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List of country legal systems


List of country legal systems
The legal systems of the world today are generally based on one of three basic systems: civil law, common law, and religious law € or combinations of these. However, the legal system of each country is shaped by its unique history and so incorporates individual variations.

Legal systems of the world €€Civil law (legal system)Civil law€€Common law€€Bijuridical (civil and common law, also known as mixed jurisdiction)€€Customary law€€Islamic law (Sharia)

Civil law
Civil law is the most widespread system of law around the world. It is also sometimes known as Continental European law. The central source of law that is recognized as authoritative are codifications in a constitution or statute passed by legislature, to amend a code. While the concept of codification dates back to the Code of Hammurabi in Babylon ca. 1790 BC, civil law systems mainly derive from the Roman Empire and, more particularly, the Corpus Juris Civilis issued by the Emperor Justinian ca. AD 529. This was an extensive reform of the law in the Byzantine Empire, bringing it together into codified documents. Civil law was also partly influenced by religious laws such as Canon law and Islamic law.[1][2] Civil law today, in theory, is interpreted rather than developed or made by judges. Only legislative enactments (rather than legal precedents, as in common law) are considered legally binding. Scholars of comparative law and economists promoting the legal origins theory usually subdivide civil law into four distinct groups:

Shamash (the Babylonian sun god) hands King Hammurabi a code of law

• French civil law: in France, the Benelux countries, Italy, Romania, Spain and former colonies of those countries; • German civil law: in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Estonia, Latvia, former Yugoslav republics, Greece, Portugal and its former colonies, Turkey, Japan, South Korea and the Republic of China; • Scandinavian civil law: in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. As historically integrated in the Scandinavian cultural sphere, Finland and Iceland also inherited the system. • Chinese law: a mixture of civil law and socialist law in use in the People's Republic of China. A comprehensive list of countries that base their legal system on a codified civil law follows:

based on native customs and practices with Soviet and German influence Based on Belgian civil law Based on Portuguese civil law . supplemented with Roman law and customary Catalan law. mainly of the great French jurists of the 19th century. the Napoleonic code and the Chilean Civil Code. Russian and traditional Armenian law Based on Dutch civil law The Allgemeines b„rgerliches Gesetzbuch (ABGB) of 1811 [4] The Napoleonic Code is still in use. the Draft of the Spanish Civil Code of 1851. until the new Civil Code went in force in 1987. rights from obligations and ii. the Argentinian Civil Code was also inspired by the Draft of the Brazilian Civil Code. Based on Portuguese civil law Civil Law system influenced by Germanic and Roman law systems civil law system. basically a work of the Argentine jurist Dalmacio V‚lez Sƒrsfield. Andorra Armenia Aruba Austria Azerbaijan Belarus Belgium Benin Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Bulgaria Burkina Faso Burundi Chad People's Republic of China Republic of the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo Cote d'Ivoire Cambodia Cape Verde Central African Republic Courts apply the customary laws of Andorra. who dedicated five years of his life on this task.List of country legal systems 2 Country Albania Angola Argentina The Civil Code of the Republic of Albania. The sources of this Civil Code also include various theoretical legal works. although it is heavily modified (especially concerning family law) Influenced by the Napoleonic Code Influenced by Austrian law. real property rights. The Civil Code came into effect on 1 January 1871. as per a Paraguayan law of 1880. French. the German legal theory became increasingly influential in Argentina. Based on German. During the second half of the 20th century. It was the first Civil Law that consciously adopted as its cornerstone the distinction between i. The Swiss civil law (Zivilgesetzbuch) was a model for the Law on Obligations of 1978. Beyond the influence of the Spanish legal tradition. thus distancing itself from the French model. The Argentinian Civil Code was also in effect in Paraguay. 1991 [3] Based on Portuguese civil law Description The Spanish legal tradition had a great influence on the Civil Code of Argentina.

Its technique is regarded as perfect. The Civil Code came into effect on 1 January 1857. Legal Provision of Eastern Mainland Greece.g. Mixed system combining Common Law (inherited from British colonisation) and Civil Law. and Wolff ('Traite de droit compar‚'. its text was inspired by the South Peruvian Civil Code of Marshal Andres de Santa Cruz. Nearly faithful reproduction of the Chilean civil code First Civil Code (a part of the General Code or Carrillo Code) came into effect in 1841. it is observed however that e.e. Nearly faithful reproduction of the Chilean civil code Largely influenced by German civil law. 'The Social [i. the codes of Ecuador (1861) and Colombia (1873) constituted faithful reproductions of the Chilean code. Descended from the Civil Code of the Austrian Empire (1811). Scandinavian-German civil law Based by the Napoleonic Code Croatia Cuba Cyprus Czech Republic Denmark Dominican Republic Ecuador El Salvador Estonia Finland France Egypt Equatorial Guinea Ethiopia Gabon Guinea Guinea-Bissau Georgia Germany Greece Civil code introduced in 1861. Venezuelan Andr‚s Bello. and decree Based on Portuguese civil law The B„rgerliches Gesetzbuch of 1900 ("BGB"). The compiler of the Civil Code of Chile. and reveals the influenced by the Napoleonic Code and the Spanish Civil Code of 1889 (from its 1851 draft version). but for very few exceptions. in many provisions of property law. Influenced by Austrian and Hungarian law. substantially reformed to remove Soviet influence and elements of socialist law after the Velvet Revolution (1989). For instance. Paris. on the other. it is noted that he consulted and used all of the codes that had been issued till then. The influence of the Napoleonic code is great. 1950€1952) Andr‚s Bello may be regarded as one of the great legislators of mankind. especially of the French one. The Greek civil code of 1946. the Chilean civil code influenced to a large degree the drafting of the civil codes of other Latin-American states. starting from the era of Justinian. worked for its completion for almost 30 years. The present Civil Code is into effect since 1 January 1888. The BGB is influenced both by Roman and German law traditions. the Greek civil code replaced the Byzantine€Roman civil law in effect in Greece since its independence (…†‡ˆ‰Š ‹ˆŒ•Ž•• ••‘ ’“Ž•†”ˆ‰Š‘ •–—˜†™ š””Œ›†‘. Nolde. the solutions of the French code civil were put aside in favor of pure Roman law. logic and cohesiveness of its provisions. and of other Western laws. of the Spanish law on the one hand.List of country legal systems 3 Chile The Spanish legal tradition exercised an especially great influence on the civil code of Chile. it is distinguished for the clarity. Civil] Laws of the Dear Departed Christian Emperors of Greece [referring to the Byzantine Emperors] alone are in effect at present in Eastern Mainland Greece') . Colombia Costa Rica Civil code introduced in 1873. influenced by German (1939€45) and Soviet (1947/68-89) legal codes during occupation periods. using elements. highly influenced by the German civil code of 1900 (B„rgerliches Gesetzbuch). The Law on Obligations of 2005. On its turn. As mentioned by Arminjon. Indeed. civil law system based on Swedish law [5] Based on the Napoleonic code (code civil of 1804) [5] based on French civil law system. customary law. November 1821: 'œˆ •†ˆ“ž“ˆ‰†Ÿ … ‡†ˆ •ž“ ’¡ˆ‡“Š˜•ž“ •—ˆ˜•ˆŽ“¢“ ’™•†‰—Ž• —ž“ ••‘ š””Œ›†‘ ‡ “†ˆ ˆ˜£¤†™˜ˆ ‰Ž•Œ •† ¥Ž— “ ¡ˆ‘ ••“ ’“Ž•†”ˆ‰Š“ •–—˜†“ š””Œ›Ž'. Influenced by Spanish and American law with large elements of Communist legal theory.

with elements of the Napoleonic civil code. the 'Ley del Organismo Judicial' recognizes 'the law' as the main legal source (in the sense of legislative texts)." From: [6] Jaime B. medium influences from Russian and Soviet law. Japanese civil code of 1895. Roman and French legal systems. Although jurisprudence technically refers to judicial decisions in general. accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations The Polish Civil Code in force since 1965 Influenced by the Napoleonic Code and later by the German Civil Law Codification derived from German BGB.List of country legal systems 4 Guatemala Guatemala has had three Civil Codes: the first one from 1877.C. Berger Stender Attorney at Law author. as well as a few derogations relating to areas which have subsequently been regulated by newer laws. Heavily influenced by German and Dutch norms in 1700-1800's. and the one currently in force. King Magnus VI the Lawmender unified the regional laws into a single code of law for the whole kingdom in 1274. B. Haiti Honduras Hungary Iceland Italy Influenced by the Napoleonic Code Based on codified Roman law. . Socialist-style modification in 1900's. Based on Portuguese civil law Influenced by the Napoleonic Code Scandinavian-German civil law. also influenced by the law of the PRC Japan Latvia Lebanon Lithuania Luxembourg Macau Mauritius Mexico "The origins of Mexico's legal system are both ancient and classical. such as the Code of Commerce and the Law of the National Registry of Persons. with elements of the Napoleonic civil code Based on Germanic traditional laws and influenced by Medieval Norwegian and Danish laws. a new one introduced in 1933. This Civil Code has suffered some reforms throughout the years. and Continental European Law influences since 1990's. Mexico Civil Code of 2002 based on German BGB First: the General Property Code for the Principality of Montenegro of 1888. it follows the tradition of the roman-French system of civil codification. This was replaced by Christian V's Norwegian Code of 1687. Based on codified Roman law.. and the Mexican system shares more in common with other legal systems throughout the world (especially those in Latin America and most of continental Europe). and the Supreme Court acting as a 'Tribunal de Casaci¦n') whose theses become binding for lower courts. Based on the Napoleonic Code Civil Law system descendant from Roman Law through Byzantine tradition. based on the Greek. Mongolia Montenegro Mozambique Netherlands Norway Panama Paraguay Peru Poland Portugal Republic of China (Taiwan) Romania Russia The Paraguayan Civil Code in force since 1987 is largely influenced by the Napoleonic Code and the Argentinian Code Based on civil law system. civil code of 1942 replaced the original one of 1865 Modeled after European (primarily German) civil law system. although it also establishes 'jurisprudence' as a complementary source. written by Valtazar Bogi§i¨. Regarding the theory of 'sources of law' in the Guatemalan legal system. Modeled after French civil law Modeled after Dutch civil law Influenced by the Napoleonic Code Based on the Portuguese strand of the continental tradition. in practice it tends to be confused and identified with the concept of 'legal doctrine'. which is a qualified series of identical resolutions in similar cases pronounced by higher courts (the Constitutional Court acting as a 'Tribunal de Amparo'. Present: the Law on Obligations of 2008.. Largely influenced by Germany. itself much influenced by Germany. Tijuana. In general.. which was passed in 1963.

Present: The Swiss civil law (Zivilgesetzbuch) was a model for the Law on Obligations of 1978. nor any other Nordic state created a civil code of the kind of the Code Civil or the BGB. is Old German law. just as for all Nordic countries. influenced by German (1939€45) and Soviet (1947/68-89) legal codes during occupation periods. A Civil Law system influenced mostly by Germanic and Austro-Hungarian law systems Slovakia Slovenia South Korea Spain Influenced by the Napoleonic Code. Common law was later inherited by the Commonwealth of Nations. when the first civil codes were drafted. the founder of the modern Turkish state. The historical basis of the law of Sweden. merging both the Napoleonic style with the Castilian traditions. every system will have a legislature that passes new laws and statutes. preceding the codifications of most other European countries. in order to abolish the Islamic law (Sharia). Statutes were allowed to be made by the government. Overwhelmingly strong impact of the Communist legal theory is traceable. starting with the Siete Partidas.List of country legal systems 5 S©o Tom‚ e Prªncipe Serbia Based on Portuguese civil law First: the Civil Code of Principality of Serbia of 1844. written by Jovan Had«i¨. However. The doctrine of stare decisis or precedent by courts is the major difference to codified civil law systems. Alongside. was influenced by the Austrian Civil Code (Allgemeines b„rgerliches Gesetzbuch). Like all Scandinavian legal systems. and almost every former colony of the British Empire has adopted it (Malta being an exception). Descended from the Civil Code of the Austrian Empire (1811). it is distinguished by its traditional character and for the fact that it did not adopt elements of Roman law. Common law developed in England. judicial decisions may decide whether the jurisdiction's constitution allowed a particular statute or statutory provision to be made or what meaning is contained within the statutory provisions. influenced by Anglo-Saxon law and to a much lesser extent by the Norman conquest of England which introduced legal concepts from Norman law. It is also interesting that the Napoleonic Code had no influence in codification of law in Scandinavia. neither Sweden. Communist legal theory and French civil law Common law Common law and equity are systems of law whose sources are the decisions in cases by judges. this has been a conscious choice of Kemal Atat„rk. The Swiss Civil Code of 1908 and 1912 (obligations. it also has some elements of Spain's legal tradition. In some jurisdictions. That body of law remained more or less unchanged until the 19th century. substantially reformed to remove Soviet influence and elements of socialist law after the Velvet Revolution (1989). Scandinavian-German civil law. King John of England signs Magna Carta . a major legislative achievement from the Middle Ages. such statutes may overrule judicial decisions or codify the topic covered by several contradictory or ambiguous decisions. which had its origins in Salic law. fifth book) Based on Portuguese civil law Modeled after the Swiss civil law (Zivilgesetzbuch) of 1907. aiming at westernizing the country Civil Code of Ukraine of 2004 Sweden Switzerland Timor-Leste Turkey Ukraine Uruguay Uzbekistan Vietnam Represents an evolution of Soviet civil law. In some jurisdictions. The relationships between statutes and judicial decisions can be complex. Codification of the law started in Sweden during the 18th century. It is indeed worth mentioning that it assimilated very few elements of foreign laws whatsoever.

In the European Union.List of country legal systems Common law is currently in practice in Ireland. such as obligations (contract and delict). Law based on English common law Jamaica Kiribati Marshall Islands Nauru . It served as a kind of medieval bill of rights for the aristocracy and the judiciary who developed the law. Daman and Diu which follow a Civil Law based on Portuguese Civil Law) based on Irish law before 1922. South Africa. most of the United Kingdom (England and Wales and Northern Ireland). Australia. Canada (excluding Quebec). Nigeria operates largely on a common law system but incorporates religious law. For example. also incorporating civil law and fragments of Jewish and Sharia law for family law cases based on English common law based on English common law based on U. where a civil law system based on French law prevails in most matters of a civil nature. property law. the Court of Justice takes an approach mixing civil law (based on the treaties) with an attachment to the importance of case law. Bangladesh. several others have adapted the common law system into a mixed system. Country American Samoa Antigua and Barbuda Australia Bahamas Bangladesh Barbados Belize Bhutan British Virgin Islands Canada based on English common law based on English common law based on English common law based on English common law based on English common law based on English common law based on English common law Description 6 based on English common law. New Zealand. Federal statutes take into account the bijuridical nature of Canada and use both common law and civil law terms where appropriate. with early Roman and some modern continental influences Dominica England and Wales (UK) Fiji Gibraltar Ghana Myanmar Grenada Hong Kong India Ireland Israel based on English common law based on English common law based on English common law based on English common law principally based on English common law based on English common law (except Goa.S. based on English common law primarily common law. Pakistan. Hong Kong. except in Quebec. In addition to these countries. which was itself based on English common law based on English common law from the period of the British Mandate. the United States (excluding Louisiana) and many other places. One of the most fundamental documents to shape common law is Magna Carta[7] which placed limits on the power of the English Kings. family law and private matters. India (excluding Goa).

based on English common law based on English common law Tonga Trinidad and Tobago Tuvalu Uganda United States based on English common law based on English common law Federal courts and 49 states use the legal system based on English common law which has diverged somewhat since the nineteenth century in that they make their own rulings rather than accept those handed down in the UK State law in the U. contracts or public law. . Law based on English common law with some provisons of Islamic law based on English common law Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Singapore based on English common law based on English common law. An Ulema was required to qualify for an Ijazah (legal doctorate) at a Madrasah (school) before they could issue Fatw€. which gives the Sharia Court jurisdiction over Muslim personal law.S. and canon law in some Christian groups. whereas in other cases they are intended and may be used as the basis for a country's legal system. Halakha in Judaism. Ijtihad (research) and Urf (common practice) to derive Fatw€ (legal opinions). and is thus considered similar to common law. and one of the three most common legal systems in the world alongside common law and civil law.[11] During the Islamic Golden Age. state of Louisiana is based upon French and Spanish civil law (see above) Religious law Religious law refers to the notion of a religious system or document being used as a legal source. while a small fraction of its rulings are based on the Ulema (jurists) who used the methods of Ijma (consensus).[9] The main kinds of religious law are Sharia in Islam. the use of Jewish Halakha for public law has a static and unalterable quality.[10] It is the most protected divine law. e. including Saudi Arabia and Iran. precluding amendment through legislative acts of government or development through judicial precedent. and Islamic Sharia law (and Fiqh jurisprudence) is based on legal precedent and reasoning by analogy (Qiyas). though most countries use Sharia law only as a supplement to national law. It can relate to all aspects of civil law.S. because.. The Islamic legal system of Sharia (Islamic law) and Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) is the most widely used religious law. For example. classical Islamic law may have had an influence on the development of common law[2] and several civil law institutions. the majority of the rulings of Sharia law are based on the Qur'an and Sunnah. In some cases these are intended purely as individual moral guidance. The latter was particularly common during the Middle Ages. Qiyas (analogical deduction). marriage.List of country legal systems 7 New Zealand Northern Ireland (UK) Palau Pakistan [8] based on English common law based on Irish law before 1921. though the methodology used varies. but Muslims are subject to the Administration of Muslim Law Act. including property rights.g. inheritance and divorce. which was itself based on English common law based on U. Christian Canon law is more similar to civil law in its use of civil codes.[1] Sharia law governs a number of Islamic countries.

single bishops for their respective sees. properly speaking. Greek Orthodox canon law. such as councils of bishops. the Pope for the entire Catholic Church. because of personal belief. in the process. influenced by German civil law•for instance. and Ottoman civil law. Indian contract law. Sharia in the northern states. Canon law is amended and adapted by the legislative authority of the church. mix of Islamic law and French Civil Codes. English common law. the Knesset issued twenty (20) wide-ranging laws. Instead. and judicial and legislative decisions [12] take into account Jewish law (halakhah) on occasion. especially in matters of personal status and family law. and be bound by its rulings. and were in the form of codes. No country is fully governed by Halakha. Description South African law (a mixed system) transferred uno acto through a proclamation of reception Guyana Israel Originally (1948) based on English common law. Muslim religious law. common law in the south and at the federal level. with admixtures of French and Greek civil and public law. between 1962 and 1981. the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Anglican Communion. Sharia and tribal custom laws Islamic law Based on Islamic law Based on principles of Code of Canon Law Islamic law Description Pluralistic systems Civil law and common law Country Botswana Cameroon Cyprus Based on English common law (Cyprus was a British colony 1878€1960). Canon law regulates the internal ordering of the Roman Catholic Church. but two Jewish people may decide. which were clearly influenced by civil law. Canon law is not a divine law. to have a dispute heard by a Jewish court. because it is not found in Aleppo Codex: 10th century Hebrew revelation. Islamic law and customary law Based on English common law Shia Islamic law Islamic law mix of Islamic law and French Civil Codes. Country Afghanistan Egypt The Gambia Ghana Iran Libya Mauritania Morocco Nigeria Oman Saudi Arabia Sudan Vatican City Yemen Islamic law & American British Law after invasion Islamic law is ensured in Article 2 of the Egyptian constitution. Islamic law largely applicable to family law. and the British Parliament for the Church of England.List of country legal systems 8 The Halakha is followed by orthodox and conservative Jews in both ecclesiastical and civil relations. . Religious law plays a role. Italian civil law. it is seen as human law inspired by the word of God and Bible with Masoretic pointing applying the demands of that revelation to the actual situation of the church. Islamic law largely applicable to family law.

most notably in Public Law Mauritius Namibia South African law (a mixed system) transferred uno acto through a proclamation of reception Philippines Based on Spanish law. Islamic laws and practices exist in four southern provinces. over Spain in the Spanish-American war of 1898 and cession of Puerto Rico to the U.) Saint Lucia Scotland (UK) Seychelles Based on Roman and continental law. Otherwise the criminal law and court procedure are based on the [13] English common law. common law after 1898 (victory of the U. the Quebec Act was passed in 1774.S.S. English.S.) Malta Initially based on Roman Law and eventually progressed to the Code de Rohan. with common law elements dating back to the High Middle Ages The substantive civil law is based on the French Civil Code. which continued in force when the modern Province of Quebec was created at Confederation in 1867. but federal laws (based on common law) are in effect in Louisiana as well. influenced by U. Thai law has naturally taken on its own Thai identity. French civil law and indigenous customary law. Code Napoleon with influences from Italian Civil Law.S.List of country legal systems 9 Jersey The Bailiwick of Jersey's legal system draws on local legislation enacted by the States of Jersey. Based on Spanish law. Italian.S. Swiss. Canadian federal law in force in Quebec is based on common law. English common law however is also a source of Maltese Law. South African law (a mixed system) transferred uno acto through a proclamation of reception Vanuatu Zimbabwe Civil law and religious law . Roman-Dutch civil law and Customary Law South African law (a mixed system) transferred uno acto through a proclamation of reception The Thai legal system became an amalgam of German. the British initially attempted to impose English Common Law. Consists of a mixed system combining the legacy of English common law. See Seychelles Legal Environment . based on the Coutume de Paris. Norman customary law. but federal statutes also take into account the bijuridical nature of Canada and use both common law and civil law terms where appropriate. French. common law after 1898 Spanish and Philippine-American Wars. South Africa Sri Lanka Swaziland Thailand An amalgam of English common law.S. An amalgam of English common law and Roman-Dutch civil law as well as Customary Law. Even today. English common law and modern French civil law South African law (a mixed system) transferred uno acto through a proclamation of reception Based on French and Spanish civil law. Over the years. Japanese. which allowed a mix of English Common Law and customary civil law. influenced by U.) Quebec (Canada) After the 1763 Treaty of Paris awarded French Canada to Great Britain. Codification occurred in 1866 with the enactment of the Civil Code of Lower Canada. personal law based on sharia law applies to Muslims Puerto Rico (U. and Indian laws and practices. but in response to the deteriorating political situation in the nearby Thirteen Colonies. Lesotho Louisiana (U.

India follows a mixture of civil. and Hindus.List of country legal systems 10 Country Afghanistan Algeria Bahrain Comoros Djibouti Egypt Description Family Law (personal Statute) for Muslims based on Islamic Jurisprudence. Seaerate Personal Statute for non Muslims. Islamic law applicable to family law Based on Islamic law and French and Spanish civil law system Common law and religious law Country Bangladesh Brunei Gambia Malaysia Nigeria Pakistan based on English common law. . some Islamic law applications in inheritance. Decisions by the Supreme Court of India and High Courts are binding on the lower courts. personal law based on sharia law applies to Muslims Sharia is applied in some northern states based on English Common Law. Tribal Law in FATA Description Hybrid law Country Description India The most prominent example of a hybrid legal system is the Indian legal system. Separate personal law codes apply to Muslims. and all other branches of Law are based on French civil law system Eritrea Indonesia Jordan Morocco Oman Qatar Syria United Arab Emirates Based on Islamic law and Egyptian civil law system (after the French civil law system) Based on Islamic law and French civil law system Based on Islamic law and Egyptian civil law system (after the French civil law system) Based on civil law of Holland and adat (cultural law of Indonesia) Mainly based on French Civil Code and Ottoman Majalla. Christians. Further. common law and customary or religious law. most of the laws are statutory and it also has a constitution which signifies the Civil nature of law in India.

Ant. 2004.g. com [16] https:/ / www. edu/ halsall/ source/ magnacarta..List of country legal systems 11 Systems by geography Despite the usefulness of different classifications. cia. (June 1999). Click the "show" buttons on the right for the lists of countries. p. "The Islamic Origins of the Common Law". com/ community/ international-foreignlaw/ • Moustaira Elina N. North Carolina Law Review 77 (5): 1635€1739 [3] http:/ / unpan1. ISBN 960-15-1267-5 • Moustaira Elina N. php [15] http:/ / ausicl. ISBN€0-521-86414-3 [10] Badr. ca/ world-legal-systems/ eng-monde. February 24€25. google. doi:10. John A. 1978). Islamic Finance: Law. Comparative Law: University Courses (in Greek). html [9] El-Gamal. see the work of Menachem Elon and Nahum Rakover. droitcivil. Website of the Faculty of Law of the University of Ottawa Australian Institute of Comparative Legal Systems [15] Factbook list of legal systems [16] International & Foreign Law Community [17] References [1] Badr. Cambridge University Press. doi:10. The American Journal of Comparative Law 26 (2 [Proceedings of an International Conference on Comparative Law. (2006). html). cia.2307/839667 [11] Makdisi. N.€16. state. htm) [5] https:/ / www. Salt Lake City. html [17] http:/ / www. htm [7] "Magna Carta" (http:/ / www. mexonline. gov/ library/ publications/ the-world-factbook/ geos/ pk. pdf [4] Andorra (11/07) (http:/ / www. html [6] http:/ / www. Milestones in the Course of Comparative Law: Thesis and Antithesis (in Greek). every legal system has its own individual identity. com/ lawreview. uottawa. Mahmoud A. George (April€June 1989). Retrieved 10 November 2006. 24€25 February 1977): 187€198. com/ site/ theseychelleslegalenvironment/ legal-system [14] http:/ / www. gov/ library/ publications/ the-world-factbook/ fields/ 2100. gov/ r/ pa/ ei/ bgn/ 3164. ISBN 960-15-1097-4 . . "Islamic Law: Its Relation to Other Legal Systems". org/ intradoc/ groups/ public/ documents/ UNTC/ UNPAN014893. categorised by their geography.2307/839667 [2] Makdisi. Athens. Journal of the American Oriental Society 109 (2): 175€182 [175€77]. Ant.2307/604423 [12] E. lexisnexis. fordham. N. doi:10. Gamal Moursi (Spring. 1977]): 187€198 [196€8]. Sakkoulas Publishers. "Scholasticism and Humanism in Classical Islam and the Christian West". Utah. The American Journal of Comparative Law 26 (2 € Proceedings of an International Conference on Comparative Law. [8] https:/ / www. Sakkoulas Publishers. Economics. un. Salt Lake City. "Islamic Law: Its Relation to Other Legal Systems"... [13] http:/ / sites. cia. and Practice. External links • • • • World Legal Systems [14]. Utah. Below are groups of legal systems. 2003. Athens. gov/ library/ publications/ the-world-factbook/ fields/ 2100. Gamal Moursi (Spring. 1978).

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