kal yrjpaioi'' rdSe yap pera- TreaovTa eKelva earn KaKelva ird\iv pera-Treaovra 6 ravra. iv. IToTa/iOicrt toIgi avrolai ip.^ ^Auyr) yjrv^i) a ocfxor utt] Kal LXXVI. LXXXI. 1 LXXIX. Clem LXXIX. etpev re Kal ovk elpev. Paedag. 55.

and it is possible that Heracleitus gave a new meaning to this old saying. LXXXI. and so are awake and asleep. soul is wisest For LXXV and LXXVI see notes on out." See Fragments XV-XVIII. and did not trust others. and again the latter when shifted are the former. LXXIX. and put like a light in the night. the text. Possibly it means: "I inquired of myself. best soul. Time is a child playing draughts : . avris ffvisex^ue Kal x P an/ ^dvpoof. The former when shifted are the latter. But Pfleiderer's theory. sought for the re'Aos in introspection. Dry light is the wisest and LXXVI. the and best. Where earth is dry. Iliad XV. Into the same rivers we step and do not we are and we are not. The changes game. For when is death not within our And as Heracleitus says: "Living and selves? dead are the same. Some see a reference to yt>u>8i aeavrov. that H. is LXXVII. 495 .urj of the draught-board to another. I searched my self. kindled LXXVI1I. step .u. Homer. of time are like the changes of the child's LXXX. is a strangely distorted view. young and old. Cf. See Ritter and Preller. bs T to\i eirel ovi' iroi7)oy advp/uiaTa vijirttijaiv. § 48. the kingship is a child's." Burnet takes the metaphor in vtrairecroiTa to be the moving of pieces from one ypa.ON THE UNIVERSE LXXV. 36'2 oos ore tis ipa'jaGov irocriy ira'Cs ayx e 1 Ba\aff<T7)s. Man.

LXXXVI. p. 46S. p. o KVKecov SilaTarat ph Kiveo- LXXXV. 138. eirel Kal 6 rou p. MeTapdWov dvarraverai. e'crri rot? avrots pLoyOelv LXXXTII. ii. LXXXVI. o 6 b .. Ex homine in tricennio potest avus 3 2 haberi. 163 Origen contra Celt. p. N. 3. Censorinus de D. Plutarch Qu. iv. p. in Gen. Eel. Clem. fxdWov Yevojievoi ^d>eiv edeXovai popov? r he dvairaveaOai. 906. 4. iii. on 226 c. Philo Qu. Pollux Onom. conviv. p. 630 Bekk. LXXXVII. i. TaTo? iariv 'O rpuiKovra dpidpLOS <f>vaiKcoyap ev povdai rpid<. V Etnpedocles. kvk\o$ crvvecmpcev e« reaadpcov rwv drro povdhos e^rj<i o6ev ovk drro ctkottov t? rerpayoovcov a'.vb<. p. 496 . p." 3 \ei7rovai popovs yeveadai. Ixiyywv 9.r. LXXXIII. 82. vii.. LXXXIX.HEPI TOY riANTOE 2 LXXXII. LXXXVIIL . . e~)(eiV Ne'/a'e? KOTTpiwv ifcfiXij-OTepoi. . 54. Cf. . p 247 Iliad xxiv. p. p. Strom. Plotinus Enn. 14. v. 8. Stob. 669 Julianus Or.41. 5. 516. v.r]va Ka\el. Theophrastns irzp\ Strabo xvi. LXXXIV. LXXXIX. Same as for LXXXII. rouro ev 8e/cdcn rpiaKOvrds. iv. LXXXII. 0/ pev err) r ptaKovra rcowvai rip> yeveav icad' 'Hpd/cXeiev u> TOV 'xpovct) yevvcovra rrape^ei rbv i£ avrov 2 4 yeyevvi]pevov o yevvijaas. 26. Iamblichus ap. dvaywooa-KOVTe^ 1 LXXXVII. Alex. 784 . Aucher. LXXXIV. KdfiaTos kcu dp^eaOai. 6 'WpaKkeiros yevedv rbv p. tcai Traihas Kara"7]{3copto<. The scholiast assigns the fragment to . 17. LXXXV. Kal 2 fxevos.

change is restful. I. 1 2 8 163 Goettling. LXXXIV. 9. next fragment. Apud Hesiod/r. the cycle of the moon is composed of the numbers 1. LXXXVI.ON THE UNIVERSE LXXXII. of In thirty years a man may become a The Fragments LXXXVI-LXXXIX refer to the "cycle The circle is complete when the son himself life. Bonn. Io. be not An example reality. By changing it rests. p. 497 . this being the time it takes a inti- father to have a son who is himself' a father. than is Corpses are more to be thrown out dung. Lydus de Mensibus. Some reading ?)/?o>vtos in this passage make a generation to consist of thirty years. the same masters and to be ruled by them. if it LXXXIII.e. rather LXXXVII. p. as it bears the same Then again relation to tens as three does to units. LXXXVTII. 16. grandfather. It is toil to labour for the Cf. iii. which are the squares of the first four numbers. 415. live and to and they leave children after them to become dooms." becomes a father. of change and motion giving existence and fit LXXXV. as Heracleitus has it. Def. Plutarch da Orac. 11. 37 ed. 10. The number thirty is one most mately bound up with nature. 4. The posset too separates stirred. LXXXIX. Wherefore Heracleitus hit the mark when he called the month (or moon) a generation. When dooms have — or born they wish to to rest.

rpefpovrai evb<> yap Trdvres dvOpconeioi vtto rov deiov Kpareei nrdo'i yap roaovrov qkooov 6 eQeXei Kal i^apKeei Set Kal irepiylveTai. 42. Sext. koivuv iii. TlavTa ol fxev et<? ev diroTeXecrpLa <Tvvepyov/j.(. By water does not %uvQ as Heracleitean and Burnet rejects tou 1 . tjvv v6(p XCI. . tjvva).vvov eaTL irdat to (f>poveeiv. Antoninus vi. 84. Xeyei 1 o Hpa/cXefT09 epydras elvcu Kal 5 crvvepyovi twv ev tw Koapuw yivofievoov. i'6/xov Cf.ev.. Math. ol St dveinaTurco<i' 01/j. 133. adv. elSoroos Kal wairep 7TapaKoXov8)]TiKcb<. . XCII. 49 8 . vo/xoi. |uj/ou. Kal ol ttoXv la^vpojepoi^.uv Flor. a> Kef Trei6o/. "B. XCII. M. Hymn of Cleanthes 24. . Aio o' eneaOci tw tou Xoyov e^ovre^ eovros %vvov. regard Aio .s ttuvtiov. ovre kXvovglv.ai.(Voi iadkhv e^oicv. Emp.IIEPI TOT lTANTOS XC. Kal tov<. ^coovcri ol 7ro\Xol a>? Ihirjv 3 <ppov7]aiv. XCI. KaOevhovras. ijvvcp Xeyovras tcr^vpi^eaQaL \pi) tw OKCoairep vo/xa> Tr6Xt. Stobaeus out' i<ropu<ffi 8eov crbv v<f H'. . vii.

appealing to the MSS. p.OX THE UNIVERSE ON XC. was for a man consciously and lovingly to follow this \6yos. John and the early Fathers. " XCI I. So men who have understanding must "keep their souls " dry and refuse to cut themselves off from the great principle of the universe by letting their souls grow moist. For it prevails as far as it wills. and there is something to spare. But though the Word is common. as a city holds fast to its law. and to try to associate himself with it. which is really the will of God. Christianity seized upon this thought. they held. It is the latter meaning that I think \6yos has in this passage. For all human laws are nourished by the one divine law. Burnet thinks that rov \6yov 5' ionos £wov does not belong to Heracleitus. "The common will be fire. 457. See Introduction. XCI. Heracleitus says that even sleepers are workers and co-operators in the things that take place in the world. But at this early stage in the history of thought there could be no distinction made between (a) the message and (b) the truth which the message tries to explnin. reading S« ovros in support of his contention. True virtue. others unconall work together In this sense. Therefore one must follow the common. to one end. and developed the \6yos doctrine of St. the many live as though they had a wisdom of their own. suffices for all. which is the one true wisdom. He is chiefly influenced by his conviction that \6yos can mean only the message or gospel of Heracleitus. POLITICS AND ETHICS We wittingly sciously. and much more strongly still. Thought is common to all. some and with understanding. What is crude and imperfect in Heracleitus became mature and complete in Stoicism. Men must speak with understanding and hold fast to that which is common to all. 499 . I think. Passages like this were eagerly seized upon by the Stoics when they elaborated their theory of a great kow'os \6yos animating the universe.

Antoninus t£ to '6\a Sioikovvti. yevei o-vp.ftdWeiv. vi. eva 3 /cal Hpa. XCVIII. ov o~v eirdyei. p. co? aWw cipa iridi')Kwv 'linria^ 6 s o~0(po<i. on dvOpaynwv o~ocf)La Kal 717509 Oebv Trldi]KO^ <f>avetTai 2 4 KaX ro£9 aAAoi9 irdaiv . Kal ^vrpcov rj KaXklari] ala^pd irapOevcov yevei avp. M. Aurelius (Stoic idea). 'AW/p vijirio? i)Kovae 717309 8alp. 12. dyvoeis oti to to? tov 'Hpa/caXXto-TO? Kkeirov ev e%€i. 46. iv.IIEPI TOT IIANTOE SiTjve/cecos 6fii\eovai. *H ov KaX 'HpdfcXeiros ravrbv tovto Xeyec. 291. tol<. iyprjyopoaiv kolvov tcoapLov eivat.K\eir6<.oi>o$ 2 oKcoarrep irals 7rpo? avSpos. Oelov Se e%et. M. Origen contra Plutarch de Superst. e/caarov XCVI. Set wairep Ka6ev8ovra<> iroLeiv XCV. 3. XCIII. . XCVII./3dWeiv.ev ov/c e\ei yvdypas. Ou 2 \eyeiv. aicrxpbs 5 (j)rjcnv 'II avOpcoTre. 'H^o? yap 2 avdpooTTeiov p. Diels adds \6yy which Burnet rejects as belonging to Cels. rcov Be Kotp-cop-evcov 1 et? iBiov aTToaTpec^ecrOai. <f)i]o-i. 166. rovrw /ecu XCIV. p. XCIII and XCIV. aot/jcoTaTO? Kal /cdXkei XCIX. *Ht fiaXiara 2 Siacf)6povrai. 1 XCVI and XCVII.

See Fragments XCI and XCII. but God has. as says Hippias the wise. that of rb XCVI. and that the most beautiful of pots is ugly in comparison with maidenhood. is Heracleitus you do not know that the remark of a sound one. Human nature has no understanding. (HIP. XCIV. 8 8 Plato Hipp. 289 A. as a ON RELIGION XCVIII. XCV. child XCVII.) T . but that when asleep each turns away into a world of his though we were asleep. that the wisest of men compared with God will appear as an ape in wisdom. in beauty and in everything else ? XCIX. way the thought that £vi/bv is This fragment expresses in another good. And does not Heracleitus too. to the effect that the most beautiful of apes is ugly in comparison with another species. and to be in close connection with " the ever diving fire" of the universe. mai. Sir. say this very same thing. Sleepiness to Heracleitus was the state of a man who allowed his soul to sink on the downward path into moisture or mud. mai. VOL. 289 B. We ought not to act and to speak as Heracleitus says that there is one world in for those who are awake. To be awake was to have one's soul dry. rb ISwv evil.ON THE UNIVERSE XCIII. They are at variance with that with which they have most continuous intercourse. IV. Plato Hipp. Man is called a baby by the deity is by a man. common men are own. whom you bring forward.

Clem. ii. Eth. "Tftpiv xph (rfievvveiv paWov f) irvp2 icahjv. C. Audiendo 502 12. Strom. Stobaeus Flor. Nic. teal aaxfipoveiv. 4. CIII.^ CVII. iii. Plutarch de cohibenda Ira 9. M<x^ecr#cu 2 o«&)<? virep TOY ITANTOS hrjpov virep rov vopov XPV T ° v Tcixeos. 119. 'AvBpcoTroHTC ov/c 3 apetvov. &vpa> paxecrOdL . iv. de CIV. p. p. 117. 457 and Coriol. 'ApaOiTjv apetvov KpuirreiV epyov he ev 2 Trap olvov. CV. p. CVI. 571 . 2 aKrjdka Xeyeiv dviaei real "\^£co<f)poveiv dperi) peyiorri' Kal aocf)ir) teal rroielv Kara cf>vaiv liraiovTa i. End. CVI. p. 'AprjufcaTOVS 06o\ TipUKTC KCU Ovd pWKOl. Strom. CVII. .\ i CVIII. 439. iii. p. CV. 22. Theodoretus Therap. .^a\e7roV 6 tl yap av XPV^V yweodai. 1315a 29. Aristotle Eth. Cf. Stob Flor.opoc vovai. reading xal (Heitz. Xipos Kopov. Iamblichus Protrcpt. Stobaeus Flor. iii. posse 2. 2 CI. CIII. 1223 6 22. p. iv. Plutarch Qu. M. Alex. CI. 497. conviv. Burnet). Alex. Alex. 2. CVIII. CIV. a^ru^s wveerai. yiveadat okogol OeXovai vovaos vyietav €Troit)(re r)8v. p. p. Diogenes Laertius ix. 33. Stobaeus Flor. 84. p. and Pol. doc. 43 and Virt.IIEPI C. kclkov 2 ayaOov. Diogenes Laertius ix. S/rom. 2. Clem. v. 21. 7. CII. prooem. j''Ai'#pa)7roK7t 7racrt pirean yLyvcocrtceLV 2 eavrov<. yap pi^oves pe^ovas potpas Xayx^- CII. viii. xviii. 83. 644. 586. Diels. 32. /ca/xaTo? avcnravaiv. Clem. 140 1105a 8. I accept (with some hesitation) KaKbv for the MS.

CI I.6t the word covers a wirier area than any English equivalent. p. To be sober-minded is the greatest virtue. listening to the voice of nature." "passionate craving. CVII. Nicom. This refers to the "fiery deaths" of heroic men. contend against one's heart's it wishes to have it buys at . You should put out fire. It is hard to for whatever desire the cost of soul. For greater dooms win greater destinies. These two fragments (both are of doubtful authenticity) express positively what quasi-negative form. and wisdom is to speak the truth and to act it. . and also the following fragment. pleasant thing. For men to get all they wish is not the It is disease that makes health a better thing." Aristotle understood Ouphs to mean anger {Ethic. 2. insolence even more than a CIV." "urge. good. wall. The people should fight for their law as for a This is because the law is £. men honour those who are killed CIII. is stated in Fragment CV in a CVIII. evil. It is the concern of all men to know themand to be sober-minded. surfeit.ON THE UNIVERSE C." selves CVI. To gratify Qvfxbs is to allow one's soul "to II. but includes much of what we include under "instinct. CI. Burnet so translates 6ufj. is. See Introduction. but a reflection of the great £vvbv of the natural world.w6v. hunger. become moist. rest. Gods and in battle. It is better to hide ignorance. and toil. 1105 a 8). CV. 457. in fact. but hard to do this when we relax over wine. it is 5°3 .

Alex. 787. ATTlo-Tir) Bia<f)vyydvei pi) CXVII. voo$ rj <f>pi]v . p.^ CX. xiv. 2 aicwai. bv dv pvq yivco- CXVI. 7. Plutarch an Scni sit ger. p. 30. CXII. . rrjv ttoXlv KaraXnrelv. 'E^ 2 irXecov Upiijvr] Bias eyevero 6 Tevrdp-eo). koX TOt? dvi]/3oi<.ecov p. Eesp. . edv dpiaros 77. v. Tt? yap avrwv doiBoiai eirovrai TrelOeaOat evof. 642 . [Bijptuv] fcal BiBaafedXw xpecovTai opbiXw. i. J \'KpvTTTeiv /cpeaaov t) is to 2 fxeaov (frepeiv. K. Stobaeus Flor. No/xo? zeal j3ov\fj CXI. CXV. Galen irepl Siayvdaews <r<pvynwv i. ix. iv. ovk elSoTes ore ttoXXoI Ka/col oXiyot Be dyaOoi. CXIII. iravrX Xoytp CIX. CXIII. B\a£ avdpunros eVt 2 iirTO)]a0ai (piXeei. CXIV. 9 . 154 Arcer. 255. ol Be iroXXol KeKopi]VTai oKuxnrep 6 KTiji>ea. v. xl. Iamblichus de Fit. 9. v. 20 Seneca Epp. p. ou Xoyos r) twc aXXcov. p. p. alpevvrai yap ev avr'ia tt&vtwv ol apiaroi. . devaov 6v>]t(op. Strabo Musonius ap. 2 p. p. Clem.IIEPI TOT IIANTOS dpadirjv CIX. 105 Flor. 25. Clem. Diog. CXV.vve<> ' /cal fiav^ovat. Stob. dXXr) T€ koX per aXXcov. CXII. Strom. Disp. 1 Theodoras Prodromus in Lazerii Misccll. 7. "A^iov 'E^ecriot? i)j3y]B6v dndy^acrdac irdat.rjBe eh 6v/]iaro'i earco. Alex. yivcocrKecrOai. 82. Creuzer. 5°4 . 14. CXI. 88. Et? epol pivpioi. Cicero 'fuse. 682 and Proclus in Alcib. 5 el Be p?j. Strom. (pdvres' r)p. vii. oirives dvBpa ecovTcov 6v?']iaTov 'FjppoBwpov i£i/3aXov. 718. Laert. tcXeo<. Diogenes Laertius i. p. CXIV. . iii. 586 . CX. Pyth.

CXV. 13.ON THE UNIVERSE CIX. 699. CXI. He escapes being known because of men's honour save in his unbelief. city to the boys. CX. 1'oet. Plutarch p. His "common. CXII I. let him be so elsewhere among other people. 9. saying. Strom." the . CXII. For the best choose one thing over all others. " We would have none among us who is best if there be such an one. to me is as ten thousand. CXIV. Dogs also bark at him they know not. One man be the best. which each man must apprehend for himself. CXVII. It refers to the law or principle of nature. while the many are glutted like beasts. and dc and. p. It is law too to obey the advice of one. has " " nothing to do with common-sense or with general opinions. To hide ignorance it is preferable to bringing to light. the best man of them. CXVI. son of Teutamas. For what mind or sense have they ? They follow the bards and use the multitude as their teacher. Clem. A fool is wont word. immortal glory among mortals. not realising that there are many bad but few good. 5°5 . "A prophet is not without CXVII." to be in a flutter at every CXVI. 41 v." of course. Plutarch Coriolanus 38. p. In Priene lived Bias. da Audiendo 7. Alex. if he Fragments CXI-CXIII show the aristocratic tendencies of mind of Heracleitus. He who can do so best is a natural leader and lawgiver. own city. 28. All the Ephesians from the youths up would do well to hang themselves and leave their For they banished Hermodorus. who is of more account than the others.

Plat. Plutarch Qu. 23. p. Xrjvai. CXXIII. Unus dies par omni est. real 'Ap^t3 \o)(ov 6/xoio)?. 2 'Av9pooTTOV<s fievet Te\evT)j(ravTd<. also has iyepTi. ix. Ref. <pv\dacreiv has been emended (Schleiermacher). Alex. Kal ei rots dydXfxaai Tovreoicn evxovTao. CXXI. Theodoretus p. CXXII. CXXIII. 5°6 . Hipp. 10.dprvpa<. i. iiravitTTao-dai Stob.. 1. 1 . 28. Alex. Toy #' "O/xypov e(f>acrrcev CXIX. Flor. Strom. The MS. v. Aphrod. 2 p. Flor. Therap. ci^iov tcov dyoovcov e/cfidWecrOai real pairi^eaOai.s Bernays tvQa Oebv del So the MS. CXXI. <p\vd<rcreii> (Bergk). dc Fato 6. CXXVI. CXX.vcnr)pia dviepuxrrl fivevvrai. 2 p. civ. cxx. Themistius in Stob. p. 16 CXXII.IIEPI TOT IIANTOS 6 CXVIII. CXXIV. okoIov yap vofu%6fieva /car dvdpcoTrov. SoKeovruiv Diels SoKfovr' Siv. Various emendations . 999. Alex. CXXV. Strom.vcrrai. viii. The MS. 'EiTravLo-Taadai real (frvXareas yiveadav 2 iyeprl ^wvrcov real vetepcov. p. 22. (Bernays and Bywater). 1 CXX. has before the words tvda 5e<Wi. Ao/ceovra ^(f)v\d(Tcr€LV''\ So/a/teoraTo? teal yivcoa/cei teal /xevToi Slkij KaraXij-^rerai ire 3 yjrev$€tt>v re/CTOvas real /j. Clem. fid/e^oi. iv. Nvktl7t6Xol. To. Clem. 630 . irXdoosw . Seneca Epp. 2. Plutarch Camillus 19. reading is to (pvKacraii Schleiermacher suggested ZoKtovra and The MS. (Svtqov. 3 yivcocrreayv deovs ouS' nqpwas. p. 12. Haer. fxdyoi. olnve^ elai. z6uto. . The text is that of Bernays. 649. : have been suggested iyddSe Sauppe ivddtie icm Petersen. 118. Tt CXVIII. 'H^o? dvdpwirw haifiu>v. OX) Tt? rot? 86pLOL(TL Xea^r/vevoiro. dcraa ovk e\"novTai ovhe horeeovai.

2. And to these images they pray. 3. 1 Diogenes Laert. P. CXIX. He said that lists Homer deserved to be ex- pelled from the likewise. Of all Bergk's <f>\vd<j<reiv. 2. p. 67. Magians. as if one were to talk to one's house. 0. ix. CXXII. Alex. 384. and vii. 18 p. CXXIV. 3. 5° 7 . and beaten.ON THE UNIVERSE CXVIII. To rise up and become wakeful guards of the living and of the dead. Alex. 62. walkers. Protrept. Protrept. 4. p. A man's character is his fate. One day is like any other. Clem. 44 Origen contra 5. The one most in repute knows only what is reputed. Alex. the initiated. CXXIV. and Archilochus CXX. CXXVI. p. 1. Night - CXXV. the emendations of the corrupt <pv\&<jff*tv I prefer but I follow Burnet in deleting the word. ii. 19 = Eusebius P. CXXVI. The mysteries that are celebrated among men it is unholy to take part in. E. p. Cels. i. p. CXXII I. ii. priests of Bacchus and priestesses of the vat. Protrept. E. p 66. knowing not the nature of gods and heroes. There await men after death as such things they neither expect nor look for. = Eusebius . Clem. CXXI. Clem. CXXV. And yet justice will overtake the makers of lies and the false witnesses.

CXXIX. coenrep 3 K. avaiBearara etpya&T av' touTO? Be AtSt]? zeal Aiovvaos. 30.evoi diro- vitpno. ®vcrt(op TOivvv TiOrjfxi Bitto. 1 "Aiceo.) 15.aTO€iBr/ koX Bid peTaffoXrjs avvicndpLeva. Iamblichus de Myst. 11. Plutarch de Iside 28. brew paivovrai 4 teal \i]vai£ov<Ti. CXXX. Or. CXXX. real Et pi] vfiveov acrpa alooiotcri. xxv. Protrept. Robertson inserts al/xa before ai/xari. p 466 with See Apollonius Epp. 2. ola co? <j>r)CTlV ei'6? civ r) irore yevoiro (nravl(o<. 'HpcifcXeiros. i.aOalpovrat el Be aipan av Tt? e? irijXbv ififids 7r>]Xa> paabv6p. 27.IIEPI TOT IIANTOE yap Aiovvcrrp iropnrrjv eTroievvro CXXVII. ecBrj' ra fxev rcov cnroKeKadappevwv e(/>' rcavi air aaiv dvdpiOTTcov. 362. Tivrov oXlycov evapidpur)- Twv avBpoiv' ra S' evvXa teal o~cop. Alex.. ola rots ert KaTe%opevoi<. p. 7 vtto tov o~(oparo<i dpp-o^ei. Clem. p. CXXIX. 15. v. Gregorius Naz. 508 . Professor Elias Cretensis in loc. 1 Iamblichus de Myst. CXXVIII. U. CXXVII. (xxiii. S.

Cures (atonements). therefore. such as would rarely take place as in the case of a single individual. in whose honour they rave and keep two kinds of the feast of the vat. For made if it were not to Dionysus that thev procession and sang the phallic hymn. CXXVIII. or in the case of very few sacrifices. 5°9 .ON THE UNIVERSE CXXVII. But Hades is the same as Dionysus. sacrifices. just as if one who had stepped in mud were wash himself in mud. that of men wholly cleansed. When to blood. I distinguish. material and corporeal befit those arising from change. CXXIX. such as who are still fettered by the body. Heracleitus says. Second. First. defiled they purify themselves with CXXX. it would be a most disgraceful action. men.

.

170 Aristion. xxxiii. 309. 74 astragalus. 164. IV. 246 apoplexy. diseases peculiar to. 5. 230 angular curvature. liii. T. . 361 . I. I. I. as cause of disease. I. 4. n. I. IV. rv. II.va. I. I. I. I. 101. 88. IV. n. 310. bandaging of. 433 a. 335. definition of. 298 I. difference from Europe. 321 I. 67 Ajax. Waters.Kov4>i<jixa. 247. 393 ankylosis. immature and mature. xlvii IV. 429 astronomy. 230 . xvi. 154. I. Adams. IV. I. 321. 223 IV. 298 abscession. 93 Asclepiades.INDEX OF CHIEF NAMES AND SUBJECTS Abdera. 250. xxiii. ui. 104 seqq. in. 170 Antigenes. 362 . contributions of. 213 Allbutt. n. fingers. 317. I. xxv. vii. . v. xxx. I. Aristion. use of muscles for. 232 seqq. 411. 230 . I. 5" . xxxiv Areto. in. I. 298 Asia. xii Antagoras. 74. in. xxxvii Aeschylus. 278. 1 n. 61 . 452 Anaximenes. Sir Clifford. in. 320 iTjrpos. 166 I. 74 air. xxii. II. 435 . xxxviii Asclepius. v. 130-132 asthma. II. 97 . m. xliv. 68. I. I. 5. IV. n. external. xlix Achilles. I. in. II. 160. seqq. xlvi amputation. xxvi. m. 90. xlv. Anutius Foesius. xlvii. arm. I. 256 Asclepiadae. and editions of. ankle. in. xx seqq. MSS. Airs. misconception of. 341. in. 183 Artaxerxes. 89 n. m. I. . treatment for dislocation of. in. vi. 270. 452 Anaxion. xliii Artemis. 178 Antipho. I. 330 Academy. IV.. n. 133 . xliv seqq. toes. n. 9 Apollo Apollonius. m. 99 Archigenes. Arcturus. 2 . I. xii Amazons. 361 n. v.xxvi. in. 279 seqq. xxi. 1 Anaximander. I. 9. n. 339. 297 seqq. 3. xxxiii-xxxvii aphoristic style. 295 . m. v Aphorisma. n. xii Alcmaeon. appliances. liii 126 Anaxagoras. xix II. m. 346 archery. I.xxvii. m. xxv seqq. xxi. 102. to medicine. n. general. UI. Ix. I. 170. I. authorship of. xxix. in. 283 seqq. physiology of. xlix. 94 Antyllus. 3 'AvapusU. treatment of.. in. in. xi. 368 Aretaeus. angina. xvii Archimedes. Aristotle. xvii. 268. III. lvi meaning of. xlviii. 130-134 Aglaidas. pseudo-. ni. . 361. 50.. iv. dislocation of. IV.I. .. 18. 67 . library at. 195. Places. etc. 176 ague. I. rv. 72 . 296. necessity for. 237 n. ix age. I. I. 278 . I. 274. . ni. 133 Alexandria. ill. treatment for fracture of. Aristocydes. 425. in. leg. in. xvi. m. 266 Ancient Medicine. general. 4. 411 n. teachings of. 425 187 abortion. 105 seqq. 170. 238 IV. 266. xlvi. v. I. I. 38. xliii.

rv. I. Onidian school. of Hippocrates. in. Greek. IV. . bregma. 340 133. 67. 256-286 babies. etc. xix.INDEX athletes. I. 324 Bacchius. 1. xxvi n. 700 in. HI. H. 266. 321. 120 seqq. 177 . Breaths. U. lii. 79 IV. liv. 170 Caelius Aurelianus. in eyes. IV. 270 of. J. 62 seqq. Professor. I. 262. n. m. I. 9 bruises. attack upon. xlviii. III. description 46-48 lvi. 310 Darwin. 294. Cos. 148-152. collar-bone. xiv-xix. 54. 78. I. doctrine * of. xxi. m. 92 curvatures. 341. I. general. 178. 399 seqq. 271 seqq. p. elimination of. I. IV. 70-84 barrenness. I. xi. bone. 235 seqq. Celsus. xvm. 152. 63-65 Cnidian Sentences. I. 157. 230. I. 54-56 Ohrysippns. 217 cattle. in. 347.. 178 Crete. 54. 276. xiii. I. 277 action brain. 192. I. Professor. I. and effect of. 373 seqq. of. colds. treatment. xl. 152. n. 79 Aulus Gellius. 48 102 in throat. fracture l. 161 176. 74. xxiii. 173 treatment for. ni. 86. I. treatment Burnet. xi. m. 168. I. I. n. I. I. 200 of. 226 chamomile. 170. 310 atomism. M. 216-220 contusion. li . I. Decree. 345. 90 Decorum. in. Daremberg. opp. xxx bandages. m.. xiii. 246 Caria. dislocations of limbs of. xix. m. F. I. 158. II. 269 authorship and date of. 182. 221 constipation. in head. lvi. 170 11 . xvi Ctesias. rv. 270 of. III. m. cause. n. II. xxxvii. xvi. n. 60. 296 bench. 118. 164. 186-210. nature of. 206. 5 climate. 454 Bensel. n. I. 359 cheese diet. I. IU. m. 74. I. in. 124 342baths. 174. II. 176 dandruff. xiv. I. m. 156. xxvii 512 . 298-304 clinical histories. 97 n. gully Boyer. ni. 102. I. I. clothing. 344 beans. IV. 188 carbuncles. I. 04 . 180 Breasted. I. 226. xxiv coughs. 67 . xv Coray. diet and training. 476-503 Bywater. 172. I. 202 Oritobulus. 277. 84. I. m. 240. n. .. IV. coction. lxix. 435-7 D Daitharses. 295. Olazomenae. 180. atrophy. I. Dr. HI.. 313 seqq. consumption. I. 170 blood-letting. I. xvu. in nose. in. I. xlvii Cratistonax.. Oritias. . I. Cratis. of practitioner. Francis. 280 I. rv. I. 349. I. 65 seqq. Cyzicus. barley-cake. IV. general diet. m. 218-238. I. n. IV. xxvi Chirurgie d'Hippocrate. 196. 150. 126. 112 Crito. n. n. 10. general. 15 convulsions. Bootes. 325. xxv I. m. I. ni. I. I. 93 cancer. xliv. 326 club-foot. 348 Chaerion. postscript. 48 . 323. II. 30G-310 barley-water and gruel. I. 254. 429-431 clubs and societies. xxiv. xiv catarrh. seqq. I. xl. 161. 349 . 314-316 bedside manner. IV. 52 m. 46. 202 Oleanactides. I. and treatment Bion. xii. 4. 340 axle. 324 III. I. I. xiv 176 crisis. 306 I. . Coan school. 104.. 225 cauterisation. physiology of. 196 Clifton. xi . 2. 170 Croton. xxxiv Cenchron (wind). 273 II. 122. cicatrisation. xix 68. m. 280 m. HI.

140 seqq. 240. I. I. 142. L 144. 84. = power or property. 221. 10. 91. meaning of. sacred origin of. dislocation of. 336during treatment for fractures. I. I. 305 Euagon. n. 176 epilepsy (sacred disease). xxxv-vii. . 178 Dioscorides. II. . xxiii. xxvii. I. 310. 356. m. 54 E ear. and Regimen passim Empedocles. 24-26 IV. I. n. n. m. n. mentioned by Hippocrates. IV. 98. temple of. xlvi Diogenes of Apollonia. I. in Hippocrates. I. 10. endemic. 133. I. emetics. 183 seqq. . xv IV. 345. 84. iV. n. xvi. 66. I. 454 130-132 5 J3 . I. 74. 178 I. I. fracture of. Epaminon. embryo. xxx. Ermerins. 36. 176 Diels H. I. 79 of bandaging. 310 diagnosis. general. I.. Egypt. n. lviii. I. with wound. I. 9 Europe. I. method m. v. 202. symptoms. IV. 354. 222. xlvii n. 222. 30 Epicrates. 46. xxvii. ix dialect. 186 Euclid. m. xxx erysipelas. 317 segg.. 240. 44-52. . xix deformities. Laertius. 271j 274. 322. 248. in. n. xx 324 Dentition. ancient. xliii. I. xlix. xxj diploe. xxiii. 1 empyema. I. 200 I. -10 et passim = essence. 114. 120. 125. 447 distortions. m. 86. 307. 204 droDsy. I. lxix. 280 Delos. 275 seqq. I. Eleusis. 176. 431. etc. 245 seqq. xliii ear-ache. xxiv.. 194 Epicureanism. 84. I. Greek conception of. 128. IV. scenes of cases in.INDEX de Fasciis. n. m. 443 seqq. 2. 170 epiphysis. I. lvi diarrhoea. 176 Eualcidas. 92. 126. 157. xxxvii Erotian. 291. lxii . 141. 4. 340. . IV. method m. 79 . xlvi. 160. 108. I. 66 segq. 50- 52. x. I. 118. . 427 I. general. 144 Epigenes. I. 10. 261. v. I. 74 Edwin Smith Papyrus. IV. in. 98. I. xvi Democritus. and treatment. xiv Egyptians. general of bandaging. IV. m. troubled. 6. 317 deportment of physician. 184. periodicity of. . I. 342 . see Dreams passim Dromeades. and editions. Demosthenes. 78. 252. 1 52. dysentery. lix. U. n. n. 102. neglect of. I. 5 etiquette. I. lv seqq. vi. 79 Dog Star. Delearces. 210. in. 59 5\Jvani<. I. I. 200. xxxiii-xxxvi. 273 I. 187. 306 Epicurus. information re- Epistles. 170.. 257. m. 168 Erato. xxvii. xix m. 357. I. 411-413 xxx.. 151. I. x . differences of dependent on body parts. 150 seqq. ix. ancient medical. m. 38. 74 seqq. 257 Dionysus. 92 IV.. egg diet. difference from Asia. I. general I. n. n. HI. 154. n. 238 Dreams. 124 elbow. method of bandaging. 104 seqq. 226 Democedes. m. 192. . n. 246 drugs. author's viewpoint. development of. 133. 181. n. m. 3. 100. I. 44 eczema. 104. I. seqq. xxvii Erasinus. 237 n.. 306. m. 172. 365 lviii. 7. 100-106 Diodes. I. n. xli nourishment of. 9 diseases. 74. xxxii. MSS. 84. IV. 166. 54. 85. I. I. I. xlvii diet. . 168. n. IV.. TV. n. notes on. 30. xliv. 277 n. in. 130. I. m. I. 166 Epaminondas. 391 illness. xiv. m. 350 dislocations. 30. 282 delirium. garding. with mortification. 206. m. xxviii. 122. 405 Demaenetus. UI. 1. lviii. . in 113. 208. I. IV. I. avoidance of. m. I. xii. 306 Epidemics. 350. n. 18. xxvi. 420-447 dreams. 233.

I. I. 84 gods. xii. 313 seqq. a patient. 87 Fredrich. I. 71 seqq. xlvii foot. 348 seqq. m. 371 seqq. of Tarentum IV. 44. 166. 190 Heropythus.. 367 5H . 68. 13. 1 50. n. I. ni. 353. vi. xxxvii. 238. 218 Herodicus. food. xliii. HI. v. 136 Hera. strong and weak. xv . I. intermission and comparative dangers of. habit. xliii Gorgias. with wound. 180.. fees. vi. 389 . v. I. 181. I. I. UL Galen. seqq.. 90 Herophilus. 66 . flatulence. Carl. Euryphon.276. IV. I. xxvii. vi development of. xvi. responsible for disease. m. 98-104 Hades. I. 358 . 79. n. xx. 342 n.. . n. 251. 196. n. shrine of.. 90 Gorgias. DI. 240 not cause heart. lxviii. 170. heredity. I. 278. physique. 146- I. general treatment and prowith cedure. m. 78 abstinence excess of. n. . 66 . 395. 22 exercise. xxiv. physiology. I.. m. xlvi excreta. IV. subject matter of. M. xxii seqq. 5 Gnathon. extension. II. . 130. 146 Gomperz. IV. I. 97 seqq. 81 n. 277 glands. fowl diet. 1 life of. m. xlviii 187 m. m. m. I. 26. 2 Hermocrates.. in. 361. IV. 168. father of Hippocrates. 172. xix. xxix. 340. 228 II. n. I. wound. I. 294. haemorrhoids. nasal. 180 61 Ill n. n. xxiv. xxx Heracleitus. 350 Hicetas I. m. xliii. fiajments of. IV. xxi. xxx. I. n. I. I. I. 15. xii. xvii.INDEX Euryanax. xvii seqq. I. dislocation of. period of uniting. 155 seqq. 38-40. 58-60. 332-336 G I. n. 211 seqq. 84-94. I. 110 . 180. IV. II. 74. P fatigue. 1 hellebore. I. 200.. xxii seqq. xxiii. n. in. 108 Fous. 180. 80. 55. Hector. xxvi Girbal. 311 haemorrhage. authorship of. consequences of deviation from. 122. 337. 470-509 Heracles. I. 340 Herophon. 156. I. xv n. u. 358 seqq. headache. 357 seqq. 210 Heracleides. xxx . xiii hedrae. 322 fevers. 186 granulation tissue m. 119 dislocation of. 181 Fractures. m. 39 Greenhill. 316. 361 n. xl seqq. I. IV. xi. 44 . I. IV. IV. 262 fruit diet. 339.. 174. food and exercise. 132-4 hip. 320-322 30. III. dislocation of. xxxix gout. 42 . 30 from. 227 Glaucias. Regimen II-IV . 325 treatment for dislocation in. 26. I. method 437 of. tn. professional. n. n. n. 189 seqq. m. . I. 411 gangrene. n. liv.. Heliodorus. I. xliii IV. xviii. 270 Hermippus. 356 fomentations. I. lxix. in. 213. 93 : IV. n. xlvi Herodotus. 358 n. xix. 154. xv. xxv. IV. simple dislocation of. in. I. 2. IV. in.. Haller. 433 Gardeil. IV. . 17 seqq. of actions. 395 seqq. highlands. attended by fever. 429 Genuine Works of Hippocrates. I. m. xliii . 234 on effect of. I. 318-320 fractures. I. dislocation of. 237 n. 178 Gnosidicus. 182 fingers.' 353. 236 haemoptysis. II. 176 hiccoughs. in. 180 passim ills and treatment of. 125.. 84. 46U . in. m. xxv. 168. fish diet. IV. xxvi. shrine of. forearm. 178. 310. Harpocration. in. general III. in. 234. 54. seqq. 4. lviii. . IV. 272 foetus.

MSS. I. I. treatment for fracture of. xxxiii seqq. 45. authenticity. jaundice. 153. n. xxiii Ideas. I. III. xxxv. I. 165 Leicester. subject matter of. lowlands. 253. symp- Longheads. 297 seqq. C. 7 n. in. of. . I. xvi . 316 515 . vi lxiii. IV. 348. 437 Liars' Market. 183 seqq. MSS. I. 352 of. xxvi. 221 seqq. xxxvii. xxii seqq. li. I. 391-3 notes on. 9. 328 Law. lxix. 9. dislocation of. in. III. m. 417 Kromer. 127 seqq. Peter. 66. xix. general definition of. II. hi. xiii imagination of Greek Philosophers. III. 91. Ionia. swelling 16 I. I. treatment for. theory of. 5 toms In of. fracture of. I. xxii seqq. 87 seq. dislocation . xlii seqq. III. ill.. I. I. caused by riding. xi. m.. 92. 141. m. 188 n. IV. editions of. 115. n. in. Low. 219 of lvi apparent inconsistency of'. Mr. in. xx humerus. xxx-xxxii hump-back. m. 257. 413 lock-jaw. ill. IV. ra. . ill. xxi.' I. life of. 276 Maeotis. . 110 seqq. I. Kiihlewein. and treatment for. . I. I. xix. author's attitude to. injuries. I. I. I. 266. III. it. authorship of.. misconceptions of. Instruments of Reduction. W. simple fracture. 4. xl. m. m. inlluenza. III. 283 seqq. xxvii. of. method of extension of. 318 lever. xxxviii-ix. references to. I. Leonidas. 181 hypochondrium. m. cure of. 236 Libyans. m.. . xii. xxii-xxv incurable cases. II. 55. m. xiii. 37.. I. xvii.. 62-94 . xxii seqq. I. xxx. 259 lectures. xxxiv-v. 127. I. n. lists of. I. 189. 54 seqq. 328 Houdart. 253. of. xlix IV. liv Lvcophron. I. dislocation and treatment of.. . xlviii. 276 ' Late-learners. rx. iv. translations of. collection of. 2. vi. 211-216 III. xii rv. m. vi. 35 seqq. 25 n. IV. in.\ hypothesis. 232. III. compound fracture. 134 lungs. on general physique. 257 seqq. xxii internal disease 3. 25 n. xvii-xix. I. 253 see tetanus xlvi Humours. lxv. 220. Ixv II. I. 326 disloleg. I. 133 seqq. v Mack. the Suraery. 279 seqq. surgical interest of. 360 M James. Iiomeridae. physiology of. . 307 .INDEX Hippocrates. . I. . n. effect I. v. xvii leprosy. 110-112 67 . xliii. ill. 6 Iliad. 84 . 339 inflammation. . in. I. public. xii. U. 92 1. 60. 278. II. 173. 295 hydromel. xiii-xxi Hippon.. lxv. Earl of. publication of works. form and composition. IV. III.. I. li V Homer. xxvii . III. physiology of. treatment for dislocation of.. 354 lameness. 66. xxviii. 215 knee. lake of. I. ix lymph. cations and treatment. KaiXTTTOS 5/50/109. xlvi honey. 4. IV. I. 206-212. jaw. 350 108. in. 108. humours. doctrine I. I. and editions. lix. 126 Larisa. 92. xiv Italian-Sicilian School. III. II. 295. effects I. v. 405 Joints. lxiii. 127. 3. 351 seqq. 168. m. lactation. 298 Littre.

. . xlviii N Nature of Man. I. 44-46 . xlix Phaedo. 178 nivra pe'i. in. IV.. 90. HI. I. xlix. congenital elements Mantias. 78. 5. xlv 112 516 . 395 health. as an art. Nutriment. Dr. I. general. 1 Peck. I. theory of. IV. 193 IV. 261 Nelson. I. inconsistency in. 192. II. in. 361 n. 60. xvi. xliii n. I. i. 84-94 and . I. 111. 76. n. lxiii. I. lvii. IV. m. and consequences. xlviii. be 298 Pantacles. U. 311 Morte d' Arthur. 45. I. 363 seqq. plural sense of. 403 Phanagoras. xii mortification. vi. 1. 92 Melissus. xliv. 100 opposites. Ixi operations. v. vi. 87. I. O 2-22 Oath. 33. 84 subject matter of. I. of Abdera. I. method of distribution. 98. 204. 274 I. xvii.. 186 seqq.. Dr. xviii. I. ruptures of. I. ix seqq. nursing. xxii seqq. xxxii. xxi. I. in. massage. 236 pathology.. m. xx. 296-7. I. MSS. 44(1. Nomads. 4. m. HI. 2. 265 Perdiccas. lvi . 38. Dr. 455 Menecrates. n. 2C3 168 178 I. . 264 Meges of Sidon. region of. 7 . fracture and treatment of. 112 seqq. 221 . rv. ancient. in. 1 Pausanias. Ambrose. properties. 47. 194. 280 IV. in. 234 paralysis.. 59 Panacea. ix-xii oedema. I. xxxiii. 166 Pare. 291 seqq. I. xlii. ill. 59). 54 Marcus Aurelius Severinus. 118. in. I. xi and 261 MSS. xlv. in. IV. IU. xlvi. n. I. man. II. xxvi muscle. Phanocritus. 411 Petron of Aegina. learn. Greek equivalents. lviii . 284 meliorate. I. 56 I. Mras. I. I. Patroclus. I. I. xii of. 337 IV. 1 Menon. seqq. 198 92. m. editions of. 1. I. Oribasius. 170 authorMochlicon. I. ship of. ni. III. I. xxiv oxymel. Dr. IU. 225 Nicodemus. I. . n. 4. Moffat. xxvi. 34. how to ophthalmia. IV. xiii Paulus. IV. in. II. 316-318 medicine. xlvii n. 123. intentional. n. 67 . . I. melancholy. I. 277 308 fxri ousting ov. I. 266 Perinthus. 4 optative (without av) = optative (withar). and editions. 342 seyy. general procedure. IV. Axel. 168 . liv oAi'yos. I. etc. 348 Phaon. 52(1. 337 . 28-30 . IV. III. xvii obscurity. xxvi-xxix necrosis. 59. Q. I. I. xxiv Phaedrus. v miscarriage.2). of. 79 Myllus. 40. xliii Pericles. xliii. 78 Peripatetics. 453 Pantimides. Karl. 85 seqq. xxvii. I. ni. complex properties IV. x. n. 5 Moliere. xviii Origin of Species. John. I. 100. I. liii Matthiae. 318 Minns. v MSS. n. III. Philinus. IV. object of. n. xxvii. mind and pain. 234 Mnemon. m. I. lviii Meliboca. 89 parturition. n. Palladius. I. I. 192 Philetas. I. xx olecranon. IV. lv meals.. xxx-xxxii.INDEX malaria. 259. xix. in. xxvi Meton. IV. n. xxxvii. xlvii. 84. 341 nutriment. IV. II. 236. 213 Mnesistratus. 122 nose. Regimen II-IV passim meat diet. . 9. 197 ointments. 69 . xlvi Phasis. fracture. II. xlix Petrequin. U.

xii. 100. n. xxxiii. MSS. xxi running. Roscher. xlvi Philolaus. 3 Prorrhetic. IV. xi. I. IV. ix. and U. Republic. to Vol. editions of. passim. 66 Phrynichides. II. apparence of in FracturesJoints. xvi. cause and phlegm. 368 Q quackery. I. 66 Pliny. 292 respiration. xlv. xxxii. xlix philosophy. (1- 15). U. 8. xlix. . II. xliii. lii. 110 seqq. HI. 305 physiology. xlix.. 130 154 (1. xxviii requisites of physician. . Greek conception of. IV. ni. 164. publication. Regenbogen. of. pneumonia. The. 8.. 74. seqq. 328. xxxv . n. 91 of. I. symptoms. xxxviii-xlviii. 52 Philotimus. 3 prayer. 451-458. 218.. 305 seqq. seqq. xlvii n. xiv seqq. I. IV. 164. 172. IV. xxiv rhetoric. p. Plato. xliv. I. 202 Physician. xxxiv. xxiii Regimen I. xi. IV. IV. HI. xiii. 116 scamnum of Hippocrates. xlv seqq. to Vol. 339. Sacred Disease.. xxxv. I. xiii. xliii. I. separation of. I. xxxix-xlii Regimen . general symptoms . 164. 298 porousness of body. II. I. 5. xiv. m. procedure. I. 193 211 method m. 309 xx seqq. . xii. Pott. 352 Postscript. inferences. xiii Rufus. xliii. I. 309. 172. 130 science and imagination. IV. I. 240. 1 IV.. 244. 338 Pindar. I. 133. 84 II-IV. medicine. 185 . IV. 13) el 246 n. I. 6. HI. 164-174 Prenotions of Cos. 94. I. Polybus. ttoAus lsi. 178. pulse. and . I. = remedies in. I. I. I. II. 262 xxviii and Pylades. . reduction. IV. . n. 296. 7 . xx seqq. . . 14 Revelation. I. 295 psychology and healing. III. 186 Philistes. phlegmatic tendencies. I. xxvi sciatica. xvii I. and editions H. xiv . xxxvi.ayvuiO~t<. xxxviii R races. 44. n. 371 seqq. 84. 120 and treatment 307 seqq. 187 Soymnus. pleurisy. of. opp. Greek. rv. I. phrenitis. 276 Pythagoreanism. IV. 220 I. 59 seqq. xii. IV. x. 358 purgatives. 156. dislocation radius. I. IV. 187 Philistion. 339 H. IV. 1 prognosis. style of. 68. xx n. n. I. n. differences of. 152 seqq. plural sense of (1. m. 11 seqq. 152. 104. 84. 54 I. U. I. 310. m. MSS. xlviii IV... 330 seqq. I. I. Sacred Way. xlix-lv Regimen in Acute Diseases. xliii. IV. 3. lxvii. 120 . .. 135 . IV. IV. 422. 264. xx seqq. I. xxvii. 11). Percival. 339. xlvix. I. IV. xiii Protaijoras. I. 1 7S 5*7 . 320-2. 352 seqq. liv Pontic race. xix. III. II. 361 n. H. ix xxxiii. 436. 11) 158 (1. IV. 154-164. xxxix. HI. I. 268 Sauromatae.. I. ribs. 294 . I. 129. 452 Pythion. H. 164 Trpo&\. 437 preventive meliciue. xix xxxvii copious. II. 66 xxvi I. press. U. xliii. IV. liii. Ill n. 1G6. I. authorship of. and epilepsy. xxix n.. seqq. 437 seqq. III. liii. . xii-xxv Protagoras. xxxvii. I. in. 10. fracture Rhipaean Mts. Reinhold. ix-xiii Prognostic. 435 Rome. 134-138 I. general medical. 454 Schone. analysis of contents. 373 seqq. n. I. n. The. I. 1. m. xlvi Pleiades.. xi. xxiii. xii. 231 n. ix.INDEX Philiscus I. IV. 306 311 pregnancy. 440 Precepts. I. 7). xxviii. I. seqq.'l. 152 (I.

n. 358 ao<l>ir). 23 . II. xliii Timaeus. 95 Thessalus. 4 strangulation. xxi. dislocation of. 276. in. I. I. n. rn. 108. m. 198 . surgical. 3. 458 . 122. I. In. 154. treatment of. 242 Thucydides. 56 thigh. 232 toes. 6. dislocation of.INDEX Scvthia. 270-271. in. ix symptoms. ill. n. IV. xlix. Theophilus. 130. I. 122-130. I. 3. 10. IV. xxiv. Silenus. 94 8. xv. xxiii theorizing. I. 73. physiology of. ix. method of bandaging. 264-272 Bhin. 55. see Humours and Aphorisms passim.. 352. 326-328 295 . 328-332 veins. Teichmiiller. Tisamenus. m. 94. 273 solid foods. n. 348 sex-determination. 152. I. in. in. 407-409 Sidon. in. rv. 5. inferences from. 111 n. I. m. I. I. ulcer on. IV. n. 213 seqq. 282 ment of injuries to. ulcer of. 435 spine. 297 seqq. with tonsils. 111. n. 84-92. 30 societies and clubs. n. 142 presuperstition. 350. 80 518 . I. 14. n. I. 98. xi Thasos. . m. I. 162. II. m. IV. . IV. 49 Tp6\o<. IV. 23. . 227. 9 seqq. xvii Taylor. W. 218 I. 292-3. I. 84 splints. n. n. I. 8 valence of. physiology of. of. xiii trephining. in. 141 shorthand. Ixii sneezing. 7 vegetable diet. physiology of. 178. I. 179. 3. m. 143. ni. in antiquity. U 7. IV. IV. 7. 11. influence of.. xxxiii Suidas. 150 Thales. K. xlvi Telebulus. Greek. 260. influences of. . . 154. strangury. 126. 96 St. I. symptoms of dislocation of. 401 Bplay-foot. 357 seqq.. xlii. 47. fatal injuries. 34 urine. 2. xv. 170. 352 . xlix throat. 186 Singer. 31. 262. xlii. Bhoulder. xlvi. I. . Sophist. 137 sprains. ra. 70-72. 24 seqq. wound. IV. 417 seqq. 43 347 Smyth. 116-130 seasons. . rn. III. sweat. children. 279 n. 30-32. xxi. 86 venesection. 154-156. danger of. rn. xliii spasm. 175... xxxvi Theophrastus. xxxviii surgery. I. 132 secretions I. IV. author's attitude to.. IV. of operations on. liv twins. I. 16G. 90 m. m. 340. misconception of. rv. m. dislocation of. cause of. I. varicose. m. v7ro0e<ri?. 33. in. the useless and the useful. 22 slops. 363 seqq. 170 tetanus. to. 253. 201 seqq. H.. vapour baths. 253 spinal curvature. III. general. and IV passim liii and Regimen III sutures. 14) o-uyypa<W. treatment for dislocation. I. Soranus. A. m. IV. 283 seqq. III. 28 Stoicism. xxviii. xx. IV. I. I. I. Professor A. 79 Treatise on Seven. 9 injuries skull. n. cause and effect of. 353. procedure in treatI. 5. rn. m. 175. n. I. 313 seqq. Dr. 183. and treatment for. xlii sputum. in. ill. IV. I. I. 367. n. 21 seqq. 289. 41 . 7 of Sardis. 307 stone. 425. Charles. I. HI. symptoms sleep. . fracture and treatment of. 46 . 279 seqq. Paul. m. in. 192. 18 I. Symposium. 54 Scythians. U. 417 seqq. n. sore. 377-387. definition of. n. I. xiv survival of the fittest. IV.. 202. xliii. 14 rv. 187. 146. 133. 144 sweetness. Thrasymachus 278 seqq. 298 (11. I. 321 spleen. on embryo. 322 I. vii formation of. I. 256. 2 teething. Greek knowledge of. 270-272 Tzetzes. what to look for. on disease. rv.

III I. 43V winds. 54. 413-415 weather influences upon health. sxi wheaten bread. n. ssi. 4 IV. si. I. Villaret. n. S3 n.] II. xlii2. 355.. T. I. Regimen and IV U. II. xxix vocabulary. 236 Zeuxis. rv. 50-52 vomiting. IV. 123. 104 . seqq. 64 . m. Zeus. influence on health. xlviii I. 170 IV. IV. . 84 as beverage in illness. 251. fire 328 Withington. liin.238-240. u. six. I. II. 249. xliv. on health. passim water and Wounds as elements. I. IV. . I. ra. medical. 91 slv water. I. ssx Wellmann. 74 seqq. in. 152. xlv. influence of. ra. 173. 11G seqq. I. xxii. 437 Xenophon. m. 146. for bandaging. 324wine. 122-130 wedge. ra. 300-305 IV. in. IV. vi wool. wrist. 169 ssi . 344-346 windlass. IV. xsx 519 . 310-314 wheel. IV. m. Dr. . B.INDEX Vidius. in the Head. dislocation and treatment of. m. W walking. 173 Wilamowitz. Isix. 28 . 213. notes on.. 84-92.

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262. 194. I. miscarriage. I. 124 seq. 346 consumption. IV. 112. 188 carbuncle. 176. 204. 188 atrophy. 266. 214. IV. 196 196. H. 1 18. 186. IV. 128. 124. 418. 192. 230 126. li. IV. 252. 130. 18. 138. 278. 128. I. 162. 86. m. 158. IV. 208. 102. 46 . apoplexy. 276. bubo. 152. See also hump back. 246. 160. 256. I. 30.. 192. IV. 434. 424. curvature (spinal). 410 diphtheria. 196. 194. 254. 74. 156. IV. n. 188. 200. I. 130. angina. 100. 186. 78. IV. 226. IV. I. 184. 240. 48 521 . 200. IV. 246 . 240. 268. m. l. 136. lvi. in eyea. see . 168. 416. I. lviii. 108. xxxiv I. 190 n. lvi. 150 li . 444 126. 182. 126. n. 218. 84. 214. 272. 178. I. 130. IV. 340. I. 192 boil. 180. IV. 204. 206. H. 86. 136. 78. cachexia. 254 colic. 188. 148-152. 1 caususOcawot). 244. 78. 100. 410. 192. 126. 420. 182. 130. 30. 124. 130 . 114. 38. I. 130. 258. 20.SUPPLEMENTARY INDEX INDEX OF DISEASES abortion.59 n. 132. 274 cataract. 84. 218 constipation. m. 240. 148. 202. asthma. 226. 86. 250. lx. 246. 186. 78. 182. 22. 424. 130. 184. 44 IV. 11. 204. I. xvi n. IV. 406. arthritis. 134 catarrh. 192. I. 252. 34. 246. 92 bronchitis. 346. 160. I. 176. 74. 178. 166. in nose. convulsions. 60 . 216. 164. III. I. 172. 88. I. 160. 202. IV. IV. 226. club foot. 54. 248 . 134. 348 deafness. 170. IV. 174 dandruff. 150. 46. 128. involuntary. 100. IV. I. 322. 348. 220. 168. 222. 74. 272 . lix. 220. 90. 434. T. 254. 208. 192 . 74 . coma. 176. 10. in throat. 220. 210. 444 ankylosis. H. I. 140. 164. I. 124. I. 74. n. 2. 118. . 132 . 12. 272. 150. and 202. 84. 182. 132. n. ague. 122. 176. 48. I. 160. m. 276. 238. 44. I. 194. 330. IV. 154. 240. 170. 384 n. 100. 160. 258. 328 ascarides. in. 14. 284. 150 delirium. IV. 76. 130. 30. I. I. 384 IV. 400 dysentery. B barrenness. 246 cardalgia. I. 172. blindness. 260. 160. lviii. 198. 146. 158. 218. 86. 2 . 320. 204 m. li. 98. 280-306. 168. 256. 78. 244. cholera. IV. 342 158. IV. 260. 98. 254. I. 418 diarrhoea. 324. lvi IV. li. 190. IV. 132. 168. 214. 344. 224. 164. deliberate. 252. IV. 176. n. see worms. 280. 206. 172. 276. 94. 122. IV. 194. n. 74. lvi dropsy. 52.322. 154. 132. 48. 322. I. m. 278. 134 cancer. 254. 164. 84. m.67n. IV. 74. 196. 298 . See also phthisis tuberculosis. 254. 130. 428-130 cold.

130. 126. 102. 256. Ivi insomnia. 214. 132. 172. 262. necrosis. 154.SUPPLEMENTARY INDEX 126. 34 hysteria. 52. involuntary. I. 184. 190. . erysipelas. 308. 214. H haemoptysis (spitting of blood). M 12. 132. 436. IV. 196 I. 22. 348 lethargus. 192. n. 160. I. 132. mortification. IV. 404 liver disease. 352. 74 empyema. 292 40. IT. 74. 246 . xii. 434. 108. n. 130. 366. IV. 184. 438. 192 gangrene. 150. IV. 270. 92. flatulence. xvi n. 128. 180. See also abortion. 162. 132. 198. 98. 94 . n.. 396 dyspepsia. 334. xx. 326. xx. 160. I. 260. 394 leukophlegmasia. I. IV. 182. 130. 194. 150. 16. m. haemorrhage (nasal). 248-252 IV. 129 seqq. 132 n. I. 126. 176. hypertrophy. 52. 168. rv. 118. 196. in. 276. 234. 130. I. 164. . 74. 126. I. 184. See also mortifica- neuralgia. 60. 348 IV. I. 122 seq. 196 eczema. 200 fainting. I. 152. 38. . 192. 140. 154. 278. 48. 336. 214 . 156?!. n. . 184 IV. 130. 190. 2. rv. I. 188. 254 I. rv. 232 influenza. IV. 4 dyspnoea. 168. 152. I. 148 dysuria. 52. rv.. 20. 195 n. 194 leprosy. 30. 188. 392 hernia. IV. 194. 94. 168. IV. 182. 178. 188. IV. m. 1 . 172. 262. 200. 166 . 174 seq. IV. . 176. 86. 182. "n.. 234. 328. 172. 308. 202 O 124 seq. n. IV. 214. 418. 30 seqq. 184. 66. 92. 172. 130.lvw^. I. n. Iviii. 168. n. 188 . rv. 196 168. 178. 2. 366. 63 n. 216 haemorrhoids. 240 126. kidney disease. 434. 84. 161 n. 362. 140. 204 ileus. 202 epilepsy (sacred disease). IV. 176. jaundice. 78. 132. m. 44 158. 178. 132. IV. 260. 44. 150 nn. m. Ivi rv. I. n. 104. 1 522 . 166. 186. 364. passim. I. B ear-ache. See also mortification. . 434 rv. 180. IV. 1. 44. 78. 264. 130. 196. 270. 182. 194. 156. 84. 104. 93 n.liii. 59 n. 172. 154. 198- IV. 350. IV. 290 malaria. I. 166. See also curvature. 134. 132. 130. I. 174. IV. 328. 158. 420. 94. n. 308. 182. 82. 278 . See also necrosis. 350. N narcosis. lientery. 220. 98 fits. 202 hump back. IV. 196. tion. xlviii. 170. 196. 64. measles. 130.Ls:ix. 188. 312. rv< 164. 24. IV. Iviii. 214. 172. 5. 180. I. 98. 240-242 m. 278-306. 350 II. IV.. 147 n. 436. 44. 122. 14. 268. 128. 130. 1S8. n. 194 inflammation of bowel. 174. 158. 128. 86 hiccough. I. 432. 360I. 4. 394. 56. 203 n. 136. 310. headache. gout. I. See epilepsy. m. 46 . 132. 196 168. li melancholia. 5 madness.. 128. n. 1 and 4. 1 miscarriage.

130 8. n. IV. 194. tuberculosis and consumption. 194. lvi sore throat. 246. 250. 59 re. 156 IV. 164. IV. 14.. 182. 118. 48. n. 181. rv. 132. Ivii. IV. IV.. 358. 116. li. worms. I. 92. 30 seg. 1S8. 194 IV. 66. I. 130 W wart. 104. 134 psoriasis. 66. in. i. 200. 156 rupture. 130. 1. 130 Printed in Great Britain by Kicuard Clay and Company. 278 . I. II. 130 tonsilitis. 184 varicose veins. 244. 132. n. 158. 128. 2 150. 242. . 432 32. I. 240. 162. 285 n. 174. Bdnoay. I. 176. 186. strangury. 122. 132. I. 172. 352 . 1. 98. n. 208. IV. xii. 360 sterility. IV. 122. 204. 238. 44-46 ophthalmia. 160. 94. 1. I. 196. 204. enlarged. in. 214. 272 322.ieq. i. 240. 84. li. m. 198 in. stone. xii. I. 94. 65 IV. xii. 100. 202 142 174-176 94 . 390 pruritus. in. 182. li pneumonia. 88. 86 . 59 re. 100. . syphilis. 154. phthisis. xvi re. 186 vomiting. 14. 156. 218. 350. 194. typhoid. 12. 246. re. lvi. scurry. IV. 206. 326-328 tuberculosis (pulmonary). See tenesmus. 178. 330 IV. 334 spasm. in. 94. 222. 174. 182. iv. 128. syncope. 1. 132. I. 156 I. 74. 66. 214 spleen. n. 130 IV. 59 re. IV. li. 164. 178. I. 254 IV. 214 See also IV. 232. 158. 256. 76. tetanus. 44. paroxysm. 226. 190. lvi. in. 126. IV. 1. IV. 132. 258. 38. Suffolk.. lvi pleurisy. 172. 94. IV. 56. S scarlet fever. 16. 52. 4 orthopnoea. 98. n. U. 254. 102 . 264 . 72. 1-61. 38. 190 palpitation. also phthisis and consumption. 194 . 130. lvi phrenitis. 80 paralysis. 130. 160. 72. 154. 348 smallpox. 166. 348. 350. . IV. Ltd. IV. 130. I. 156. 202 stroke. 162. 126. IV. 183 re. lvi sciatica. 130. 78. 78. n. 28. 74. 126. IV. 228. IV. IV. I. 3. IV. 224. n. 92. 102. I. 86. rv. 344 . xxiv. 264. 188. . 130. n. plague. I. 160. I. T 154. sphacelus. 12S.SUPPLEMENTARY INDEX oedema. I.

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B. (6th Imp. Hendrickson and H. Cornish.) Cicero: De Officiis. (Uh Imp. H. II.THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY VOLUMES ALREADY PUBLISHED Latin Authors Ammianus Marcellinus. Gaseleo.) Catullus. 2nd Imp. Apuleius: The Golden Ass (Metamorphoses). J. Pro Placco. Pervigilium Veneris.) Ausonius.) [Cicero]: Ad Herennium. De Amicitia.) Bede. 2 Vols. Rev. Ash and W. Rackham.) Celsus: De Medicina. (8th Imp. Caplan. 1th Imp.) (2nd Imp. Confessions of. Select Letters. II.J. (Vol. and Orator. Pro Murena. H. ham. 3rd Imp..) : W.E. and III. Tibullus. (3rd Imp. Rolfe. Hubbell.) Cicero In Catilinam. G. Postgate. H. Cicero: De Natura Deorum and Academica. revised. S. Augustine. Rackham.) Senectute. G.King. (1th Imp. McCracken. H. 2 Vols. revised.) Translated by J. (13th Imp. J.) Cicero: De Oratore. (3rd Imp. W. Louis E. Pro Sulla. I. J. Cicero: Cicero: Clinton De Republica and De Legibus Somnium . etc. ) : Way. Cicero: de Fato. : H. E. Rack- Hubbell. Baxter. A. De Keyes. Revised by S. De Partitions Oratoria. Sutton and H. W. M. Stewart and E.) Cicero: De Finibus.) Cicero: De Inventione. K. Watts (1631). (4th Imp.) Cicero: Brutus. 3 Vols. G. (2nd Imp. African and Spanish Wars. M. Spencer. L.) Scipionis. A. (3rd Imp. E. I. 6th Imp. F. Lord. revised. (6th De Divinatione.) 7 Vols. Vol. (6th Imp Caesar: Gallic War. Rackham (With De Oratore. Mackail. (llth Imp. W. C.. B. H. Vol. A. Augustine. Vol. Augustine: City of God. H. W. . Paradoxa Stoicorum. Adlington (1566). 3 Vols.) Caesar: Alexandrian. D. W. 2 Vols. . I. G. (Vol.) Cato De Re Rustica Varro De Re Rustica. G. (3rd Imp. W.) J. H. H. Hooper.) Boethius: Tracts and De Consolatione Philosophiae.Edwards. Rand. G. F. Evelyn White. II. (2nd Imp. Imp. Peskett. (2nd Imp. Vols. revised. Caesar: Civil Wars. Walter Miller. Falconer. (3rd Imp. St. (2nd Imp. 2 Vols. H. St. W.

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Cf. 3rd Imp. XI. and XX. J. Demosthenes II. E. L. Erotic Essay.) Demosthenes I.: Meidias. Imp. SpelDionysixjs of Halicabnasstjs man's translation revised by E. Aristotle: Parts of Animals. 2 Vols.) Poetics and Longintts. W. Forster. 3rd Imp.-VI.-XVII. Athenaeus: (Vols.) Demosthenes VII. Exordia and Letters. Cooke and H. S. Thornley's Translation revised by S. (3rd Imp. 7 Vols. (ith Imp. Callimachus Fragments. Oldfather. Butterworth. Vol. (Vol. Vols.) . (ith Imp. and N.) Diodorus Siculus. revised. Vince. Vols. 3rd Imp. Cohoon and H. Androtion. B. L. Rev. A. C. I .). VII. Edmonds. (2nd Imp.: De Corona and De Falsa Legatione. revised. H. On Coming to be Aristotle: I.. J.: Funeral Speech.—Categories. I. Arrian: History of Alexander and Indica. A. IV. H. 3rd Imp.-V. Rhys Roberts. W. On Interpretation. On the Cosmos. 2 Vols. H. 1. 9 Vols. I. 2nd Imp. Rev. G.) Diogenes Laerttus. Vince Demosthenes IV . Forster and D. 2 Vols. Wieksteed and F. C. A. 7 Vols. 2 Vols.: Olynthiacs. R. VI. Dio Cassitjs: Roman History. H. Tredennick and E. Iliffe Robson. 4 Vols. 2nd Imp. Hymns and Epigrams. revised.) tions.). 2nd Imp.) Clement of Alexandria. Timocrates and Aristogeiton. (5th Imp. IX. M. and VI. S. Forster. Aratus. (3rd Imp. C. 12 Vols. 2nd Imp.) St. Vol. Hamilton Fyfe.-IV. W.) Aristotle: Rhetorica Ad Alexandrum (with Problems. H. I. 2nd Imp.) : COLLUTHtTS. Gaselee. Hett. Vols.-LX. II. Cary. C. (Vols. Rackham. Abistocrates. A. Dabhnis and Chloe. 2nd Imp.-IV.) : (2nd Imp.-IV. Prior (3rd Imp. (Vol. (Vols. (Vols. W. HI. Vol. Basil: Letters. 6 Vols..) Aristotle: Problems. Demetrius on Style. H. 2nd Imp. V.) Aristotle: Politics. Vince and J. Cornford.-VI. J. J. Cary. E. II. : and Passing Away. Furley. (2nd Imp.) Deibnosophistae.) Aristotle: Physics. W. C. P.: Private Orations and In Neaeram. J. and II. Sherman.. Trypanis. F. Vols. Vince. revised. Mair. DeWitt. (ith Imp.. Murray. Topics. Motion and Progression of Animals. (Vol. P. Callimachus. I. I. Philippics and Minor OraI. J. Analytics. and Lycophron. R. and Parthenitts.) Dio Chrysostom. Hicks. T. Roman Antiquities. H. Peck.) R. D. Vols. W. Geer. R. Deferrari. and II. Rev.Walton. E. Aristotle: Organon S. W. (3rd Imp. (5th Imp. (2nd.) Demosthenes III. Aristotle Organon— On Sophistical Refutations. G. Vol. and X. Gulick. Vol. 3rd Imp. N. E. Mair. II. H. revised. M. A. (2nd Imp. Tredennick. and VII. J.. Lamar Crosby..S. Oppian. M. Rackham. V.) Aristotle: Organon— Posterior Analytics.

3rd Imp. I. 3rd Imp.) Euripides.-VII. 2 Vols. III. (2nd Imp. Vol. 2 Vols. Andocides. 9 Vols. I. E. Bion.) Hesiod and The Homeric Hymns. Vol. 2nd Imp. Brock. Withington. Vols.) (2nd Imp. Vols. Mair. Colluthus.) Lycophron. 4 Vols.. G. Kirsopp Lake and Eusebius: 2 Vols. Forster. (2nd Imp.. 2nd Imp. (1th Imp. 3rd Imp. II. Moschus). A.) Wilmer Cave Wright. 4. 4 Vols. R. (1th Greek Mathematical Works. Selections. W. I. Jones and E. 2nd Imp. W. Vol. Nonnos: Dionysiaca. Dinarchus. I. Edmonds. 6th Imp. Bth Imp. (Vols. 2nd Imp. John Damascene: Barlaam and Ioasaph.) The Greek Bucolic Poets (Theocritus.) Vols. V.) .) Lysias. M. W. 3 Vols.) Non -Literary 2 Vols. Bth Imp.. D.-IV. R. Allinson.) 3 Isocrates. Vol. Demades. George Norlin and LaRue Van Hook. W. A. 3 Ofplan. 4 Vols. R.) Ivor Thomas. F. M.) Isaeus. M. Julian 3rd Imp. D. (3rd Imp. revised and enlarged. E.) Homer: Odyssey.) St. II. (3rd Imp.Epictetus. (3rd Imp.. (Vols. : Imp. W. F. II revised and enlarged. Vols. Vol. Vol. J.-IV. Waddelh Ptolemy: Tetrabiblos. 3rd Imp. I. Cf Theophrastus Characters.) Homer: Iliad. (Poetry). Oldfather. (3rd Herodes. W. I. Rouse. Harmon. G. Vol. 8 Vols. II.. Edmonds.Page. bth Imp. W. I. Edgar. 2 Vols. I. Tryphiodorus. and III. G. Imp. 3rd Imp. 4th Imp. M. (3rd Imp. 3 Vols.) Menander. Rev. Murray. (Vol. Papyri. 2 Vols. Verse trans. Hypereides). 5 Vols. Vols. and II.) The Greek Anthology. A. A.) Hippocrates and the Fragments of Hfbacleitus. G.. (Vol. (Vol. (Vols. Josephus.. Lycurgus.) Marcus Aurelius. I. Murray.-1V. 1th Imp. Cf. I. Lyra Graeca. revised. J. (1th Imp. revised. 2 Vols. 8th Imp.) Minor Attic Orators (Antiphon. Herodotus. A. 4th Imp. IV. (Vol. A. L. Haines..) Ecclesiastical History. Vols. Edmonds. (8th Imp. A. 4th Imp. 4th Imp. O. Burrt. Way. T.. 2 Vols.-V. H. revised. C. and VII.) H. (3rd Imp. V. and V. (Vol.) Galen: On the Natural Faculties. II. Vol. I. Hh Imp. Callimachus. W.) Lucian. Woodward and Harold Mattingly. Godley. and II. Vol. VI. J. St. K. Land IV. T. H. 4th Imp.. IV.. R. T. (4th Imp. Paton. Literary Selections. II.) Greek Elegy and Iambus with the Anacreontea. J. E. Imp. S. (3rd Imp. M. Vol. J. Vols.L. A. Vols. (Vol. (Vol. J. J. III. I. 2nd Imp. (Vols. Oulton. 3rd Imp. Evelyn White. (4th Imp.. Lamb.) (2nd 6 C . S. Thackeray and Ralph Marcus. Maidment and J. A.) Manetho. (3rd Imp. and HI. Robbins. S. III.) D. 3rd Imp.. revised. Hunt and C.

N. XII.. Plato: Hippias. 3rd Imp. Philostratus and Eunapius: Wilmer Cave Wright. Rev. VIII. Vols. N. G. (3rd Imp. Lesser H. Vols. R. W.) Plato: Laws. W. I. R.) (4th Imp. Cherniss and W. 2nd Imp. II. Sextus Empiricus. Verse trans. (2nd Imp. Vols.) Vol.) Ptolemy: Tetrabiblos.) Ralph : Marcus. 4th Imp. 6 Vols. 3rd : Philostratus: A. Wycherley.) Procopius: History of the Wars. Cf. I. M. Paul Shorey. Epistulae.) Plato: Charmides.. VI. Philebus. 2nd Imp.. P. W. : Imp. 2 Vols. II.. and X. Bury..-VI. R. I. H. Alcibiades. Lives.) Vols.-V. R. W.-VII. Lamb. 5 Vols. Paton. Dewing. I. revised..-X. Symposium Gorgias. Whitaker (Vols. H. C. The Lovers.Parthenius. Crito. (2nd Cratylus.-V. W. F.. Philostratus: Conybeare. .) F. lOi/i Imp. Manetho. and Companion Vol.. Rev. H. and III. Meno. C Helmbold. III. V.. Colson. (Vol. Fowler. M. Parmenides. Phaedrus.) (Vol. Protagoras. Daphnis and Chloe. Euthydemus. N. ( (3rd Imp. 3rd Imp. (2nd Imp. F. revised. Fowler. 2nd Imp. S. Plato: Theaetetus and Sophist. Vols. E.) Plato: Timaeus. I. Imp. Way. (3rd Imp. 5th Imp. H.. Babbitt. N. Vols. Vols. III. A. Rev. Einarson.VII. 3rd Imp.) Plato: Statesman. I. Imagines. Quintus Smyrnaeus. Vol. H. Hipparchus.. II. Apology. 2 Vols. E.) Plutarch: (Vols. Perrin. M. C. II. IV. (4th Imp. (Vol.) Descriptions. H. Sir J. W. G. U Vols. VII.) Sophocles.) Plato Laches. Vol. Bury. I-IL. Philo. tith Vol. Ion. VIII. F. 2 Vols. Helmbold. Storr. R. The Life of Appollonius of Tyana. I. Colson and Rev. (8i/i Imp.-IX. Jones.) Plato: Republic. 4th Imp. VII.) Polybius. Vols. H. II. II. Clitopho. 2 Vols. (2nd Imp. De Lacy and Vol.. Bury. and 7 Vols. Lamb. and XI. H.-V. B. B. Critias. C. I. Menexenus. M. (Vols. Sandys. S. H. Vol. (4th Imp. II.. H. Pausanias: Description of Greece. IV. Imp. R. 2nd Imp.) Plutarch: Moralia. Vol. (Translation only..) Plato: Euthyphro. arranged by R. 4 Vols. 2nd Imp. X. Phaedo.) Callistratus Imp. (5th Imp. The Parallel VI. Greater Hippias. I. Fowler. VI. (Wth Imp. and V.) Philo two supplementary Vols. 4th Vol. Fairbanks. (Vols. F. (3rd Imp. R. Lamb. and HI.) Plato: Lysis. B. G. Verse trans. Fowler. H. Theages. Fowler. Lives of the Sophists. 10 Vols.. I. (Vol. Vol. 2nd Imp.) Pindar. 4th Imp. 14 Vols. R. W. revised. and IX. G. N. Lamb.. 3rd Imp. Minos and Epinomis.. Cf..

Vol.. Plotinus: A. Perry. III. Jones.. Knox.) Characters. F. and VII.. 3rd Imp. Edmonds. II. III. 4fh Imp. Marchant. (Vol. E. and Symposium.. J. L. M. C..) E. 8 V0I3. Latin Authors Babrius and Phaedrus. Theophrastus Enquiry into Plants. Apology. 2nd Imp. C. A. Mass. 4 Vols.Stbabo: Geography. 3rd Imp. D. Uh Imp. I... 2 Vols.. (3rd Imp..) 3rd Imp. 3 Vols. WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS . (Vols. C. Walter Miller. Xenophon: Cyropaedia. IN PREPARATION Greek Authors Aristotle: History of Animals. IV. L. Herodes. I. Oppian. {2nd Imp. Smith. : : Bart. 2 Vols.. Ben E. J.. Todd. and IV. (Vol. Marchant (3rd Imp. H. I. 3rd Imp. Armstrong. Sir Arthur Hort. DESCRIPTIVE PROSPECTUS ON APPLICATION London Cambridge. II. Vol. Theophrastus A. (Vols.) etc. VI.) Brownson and O. 5th Imp. V.. Xenophon: Hellenica. Cf. revised.) Xenophon: Scripta Minora. II.) Tryphiodorus. C. Vols. Vol. I. Anabasis. and VIII. (3rd Imp.) Thucydides. Vols. Horace L. Peck. and III Xenophon: Memorabilia and Oeconomicus. II. Uh Imp.

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