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KISSsoft 03/2013 – Tutorial 16

Analyzing the Geometry of Cylindrical Worm Gears that have a double enveloping Worm Wheel

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................................................................................................................................. 3 1....................5 Input data for the gear pair ......................................03..............................6 Inputting tolerances .................2 Starting the drive element of a worm gear with a globoid worm wheel...............4 Special features of worm gear teeth flank surfaces .... 10 04................................................. 4 1......................................................................................................Contents 1 Task ................................................................ ..................................................................................................... 8 2 Strength calculation.....................2013 2 / 16 .............1 Results of the rating and geometry calculation ........3 Input data in main screen .............................................................................................................................................................. 9 2............. 6 1...... 6 1..1 Task ..................... 3 1........................................ 3 1.....................................................................................................................

initial window In the Modules tree window. The worm is to be manufactured with accuracy grade 6 as specified in DIN 3974.2. You can call KISSsoft as soon as the software has been installed and activated.2 Starting the drive element of a worm gear with a globoid worm wheel.03.01 mm.360 and -0. click the "Modules" tab to call the "Worms with enveloping worm wheels" calculation: 04.4 mm. The worm wheel is to be manufactured with quality 7. The inside radius diameter is 134. The worm has 2 teeth. The tooth thickness deviation for the worm wheel is between -0. You should select a sensible facewidth for the worm wheel. The external diameter of the worm is 44 -0. The root diameter is 26.1 Task 1.128 and -0. The lead direction is to the right. and the worm wheel has 41 teeth. The axis tolerance is js7. The effective tip clearance is to be 0. Usually you start the program by clicking "StartProgram FilesKISSsoft 03-2013KISSsoft".2013 3 / 16 .110 mm.04 mm. The tolerance for the external diameter of the worm wheel is between 0 and -0.8 mm. The axial/transverse module is 4. The worm's flank form is ZI. The worm's facewidth is 60 mm. The root radius factor is 0.1 Task To calculate a worm gear with center distance 100 mm.168. The worm's tooth thickness deviation in the normal section is between 0 and -0. 1.4 -0. Starting KISSsoft. This opens the following KISSsoft user interface: Figure 1.01 and for the active root diameter it is between -0.473. The pressure angle at the normal section is 20°.

You must also input the center distance (1).Figure 2.3 Input data in main screen After you call the ‘Worms with enveloping worm wheels’. 04. Input screen for worms Input values for the axial/transverse module. number of teeth. quality. this input screen appears. click Accept (4) to transfer this data to the main screen (see Figure 4).03. Call to the worm gear calculation 1. and worm face width. Finally. disable the "Calculation -> Rating" option in the menu. Figure 3. in the "Basic data" tab.2013 4 / 16 . The subsequent interim value is calculated because only the lead angle needs to be calculated. To do this. click the "Convert button" (2) and then click "Calculate" (3) to determine the lead angle. To only perform a geometry calculation.

You must also input the inside diameter of the worm gear as 134. Interim state with the Sizing lead angle input screen Click the "Details" button to call the "Define details of geometry" sub-screen and then select the appropriate flank form ZI.4 mm.2013 5 / 16 . Interim status with "Define details of geometry" input screen 04. Figure 5.03.1 2 4 3 Figure 4.

Figure 7. these values are transferred to the main screen. Figure 6. Calling the information graphic to describe wheel rim width b2R and wheel width b2H en Then click the "Sizing" button to calculate the facewidth. select "Own Input" as the predefined tool profile. When you click Accept. Then click the appropriate Convert button to calculate the tip and the addendum and dedendum coefficients for the worm.4 Special features of worm gear teeth flank surfaces The flank surfaces of a worm gear are defined in a different way from those in cylindrical gears.5 Input data for the gear pair In the "Reference profile" tab. Calculated wheel rim width b2R 1.03.2013 6 / 16 .1. 04.

the default profile 1.Figure 8. The active root diameter is calculated from (center distance tip diameter of worm/2 . the system already provides predefined base settings. Calculating the worm root or tip diameter Input 0. The effective tip clearance is then used to determine the root or tip diameter for the worm wheel. Once again. The particular geometry of globoid worm gears also means you need to calculate the throat radius and the external diameter de2.8)*2= 154.2 as the root radius factor. Figure 9. click the relevant "Convert" button to convert the dedendum and addendum coefficient at the worm wheel.8)*2= 172 mm. The tip diameter is calculated from (center distance active root diameter of worm/2 .44/2 0. The software already shows that it has calculated the tip diameter detailed above.03.tip clearance)*2=(100 – 26.4/2 – 0.25/ 0. Geometry of globoid worm gears 04.4 mm.2013 7 / 16 . Explanation: when you call the worm gear calculation. Then click Accept to transfer the values to the main screen. However.tip clearance)*2 =(100 .38/ 1 ISO 53 A does not match what we want.

Then click the Sizing button to run the required calculations for the throat radius rk and the external diameter de2. Figure 10. Then input the tooth thickness allowance in accordance with the default values and then enter the tip diameter allowance. Inputting tooth thickness tolerance and tip diameter allowances Then check the root diameter allowance and modify it if necessary.03.6 Inputting tolerances In the "Tolerances" tab. select "Own Input" instead of using the predefined dimensions.2013 8 / 16 . For more information see Figure 10. Figure 11. click the "Details" button to open the "Define details of geometry" sub-screen. Figure 12.In the "Basic data" tab. Center distance tolerance input 04. Now select the center distance tolerance. Calculating tip gorge radius rk and the external diameter 1.

41 mm.The following changes must now be made so you can perform the strength calculation later on: facewidth of worm is 60 mm. increase the required facewidth of the worm wheel b2R to 31 mm and the external diameter de2 to 181. Please refer to the notes if you have any questions.2013 9 / 16 . To open the prepared example used in this tutorial. Figure 13.03. click "File Open" and select "WormGear 1 (DIN3996 Example 1)". Figure 14. Final inputs These are the results of the calculation. 2 Strength calculation The various different calculation methods are documented in the manual (Chapter 16). Opening the example calculation 04.

000.WHEEL ---100.00 33.282 Center distance (mm) Centre distance tolerance Shaft angle (°) Transverse module (mm) Normal module (mm) Axial module (mm) Pressure angle at normal section (°) Mean lead angle (°) Hand of gear Number of teeth Facewidth (mm) Wheel rim width b2R (mm) Wheel width b2H (mm) Facewidth for calculation (mm) Accuracy grade (manufacturing) Internal diameter gearbody (mm) Material Worm: Gear 2: 16 MnCr 5 (1).03.00 31.2.WORM---------------.0000 4.0 Gear: 0.0000 3.0 Calculation method DIN 3996:2012 (Geometry: DIN 3975:2002) Geometry calculation from axial module ------.500 73.00 30.83 6 7 0.0 1. case-hardened ISO 6336-5 Figure 9/10 (MQ). Bronze.500 4. b2] [Vqual] [di] ------.1 Results of the rating and geometry calculation KISSsoft-Entwicklungs-Version KISSsoft Release 03/2013 KISSsoft AG CH-8608 BUBIKON File Name : Description: Changed by: WormGear 1 (DIN3996 Example 1) KISSsoft example ho am: 04.754 25000.00 4. untreated 04.0000 20.00 60.5288 left left 2 41 60.00 0.9047 4.302 1500.2 587. TOOTH GEOMETRY AND MATERIAL Shape of flank: ZI [a] [Sigma] [mt] [mn] [mx] [alfn] [gamma] [z] [b1] [b2R] [b2H] [b1.WORM---------------.000.2013 um: 16:08:10 WORMGEAR ANALYSIS Drawing or article number: Worm: 0. Case-carburized steel.2013 10 / 16 . core strength >=25HRC Jominy J=12mm<HRC28 CuSn12Ni2-C-GZ.40 [P] [P] [n] [KA] [T] [H] [Ns] 5.03.000 ISO 286:2010 Measure js7 90.00 31.0000 12.00 134.WHEEL ---Power (kW) Worm driving Power (kW) Speed (1/min) Application factor Torque (Nm) Required service life Number of starts (1/h) 1.

00 695.000 0.95 [WML_PolyG] 1.00 206000 98100 0.00 280.000 0.0 0.000 0. tooth flank (µm) Mean roughness height.20 / 0.0 DIN 867:1986 Dedendum coefficient Root radius factor Addendum coefficient Tip radius factor Tip form height coefficient Protuberance height factor Protuberance angle Ramp angle [hfP*] [rhofP*] [haP*] [rhoaP*] [hFaP*] [hprP*] [alfprP] [alfKP] not topping 1.000 0.200 0.350 0.200 0.000 0.WORM---------------.000 0.00 520.200 1.000 Summary of reference profile gears: Dedendum reference profile (in module) Root radius reference profile (in module) Addendum reference profile (in module) Protuberance height coefficient (in module) Protuberance angle (°) Tip form height coefficient (in module) Ramp angle (°) Type of profile modification: none (only running-in) Tip relief (µm) [hfP*] [rofP*] [haP*] [hprP*] [alfprP] [hFaP*] [alfKP] 1.000 0.03.000 0.000 Tool or reference profile of gear 2: Reference profile 1.200 1. Rz.00 3.000 0.00 [YW] 0.2013 11 / 16 .00 3.DIN 3996:2005 Surface hardness Pulsating shear strength (N/mm²) Fatigue strength for Hertzian pressure (N/mm²) Material Coefficient YW Material lubrication coefficient Tensile strength (N/mm²) Yield point (N/mm²) Young's modulus (N/mm²) Poisson's ratio Mean roughness.00 90.000 0.200 1.000 0.00 150.000 1.000 0.50 2.000 0.300 0. Ra.20 / 0.200 0.75 1000.00 8.000 0.20 / 1.00 8.200 1.20 / 1.000 [Ca] 0.00 [Rm] [Rp] [E] [ny] [RAH] [RZH] [RZF] Tool or reference profile of gear 1: Reference profile 1.0 Lubrication type Type of oil (Own input) Lubricant base oil bath lubrication Öl: ISO-VG 220 Synthetic oil based on Polyglycol 04.000 0. root (µm) ------. flank (µm) Mean roughness height.000 0. Rz.000 0.200 0.00 [sigHlim] 1500.WHEEL ---HRC 59 HBW 95 [tauFlim] 430.0 DIN 867:1986 Dedendum coefficient Root radius factor Addendum coefficient Tip radius factor Tip form height coefficient Protuberance height factor Protuberance angle Ramp angle [hfP*] [rhofP*] [haP*] [rhoaP*] [hFaP*] [hprP*] [alfprP] [alfKP] not topping 1.000 0.

5288 4.529 164.000 0.800 1.0000 Profile shift (x*m) (mm) [x*mx] 0.000 18.000 181.000 172.000/ -0.0000 12.Kinem.800 0.990 0.0591 154.000 153.e/i] 0.e/i] [Ada.000 0.410 14. ) Tip alteration (mm) Theoretical tip clearance (mm) Effective tip clearance (mm) Reference operating diameter (mm) Reference diameter (mm) Base diameter (mm) Tip diameter (mm) Tip form diameter (mm) (mm) Tip diameter allowances (mm) Root diameter (mm) Generating Profile shift coefficient Manufactured root diameter with xE (mm) [k*mn] [c] [c.000 164.000 Diametral factor q [q] 9.529) ( 18.500 Gear ratio [u] 20.400/ 26.205) ( 20.000 0.782 164.059/ 0.3/90 ( ISO 14635-1:2006) Specific density at 15 °C (kg/dm³) Oil temperature (°C) [nu40] [nu100] [FZGtestA] [roOil] [TS] 220. It is necessary to do a calculation of the exact geometry using the crossed-helical calculation!) Pressure angle at Transverse section (°) Pressure angle at axial section (°) Helix angle at reference circle (°) Lead angle at reference diameter (°) Transverse module (mm) Axial module (mm) Helix angle at operating pitch circle (°) Operating pitch diameter (mm) Profile shift coefficient [alft] [alfx] [beta] [gamma] [mt] [mx] [betas] [dw] [x-DIN3960] ( 59.e/i] [df] [xE.990 0.529 77.448 59.000 44.290 04.400 26.000 20.WHEEL ---20.963 36.927 44.e/i] [dm] [d] [db] [da] [dFa] [dFa. viscosity oil at 40 °C (mm²/s) Kinem.0000 Overall transmission ratio [itot] -20.000 164.000 Generating angle (°) Pressure angle at normal section (°) [alfa0] [alfn] Indications for the manufacture of the worm wheel according to ISO 14521: (Only valid for worm wheels which are manufactured with a hob similar to the worm.000) ( 0.0000 164.400 -0.0000 (The profile shift is related to the axial module of the worm subject to ISO TR 14521:2010/DIN 3975:2002.500 Base helix angle (°) [betab] 11.00 13 1.0000 Profile shift coefficient [x-worm] 0.WORM---------------.000) ( 77.205 12.000 Sum of profile shift coefficients [Summexi] 0.877/ 0.471) ( 36.03.000 12.471) ( 12.000/ 43.471 4.010 154.2013 12 / 16 .666 172. viscosity oil at 100 °C (mm²/s) FZG test A/8.0000) 20.0000 0.000 0.0450/ -0.000) ( 4.000 44.762 Reference centre distance (mm) [ad] 100.040/ 153.0000 0.000 172.e/i] [df.000/ -0.226 ------.00 37.020 73.) Mean lead angle of the worm (°) [gamma] Transverse module (mm) [mt] Reference diameter (mm) [d] Reference operating diameter (mm) [dm] External diameter (mm) [de] Throat radius (mm) [rk] Profile shift coefficient [x-worm] Pitch on reference circle (mm) [p2] 12.566 Indications for the manufacture of the worm wheel as a cylindrical gear (This specification is only a suggestion.000 0.000/ 171.448) ( 77.010 26.

802 84.628 2.341 90.911 [db] [gamb] [pb] 18.000 1.006 1.431 23.500 36.756 Nominal circum.000 20.3 -2847. (m/sec) Sliding velocity an mean circle (m/s) Number of load cycles (in mio.0 -1875.000 0..477 0.962 0.070 30.000 [h*] [pm*] [s*] 0.2013 13 / 16 .153 0.0692 0. force at pitch circle (N) Axial force (N) Radial force (N) Normal force (N) Circumferential speed pitch d.950 0.WHEEL ---1875.2850 [PVLP] [nVD] [PVD] [PV0] [muOT] [YS] [YG] [YR] [YW] [muzm] [roz] [etaz] [PVZ] [PV] [etaGes] 0.002 0.527 2.463 11.800 164.133 12.Lead height (mm) [pz] Axial pitch (mm) [px] Transverse contact ratio (approximate value following Thomas-Charchut) [eps_a] For ZI-worms: Base diameter (mm) Base lead angle (°) Basecylinder pitch (mm) 25.046 0.126 2 0.2 7162.999 109.0245 1. FACTORS OF GENERAL INFLUENCE ------.) Data of reference gearbox: Equivalent Young's modulus (N/mm²) Surface roughness of worm (µm) Center distance (mm) Transmission ratio Reference operating diameter (mm) Characteristic value for mean Hertzian pressure Characteristic value for mean lubricant gap thickness Characteristic value for mean sliding path Physical characteristic values: Characteristic value for mean lubrication Space width Characteristic value for mean Hertzian pressure Characteristic value for mean sliding path Efficiency according method C: Roller bearing with set support Bearing loss-power (kW) Number of sealings (worm-shaft) Sealing loss power (kW) Idle loss power (kW) Base friction number Size coefficient Geometry factor Roughness factor Material Coefficient YW Mean tooth friction number Tooth friction angle (°) Meshing efficiency (%) Mesh loss power (kW) Total loss power (kW) Total efficiency (%) Wheel bulk temperature: Lubrication type [Ft] [Fa] [Fr] [Fn] [v] [vgm] [NL] [EredT] [RaT] [aT] [uT] [dm1T] [pmT*] [hT*] [sT*] 150622.827 0.896 2249.9470 30.03.000 0.3 8343.WORM---------------.0234 1.872 oil bath lubrication 04.7 2.0 -7162.00 0.500 100.2 2847.566 1.

2480 1.840 24439.67 Equivalent Young's modulus (N/mm²) Mean flank pressure (N/mm²) Life coefficient Speed factor Size coefficient Lubrication factor Ratio factor Boundary value of average flank pressure (N/mm²) Safety for surface pressure on flank Required safety As information: Achievable service life (with SHmin = 1.2 3.990 77.6140 1.731 1.C ------.205 1.000 0.2013 14 / 16 .10181e-010 8.WORM---------------.000 1.1°) Pressure factor [WH] Factor for lubricant structure [WS] Factor for start [WNS] Characteristic value [Kw] Wear intensity [JOT] Wear intensity [Jw] Wear path (m) [sWm] Wear removal (mm) [delWn] Permissible tooth thickness reduction (coefficient in module) [DeltaS] Permissible mass decrease (kg) Normal tooth thickness at tip cyl.C Mean lubricant gap thickness (µm) [hminm] (hminm calculated with etaOM= 0. BENDING SAFETY Bearing distance l1 (mm) Distance l11 (mm) Deflection (mm) Boundary value bending (mm) Safety for bending Required safety [l1] [l11] [delm] [dellim] [Sdel] [Sdelmin] 150.608 1.38 367.36 1.000 04.PITTING SUPPORT CAPABILITY ACCORDING METHOD B.100) (h) [Lh] 0.080 2.92817e-010 815829 0.778/ 2.07 4.03.000 1.632 1.WHEEL ---149673.e/i] Boundary value for flank-removal (mm) [delWlimn] Limited by: Permissible tooth thickness decrease Safety against wear [SW] Required safety [SWmin] As information: Achievable service life (with SW = 1.851 1.907 2.000 75.030 0.100 36551.0000 0. (mm) [san] (mm) [san.000 442.6484 5.Worm submerges into lubricant Cooling area of wheel-pair (cm²) Heat-transfer coefficient wheels (W/m²/K) Wheel bulk temperature (°C) Oil sump temperature (°C) [AR] [alfL] [theM] [theS] 50.728 0.0642 Ns/m2 theM=77.0000 2.000 76640.000) (h) [Ered] [sigHm] [ZH] [ZV] [ZS] [Zoil] [Zu] [sigHG] [SH] [SHmin] [Lh] 5.766 1.171 1.300 2.000 0. WEAR SUPPORT CAPABILITY ACCORDING METHOD B.1 73.

delWlimn)) Tooth thickness at root (mm) [sft2] 9.663 Tooth form factor [YF2] 1.190 87.000 87.534 Required safety [SFmin] 1.168 99.00 Safety for Tooth root stress [SF] 2.155/ 54.180/ -0.275 Actual base tangent length ('span') (mm) [Wk.257 173.034/ 86.549 Base tangent length (span): Can only be measured.366) 8.0 73.2 100.000 Boundary value of shear stress at tooth root (N/mm²) [tauFG] 90.166 04. ALLOWANCES FOR TOOTH THICKNESS Tooth thickness deviation Worm: Gear: Own Input Own Input ------.545 7.455 174.m] 162.985 164.946/ 173. allowances (mm) [As.117 Diameter of contact point (mm) [dMWk.024 Rim thickness (mm) [sk2] 10.WORM---------------.WHEEL ---Calculation taking into account the decrease of the tooth thickness due to wear (with minimum (delWn. TEMPERATURE SAFETY ACCORDING METHOD C Housing with cooler Ambient temperature (°C) Oil temperature (°C) Boundary value oil temperature (°C) Temperature safety Required safety Oil sump temperature (°C) (Safety [TU] [theOil] [theSlim] [ST=theSlim/theOil] [STmin] [theS] [theSlim/theS] 20.e/i] 54.615 7.128/ -0. Diameter of ball/pin (mm) [DMeff] Theor.6.2 1.040 -0.000 Base tangent length (no backlash) (mm) [Wk] 54.820/ 99. if the worm-wheel is manufactured like a cylindrical gear! Theoretical diameter of ball/pin (mm) [dm] Eff.848 37.293 Tooth thickness allowance (normal section) (mm) Backlash free center distance (mm) Backlash free center distance. centre to ball (mm) [MrK] Actual dimension centre to ball (mm) [MrK. TOOTH-ROOT SUPPORT CAPABILITY ACCORDING METHOD C ------.707 -0.m] Diametral measurement over two balls without clearance (mm) [MdK] Actual dimension over balls (mm) [MdK.e/i] [aControl] [jta] Number of teeth spanned [k] 5.366 1.000 6.200 Contact ratio factor [Yeps] 0.WHEEL ---0.000/ -0.03.000 Nominal shear stress at tooth root (N/mm²) [tauF2] 35.e/i] Diameter of contact point (mm) [dMMr.2013 15 / 16 .500 Lead coefficient [Ygam] 1.0 1.e/i] 6. dim. Life coefficient [YNL] 1.000 Rim thickness coefficient [YK2] 1.WORM---------------.51 No Quality reduction by small plastic deformation is accepted.100 73.100 7.

The specification of circumferential backlash (as well as the backlash-free distance for the tooth thickness check) is not yet fully checked. Niemann) Torque (Nm) [Mass] [muzm_S] [T1_S] 0.195 587.714 0.50 11.WORM---------------.00 51. over 3 rolls (mm) Tooth thickness (chordal) in pitch diameter (mm) Actual chordal tooth thickness (mm) Tooth thickness on axial cut (mm) Actual tooth thickness (mm) Tooth space in axial cut (mm) Actual tooth space (mm) Reference chordal height from da.00 15. ha2] 3.Theoretical dim.133 ['sn.140 48.e/i] imply: Maximum [e] and Minimal value [i] with consideration of all tolerances .00 10.997 4. fp2] [fux.093 [smx] 6.226/ 0.e/i] [jt] [jn] 0.242 [emx] 6.004/ 5.00 16.559 46.018/ -0.283 [emx.00 19.03.132 6.00 11.118 0. .00 35. without taking into account the exact shape of flank.964 ['sn] 6.2013 16 / 16 .559/ 46.m (mm) [Md3R] [Md3R.018 0.e/i] 46.207/ 0.00 22.00 18.324 [ham1. and serves only as a guide.133/ 6.50 11.calculated with da (kg) Start under load: Tooth friction number (acc.00 11.00 29.282 2.e/i] 6.In ISO14521 and DIN3996.283/ 6.052 Centre distance allowances (mm) Circumferential backlash (transverse section) (mm) Normal backlash (mm) 9.00 15.00 56.283 [smx.455 REMARKS: .452 6.00 7. In such a case you get the message: "Not calculated (material data missing)' End of Report lines: 392 04.108 ------. ADDITIONAL DATA Weight .WHEEL ---According to DIN 3974:1995: Accuracy grade Single pitch deviation (µm) Difference between adjacent pitches (µm) Total deviation of the slope (µm) Total cumulative pitch deviation (µm) Profile slope deviation (µm) Profile form deviation (µm) Total profile deviation (µm) Concentricity deviation (µm) Total tangential composite deviation (µm) Tangential tooth-to-tooth composite deviation (µm) [Vqual] [fpx. fu2] [Fpz] [Fp2] [fHa] [ffa] [Fa] [Fr] [Fi'] [fi'] 6 8. The details of the chordal tooth thickness are imprecise and merely an indication (The calculation is done according to ISO TR 14521:2010/DIN 3975:2002.e/i] 6.00 7 13. GEAR ACCURACY [Aa.).Specifications with [.00 13. over 3 wires (mm) Actual dim.e/i] 6.283/ 6. the necessary data for each material are not always complete.