You are on page 1of 2

http://www.packet-lab.

com Frame Relay’s Notes Frame Relay - Introduction and Concepts
This is the first in a series of lessons which will examine Frame Relay in detail. In this lesson, we will take a high level look at Frame Relay as well as its history, components, and benefits. The Quick and Dirty Frame Relay is a high-performance packet-switched WAN protocol which uses statistical multiplexing and variable length packets. Frame Relay operates at Layer 2 (Data Link) of the OSI model. Each customer gets a private line (or leased line) to a frame-relay node called a virtual circuit (VC) through the Frame Relay cloud. These VCs can either be a bandwidth-on-demand Switched Virtual Circuit (SVC) or (more likely) an always-on Permanent Virtual Circuit (PVC). DTE devices such as a router communicate with a DCE Frame Relay switch. Local Management Interface (LMI) is used to get VC information and as a keepalive between the router and the Frame Relay switch. Each Frame Relay node (DTE) uses a 10-bit data-link connection identifier (DLCI) as a Layer 2 address. These DLCIs are locally significant (although there are extensions that can make them globally significant) and are analogous to MAC addresses in Ethernet. Frame Relay has many powerful features including built-in congestion notification as well as traffic shaping (QoS) capabilities. Although Frame Relay is getting long in the tooth (it's been around since the late 1980s) and technologies like MPLS are quickly rising in popularity, it is still a vary popular WAN protocol and once which you are very likely to work with in the field.

Frame Relay Topologies and Designs
In this continuation of the Frame Relay series, we take a look at Frame Relay designs. As we learned in the Frame Relay - Introduction and Concepts lesson, Frame Relay introduces some cost savings benefits over point-to-point leased lines. This lesson will review some of those advantages as well as concentrate on different designs and which of those designs are best suited to take advantage of Frame Relay’s benefits. The Quick and Dirty One of the main benefits of Frame Relay over point-to-point leased lines is that you can achieve cost savings by reducing equipment and circuit costs. In order to take advantage of these savings, it’s important to know how to incorporate these benefits into your network design. While it’s certainly possible to design a full mesh network using Frame Relay, most Frame Relay designs use (at least as their starting point) a hub and spoke design as this design uses Frame Relay’s advantages. Some of the advantages of a hub and spoke Frame Relay network are the ability to easily scale, reduced cost in the form of less network equipment and less physical connections to the provider, and ease of management. There are a few downsides to a hub and spoke design as well such as a single point of failure on the hub physical access circuit and the need for spoke to spoke traffic to traverse the hub. These issues can be minimized in many instances by modifying the hub and spoke design into a partial mesh design.

Frame Relay - Basic Configurations Point to Point
Even though we still have more lessons left to fully cover the major aspects of Frame Relay and its configuration, I wanted to include a couple of short, basic lessons covering Frame Relay configuration to break up the block of theory lectures and to get a look at some of the steps required to configure Frame Relay. The first of these covers a simple point to point Frame Relay configuration using physical serial interfaces...with a little bit of unintended troubleshooting thrown in as a "bonus". The Quick and Dirty

the HelloInterval will be either 10 seconds or 30 seconds.Disable Frame Relay Inverse-ARP. if necessary . if necessary . while the RouterDeadInterval is the interval in which a router must receive an OSPF Hello message from a neighbor before it considers that neighbor to be down. The RouterDeadInterval will be four times the HelloInterval (40 or 120 seconds).Configure Layer 3 address on interface . Depending on the interface type.Manually configure Frame Relay IP to DLCI mapping Frame Relay . you can certainly configure on over a Frame Relay connection.Basic Configurations Hub and Spoke Even though we still have more lessons left to fully cover the major aspects of Frame Relay and its configuration. We'll revisit Frame Relay point to point connections in more detail in a future lesson.Set the interface encapsulation to Frame Relay . if necessary . Each time receives a Hello message from a neighbor. Note: Sound quality is a bit spotty on these recordings.Manually configure Frame Relay IP to DLCI mapping including spoke to spoke mappings OSPF Timers – Hello and Dead Intervals The OSPF HelloInterval and RouterDeadInterval are two timers that maintain the up/down state of OSPF neighbor relationships. it will reset this timer to the RouterDeadInterval. Cisco IOS assigns a default HelloInterval and RouterDeadInterval to OSPF enabled interfaces.http://www. but you should be careful to take into consideration the quality (and possibly speed) of your links before doing so. The second of these covers a simple hub and spoke Frame Relay configuration using physical serial interfaces. You can adjust the HelloInterval and RouterDeadInterval with the ip ospf hello-interval and ip ospf dead-interval interface configuration commands. The HelloInterval determines the interval between sending OSPF Hello messages on an interface.Configure Layer 3 address on interface . but the steps for configuring a serial interface for a Frame Relay point to point connection are pretty simple: . We can take advantage of Frame Relay's ability to assign more than one virtual circuit (VC) to a single physical access circuit and design a hub and spoke network that gives us connectivity between all endpoints with a minimum of circuit and equipment cost.Set the interface encapsulation to Frame Relay . We’ll revisit Frame Relay point to point connections in more detail in a future lesson. I was "between microphones" and there are a lot of pops.Disable Frame Relay Inverse-ARP. basic lessons covering Frame Relay configuration to break up the block of theory lectures and to get a look at some of the steps required to configure Frame Relay.com While you might not associate point to point connections with Frame Relay.packet-lab.Set LMI type. They are among the variables that must match in order for an OSPF neighbor relationship to be established The Quick and Dirty The HelloInterval and RouterDeadInterval are the two timers that you can adjust to speed up network convergence in an OSPF network.Set LMI type. then the neighbor will be set to the OSPF DOWN state. A Cisco OSPF-enabled device will maintain a count down timer for each neighbor based on the RouterDeadInterval. if necessary . Doing so can reduce OSPF convergence. If it does not receive a Hello message before this timer expires. The Quick and Dirty Frame Relay is well-suited for a hub and spoke design. . I wanted to include a couple of short. but the steps for configuring a serial interface for a Frame Relay point to point connection are pretty simple: .