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Engineering Encyclopedia

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards

FLANGES: TYPES, CLASSES AND ASSEMBLY

Note: The source of the technical material in this volume is the Professional Engineering Development Program (PEDP) of Engineering Services. Warning: The material contained in this document was developed for Saudi Aramco and is intended for the exclusive use of Saudi Aramco’s employees. Any material contained in this document which is not already in the public domain may not be copied, reproduced, sold, given, or disclosed to third parties, or otherwise used in whole, or in part, without the written permission of the Vice President, Engineering Services, Saudi Aramco.

Chapter : Mechanical File Reference: MEX-101.04

For additional information on this subject, contact PEDD Coordinator on 874-6556

Engineering Encyclopedia

Piping, Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types, Classes and Assembly

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INFORMATION ............................................................................................................... 5 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................. 5 FLANGE ASSEMBLY...................................................................................................... 6 FLANGE TYPES ............................................................................................................. 7 Flange Attachment Types .......................................................................................... 7 Threaded Flanges................................................................................................. 7 Blind Flanges ........................................................................................................ 8 Socket-Welded Flanges........................................................................................ 9 Slip-on Flanges ........................................................................................................ 10 Lapped Flange ......................................................................................................... 12 Welding-Neck Flanges ............................................................................................. 13 Flat-Faced Flanges .................................................................................................. 14 Raised-Face Flanges ............................................................................................... 16 Ring-Joint Flanges ................................................................................................... 16 GASKET TYPES ........................................................................................................... 18 Spiral-Wound Gaskets ............................................................................................. 18 Metal Ring-Joint Gaskets ......................................................................................... 20 Sheet Gaskets.......................................................................................................... 21 Sample Problem 1: Flange Type.............................................................................. 23 Solution............................................................................................................... 23 FLANGE STANDARDS ................................................................................................. 24 ASME B16.5 Flanges ............................................................................................... 25 API 605 Flanges....................................................................................................... 26 MSS Flanges............................................................................................................ 26 ASME B16.47........................................................................................................... 27 Saudi Aramco Flanges ............................................................................................. 28 DETERMINING THE MATERIAL GROUP FOR ASME FLANGES AND FLANGED FITTINGS ...................................................................................................................... 31 The Materials Specification Table ............................................................................ 31 Material Groups .................................................................................................. 31 Product Forms .................................................................................................... 32 Saudi Aramco Practice ....................................................................................... 32 Selection Procedure of the Material Group for ASME Flanges and Flanged Fittings32

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards

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Engineering Encyclopedia

Piping, Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types, Classes and Assembly

FLANGE RATING CLASS ............................................................................................. 34 Guidelines for Determining the Flange Rating Class................................................ 35 Flange Dimensions ............................................................................................. 37 Sample Problem 2: Flange Material and Class ........................................................ 38 Solution............................................................................................................... 38 FLANGE MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE OPERATING PRESSURE (MAOP)....................... 39 SAFETY OF FLANGED JOINTS ASSEMBLY............................................................... 41 Sample Problem 4.................................................................................................... 42 Solution............................................................................................................... 42 SUMMARY .................................................................................................................... 43 ADDENDUM.................................................................................................................. 44 ADDENDUM A .............................................................................................................. 46 ADDENDUM A .............................................................................................................. 46 ADDENDUM B .............................................................................................................. 47 ADDENDUM C .............................................................................................................. 52

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards

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.......... Lapped Flange Assembly and Typical Lap Flanges with the Stub Ends.......................................................... .......... 33 Table A-1....... Flat-Faced Flange .............. 6 Figure 2... 9 Figure 4..................... MSS SP-44 Steel Pipe Line Flanges . 50 Table B-4.................................................. Welding-Neck Flange Facing Types ........ 24 Figure C-1...................................... Pressure/Temperature Ratings for group 1. 12 Figure 7................................... Typical Flange Assembly ....................... Ring Joint Flange ........................... 49 Table B-3.... Raised-Faced Flange ....... Industry Standards for Flanges and Flanged Fittings ........................................................... 51 Table C-1......... 56 Table C-3.........1 material (All Classes) .............................................................................. List of Material Specifications . 14 Figure 8...... ......................................... Friction Factors for Different Lubricants ................................................................ 16 Figure 10............. Typical Forging and Manufacturing Process of ASME of Flanges..................................... 46 Table B-1........ Stud Bolt Tightening Sequence 64 LIST OF TABLES Table 1................ 48 Table B-2....Engineering Encyclopedia Piping................ 20 Figure 14 Sheet Type Gaskets ............................................................. Classes and Assembly LIST OF Figures Figure 1.... 19 Figure 13 Metallic Ring Gaskets . Threaded Flanges ... 15 Figure 9.............................................................................................1 material (All Classes) ................. 57 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards iii ..... 8 Figure 3............. Typical and Cross-Section of Spiral-Wound Gasket........ 55 Table C-2.......................... Slip-on Flange ............. Torque Values for Isolating Gaskets . Torque Value for A193 B7 and B7M Stud Bolts ............... Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types........................ Collection of Various Types of Gaskets ............................................... Standard Drawings for Flanges .......................... Socket-Welded Flange .................................................... 22 Figure 15.......................................................................................................... 29 Table 2: Flange Material Selection Guide .............................................................................................................................................................................. 17 Figure 11............................ 18 Figure 12.......................... Blind Flange .... Pressure/Temperature Ratings for group 2........................................................................................ 11 Figure 6.......................................................................... 10 Figure 5....................................................

............. Class 300 Torque Value for A193 B7 and B7M Stud bolts ... 61 Table C-4... Class 1500:Torque Value for A193 B7 and B7M Stud Bolts . Class 150:Torque Value for A193 B7 and B7M Stud Bolts ..... 60 Table C-4............... Class 2500:Torque Value for A193 B7 and B7M Stud Bolts ..... Class 900:Torque Value for A193 B7 and B7M Stud Bolts .... 62 Table C-4.......Engineering Encyclopedia Piping............................ Classes and Assembly Table C-4......................... 63 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards iv .......................... 59 Table C-4.............. Class 600:Torque Value for A193 B7 and B7M Stud Bolts ......... 58 Table C-4......... Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types............

temperature. This is accomplished by using flanges and fittings. have changes in direction. given design pressure. This module discusses the different types of flanges and fittings and how to select the correct type when designing a piping system. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types. and pipe material. Select a material specification. material group and class. there is more to the pressure boundary of a piping system than just straight sections of pipe. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 5 . These straight pipe sections must be connected to each other and to valves and equipment. Classes and Assembly INFORMATION INTRODUCTION The previous modules discussed calculation of the required wall thickness for straight pipe and some overall piping system design considerations.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping. However. and be interconnected between systems. Selecting a flange or fitting requires the engineer to: • • Know the types of flanges and fittings that can be used based on Saudi Aramco and industry standards.

Flange assembly is normally used for pipe sizes above 38 mm (1-1/2 in. a flanged valve may be installed in a piping system. Bolts compress the gasket to achieve the seal. Figure 1 shows a typical flange assembly. and the pipe ends on each side of it also will have flanges. A gasket is a resilient material that is inserted between the flanges and seated against the portion of the flanges called the “face” or “facing”. flange attachment methods. There are several types of flanges. Such disassembly may be required for maintenance. flange facings. or another pipe in a way that will permit relatively simple disassembly.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping. valve. For example. and thus prevents leakage. One flange is attached to each of the items being joined. Typical Flange Assembly A flange assembly consists of: • • • Two flanges. and hold the flanges together against pressure and other loading. Figure 1. The gasket provides the seal between the fluid in the pipe and the outside. and gasket types. inspection or operational reasons.) NPS. Classes and Assembly FLANGE ASSEMBLY A flange is used to connect a pipe section to a piece of equipment. Bolting to keep the assembly together. A gasket to provide a seal between the flanges. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 6 . Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types.

up to 50 mm (2 in. Threaded Flanges 2. the conventional types are either one of the flowing: 1. We can divide the flanges into two categories. Classes and Assembly FLANGE TYPES This section describes the various flange types that are used in Saudi Aramco piping systems. Metallic Flanges. at locations where pipe disassembly may be required for maintenance." The type of attachment defines how the flange is connected to a pipe section or piece of equipment (such as a pressure-vessel nozzle). However. or to match specialty fittings and valves. The flange is screwed to matching threads on the pipe end.) NPS (nominal pipe size). Threaded flanges are used only for small-diameter piping systems. "A weld-neck flat-faced flange. based on Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard SAES-L-009. Blind flange 3. For hazardous services.) NPS. Flange Type = Attachment Method + Face Type A flange type is specified by stating the type of attachment and face. field modifications. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types. Two items must be specified to completely define a flange type.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping. For example. and Bolts. They could be either conventional (standard) or specialty flanges. Gaskets. welded slip-on-type flanges are preferred over Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 7 . The type of flange face or facing defines the geometry of the flange surface that contacts the gasket. a threaded flange may only be used up to 38 mm (1-1/2 in. There are several standard types of pipe flange. Socket-welded flange Threaded Flanges A threaded flange has pipe threads machined into its bore as shown in Figure 2. Flange Attachment Types From an attachment criteria.

as shown in Figure 3. The preference for slip-on rather than threaded flanges is based on the greater likelihood of having a leak in a threaded-flange attachment joint. It is used when a pipe end or equipment nozzle must be blocked from flow. are not employed in larger diameters because of the increased difficulty of obtaining sufficient and uniform thread engagement. Classes and Assembly threaded flanges in screwed piping systems.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping. but there still must be an easy means of internal access. A blind flange is included here for completeness. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 8 . it is not attached to the pipe. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types. is a flat metal plate that is used to block flow in a piping system. but bolted to a mating flange. However. Figure 2. Threaded flanges. Threaded Flanges Blind Flanges A blind flange. and threaded piping systems in general.

Blind Flange Socket-Welded Flanges A socket-welded flange has an oversized bore that is partially machined into the end opposite the face. as shown in Figure 4. However. minor field modifications of existing systems. The section of this module that discusses socket-welded fittings describes socket-welded attachments in more detail. A maximum 50 mm (2 in. Here again. Classes and Assembly Figure 3.) NPS may be used for maintenance. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types. and when needed to match existing equipment connections. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 9 .Engineering Encyclopedia Piping. this preference is based on the assumed greater reliability of a slip-on versus a socket-welded-type flange attachment. Based on Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard SAES-L-010.) NPS for new construction. as with threaded piping systems. SAESL-009 indicates that welded slip-on-type flanges are preferred over socket-welded flanges in socket-welded piping systems. Limitations on Piping Joints. The pipe is inserted into this "socket" and the flange fillet is welded to the pipe OD. the maximum size of socketwelded joints in hazardous services shall be 38 mm (1-1/2 in.

The flange is then fillet welded to the pipe OD. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types. cyclic. Classes and Assembly Figure 4.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping. It is slipped over the pipe OD and projects slightly beyond the pipe end. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 10 .. a slip-on flange is not suitable for high-temperature. as shown in Figure 5. This is because a slip-on flange is lighter (i.e. Slip-on flanges are typically a lower cost alternative to the welding-neck-type flange that will be described below. Socket-Welded Flange Slip-on Flanges A slip-on flange. high-pressure or high external loading situations. has an oversized bore. uses less material) and requires less welding to attach it to the pipe. and also between the flange bore and the pipe end. However.

Slip-on Flange Based on SAES-L-009. ASME Class 400 or higher rating. Because of this extra analysis requirement. and must demonstrate that the flange will not be over stressed. Pipe size over 600 mm (24 in. Division 1 flange analysis be performed if a slip-on flange is used for any of the following cases: • • • • Severe cyclic conditions (i.e. it is unlikely that a slip-on-type flange will be used in these services because its economic attractiveness will be reduced. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 11 . large and frequent temperature fluctuations. Saudi Aramco requires that an ASME Code Section VIII. Design temperature greater than 230°C (450°F).Engineering Encyclopedia Piping. or vibration-prone services). Classes and Assembly Figure 5. The flange analysis must consider thermal and other external piping loads.)..

Figure 6. is not physically connected to the pipe. Classes and Assembly Lapped Flange A lapped flange. and the pipe stub is welded to the major pipe section. The flared pipe end has a machined face where the gasket is seated. as shown in Figure 6.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping. It is slipped over a pipe stub that has a flared end. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 12 . The bolting holds the flanges and gasket joint together. Lapped Flange Assembly and Typical Lap Flanges with the Stub Ends.

Based on SAES-L-009. To facilitate lining up the bolt holes in underwater flanged joints. this is the preferred flange type in metallic piping systems. the capability to absorb loads must be considered in the overall system design. in high-alloy piping systems.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping. A lapped-flange assembly is less able than other attachment types to absorb loads from a piping system because there is no connection between the flange and the pipe. Classes and Assembly Their use is also limited to special applications such as: No part of a lapped flange contacts the process fluid.e. Welding-Neck Flanges A welding-neck flange. is the strongest of the standard flange attachment types.. A welding-neck flange is the most widely used in refinery services because of its greater strength and ability to be used at high temperature and in cyclic service. Saudi Aramco prohibits the use of lap-joint flanges in severe cyclic conditions. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types. However. Therefore. as shown in Figure 7. and then only in high-alloy piping systems. Based on SAES-L-009.) NPS and above. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 13 . The flange bore is sized to match the pipe bore. The main advantage of a lapped flange is cost. To avoid welding dissimilar materials. Therefore. The nature of a lap-joint flange allows it to be easily rotated to facilitate bolt hole alignment because it is not permanently attached to the pipe. The use of lap-joint flanges is the exception rather than the rule. a lapped flange may be made from less costly carbon steel material. it is the most expensive of the various flange attachment types because it is the heaviest (i. uses the most material) and requires the most welding to attach to the pipe end. 50 mm (2 in. The end of the flange is butt-welded to the end of the pipe.

There is no change in elevation in proceeding from the flange inside diameter to its outside diameter. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 14 . The facing for a lapped flange is located on the flared pipe stub end. This provides uniform flange contact with the gasket over a large surface. Any of the flange attachment types that were described above. Flat-Faced Flanges In the flat-faced flange shown in Figure 8. The three primary flange facings are the flat face. The primary three type of flange facing will be discussed. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types. may use any of these facings. the area where the gasket is located is at the same elevation as the surrounding flange surface.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping. and limits local flange bending that is caused by bolt load. raised face and ring joint. except for the lapped flange. not on the flange. Classes and Assembly Figure 7. Welding-Neck Flange Facing Types The area of a flange where the gasket is positioned is called the face or facing.

plastic. Sheet-type gaskets that extend from the flange inside diameter to the outside diameter (i. or other relatively lowstrength materials. Also.e. Therefore. the are used foe highly corrosive service where contact of fluid with flange facing must be avoided. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 15 . there are few applications for flat-face flanges in refinery or petrochemical services because there are relatively few applications where such low-strength flange materials are acceptable. ductile iron. or any other material that could be overstressed by the bolt load.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping. or when a steel flange must mate to such a flange. Flat-Faced Flange A flat face is typically used only for cast or ductile iron flanges. with relatively low-strength material. Based on SAES-L-009. Minimization of flange bending is necessary for cast iron. Classes and Assembly Figure 8. a flat-faced flange with a full-face gasket shall be used when one or both of the mating flanges are cast iron. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types. but not for steel flanges. aluminum. full face) typically are used with flat-face flanges..

Figure 9. and are free of any detrimental ridges or tool marks. may be used with a raised-face flange. consists of a groove that is machined into the flange end.5 mm (1/16 in. The area where the gasket is located is higher than the surrounding flange surface. typically by 1. A raised-face flange is used for a very broad range of services. serrated finish that is suitable for the typical gasket types used in process plant applications. Any gasket type. A smooth machine finish.4 micrometer AARH (arithmetic average roughness height). as shown in Figure 10. and is the most common type. other than a ring type.2-6. Raised-Faced Flange Ring-Joint Flanges A ring-joint flange face. The raised face results in much less contact area and higher gasket contact stresses as compared to a flat face. Classes and Assembly Raised-Face Flanges A raised-face flange is shown in Figure 9.). The gasket is compressed and sealed only in the area of the raised face. should be specified for use with spiral-wound gaskets. This raised-face portion of the flange has a specially machined.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping. The presence of such surface defects will result in a Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 16 . 3. The sealing surfaces of the groove are smoothly finished to 63 micro inch surface roughness. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types.

metal-to-metal seal. for design temperatures over 480°C (900°F). or for underwater pipelines in Class 300 and higher. a ring-joint flange is required for steel flanges of Class 900 and higher. these are high-pressure and/or high-temperature services.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types. Figure 10. The ring-joint flange is used for the most severe service applications where the other possible flange face and gasket combinations will not provide acceptable performance. Classes and Assembly leaking joint. Based on SAES-L-009. A solid metal ringtype gasket is inserted in the groove. Ring Joint Flange Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 17 . since a very smooth contact surface is required to achieve a leak-proof. Typically.

Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types. Classes and Assembly GASKET TYPES The gasket provides the seal in a flange assembly. The retaining ring outside diameter is typically sized to just contact the flange bolts. Spiral wound.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping. as Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 18 . Most spiral-wound gaskets that are used for piping applications are supplied with an outer metal guide or retaining ring. The retaining ring also acts as a compression limit stop to prevent over-compressing the gasket material during flange bolt-up. This is illustrated in Figure 12. Collection of Various Types of Gaskets Spiral-Wound Gaskets A spiral-wound gasket is manufactured by alternately winding strips of metal and soft filler material around a mandrel. Sometimes. The three general gasket types that are typically used in pipe flanges for process plant and pipeline applications are: Sheet. an inner retaining ring is also supplied. Solid metal ring Insulation gaskets Figure 11. and thus serves as a gasket alignment aid.

Specially sized spiral-wound gaskets are also available for retrofit into ring-joint-type flanges when there is such a need. The standard spiral-wound gasket employs Type 304 stainless steel metal windings with asbestos filler.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping. Spiral-wound gaskets tend to be used at higher temperatures and pressures than sheet gasket materials because they are stronger. Spiral-wound gaskets are the standard for use with raised-face flanges. Typical and Cross-Section of Spiral-Wound Gasket. However. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 19 . Classes and Assembly shown in Figure 12. The inner ring improves stability for either larger gasket sizes or for weaker filler materials. such as Teflon. other winding and filler materials are available to suit particular service needs. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types. Figure 12.

• Metal Ring-Joint Gaskets Metal ring gaskets come into two basic shapes. the oval ring is somewhat more tolerant of slight flange misalignments than the octagonal ring. the gasket. This includes most process hydrocarbon and steam services. For operating temperatures below -45°C (. and the oval ring seals by line contact. In an oxidizing environment. Also. Therefore. In addition.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types. rather than the groove. will deform slightly under the applied bolt load. an oval crosssection and an octagonal cross-section. Classes and Assembly Spiral-wound gasket selection requirements are based on SAES-L-009 as follows: • Spiral-wound Type 316 stainless-steel gaskets with a flexible graphite filler and a carbon steel guide ring are used with raised-faced flanges in most services. Figure 13 Metallic Ring Gaskets Ring-joint gaskets are typically softer than the flange grooves. The octagonal ring seals by surface wedging contact with the flange groove. the maximum use temperature is limited to 454°C (850°F). Therefore.50°F). the same bolt load will result in a higher local gasket contact stress and thus a potentially tighter joint with an oval ring. an octagonal ring cannot fit into older ring-joint flanges that have a round bottom groove. and still provides a tight seal. A variety of ring materials Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 20 . the guide ring shall be Type 304 stainless steel.

and stainless steels.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping. there has been increasing concern regarding the ultimate availability of sheet asbestos gaskets due to potential worker health and materials disposal issues. Many of these use synthetic fibers rather than asbestos. a low-carbon steel. For ASME B16. The most common materials are iron or soft steel. along with an elastomeric binder.5 ring-joint flanges in corrosive services. and the use of asbestos should be avoided whenever a suitable substitute is available. MSS-SP-44. Non asbestos sheet gaskets that utilize synthetic fiber with a binder will typically have a lower maximum operating temperature than a compressed asbestos gasket. A solid metal ring-type gasket is used only with ring-joint-type flanges. so that greater flange leakage could be expected should a fire occur in the vicinity of a flange with a synthetic fiber she Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 21 . Asbestos gaskets will no longer be available within several years. Of equal importance is that they will have much less fire resistance than an asbestos gasket. and thus is a more significant factor in determining acceptable applications.5. For API 6A flanges. low-carbon steel. or Saudi Aramco standard ringjoint flanges. octagonal. Ring-joint gasket selection requirements are based on SAES-L-009 as follows: • Soft iron. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types. pressure energized ring-joint gaskets in accordance with API 6A Type RX shall be used. • • Sheet Gaskets The most common material used for sheet gaskets is compressed asbestos. Classes and Assembly are available to suit the particular service needs. octagonal ring-joint gaskets shall be used with ASME B16. However. 4-6% chrome. The binder is a larger percentage of the sheet material in these synthetic fiber gaskets. Several alternative sheet gasket materials have been introduced in recent years as shown in Figure 14. and octagonal ring-joint gasket with a Buna-N rubber inner V-Type guard and outer molded-on ring guard shall be used.

063 in. 3 mm (1/8 in. For wet chlorine or hypochlorite services. Sheet gaskets may be used with flat or raised-face flanges. may be used for Class 150 flanges in non hazardous services up to 230°C (450°F). Sheet gasket selection requirements are based on SAES-L-009 as follows: • Compressed synthetic fiber sheet gaskets with an oilresistant binder. with a Shore A durometer hardness of between 50 and 60. 1.) thick. For nitric acid and oleum. Classes and Assembly Figure 14 Sheet Type Gaskets Another non asbestos sheet-gasket material is composed of flexible graphite. shall be used for full-face gaskets for plastic flanges. ASTM D1418 Class FKM elastomer shall be used for flat-face flanges. This gasket material has exhibited excellent corrosion resistance in most process plant applications. the elastomer shall be ASTM D1418 Class CSM. ASTM D1418 Class CSM. shall be used for all acid services except nitric acid and oleum.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping. An example of their use is in lube oil piping. and has provided good performance at elevated temperatures. Elastometric material. Synthetic rubber gaskets. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types. • • Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 22 .6 mm (0. The best flexible graphite sheet-gasket-types also employ a stainless steel sheet insert with the flexible graphite for increased strength.) thick.

Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types. spiral-wound gaskets with Type 316 stainless-steel windings. Because the flanges are raised face. a flatface flange is not required. sheet gaskets cannot be used. a flexible graphite filler. The choices for flange attachment type are immediately narrowed down to slip-on or weld-neck types due to the 200 mm (8 in. The design pressure is 3. Solution Since the material is not low strength. Classes and Assembly Sample Problem 1: Flange Type It is necessary to install a new pressure vessel at an existing Saudi Aramco plant. Because the design temperature exceeds 232°C (450°F).) pipe size.). Since the design temperature exceeds 232°C (450°F). such as cast iron.448 kPa (500 psig). and the ASME Class exceeds 150. The complete solution to this problem is to use raised-face weld-neck flanges with a spiral-wound gasket that has Type 316 stainless-steel windings. The necessary design information is as follows: The pressure vessel is carbon steel and is in a dangerous hydrocarbon service at a design temperature of 371°C (700°F). The flange and facing type and the gasket must be specified for this application. a raisedface flange should be used. and this is a dangerous hydrocarbon service. an ASME Class 300 carbon steel flange is required. Therefore.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping. and the pipe size is 200 mm (8 in. a weld-neck flange should be used to avoid the flange analysis required by SAES-L-009. Therefore. ring-joint gaskets cannot be used. and a carbon steel guide ring are required. and a carbon steel guide ring. based on SAES-L-009. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 23 . a flexible graphite filler. The service conditions are not severe enough to require a ring-joint flange.

There are four industry standards. Saudi Aramco Special Flanges. API-605 flanges. as specified by standard drawings listed in SAES-L-009 and 02-SAMSS-011. MSS flanges.47 flanges. Figure 15.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types. a Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard. Because standard pipe sizes are used.5 flanges. Classes and Assembly FLANGE STANDARDS Saudi Aramco uses industry standards to define which flanges are used in Saudi Aramco piping systems. Piping is typically sized and purchased to meet standard diameters. it is practical to have standard flange sizes and dimensions to assist manufacturer to reproduce qualified flanges. ASME B16. Figure 15 illustrates typical process of manufacturing forged flanges. and a Saudi Aramco Material System Specification that cover flanges: • • • • • ASME B16. Typical Forging and Manufacturing Process of ASME of Flanges Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 24 .

5.5 specify the combinations of pressure and temperature that are acceptable for given flange sizes and dimensions. 600. Metallic Flanges.5.). 900 and 1500 shall be used for carbon and alloy steel flanges in 13 through 600 mm (1/2 through 24 in. 1500.5 Flanges ASME B16. Determination of the appropriate flange class will be discussed later in this module. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types. The pressure/temperature ratings that are contained within ASME B16. This Standard covers a wide range of material types. 300. Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings. The term class is used to designate groupings of acceptable pressure/temperature combinations contained within ASME B16.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping. Class 400 carbon steel flanges shall not be used for nominal sizes of less than 750 mm (30 in. ASME B16.5 contains seven classes designated as classes 150. Therefore. provides flange dimensional details and pressure/temperature ratings for standard pipe sizes from 13 through 600 mm (1/2 through 24 in. and will typically be the flange standard used for process plant applications.). 300. contains the following requirements regarding the use of ASME B16. the strength of the flanges within it increases. Gaskets and Bolts. Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard SAES-L-009.5 classes 150.5 flanges: • ASME B16. 600. As the number of the class increases. higher flange classes can withstand higher pressure/temperature combinations.). Classes and Assembly ASME B16. 400. and 2500. It shall be used for Class 2500 in nominal sizes 13 through 300 mm (1/2 through 12 in. 900.) nominal pipe sizes. • Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 25 .

Engineering Encyclopedia Piping.) nominal pipe sizes. Classes and Assembly API 605 Flanges API 605 encompasses raised-face carbon steel welding-neck flanges in 650-1. high yield-strength pipe. and sizes 1. Steel Pipe Line Flanges.5 stops in terms of pipe size. or nozzles for classes 75. 150. API-605 flanges may be used for only class 75 in sizes of 650-900 mm (26-36 in.5 and MSS-SP44 flanges.500 mm (26-60 in. The flange designs are intended primarily for use with API 5LX line pipe. However. and 600. API 605 begins where ASME B16.) in 50 mm (2 in.5 flange is attached to a thinwalled pipe operating near the maximum atmospheric temperature/pressure rating of the flange. ASME B16. 150. There is a basic difference between ASME B16. It also includes a class 900 for welding-neck flanges in 650-1. Finally. or 300. 400. it does not reach the maximum pressure/temperature ratings of ASME B16. Based on SAES-L-009.) in 150 mm (6 in.) nominal pipe sizes with pressure ratings corresponding to classes 75.050-1.5.5 flanges originally were designed for attachment to relatively thick-walled pipe. MSS-SP-44. and they are proportioned accordingly. MSS Flanges MSS standards are developed and revised by the Manufacturers Standardization Society of the Valve and Fittings Industry. nor does it cover material other than carbon steel. originally was developed to establish uniform flange dimensions for use with high-pressure pipelines of 650 through 1. or where an SP-44 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 26 .) increments. it also specifies flanges that are cast or forged as the integral ends of valves.500 mm (26 through 60 in. fittings. 300.) size in pressure classes of 300 through 900. the larger diameter SP-44 flanges have hubs that specifically are designed for attachment to relatively thin-walled. Their design reflects also the higher design stresses that are permitted in pipeline service. Special attention should be paid to situations where an ASME B16. It later was revised to include sizes down to 300 mm (12 in.) increments. The "x" grades of the API 5L pipe material specification have relatively high yield strengths. However.200 mm (26-48 in. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types.) and Class 150.500 mm (42-60 in.

Pressure/temperature ratings are consistent with ASME B16.) nominal sizes in ratings corresponding to classes 75.47 covers pipe flanges in 650 through 1.47. Forged Steel Weld-Neck Flanges for Low . raised face only. Large-Diameter Steel Flanges. MSS-SP-44 flanges may be used within the following limitations.500 mm (5060 in. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types.5. 300.47 are the same as those in ASME B16.5. is essentially a combination of the API 605 and MSS SP-44 flanges.and Intermediate-Temperature Service. 150.) welding-neck and blind flanges. The materials that are covered by ASME B16. ASME B16.200 mm (26 through 48 in.). Class 900 for pipe sizes 650 through 1. • • ASME B16.) for welding-neck flanges with single-taper hub only. The stress at the flange-hub attachment point should be checked in each of these cases to ensure that it is not excessive. 600 and 900. Classes 400 and 600 for pipe sizes of 1. 400. and 900 for nominal pipe sizes of 300-600 mm (12-24 in.500 mm (26 through 60 in.47 ASME B16. 300. Series B. permits the use of ASME B16. welding-neck and blind flanges.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping. Classes and Assembly flange is attached to a relatively thick-walled pipe.250-1. 400. except that nickel-base alloys are excluded.47 flanges. 600. MSS SP-44 flanges are designated as Series A flanges. in accordance with SAES-L-009: • Classes 150. and API 605 flanges are designated Series B. Class 75 for sizes that are not covered by Saudi Aramco Standard Drawings. 02-SAMSS-011. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 27 .

Engineering Encyclopedia Piping. or ASME B16. even if API-605. MSS-SP-44. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types. as outlined in Work Aid 1. These standard drawings are as follows: Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 28 .000 psi) SMYS. For example. These standard flanges must be used as applicable within their defined scopes. Classes and Assembly Saudi Aramco Flanges SAES-L-009 specifies standard flange material specifications based on design temperature and strength requirements. ratings. the flange material has an F42 strength designation. if the pipe material that is used has a 290 MPa (42. The use of ASTM A105 and A694 flange materials is restricted due to their poor experience in Saudi Aramco.47 has the same designations. and facings. flange types. SAES-L-009 also lists standard Saudi Aramco drawings that provide mandatory dimensional standards for specific size ranges. Flange material specifications for pipeline applications are selected to be of comparable strength to that of the connected pipe.

Standard Drawings for Flanges NPS Range 26-60 26-60 26-48 54-60 30-48 26-48 26-48 26-48 54-60 26-48 54-60 Class Type Facing Standard Drawing 150 300 300 300 400 600 600 300 300 600 75 Where: WN WN WN WN WN WN WN Lap Lap Lap Blind RF RF RJ RJ RF RF RJ RJ RJ RJ RF AD-036634 AD-036991 AC-036484 AC-036437 AD-036698 AD-036673 AC-036442 AC-036486 AE-036438 AC-036443 AD-036696 WN: Weld neck. Classes and Assembly Table 1. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 29 . or those that require the use of higher alloy pipe material. Lap: Lapped flange Blind: Blind flange 02-SAMSS-011. RJ: Ring joint. RF: Raised face. provides Saudi Aramco purchase requirements for forged steel weld-neck flanges in low. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types. Forged Steel Weld-Neck Flanges for Intermediate-Temperature Service. Services that have design temperatures above 425°C (800°F) or below -60°C (75°F).Engineering Encyclopedia Piping.and intermediate-temperature services.

Material chemistry. These additional Saudi Aramco requirements are meant to ensure higher overall flange material quality based on past experience. Hardness testing. Classes and Assembly are not covered by this SAMSS and must be handled as special cases. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types. Maximum hardness limitations. and to minimize the probability of experiencing problems during piping system fabrication and operation. Repairs. Heat treatment. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 30 . Impact testing.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping. Mechanical strength testing. It expands upon the flange material selection requirements that are specified in SAES-L-009 and the requirements that are specified in the relevant industry standards. Nondestructive examination. Markings. and further requirements in the following areas: • • • • • • • • • • • Flange manufacturing details. Participants are referred to 02-SAMSS-011 for specific details. 02-SAMSS-011 was first issued in February 1994 and supersedes Standard Drawing AB-036028. 02-SAMSS-011 adds additional restrictions on material usage. Painting and shipping.

These groupings have been made to provide compatible flanged-joint ratings for materials that are likely to be used together. Material groups. and butt-welded fittings is not as involved but also will be discussed. Work Aid 1 summarizes the flange material selection process. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 31 . Flange material specifications are listed in Table 1A of ASME B16. the ratings of some materials within a group are conservative. Material selection for threaded. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types. The lowest strength material in each group was used to determine the pressure rating for that group at a given temperature. A portion of this Table is reproduced as Addendum B-1. Classes and Assembly DETERMINING THE MATERIAL GROUP FOR ASME FLANGES AND FLANGED FITTINGS The next step in specifying a flange or flanged fitting is to select the material specification and group number. Therefore. which are needed to select the class or rating of the flange or flanged fitting. This section discusses the selection of flange materials specification and material group number. the use of SAES-L-009 in selecting flange material specifications.5. Product forms. socket-welded. The Materials Specification Table The Materials Specification Table is divided into two sections: • • Material Groups Material specifications are grouped within specific Material Group Numbers in this table.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping. and how to use the Materials Specifications Table.

identify the Specified Minimum Yield Stress of the pipe material that is being used. Select the appropriate material specification that corresponds to the identified material chemistry and Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 32 . Grade LF2 forged carbon steel flanges for most process plant applications. 1.1 can be plate only.1 can be found in all three product forms. The relevant ASTM specifications are specified for these product forms. 3. refer to Table 1A in ASME B16. 1 1/4 Cr . If the piping material is not carbon steel. If it is carbon steel. For pipeline applications. Identify the material chemistry (such as carbon steel. some material chemistries within a material group might not be represented in each product form. Classes and Assembly Product Forms This table also indicates three different product forms that are possible for flanges and flanged fittings: forging. Most material groups have representative specifications in each of the product forms. Identify the design temperature. CMn-Si steel in Group 1. Referring to Figure 20. However. Saudi Aramco Practice Refer to Work Aid 1 for a procedure to select the appropriate material specification and Material Group Number. and plates. go to Step 5. However. ASME B16.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping. A350. and continue in this step. 4. and certain sized reducing flanges where a blind flange is used. carbon steel in Group 1. 1. Selection Procedure of the Material Group for ASME Flanges and Flanged Fittings The following procedure may be used to select the correct flange material and Material Group Number. For example. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types.1/2 Mo) that is being used for the connected piping. a.5 specifies that plate may be used only for blind flanges.5 (Addendum-B-1). castings. 2.1. Saudi Aramco typically will use ASTM A 350. Grade LF2 is in Material Group No.

6. Classes and Assembly product form.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping. and for pipeline applications. LF 2 LO TEMP -45 to 345°C (-50 to 650°F). Impact testing required. Table 2: Flange Material Selection Guide Flange Material ASTM A 105 ASTM A 105 N (normalized) ASTM A 350 Gr. from Table 1A in ASME B16. 5.1 corresponds to the above specifications. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 33 . -18 to 425°C (0 to 800°F). -18 to 425°C (0 to 800°F). Can be used for hydrocarbon service . a) Identify the Material Group Number that corresponds to the material specification. The product form for flanges will almost always be a forging. Material Group 1. ASTM A 350 Gr. The most common carbon steel flange material specifications for plant piping systems are summarized below. refer to SAES-L-009 and Table 1 of 02-SAMSS-011 to select the appropriate flange material specification. If the material is carbon steel (or a low-alloy specification that is identified in SAES-L-009 and 02-SAMSS-011). Refer to SAES-L-009 and 02-SAMSS-011 for additional requirements and conditions that are not included. b.5 (Addendum-B-1). LF 2 Limitations Restricted to non hydrocarbon service (except flare lines). Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types. Identify the Material Group Number that corresponds to the material specification. -30 to 345°C (-20 to 650°F).

Pressure/Temperature Rating Tables • • • The class accounts for the required flange design temperature and pressure.5 for the same number designations. As the number of the class increases. design metal temperature. Classes and Assembly FLANGE RATING CLASS After the Material Group has been determined.1 respectively. API 605 is limited to carbon steel material. This section will discuss the appropriate pressure/temperature rating classes for flanges and flanged fittings.5 that provides the ratings for all classes. there is an economic incentive to use the lowest class that will meet the design requirements. 400. Addendum B-2 and B-3 are extracts for material group 1. • • • Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 34 . 1500. The class is based on pressure and temperature. and design pressure. 900. Each class specifies the design pressure and temperature combinations that are acceptable for a flange having that designation. Each of the material group has a table in ASME B16. MSS-SP-44. The following will deal only with ASME B16.1 and 2. the next step in the selection process for flanges and flanged fittings is to select the appropriate class. Therefore. the strength of the flanges increases. and ASME B16.5 contains seven classes designated Classes 150. 300. ASME B16. As the number of the class increases. Selecting the class sets all the detailed dimensions for flanges and flanged fittings. the cost of the flanges also increases because more material is being used to make the higher class stronger. the Material Group.5 because this is the most widely used and broadest flange standard. The classes of API 605. Therefore. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types. and is determined by using pressure/temperature rating tables. The objective is to select the lowest class that is appropriate for the design conditions. and 2500.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping. 600. higher flange classes can withstand higher pressure/temperature combinations.47 flanges are identical to those that are contained in ASME B16.

kPa (psig)__________________________ Design Temperature. a) Product Form____________________________ Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 35 . Determine the required flange product form (forging. and plate). 3-1/2 Ni) • • • • Design Pressure. Classes and Assembly For MSS Sp-44 flanges there is only one table of flange rating which is extracted in Addendum-B-4.)__________________________ Pipe material SMYS (pipeline applications). Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types. °C (°F)_________________________ Nominal Pipe Size. casting.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping. Review SAES-L-009 and 02-SAMSS-011 for carbon and low alloy steel flange requirements. C-1/2 M. A general flange class selection procedure is outlined next. • ASME B31.5 flanges and flanged fittings. Most pipe flanges are forging. MPa (psi)______________________ Selection Procedure: 1. (a) Saudi Aramco Requirement_______________________ 2. Fill in the blank lines as required. Given: • Generic pipe material________________ (such as Carbon Steel.4 permit higher pressures than are indicated in the rating table for conditions that exist for shorter duration.3 and B31. mm (in. These will be discussed in a later section. • Guidelines for Determining the Flange Rating Class Use the following procedure to determine the Class for ASME B16.

Proceed to Table 1A of ASME B16. Classes and Assembly 3. Flange material is to have comparable chemistry to pipe material (except possibly lapped flanges). The required flange class is the lowest one whose MAOP exceeds the design pressure. for the appropriate material group to determine the flange class. F is acceptable up to 250 Deg. F.. F. the derating factors per MSS SP-44 should be used for carbon steel material AS SHOWN IN Addendum B-4. a) Material Group Number_________________________ 4. determine the maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) proceeding from lower to higher classes.5. you must note that flanges shall not be derated for temperature.5 to select Material Group No. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types. Proceed to Table 2. a) Required Class __________________________ Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 36 . 8 piping systems. considering the required material and product form. Class 150 300 400 600 900 1500 2000 For ASME B31. The design pressure for –20 to 100 Deg. For temperature higher than 250 Deg. For the specified design temperature. ASME B16. F but not more than 450 Deg.4 and B31.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping. Complete this table only until the MAOP for a class exceeds the design pressure. and meet SAES-L-009 and 02-SAMSS-011 requirements.

Therefore. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types. variations in material strength are accommodated by changes in acceptable temperature/pressure combinations within a given class. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 37 . For the same pipe sizes. Classes and Assembly Flange Dimensions ASME B16. which provides dimensions for all flange classes.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping. and stronger as the class increases.5 for each class. flanges become thicker. A similar table is contained in ASME B16. rather than changing flange dimensions. The flange geometry is completely specified by the dimensions given in this table. but the flange dimensions differ in each class. The flange dimensions for a given class are the same for all possible flange materials. heavier.5.

• For class 300.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping. It is necessary to determine the ASME class that is required for the flanges. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 38 . The following design information is provided: • • • Pipe Material: carbon steel Design Temperature: 371°C (700°F). Therefore class 300 is acceptable. All the needed ASME B16. Refer to Table 2 for material group 1. Design Pressure: 3. the working pressure is 535 psig which is higher than the required design 500 psig. Class 150 gives lower working pressure than the design. LF2. • The required flange class is 300. and the corresponding material Group Number is 1.3.1.1. The material specification for forged flanges would be A105 or A350 Gr. Read the allowable design pressure at the intersection of the 371°C (700°F) design temperature.448 kPa (500 psig). Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types.5 Table 1A. Classes and Assembly Sample Problem 2: Flange Material and Class A new piping system will be installed at an existing Saudi Aramco plant designed and constructed to ASME B31.5 tables are contained in the Work Aid section of this module. Find the carbon steel material in the Nominal Designation Steel column. Solution • Determine the Material Group Number for the flanges by referring to ASME B16.

33 x 570) or 684 psig (1.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping. This section discusses how to determine the MAOP of the flange/fitting for a given temperature.8 transportation piping codes differ from B31. depending on the duration of the excursion. In ASME B31. The ASME B31.2 x 570) during a short-time excursion. They also described how the pressure/temperature limitations of wrought steel butt-welded fittings are determined. Classes and Assembly FLANGE MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE OPERATING PRESSURE (MAOP) An engineer may be asked to check the maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) for a flange or fitting when there are changes in the piping design conditions. or 20% for no more than 50 hours at any one time and no more than 500 hours per year.3 and from each other with regard to conditions beyond normal design conditions.4 and ASME B31. Conditions Beyond Normal Design Conditions Previous sections described how to determine the maximum allowable long-term operating pressure for flanges and fittings.3 piping systems. Referring to the Class 300 flange in Sample Problem 2 at 371°C (700°F). it is permissible to exceed the pressure rating or the allowable stress for pressure design at the temperature of the increased condition by not more than: • • 33% for no more than 10 hours at any one time and no more than 100 hours/year. Previous discussions showed how the required class is determined for flanges and flanged fittings. The ASME B31 Codes permit an allowance for occasional excursions above this long-term design pressure. such as an increase in pressure. it is a relatively simple matter to work backwards to determine the MAOP for a particular flange or fitting. In each case. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types. Work Aid 3 provides a procedure for determining MAOP. and threaded and socket-welded fittings. ASME B31. the codes differ regarding the permissible extent of these excursions.4 will permit a Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 39 . the pressure could rise to 758 psig (1. However. given a flange/fitting class.

8 does not contain any permissible allowance for pressure increases above the normal maximum rated pressure. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types. such as those caused by liquid surges.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 40 . ASME B31. Classes and Assembly 10% increase over the rated pressure for variations from normal operation. It does not contain any details covering the maximum duration or number of these variations.

Gasket material. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 41 . 2) Gasket is not centered. The main requirements and factors to achieve reliable flanged joints are the following: Flange type. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types. type and quality. type or rating. has outlined such procedures in the Appendix-A which has been extracted for importance into this module as Addendum-C. Over the years of experience.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping. 4) Torque value are either under minimum required or way over to the point that gasket is completely not functional. The latest revision of SAES-L-050. 1999. Classes and Assembly SAFETY OF FLANGED JOINTS ASSEMBLY Though it seems flanged joint assembly is very straightforward and simple. Appropriate surface finish of the flange rating Right bolting procedure is followed Good workman ship by the people assembling the flanges. it has been found that the human factor is the main reason for failures in the flanged joints. Generally. petrochemical industries have experienced tragic incidents due to failures of flanged joints. Following are common workmanship mistakes found during assembly of flanges that could lead to leakage: 1) Improper surface finish of the flange facing. 5) Installing the wrong gasket. the flange has very high safety margins in its design. Careful inspection during the above stages as required. material and rating. There are standards and acceptable practices that should be carefully followed to insure safety around the flanged joints. 3) Uneven bolting torque.

Process engineers have determined that it would be advantageous if the design pressure could be raised to 1. and Class 150 flanges are used. the flanges and flanged fittings must be changed to Class 300 to be suitable for the proposed increase in design pressure. • • Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 42 .689 kPa (245 psig) at the same design temperature.1. Class 300 flanges are acceptable for the new service by a wide margin. Locate the ASTM A350. the Class 150 flanges are not acceptable. ASTM A350. This exceeds the current design pressure.5. Can this be done using the existing flanges? Solution • Refer to ASME B16.482 kPa (215 psig). Grade LF2. This corresponds to Material Group 1.1.1 in Addendum B-2. Refer to ASME B16. in Addendum B-1. Note that the existing pipe wall thickness will also need to be checked for the new design conditions.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping. At a design temperature of 149°C (300°F) for Material Group 1. Refer to Table 2 for Class 300 in Work Aid 2. the maximum allowable operating pressure is 1. but is not enough for the proposed design pressure. Therefore. The flange material is carbon steel.586 kPa (230 psig).5 Table 2 for Material Group 1. Grade LF2 flange material. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types. Therefore. Classes and Assembly Sample Problem 4 An existing piping system currently has a design temperature of 149°C (300°F) and a design pressure of 1. Table 1A.

Fittings are used to make some change in the geometry of a piping system. Saudi Aramco requirements specify the flange and gasket types that must be used based on specified service conditions. or butt-welding. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types. and may be attached to the connected pipe by threading. which may be used with these. Acceptable pressure/temperature combinations for fittings are based on comparisons with comparable seamless pipe. Industry requirements specify standard flange dimensions and acceptable pressure/temperature combinations.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 43 . Classes and Assembly SUMMARY A flange assembly consists of two flanges plus a gasket and bolting. socket welding.

Classes and Assembly ADDENDUM Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 44 .Engineering Encyclopedia Piping. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types.

.. 60 Table C-4............................ Class 900:Torque Value for A193 B7 and B7M Stud .... 46 ADDENDUM A ........... Class 2500:Torque Value for A193 B7 and B7M Stud Bolts ............. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types............................................. Class 150:Torque Value for A193 B7 and B7M Stud Bolts ........ 62 Table C-4...................................... 49 Table B-3. 59 Table C-4................ Class 300 Torque Value for A193 B7 and B7M Stud ..............1 material (All Classes) ............ERROR! BOOKMARK NOT DEFINED.. 55 Table C-2.......................................... 52 List of Figures Figure C-1......... Industry Standards for Flanges and Flanged Fittings .................... 58 Table C-4................. Friction Factors for Different Lubricants ......................... 47 ADDENDUM C ................................................................. ADDENDUM A ................ 57 Table C-4......................................... Pressure/Temperature Ratings for group 1......... Torque Values for Isolating Gaskets ........... Pressure/Temperature Ratings for group 2................................... MSS SP-44 Steel Pipe Line Flanges ...................................... 63 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 45 ....... Stud Bolt Tightening Sequence .............. 46 Table B-1................................ 64 list of tables Table A-1........................................... 51 Table C-1.... 56 Table C-3................. List of Material Specifications .................................................................................................................... Classes and Assembly Index of Addendum Page(s) ADDENDUM ........ Class 1500:Torque Value for A193 B7 and B7M Stud Bolts ................................... 48 Table B-2.................................. 50 Table B-4...............................................................Engineering Encyclopedia Piping............ 46 ADDENDUM B ................. Class 600:Torque Value for A193 B7 and B7M Stud Bolts .........1 material (All Classes) .................................. Torque Value for A193 B7 and B7M Stud Bolts ..................... 61 Table C-4.....................................

47 API 605 MSS SP-44 API 6A Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 46 . 250. 125.1 Title CAST IRON PIPE FLANGES AND FLANGED FITTINGS. NPS 26 THROUGH NPS 60. CLASS 25. Scope ASME B16. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types. Industry Standards for Flanges and Flanged Fittings Standard ASME B16. PIPE FLANGES AND FLANGED FITTINGS. LARGE-DIAMETER CARBON STEEL FLANGES. WELLHEAD EQUIPMENT.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping. STEEL PIPE LINE FLANGES. AND 800. Classes and Assembly ADDENDUM A Table A-1.5 ASME B16. LARGE-DIAMETER STEEL FLANGES.

List of Material Specifications (Excerpt) Source Addendum B-1 ASME B16. Classes and Assembly ADDENDUM B Table B-1.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping.5 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 47 . Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types.

List of Material Specifications (Excerpt – Continued) Source Addendum B-1 ASME B16. Classes and Assembly Table B-1.5 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 48 .Engineering Encyclopedia Piping. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types.

Engineering Encyclopedia

Piping, Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types, Classes and Assembly

Table B-2. Pressure/Temperature Ratings for group 1.1 material (All Classes)
Source Addendum B-1 ASME B16.5

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards

49

Engineering Encyclopedia

Piping, Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types, Classes and Assembly

Table B-3. Pressure/Temperature Ratings for group 2.1 material (All Classes)
Source Addendum B-1 ASME B16.5

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards

50

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Piping, Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types, Classes and Assembly

Table B-4. MSS SP-44 Steel Pipe Line Flanges (Pressure-Temperature Ratings Maximum Allowable Non-Shock Working Pressures in Pounds Per Square Inch - Gage) TEMP. F -20 TO 250 300 350 400 450 CLASS 150 CLASS 300 285 275 265 255 245 740 715 690 665 640 CLASS 400 990 955 925 890 860 CLASS 600 1480 1430 1380 1330 1285 CLASS 900 2220 2145 2070 2000 1925

Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards

51

performance and calibration. Insure that spiral wound gaskets are stored flat specially for large sizes. Table A-3 applies to isolating gaskets (e. A-3.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping. except for isolating gaskets. bolt size.1. Pikotek). based on a friction factor of 0.g.3 The gasket shall be verified for correct type. A-3. bolt sizes and friction factors. A-3. and dimension. based on a friction factor of 0. Lubricant for bolts and nuts shall be Jet-Lube SS-30 or other acceptable lubricants listed in Table A. dimension and for any physical damage to shanks or threads which would interfere with bolt assembly or performance. shall be visually examined for cleanness and insure that no damage. A-3. type of gasket. rating. such as scratches exist. A-4 Torque values vary according to flange rating. Classes and Assembly ADDENDUM C SAES-L-050 Flanged Joints Assembly Procedure A-1 A-2 Scope This procedure defines minimum requirements for flanged joints assembly including bolts tightening. Also.2 The flange facing. using Jet-Lube SS-30. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 52 A-3 . Also.4 Verify that proper lubricant is used.5 Tightening tools shall be checked for adequacy. and friction factor of the lubricant.12. The torque values are specified in Tables A-2 and A-3. Table A-4 are torque values for various flange ratings.10. it shall be free from any damage particularly in the seating element.1 Bolts shall be visually checked for proper size. 24” inch and larger. particularly the seating area. Contractor shall be responsible to assure that proper leak proof joints are achieved. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types. Table A-2 applies to all gasket listed in SAES-L-009. Pre-assembly Inspection A-3. check the suitability of the stud bolts for service temperature.

Apply the torque evenly to each stud following the stud bolt tightening sequence.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping. Classes and Assembly A-5 Torquing Tools: A-5. A-5. or as required by the inspector after consultation with Piping Specialist in Consulting Services Department. A-5. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 53 . physical location of the flagged joint. Clamp securely in place. and criticality of the flange. The first stage should not be more than 30% of the final torque.2 The manufacturer's instructions shall be followed for the operation. insure that studs pass freely through the flange holes. Step 3: Install all studs and nuts hand tight. Step 4: Number each stud according to its position in the flange as shown on Figure A. Step 6: For joints containing RTJ or Spiral Wound Gaskets. SAPMT. Stud Bolt Tightening Sequence. Selection of the proper tool depends on the stud bolt size. The final torque must be within ± 5 percent of the required values per paragraph A-4. Step 5: Tightening studs per Stud Bolt Tightening Sequence with an appropriate tool such as air impact wrench or equal.7 Stud Bolt Additional Tightening Procedure Where Leaks Occur During Pressure Testing. Insure that the nuts run freely down the thread of the studs. repeat step 5. limitation and maintenance of all torque wrenches used to perform flange bolts tightening. Proponent and Inspection prior to commencing the erection of the piping. Step 7: Tighten the stud bolts in stages to obtain the final required torque from the appropriate torque table. Step 2: Apply lubricant to stud threads over length and nut engagement and to face of nut which contacts flange. A. Identifying the proper tools shall be resolved between Contractor. A-6 Stud Bolt Tightening Procedure Step 1: Align flanges and gasket. Center studs between nuts so that equal number of threads project at each end.1 There are various types of tools available to achieve the proper torque value.1.3 Torque wrench calibration shall be performed in accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations.

Classes and Assembly Step 1: Re-torque stud bolts to maximum torque value shown on table. reassemble the flange joint using a new gasket and tighten the bolts using the maximum torque values. Commentary Note: Do not use wire brushes to clean threads. disassemble the flange joint and inspect as follows: a.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping. Inspect stud bolts and nuts for defects or damage to threads or improper cleaning of threads. or. Step 3: After all defective and damaged items have been repaired or replaced. c. misalignment. Inspect gasket for damage or defects. Step 2: If leak does not stop after re-torquing has been performed. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 54 . b. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types. Inspect flange faces for damage.

8 1.13 1.67 0. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types.15 .11 . Classes and Assembly Table C-1. Friction Factors for Different Lubricants Lubricants Friction Factors .11 .06 .12 .08 .0 Moly Graphite Tool Joint Compound Graphite and Oil (used as the base line for torque values in Table A-2) Aerocote #4 KOPR-KOTE EL-PRO C5A FEL-PRO C100 FEL-PRO C102 (commonly called Anti-Seize) .11 .3 .11 1.1 1.10 Torque Correction Factor 0.11 .1 1.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping.1 1.1 Jet Lube SS-30 API Bul.2 1.2 1.5 2 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 55 .1 1. 5A2 Thread Compound Light Machine Oil as shipped Dry Bolts .

20. 7.901 19. 12. 19.888 21. 5. the condition of the flange to the nut bearing surface and the type of lubricant used. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 56 .10 Average Friction Factor. 3. 2. Torque Value for A193 B7 and B7M Stud Bolts with A194 2H and 2HM Nuts Stud Bolt Size inch 1/2 9/16 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1-1/8 1-1/4 1-3/8 1-1/2 1-5/8 1-3/4 1-7/8 2 2-1/4 2-1/2 2-3/4 3 3-1/4 3-1/2 3-3/4 4 Torque Minimum Ft-Lb 30 43 60 107 170 256 374 524 709 934 1201 1515 1879 2296 3311 4151 6150 8033 10. 8.481 17. Note (1): Torque values based on 0.872 15. 15. 11. A combination of various elements such as the conditions of the threads. 14. 10. 4. Classes and Assembly Table C-2.356 Torque Maximum Ft-Lb 34 49 68 120 190 287 420 590 798 1051 1351 1704 2113 2583 3724 5155 6918 9037 11. 9.20 or as much as 500 percent.545 14. makes up the friction factor which can vary from . 22. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types. 13.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping. 18. 17.775 1.04 to .253 12. 16. 21. 6.

Class 150 Through Class 2500 Flanges 1. and RTJ Flanges. and gasket inside diameter.500 psi when possible. 4.47 Series A & B. Classes and Assembly Table C-3. Stud Bolt Size inch 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1-1/8 1-1/4 1-3/8 1-1/2 1-5/8 1-3/4 1-7/8 2 2-1/4 2-1/2 Torque Minimum Ft-Lb 30 60 100 160 245 355 500 680 800 1100 1500 2000 2200 3180 4400 Note (1): Torque values based on 30.5 and ASME B16. 9. gasket seal grooves.15 Friction Factor from API-5A2 thread compound. Commentary Notes: (a) For ASME Class 900 through Class 2500. Refer to PIKOTEK Gasket User's manual for specific bolting instructions. 13. the maximum compressive stresses induced during installation should not exceed 25. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types. 6. 11. 3.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping. 8. See Table A-2 for other factors. 15. raised face diameters. (See PIKOTEK Gasket User's manual) (c) Bolt tensioning equipment such as HYDRATIGHT may be used for class 900 and above resulting in a minimum residual bolt stress of 30000 psi and a maximum of 50000 psi. 2. Design to 12. 14.000 psi. 12. Torque Values for Isolating Gaskets (Pikotek) on ASME B16. (b) Calculations for compressive stresses applied during torque-up procedures must account for ring joint grooves. Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 57 . API-6B and API-6BX Class 2000 through Class 15000. 10. 7.000 psi tension load and 0. 5.

08 0.12 0. Of Bolts (in) 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 1/2 5/8 5/8 5/8 5/8 3/4 3/4 3/4 7/8 7/8 1 1 1 1/8 1 1/8 1 1/4 1 1/4 1 1/4 1 1/4 1 1/2 1 1/2 1 1/2 Required Torque (Ft. Classes and Assembly Table C-4.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping.Lbs) For Different Coefficient Of Friction For Lubricant Selection Refer To Table 3-A 0.15 0. Class 150:Torque Value for A193 B7 and B7M Stud Bolts with A194 2H and 2HM Nuts Nominal Pipe Size (in) 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 Number Of Bolts 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 12 12 12 16 16 16 20 20 24 28 28 28 32 32 Dia. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types.20 27 27 27 27 30 53 60 66 60 93 104 116 148 167 248 220 320 320 445 445 445 445 785 785 785 33 33 33 33 37 64 72 80 72 112 126 140 179 201 299 266 387 387 540 541 541 541 958 958 958 35 35 35 35 40 69 78 86 78 121 137 152 194 218 325 289 421 421 588 589 589 589 1044 1044 1044 38 38 38 38 43 75 84 93 84 131 147 164 209 236 351 312 455 455 636 636 636 636 1131 1131 1131 41 41 41 41 46 80 90 100 90 140 158 176 225 253 376 335 489 489 684 684 684 684 1217 1217 1217 46 46 46 46 52 91 102 113 102 160 179 199 225 287 428 380 556 556 779 780 780 780 1390 1390 1390 60 60 60 60 67 118 132 147 132 207 233 259 332 374 556 495 725 725 1018 1019 1019 1019 1821 1821 1821 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 58 .13 0.11 0.10 0.

Of Bolts (in) 1/2 5/8 5/8 5/8 3/4 5/8 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 7/8 1 1 1/8 1 1/8 1 1/4 1 1/4 1 1/4 1 1/2 1 5/8 1 5/8 1 3/4 1 7/8 1 7/8 1 1/2 Required Torque (Ft.12 0.Lbs) For Different Coefficient Of Friction For Lubricant Selection Refer To Table 3-A 0. (Continued)) Nominal Pipe Size (in) 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 Number Of Bolts 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 12 12 16 16 20 20 24 24 24 28 28 28 28 32 32 Dia.08 0.13 0.20 27 33 35 38 41 46 60 53 64 69 75 80 91 118 53 64 69 75 80 91 118 53 64 69 75 80 91 118 93 112 121 131 140 160 207 53 64 69 75 80 91 118 93 112 121 131 140 160 207 93 112 121 131 140 160 207 104 126 137 147 158 179 233 104 126 137 147 158 179 233 104 126 137 147 158 179 233 167 201 218 236 253 287 374 248 229 325 351 376 428 556 360 436 474 512 550 626 816 360 436 474 512 550 626 816 500 608 662 715 769 877 1145 500 608 662 715 769 877 1145 500 608 662 715 769 877 1145 883 1078 1175 1272 1369 1564 2049 1006 1131 1422 1761 1761 1907 1229 1382 1740 2157 2157 2339 1340 1508 1899 2356 2356 2555 1452 1633 2058 2554 2554 2771 1563 1759 2217 2752 2752 2987 1787 2010 2535 3149 3149 3149 2345 2638 3331 4141 4141 4500 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 59 . Class 300 Torque Value for A193 B7 and B7M Stud bolts with A194 2H and 2HM Nuts.11 0.15 0.10 0. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping. Classes and Assembly Table C-4.

08 0. (Continued) Nominal Pipe Size (in) 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 Number Of Bolts 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 12 12 16 20 20 20 20 24 24 28 28 28 28 28 28 Dia.13 0.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping.20 27 33 35 38 41 46 60 53 64 69 75 80 91 118 53 64 69 75 80 91 118 60 72 78 84 90 102 132 104 126 137 147 158 179 233 60 72 78 84 90 102 132 93 112 121 131 140 160 207 104 126 137 147 158 179 233 185 223 243 262 281 319 415 275 332 361 390 418 475 618 248 299 325 351 376 428 556 399 484 526 569 611 695 907 500 608 662 715 769 877 1145 500 608 662 715 769 877 1145 674 821 894 968 1041 1188 1554 883 1078 1175 1272 1369 1564 2049 1131 1382 1507 1633 1756 2010 2637 1131 1382 1507 1633 1756 2010 2637 1761 2157 2356 2554 2752 3149 4141 1761 2157 2356 2554 2752 3149 4141 2146 2632 2876 3119 3362 3894 5065 2384 2925 3195 3465 3736 4276 5628 3075 3779 4131 4484 4836 5540 7301 3416 4199 4590 4982 5373 6156 8112 4237 5215 5704 6194 6683 7662 10108 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 60 .12 0.15 0.Lbs) For Different Coefficient Of Friction For Lubricant Selection Refer To Table 3-A 0.11 0. Class 600:Torque Value for A193 B7 and B7M Stud Bolts with A194 2H and 2HM Nuts. Classes and Assembly Table C-4. Of Bolts (in) 1/2 5/8 5/8 5/8 3/4 5/8 3/4 3/4 7/8 1 1 1 1/8 1 1/8 1 1/4 1 3/8 1 1/2 1 5/8 1 5/8 1 7/8 1 7/8 2 2 2 1/4 2 1/4 2 1/2 Required Torque (Ft.10 0. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types.

Classes and Assembly Table C-4.Lbs) For Different Coefficient Of Friction For Lubricant Selection Refer To Table 3-A 0.13 0.20 93 112 121 131 140 160 207 93 112 121 131 140 160 207 148 179 194 209 225 255 332 167 201 218 236 253 287 374 248 299 325 351 376 428 556 148 179 194 209 225 255 332 220 266 289 312 335 380 495 185 233 243 262 281 319 415 360 436 474 512 550 626 816 500 608 662 715 769 877 1145 394 484 526 569 611 695 907 674 821 894 968 1041 1188 1554 749 912 994 1075 1157 1320 1727 749 912 994 1075 1157 1320 1727 982 1198 1306 1413 1521 1737 2277 1257 1536 1675 1814 1954 2233 2930 1956 2397 2618 2838 3058 3499 4601 2385 2925 3195 3466 3736 4277 5628 4239 5218 5707 6197 6686 7665 10113 5678 6998 5659 8319 8979 10300 13601 7387 9115 9979 10843 11707 13435 17755 7387 9115 9979 10843 11707 13435 17755 9425 11640 12748 13856 14964 17180 22719 11807 14595 15989 17383 18777 21565 28534 11807 14595 15989 17383 18777 21565 28534 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 61 . Class 900:Torque Value for A193 B7 and B7M Stud Bolts with A194 2H and 2HM Nuts. (Continued) Nominal Pipe Size (in) 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 Number Of Bolts 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 12 12 16 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 Dia.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping.11 0.15 0.12 0. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types.08 0. Of Bolts (in) 3/4 3/4 7/8 7/8 1 7/8 1 7/8 1 1/8 1 1/4 1 1/8 1 3/8 1 3/8 1 3/8 1 1/2 1 5/8 1 7/8 2 2 1/2 2 3/4 3 3 3 1/4 3 1/2 3 1/2 Required Torque (Ft.10 0.

Of Bolts (in) 3/4 3/4 7/8 7/8 1 7/8 1 1 1/8 1 1/4 1 1/2 1 3/8 1 5/8 1 7/8 2 2 1/4 2 1/2 2 3/4 3 3 1/2 Required Torque (Ft.15 160 179 287 319 475 319 475 695 974 1737 1320 2233 3499 4277 5537 7665 10299 13436 21561 0.13 140 158 253 281 418 281 418 611 855 1521 1157 1954 3058 3736 4833 6686 8978 11707 18774 0. Classes and Assembly Table C-4. (Continued) Nominal Pipe Size (in) 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 Number Of Bolts 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 12 12 12 16 16 16 16 16 16 Dia.08 93 104 167 185 275 185 275 399 556 982 749 1257 1956 2385 3073 4239 5677 7387 11806 0.20 207 233 374 415 618 415 618 907 1273 2277 1727 2930 4601 5628 7279 10113 13600 17756 28529 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 62 .Lbs) For Different Coefficient Of Friction For Lubricant Selection Refer To Table 3-A 0.11 121 137 218 243 361 243 361 526 735 1306 994 1675 2618 3195 4129 5707 7658 9979 15987 0. Class 1500:Torque Value for A193 B7 and B7M Stud Bolts with A194 2H and 2HM Nuts.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping.10 112 126 201 223 332 223 332 484 675 1198 912 1536 2397 2925 3777 5218 6998 9115 14593 0. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types.12 131 147 236 262 390 262 390 569 795 1413 1075 1814 2838 3466 4481 6197 8318 10843 17380 0.

Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping. Of Bolts (in) 3/4 3/4 7/8 1 1 1/8 1 1 1/8 1 1/4 1 1/2 1 3/4 2 2 2 1/2 2 3/4 Required Torque (Ft. Class 2500:Torque Value for A193 B7 and B7M Stud Bolts with A194 2H and 2HM Nuts.10 126 140 223 366 532 366 484 743 1317 1932 2925 2925 5759 7775 0.15 179 199 319 523 765 523 695 1071 1911 2815 4277 4277 8517 11443 0.12 147 164 262 429 625 429 569 874 1555 2285 3466 3466 6885 9242 0.08 104 116 185 303 439 303 399 612 1080 1579 2385 2385 4709 6308 0.20 233 259 415 680 997 680 907 1400 2505 3698 5628 5628 11237 15111 Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 63 .11 137 152 243 397 579 397 526 809 1436 2109 3195 3195 6341 8509 0. (Continued) Nominal Pipe Size (in) 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 Number Of Bolts 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 8 12 12 12 Dia. Classes and Assembly Table C-4.Lbs) For Different Coefficient Of Friction For Lubricant Selection Refer To Table 3-A 0.13 158 176 281 460 672 460 611 940 1674 2462 3736 3736 7429 9976 0.

Stud Bolt Tightening Sequence Saudi Aramco DeskTop Standards 64 . Classes and Assembly Figure C-1. Pipelines & Valves Flanges: Types.Engineering Encyclopedia Piping.