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Hygiene and Bacteriology

Infection control

Government bodies and agencies
• Each state or territory has its on legislation regarding different areas of beauty therapy. • Depending on the state you may or may not be able to pierce the skin(e.g. use lancets) according to the skin penetration act. • As a therapist it is your responsibility to be aware of what can legally be performed in your state.

Some agencies and bodies to be aware of:
• Public Health (Skin Penetration) regulation 2000 • NSW Health • TGA- Therapeutic Goods Administration deals with which products can be allowed to be used and what products have been government tested for the Australian market for: • quality • safety • efficacy, where appropriate, and • timely availability

Infection control
• Micro organisms are everywhere. • It is not possible to live in a sterile environment so we need to make sure that the risk of cross infection is minimised. • Because micro organisms are invisible traces may be present that can cause serious health risks such as Hepatitis B and C, and HIV • Safe working practices must be applied at all times.

4 Classifications of infectious Microorganisms
• Bacteria

• Fungi
• Viruses • Parasites

Bacteria
• Micro-organisms are microscopic (cannot be seen by the naked eye). • They are plants or animals • Sometimes called microbes they can exist almost anywhere. • Bacteria is grouped into 2 primary types even though there are thousands of different kinds. 1. Non pathogenic 2. Pathogenic

Bacteria
Non pathogenic
• Most Bacteria are non pathogenic. • This means that they are completely harmless and do not cause disease. • In our body non pathogenic bacteria break down food, protect us against infection and stimulate the immune system.

Pathogenic
• These are considered harmful . • They may cause disease or infection. • Sanitary conditions must be practiced at all times to prevent spread of infection.

• Classification of pathogenic bacteria • There are 3 types of Cocci bacteria. Their distinct shape makes it easy to identify them. • They are round and can be found singularly or in groups.

1.Cocci
Staphyloccoci- this bacteria is pus forming and appears in clusters like a bunch of grapes. Can cause pustules, boils and abscesses
Streptococci- pus forming bacteria arranged in lines like a string of beads. Can cause strep throat and blood poisoning. Diplococci-grows in pairs and can cause diseases like pneumonia

Staphylococci

http://inst.bact.wisc.edu/inst/index.php?module=Book&func=d isplayarticle&art_id=137

http://pathmicro.med.sc.edu/fox/strep-staph.htm

Streptococci

Impetigo

bottelsena.glogster.com/Scarlet-Fever/

http://www.bytheholyspirit.org/beliefs_values.html

Diplococci

http://sitemaker.umich.edu/mc13/bacterial_meningitis_causative_organism

• 2. Bacilli

• This bacteria is characterised by its rod like shape. • Diseases from bacilli include tetanus(lock jaw),typhoid fever, diphtheria and tuberculosis.

Rod like shape of bacilli

microvet.arizona.edu/.../07Exams/bacilli.jpg

3. Spirilla

Spiral or corkscrewshaped bacteria. A subdivision of this can cause syphilis.

Spirilla bacteria

staff.tuhsd.k12.az.us/.../standard/spirilla.jpg

Fungus Is a general term for the group of mushrooms, yeasts and moulds marked by the absence of chlorophyll • They are highly contagious and responsible for athlete's foot(tinea pedis) as well as thrush

Tinea pedis (Athlete’s foot)

Thrives in a wet/warm environment
2.bp.blogspot.com/.../s400/athletes-foot_03.jpg

Viruses A virus is a microscopic organism that can infest almost all plants and animals including bacteria Viruses are responsible for the common cold, herpes, hepatitis, measles and chicken pox to name a few.

measles

http://dermatology.about.com/od/infection virus/ig/Measles/Measles-Rash-onBody.htm

Viruses and bacteria
• A difference between viruses and bacteria is that viruses live only by penetrating cells and becoming part of them while bacteria can live on their own.

• Viral infections cannot treated with anti-biotics.

Blood borne pathogens
• Disease carrying bacteria and viruses that are carried through the body in blood or bodily fluids are called blood borne pathogens. • These pathogens can enter the body in many ways : • Through a break in the skin e.g.cut,scratch • The mouth, eyes, ears, nose • Unprotected sex

Parasites
• Parasites can live internally(endoparasites) and externally(ectoparasites) • Internal parasites can come from ingesting raw fish and meat. This can cause tapeworm, hookworms and round worms • External parasites burrow in the skin. E.g. Head lice ,itch mites(scabies)

Parasites Head lice

Tapeworm

http://www.natural-health-and-wellbeing.com/head-lice-advice.html

http://www.adkforum.com/showthread.php?t=13365

Immunity
• Is the ability of the body to resist disease. We can have immunity in 2 ways. 1. Natural Immunity- inherited resistance to disease (white blood cells and antibodies fight infection, unbroken skin is a natural barrier) 2. Aquired Immunity- through overcoming disease or through vaccination

Sanitisation, Disinfection, Sterilisation

http://scrapetv.com/News/News%20Pages/Specials/Swine-flu2009/Pages/Swine-Flu-special-2009-Scrape-TV-The-World-on-yourside.html

www.bellchemicals.co.za/Catalogue/disinfectan...

Sanitisation
• “to significantly reduce the number of pathogens or disease producing organisms found on a surface” • Hand washing is a form of sanitisation. • Antiseptics can kill, retard or prevent growth of bacteria but they are not classified as disinfectants. They are weaker than disinfectants.

Disinfectants
• Disinfection is the killing of disease causing microorganisms except bacterial spores • Disinfection is by either thermal or chemical methods • The thermal method uses heat and water to kill micro-organisms • Chemical method uses liquid solutions in which non porous implements can be soaked. They should be mixed with water according to manufacturers instructions to be effective.

Disinfectants
• Anything that needs to be disinfected must be thoroughly cleaned with water and detergent first to remove any soiled matter. • Disinfecting will not be effective if items are not sanitised first.

Sterilisation
• Sterilisation is the killing of all micro-organisms including spores. • It is the highest level of decontamination. • Any metal implements that may penetrate the skin should be sterilised using steam autoclave and dry heat.

Sterilisation
• Depends on the following factors:

• Temperature • Cleanliness • Circulation
• Boiling, pressure cookers, uv light, dishwashers etc do Not sterilise.

Review questions
• Milady’s work book chapter 4 pg14-18

References:
• Milady’s standard aesthetics fundamentals • Skin penetration code of best practice • Learners guide: WRBCS305A Apply knowledge of Skin biology to beauty treatments • Learners guide: WRBCS409A Apply knowledge of skin science to beauty treatments