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PROPERTY ʹ Prof.

Labitag

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
I. DEFINITION OF PROPERTY .................................................................................................................................. 3 A. Classification under the Civil Code ............................................................................................................................................. 3 B. By Ownership............................................................................................................................................................................ 4 C. Other Classifications.................................................................................................................................................................. 5 II. OWNERSHIP ..................................................................................................................................................... 7 A. Definition.................................................................................................................................................................................. 7 B. Bundle of Rights included in Ownership ..................................................................................................................................... 7 C. Other Specific Rights found in the Civil Code .............................................................................................................................. 7 D. Limitations of Real Right of Ownership ...................................................................................................................................... 8 III. RIGHTS OF ACCESSION .................................................................................................................................... 10 A. Concept ...................................................................................................................................................................................10 B. General Principles of Accession ................................................................................................................................................10 rd C. Obligations of Receiver of Fruits to Pay Expenses by 3 person in producti on, gathering and preservation ................................10 D. Kinds of Accession....................................................................................................................................................................10 1. Accession Discreta ...............................................................................................................................................................10 2. Accession Continua..............................................................................................................................................................11 Over Immovables .....................................................................................................................................................................11 Over Movables.........................................................................................................................................................................12 IV. QUIETING OF TITLE ........................................................................................................................................ 14 A. Differences between Action to Quiet Title and Action: ..............................................................................................................14 B. Prescription of Action to Quiet Title ..........................................................................................................................................14 C. Who are Entitled to Bring Action?.............................................................................................................................................14 D. Notes.......................................................................................................................................................................................14 V. CO-OWNERSHIP............................................................................................................................................... 15 A. Definition.................................................................................................................................................................................15 B. Characteristics of co-ownership................................................................................................................................................15 C. Differences between Co-ownership and Joint Tenancy..............................................................................................................15 D. Differences between Co-ownership and Partnership .................................................................................................................15 E. Source of Co-ownership ...........................................................................................................................................................15 F. Rights of each co-owner as to the thing owned in common .......................................................................................................16 G. Implications of co-owners right over his ideal share ..................................................................................................................17 H. Rules on co-ownership not applicable to conjugal partnership of gains or absolute community of property ...............................18 I. Special rules on co-ownership from provisions of Condominium Law (Act No. 4726)..................................................................18 J. Extinguishment of co-ownership ..............................................................................................................................................18 VI. POSSESSION ................................................................................................................................................... 20 A. Definition and Concept.............................................................................................................................................................20 B. Essential Requisites of Possession.............................................................................................................................................20 C. Degrees of Holding of Possession .............................................................................................................................................20 D. Cases of Possession ..................................................................................................................................................................20 E. What things or rights may be possessed ...................................................................................................................................20 F. What may not be possessed by private persons ........................................................................................................................21 G. Acquisition of Possession..........................................................................................................................................................21 H. Effects of Possession ................................................................................................................................................................22 I. Effect of possession in the concept of an owner........................................................................................................................23 J. Presumptions in favor of the possessor.....................................................................................................................................23 K. Possession may be lost by ........................................................................................................................................................24 VII. USUFRUCT .................................................................................................................................................... 25 A. Concept ...................................................................................................................................................................................25 B. Historical considerations ..........................................................................................................................................................25 C. Characteristics of Usufruct .......................................................................................................................................................25 D. Usufruct distinguished from lease; from servitude ....................................................................................................................25 E. Classes of Usufruct ...................................................................................................................................................................25 F. Rights of Usufruct ....................................................................................................................................................................26 G. Rights of Naked Owner.............................................................................................................................................................26 H. Obligations of Usufructuary......................................................................................................................................................27 I. Special Cases of Usufruct ..........................................................................................................................................................28 J. Extinguishment of Usufruct ......................................................................................................................................................28

PROPERTY ʹ Prof. Labitag

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VIII. EASEMENTS OR SERVITUDES ......................................................................................................................... 31 A. Definition.................................................................................................................................................................................31 B. Essential feature of easements/real servitudes/praedial servitudes...........................................................................................31 C. Classification of Servitudes .......................................................................................................................................................31 D. General rules relating to servitudes ..........................................................................................................................................32 E. Modes of acquiring easements .................................................................................................................................................32 F. Rights and obligations of owners of dominant and servient estates ...........................................................................................32 G. Modes of extinguishment of easements ...................................................................................................................................33 H. Legal Easements.......................................................................................................................................................................34 BOOK III Ȃ DIFFERENT MODES OF ACQUIRING OWNERSHIP ..................................................................................... 36 Mode and Title Differentiated............................................................................................................................................................36 Modes of Acquiring Ownership..........................................................................................................................................................36 Occupation .......................................................................................................................................................................................37 Intellectual creation ..........................................................................................................................................................................37 DONATION ......................................................................................................................................................... 38 Nature of donation............................................................................................................................................................................38 Requisites of donation.......................................................................................................................................................................38 Kinds of donation ..............................................................................................................................................................................38 Who may not give or receive donations .............................................................................................................................................39 Who may give or receive donations ...................................................................................................................................................39 Acceptance of donation.....................................................................................................................................................................39 Form of donations .............................................................................................................................................................................39 What may be donated .......................................................................................................................................................................39 Effect of donation..............................................................................................................................................................................40 Revocation and Reduction of Donations.............................................................................................................................................41 LEASE ................................................................................................................................................................ 44 A. General characteristics of every lease .......................................................................................................................................44 B. Kinds of leases .........................................................................................................................................................................44 C. Lease of things .........................................................................................................................................................................45

PROPERTY ʹ Prof. Labitag

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I. DEFINITION OF PROPERTY
PROPERTY
y y

Is an economic concept, meaning a mass of things useful to human activity and which are necessary to life, for which reason they may be organized and distributed in one way or another, but, always for the good of the main. In order that a thing may be considered as property: o Utility ʹ capacity to satisfy human wants o Individuality or Substantivity - an autonomous or separate existence; materials composing a thing are not thing in themselves. o Appropriability or susceptibility to appropriation

A.

Classification under the Civil Code

1.

Immovable or Real Property a. By Nature ʹ those which cannot be moved from place to place

Art 415, Par 1 Lands, buildings, roads and constructions of all kinds adhered to the soil. Art 415, Par 8 b. Art 415, Par 2 Art 415, Par 3 Art 415, Par 7 c. Art 415, Par 4 Art 415, Par 5 Art 415, Par 6 Art 415, Par 9 d. By Analogy By Destination By Incorporation

Art 415, Par 10 Movables or Personal Property Art 416 Art 417 DAVAO SAWMILL v CASTILLO () BERKENKOTER v CU UNJIENG () LOPEZ v OROSA () TUMALAD v VICENCIO () ASSOCIATED INSURANCE v IYA () MAKATI LEASING v WEAREVER () BD. OF ASSESSMENT APPEALS v MERALCO () MERALCO v BD. OF ASSESSMENT APPEALS () MERALCO v BD. OF ASSESSMENT APPEALS () CALTEX v BD. OF ASSESSMENT APPEALS () BENGUET CORP. v BD. OF ASSESSMENT APPEALS () 2. Importance and Significance of Classification From point of view of:

i. ii.

Criminal Law Form of contracts involving movables or immovables

PROPERTY ʹ Prof. Labitag
Prescription Venue/Jurisdiction Taxation Double Sales under Art 1544 Art 1544 vii. Preference of Credits viii. Causes of Action to Recover 3. Differences between Real Rights and Personal Rights REAL RIGHTS Power belonging to a person over a specific thing, without a passive subject individually determined against whom such right may be personally exercised Gives to a person direct and immediate juridical power over the thing, which is susceptible of being exercised, not only against a determinate person, but against the whole world. 1) Subject and object connected by a relation of ownership of the former over the latter 2) A general obligation or duty of respect for such relation, there being no particular passive subject 3) Effective actions recognized by law to protect such relation against anyone who may want to disturb it iii. iv. v. vi.

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Point of comparison Definition

PERSONAL RIGHTS Power belonging to one person to demand to another, as a definite passive subject, the fulfillment of a prestation to give, to do or not to do More properly called ͞right of obligation͟ or simply ͞obligation͟

Elements

1)

Also known as Number of persons involved in the juridical relation Object of the juridical relation By the manner in which the will of the active subject affects the thing related o it By the causes of creating the juridical relation By the methods of extinguishment of the juridical relation By the nature of the actions arising from them

Jus in re Active subject ʹ 1 Passive subject - the rest of the world without individual determination Generally a corporeal thing Generally affects the thing directly

Two subjects: active and passive (bound to perform prestation incumbent upon him by reason of a juridical tie which binds him to the active subject), who are determined and specified rd 2) General obligation on the part of 3 persons to respect the relation between the active and passive subjects 3) Effective actions in favor of the active subject against the passive subject for the performance of the prestation by the latter or so that the relation between them may produce its natural and juridical effects Jus ad rem Definite active subject Definite passive subject Intangible thing, i.e. the prestation of the debtor Indirectly through the prestation of the debtor

By mode and title

By title alone

Extinguished by the loss or destruction of the thing

Not extinguished by the loss or destruction of the thing

B.

Classification by Ownership

1. 2.

Res Nullius Public Dominion cf. Patrimonial Property of State

Art 419 Art 420 Art 421

Par 1 i. For public use including public works for public service Private Property a. TANTOCO v MUNICIPAL COUNCIL () ZAMBOANGA DEL NORTE v CITY OF ZAMBOANGA () SALAS v JARENCIO () CEBU ACETYLENE v BERCILLES () MUNICIPALITY OF SAN MIGUEL v FERNANDEZ () GOVERNMENT v CABANGIS () CHAVEZ v PEA AMARI (2002) ON MOTION FOR RECONSIDERATION (2003) 4. Property is outside the commerce of man Property cannot be the subject of acquisitive prescription Property cannot be attached or levied upon in execution Property cannot be burdened with a voluntary easement Other Classifications 1. c. C. ii. Incorporeal ʹ personal prestations or acts or services productive of utility. c. Corporeal ʹ those which are manifest to the senses. Art 420 Art 421 Art 422 i. Par 2 Property of Municipal Corporations b. They must combine three requisites: . Art 424. Patrimonial Property of State Art 424 Patrimonial Property of Municipal Corporations Art 424. whether animate or inanimate b. By their physical existence a. d.PROPERTY ʹ Prof. They are not manifest to the senses but are conceived only by the understanding. Labitag Art 422 Art 424 a. Effect and Significance of Classification of Property as Property of Public Dominion a. 3. Par 2 Private Property of Private Persons Art 425. For public use For public service For development of national wealth Property of State Page 5 of 47 LA BUGAL B͛LAAN TRIBAL ASSN. iii. which we may touch or take. v RAMOS (2004) ON RECONSIDERATION (2005) CHAVEZ v PEA AMARI (2002) ON RECONSIDERATION (2003) USERO v CA (2006) b. which exist in space and have a body. b.

Not yet appropriated Susceptibility to commerce a. Non-consumable Art 418 Differentiated from Fungible or Non-fungible c. Divisible b.PROPERTY ʹ Prof. Within the commerce of man b. 9. Accessory By their subsistence after use a. Labitag i. 6. Possible ʹ when it can be done both in nature and in law 2. Outside the commerce of man Page 6 of 47 3. Universal Susceptibility to appropriation a. Non-appropriable b. Future Contents and constitution a. Simple ii. . Specific Existence in point of time a. External ʹ manifested act ii. By their autonomy or dependence a. Appropriable i. Present b. Principal b. Already appropriated ii. 8. 7. Personal ʹ done by the debtor himself iii. Generic b. 4. Indivisible By reason of designation a. Deteriorable or non-deteriorable By reason of their susceptibility to division a. Consumable Art 418 (1) b. Compound b. 5. Singular i.

5. Definition OWNERSHIP y y J. Immovable property 1) Accion reivindicatoria 2. OWNERSHIP A. Reyes: It is independent right of exclusive enjoyment and control of a thing for the purpose of deriving therefrom all the advantages required by the: o Reasonable needs of the owner (or holder of the right) and o Promotion of the general welfare But subject to the restrictions imposed by: o Law o Rights of others Scialoja: It is a relation in private law by virtue of which is a thing (or property right) pertaining to one person is completely subjected to his will in everything not prohibited by public law or the concurrence with the rights of another B.PROPERTY ʹ Prof. Doctrine of Self-help Art 429 ELEMENTS OF SELF-HELP Right to enclose or fence Art 430 Right to receive just compensation in case of expropriation Art 435 Right to hidden treasure Art 438 Art 439 Right to accession Art 440 Right to recover possession and/or ownership (Jus Vindicandi) a. B. 6. 3. Available actions to Recover Possession/Ownership i. Labitag Page 7 of 47 II. . self-help. Other Specific Rights found in the Civil Code 1. Bundle of Rights included in Ownership Art 429 Jus Utendi y definition Jus Fruendi y definition Jus Abutendi y definition Jus Disponendi y definition Jus Vindicandi y definition C. L. Right to exclude. 4.

ONG (2005) PERALTA-LABRADOR v BUARIN (2005) ii.PROPERTY ʹ Prof. Prove his right of ownership ʹ rely on the strength of his evidence not on the weakness of defendant PEREZ v MENDOZA (1975) DIZON v CA (1993) D. Police power Taxation Eminent domain 2. b. . Movable property 1) Replevin b. c. General Limitation a. Identify the property SERINA v CABALLERO (2004) ii. Labitag 2) 3) 4) Accion publiciana Forcible entry Unlawful detainer Page 8 of 47 HILARIO v SALVADOR (2005) SAMPAYANG v CA (2005) SANTOS v AYON (2005) GANILA v CA (2005) ROSS RICA SALES CENTER v SPS. Specific Limitation Limitation from Scattered provisions of CC Art 431 Art 432 Art 2191 Art 670 Art 677 Art 678 Art 679 Art 649 Art 652 Art 637 Art 676 Art 644 Art 684 Art 685 Art 686 Art 687 US v CAUSBY ( ) LUNOD v MENESES ( ) a. Limitations of Real Right of Ownership 1. Latin Maxim: Sic Utere Tuo Ut Alienum Non Laedas Art 431 Act in State of Necessity b. Requisites for recovery Art 434 i. 3.

PROPERTY ʹ Prof. Labitag Art 432 Page 9 of 47 .

Bad faith of one party neutralizes bad faith of the other. RIGHTS OF ACCESSION A. INDUSTRIAL and CIVIL fruits Art 441 EXCEPTIONS: i. unless the contrary is proved. belongs to the owner of the land. Labitag Page 10 of 47 III. b. Concept Art 440 The ownership of property gives the right by accession to everything which is produced thereby. either naturally or artificially. In lease iv. e.PROPERTY ʹ Prof. Obligations of Receiver of Fruits to Pay Expenses by 3rd person in production. B. 3. Possession in good faith ii. General Principles of Accession 1. Applicable to BOTH accession discreta and accession continua a. Accession Discreta (Fruits) Art 440 . Applicable to accession discreta alone a. L. y J. Accessory follows the principal No one shall be unjustly enriched at the expense of another 2. construction or works. planted or sown on the land of another and the improvements or repairs made thereon. d. not mere juxtaposition Accession is one of the bundle of rights of ownership and is not a mode of acquiring property It does not depend upon a new title B. DEFINITIONS OF ACCESSION y Tolentino: Right by virtue of which the owner of a thing becomes the owner of everything that the thing may produce or which may be inseparably united or incorporated thereto. In usufruct iii. Art 445 All works. Art 446 Accessory incorporated to principal such that it cannot be separated without injury to work constructed or destruction to plantings. subject to the provisions of the following articles. Art 453 b. In antichresis C. Whatever is built. either naturally or principally. Applicable to accession continua alone a. Kinds of Accession 1. c. gathering and preservation Art 443 D. or which is incorporated or attached thereto. Ownership of fruits ʹ To owner of principal thing belongs the NATURAL. sowing and planting are presumed made by owner and at his expense. Reyes: Extension of ownership over a thing to whatever is incorporated thereto naturally or artificially (without or with labor of man) Incorporation means a stable union or adherence. Art 447 Bad faith involves liability for damages and other dire consequences.

BPS builds.PROPERTY ʹ Prof. b.B. Labitag a. Natural Industrial Civil Page 11 of 47 BACHRACH v SEIFERT ( ) BACHRACH v TALISAY ( ) 2. c. then forced lease by LO and BP  BPS in bad faith y i. 2) ii. Planting. his rights are the same as an antichretic creditor To sell land to BP OR to lease land to S  BP may refuse if value of land considerably more than BP. a. plants or sows on another͛s land with materials owned by 3rd persons Art 455 The N. Rights of BPS in bad faith Art 452 The Art 443 The Landowner in bad faith but BPS in good faith Art 454 Art 447 Reason for adverting to rule in Art 447 c.: Good faith does not exclude negligence Art 456 The . BPS builds. Accession Continua Over Immovables 1. plants or sows on another͛s land using his own material (LO and BPS-MM) Art 448 The Art 449 The Art 450 The Art 451 The Art 452 The Art 453 The Art 454 The y BPS in good faith Art 448 The BPS in bad faith Art 449 The Art 450 The Art 451 The Options open to owner of the land 1) To acquire building. planting and sowing  BP has right of retention Retains possession without paying rental Not entitled to fruits. Artificial or Industrial ʹ Building. Sowing Owner is BPS using material of another (LO-BPS and MM) Art 447 y y In good faith In bad faith b.

Formation of Islands Art 461 The Art 462 The Art 463 The Art 464 The Art 465 The See PD 1067. Conjunction and Adjunction Inclusion or Engraftment Soldadura or Soldering i. Natural (Accession Continua Natural) Alluvium Art 457 The REPUBLIC v CA ( ) GRANDE v CA ( ) MENESES ( ) b. d. Water Code 3. Ferruminatio ʹ same metal Tejido or Weaving Escritura or Writing Pintura or Painting c. b. Plumbatura ʹ different metals ii. a. e. FC The Art 321.PROPERTY ʹ Prof. Change of Course of River (Art 461-463) Art 461 The Art 462 The Art 463 The BAES v CA ( ) BINALAY v MANALO d. Labitag Page 12 of 47 BERNARDO v BATACLAN ( ) IGNACIO v HILARIO ( ) SARMIENTO v AGANA ( ) DEPRA v DUMLAO ( ) TECHNOGAS PHIL v CA ( ) ORTIZ v KAYANAN ( ) GEMINIANO v CA ( ) PLEASANTVILLE DEV͛T CORP v CA ( ) FELICES v IRIOLA ( ) SPOUSES NUGUID v CA (1993) SPOUSES NUGUID v CA (2005) 2. Reverse Accession Art 120. . CC The Over Movables 1. a. Avulsion (Art 459-460) NAVARRO ( ) c.

Commixtion and Confusion Page 13 of 47 SIARI VALLEY ESTATES v LUCASAN (1955) SANTOS v BERNABE () 3.PROPERTY ʹ Prof. Labitag 2. Specification .

QUIETING OF TITLE A. There is a cloud on title to real property or any interest to real property. PORTIC v CRISTOBAL (2005) . but in truth and in fact. Par 2.PROPERTY ʹ Prof. Plaintiff must return benefits received from defendant. 1. Labitag Page 14 of 47 IV. TITONG v CA (1998) 5. 3. 2. invalid. 1. ineffective. SPS. Who are Entitled to Bring Action? Rule 64. accion reivindicatoria OLVIGA v CA (1993) PINGOL v CA (1993) C. Instrument record claim. voidable or unenforceable. Prescription of Action to Quiet Title y If plaintiff is in possession: imprescriptible y If plaintiff is not in possession: prescribes within period of filing accion publiciana. Sec. Rules of Court The Notes D. Actions to quiet title are proceedings quasi in rem. etc must be valid and binding on its face. Art 476 The Plaintiff has legal or equitable title to or interest in the subject/real property. Differences between Action to Quiet Title and Action: Action to Quiet Title Action to Remove a Cloud Action to Quiet Title Action to Prevent a Cloud B. 4.

B. SIARI VALLEY ESTATE v LUCASAN () vi.PROPERTY ʹ Prof. 2. Law i. Differences between Co-ownership and Partnership Co-ownership Partnership GATCHALIAN v COLLECTOR ( ) E. v. PARDELL v BARTOLOME ( ) C. The recognition of ideal shares. 4. There is plurality of owners. Characteristics of co-ownership 1. Source of Co-ownership 1. 2 Par Chance Art 472 ii. Definition CO-OWNERSHIP y The right of common dominion which two or more persons have a spiritual part (or ideal portion) or a thing which is not physically divided. Labitag Page 15 of 47 V. 3. Cohabitation Art 147. defined but not physically identified. iii. FC Art 148. Mutual respect among co-owners in regard to use and enjoyment and preservation of thing as a whole. FC Art 90 Purchase Art 1452 Succession y Intestate: Art 1452 y Testate: Property is given to 2 or more heirs Donation Art 753 nd Art 573. Hidden treasure Art 348 Easement of party wall Art 658 vii. CO-OWNERSHIP A. Each co-owner has absolute control over his ideal share. Differences between Co-ownership and Joint Tenancy Co-ownership Joint Tenancy D. . iv. but only one real right of ownership.

Occupation Page 16 of 47 PUNZALAN v BOON LIAT ( ) ix. Rights of each co-owner as to the thing owned in common 1. Concept .PROPERTY ʹ Prof. provided the charges are borne by each in the same proportion Art 485 y y Contrary stipulation is void Presumption is that portions are equal unless contrary is proved 3. b. Condominium Law Sec 6 (c). To share in the benefits in proportion to his interest. To use the thing according to the purpose intended may be altered by agreement. provided: a. F. to expenses for preservation of the thing or right owned in common b. By agreement Duration of co-ownership: Art 494 Universal partnership Art 1778 Art 1779 Art 1780 Associations and societies with secret articles Art 1775 b. To compel other co-owner to contribute: a. To oppose any act of alteration Remedy of other co-owners re acts of alteration Art 491 ACTS OF ALTERATION a. c. RA 4726 2. Without preventing the use of other co-owners Art 486 PARDELL v BARTOLOME ( ) 2. express or implied. It is without injury or prejudice to interest of co-ownership and. Labitag viii. to payment of taxes Art 488 y y y Co-owner͛s option not to contribute by waiving his undivided interest equal to amount of contribution ʹ dacion en pago Exception: if waiver is prejudicial to co-ownership Requisites before repairs for preservation may be made or expenses for embellishment or improvement may be made Art 489 Effects of failure to notify co-owners 5. Each co-owner may bring an action in ejectment Art 487 RESUENA v CA (2005) ACABAL v ACABAL (2005) 4. Contracts a.

c. Effect of acts of alteration and remedies of non-consenting co-owner QUERY: Is lease of real property owned in common an act of alteration? Art 647 in relation to Art 1878 (8) 6. mortgage or encumber and dispose of his ideal share BUT: Other co-owners may exercise right of legal redemption To substitute another person in the enjoyment of thing To renounce part of his interest to reimburse necessary expenses incurred by another owner Art 488 2. b. destination or state of thing which act is in violation of the express or tacit agreement of the co-owners Distinguished from acts of administration Art 492 Acts of Alteration Acts of Administration b. Effect of transaction by each co-owner a. Co-owner has the right: a.PROPERTY ʹ Prof. 3 Par LAVADIA v COSME () MELENCIO v DY TIAO LAY () TUASON v TUASON () 7. To exercise legal redemption Art 1620 Art 1623 MARIANO v CA () VERDAD v CA () 8. To ask for partition Art 494 RAMIREZ v RAMIREZ () AGUILAR v CA (1993) VDA DE APE v CA (2005) 9. Limited to his share in the partition Transferee does not acquire any specific portion of whole property until partition Creditors of co-owners may intervene in partition or attack the same if prejudicial Art 499 . b. Labitag y y Page 17 of 47 Any change injurious to the thing owned in common or to the rights of other co-owners or Any change material to the use. To protect against acts of majority which are prejudicial to minority rd Art 492. Other cases where legal right of redemption is given Art 1621 Art 1622 HALILI v CA (1998) FRANCISCO v BOISER (2000) G. d. c. Implications of co-owners right over his ideal share 1. c. To share in fruits and benefits To alienate.

iv. By a third person By one co-owner as against the other co-owners y REQUISITES .PROPERTY ʹ Prof. iii. Extinguishment of co-ownership 1.g. Concept of Condominium Essential requisites for Condominium Rights and obligations of Condominium owner SUNSENT VIEW CONDOMINIUM v JUDGE CAMPOS (1981) J. Labitag EXCEPT that creditors cannot ask for rescission even if not notified in the absence of fraud Art 497 CARVAJAL v CA () PAMPLONA v MORETO () CASTRO v ATIENZA () ESTOQUE v PAJIMULA () DIVERSIFIED CREDIT v ROSADO () PNB v CA () H. When there is a stipulation against it (should not be over 10 years) Art When condition of indivision is imposed by transferor (donor or testator) not exceeding 20 years Art 494 When the legal nature of community prevents partition (party wall) Art When partition is generally prohibited by law E. absolute community of property When partition would render the thing unserviceable (but the thing may be sold and co-owners divide the proceeds) Art 494  Action for partition will fail if acquisitive prescription has set in ii. b. 4726) 1. . Right to ask for partition at any time. 3. Total destruction of thing Merger of all interests in one person Acquisitive prescription a. v. 2. The presumption is that possession by co-owner is not adverse CAPITLE v DE GABAN (2004) 4. not mere silent possession for the required period of extraordinary acquisitive prescription iii. Open and adverse possession. Page 18 of 47 Rules on co-ownership not applicable to conjugal partnership of gains or absolute community of property Special rules on co-ownership of different stories of a house as differentiated from provisions of Condominium Law (Act No. Unequivocal acts of repudiation of co-ownership (acts amounting to ouster of other co-owners) known to other co-owners and shown by clear and convincing evidence ii. I.Unequivocal acts of: i. Partition or division a. EXCEPT: i. 3. 2.

Effect of partition Art 1091 Art 543 Art 1092 Art 1093 Art 499 Art 500 Art 501 Right of creditors of individual co-owners Art 497 Procedure for partition Rule 69. . d. Rules of Court Page 19 of 47 c.PROPERTY ʹ Prof. Labitag b.

Essential Requisites of Possession 1. Intention to possess (animus possidendi) Degrees of Holding of Possession 1. POSSESSION A. 4. What things or rights may be possessed . Holding or control of a thing or right (corpus) consists of either a. possession of tenant. Mere holding or possession without title whatsoever and in violation of the right of the owner E. whether by material occupation or by the fact that the thing or the right is subjected to the action of our will It is a real right independent of and apart from ownership i. antichretic creditor. possession of a thief/robber or a usurper of land Possession with a juridical title. but not from the true owner E. the right of possession (jus possessionis) as distinguished from the right to possess (jus possidendi) B. 3. c. depository agent. Definition and Concept POSSESSION y y Is the holding of a thing OR the enjoyment of a right. Possession with a just title or title sufficient to transfer ownership. bailee. b. lessee. y This degree of possession will never ripen into full ownership as long as there is no repudiation of concept under which property is held. D. C. Cases of Possession 2. Possession with a just title from the true owner y The delivery of possession transfers ownership. Labitag Page 20 of 47 VI. trustee. but not that of ownership E. possession of a vendee from vendor who pretends to be the owner y This degree of possession ripens into full ownership by lapse of time. PLEASANTVILLE DEV͛T CORP v CA ( ) a.PROPERTY ʹ Prof. 1. Mistake upon a doubtful or difficult question of law as a basis of good faith KASILAG v ROQUE (1939) E. 3.e. Possession for oneself or possession exercised in one͛s own name and possession in the name of another Art 524 Possession in the concept of an owner and possession in the concept of a mere holder with the ownership belonging to another Art 525 Possession in good faith and possession in bad faith Art 526 2.g.g.g. The material or physical holding or occupation either Exercise of a right Constructive possession (intention to possess is very crucial) RAMOS v DIRECTOR OF LANDS ( ) DIRECTOR v CA ( ) 2. is the jus possidendi. and strictly speaking.

execution and registration of public instruments c. 2. d. donations. Doctrine of constructive possession ii. What may not be possessed by private persons Page 21 of 47 1. c. contracts. What do not affect possession Art 537 Art 1119 a. b. writ of execution of judgments. By same person ELEMENTS OF PERSONAL ACQUISITION By his legal representatives REQUISITES By his agent By any person without any power whatsoever but subject to ratification.PROPERTY ʹ Prof. succession (testate or intestate). e. minors and incapacitated persons Art 535 b. Acts merely tolerated . Labitag Art 530 Only things or rights susceptible of appropriation may be the object of possession F. under a contract of lease. then retained under a commodatum Proper acts and legal formalities y Refers to the acquisition of possession by: Sufficient title Inter vivos Mortis causa Lucrative or onerous y Includes traditio longa manu and tradition simbolica. Material occupation of the thing Subject to the action of our will i.g. Includes constructive delivery 1) Traditio brevi manu ʹ thing is already in transferee͛s hands y E. sale. judicial writs of possession. BANCO ESPANOL FILIPINO v PETERSON ( ) 2.g. Ways of acquiring possession Art 531 a. By whom possession be acquired Art 532 a. 3. without prejudice to the proper case of negotiorum gestio Art 2144 Art 4129 Art 2150 Qualifiedly. then delivered under a sale 2) Traditio constitutum possessorium ʹ thing remains in transferor͛s hands y E. Acquisition of Possession 1. 3. Res Communes Property of public dominion Right under discontinuous and/or non-apparent easement G.

If dates of possession are the same. 4. . the one who presents a title d. iii. preference is given to: a. CUAYCONG v BENEDICTO () ASTUDILLO v PHHC () PERAN v CFI () 4.PROPERTY ʹ Prof. every possessor has a right to be respected in his possession. Acts executed clandestinely and without the knowledge of the possessor Art 537 Acts by violence as long as possessor objects thereto (i. not ownership Accion reivindicatoria ʹ recovery of ownership. In general. Entitlement to fruits ʹ possessor in good faith/bad faith Art 544 Art 549 Reimbursement for expenses ʹ possessor in good faith/bad faith y Liability for loss or deterioration of property by possessor in bad faith Art 553 Art 552 Possession of movable acquired in good faith (in concept of owner) is equivalent to title Art 559 3.e. the one longer in possession c. possessor has right to be protected in or restored to said possession Art 539 a. Labitag Art 537 MACASAET v MACASAET (2004) b. If there are 2 or more possessors. iv. If all conditions are equal. Present possessor or actual possessor b. the thing shall be placed in judicial deposit pending determination of possession or ownership through proper proceedings H. Accion interdictal or Summary proceedings ʹ forcible entry and unlawful detainer Plaintiff may ask for writ of preliminary mandatory injunction Within 10 days from the filing of complaint in forcible entry Art 539 YU v HONRADO ( ) ii. Actions to recover possession i. he files a case) Art 536 Page 22 of 47 c. including the right to possess Action for replevin ʹ possession or ownership for movable property Lawful possessor can employ self-help Art 429 2. Rule to solve conflict of possession Art 538 GENERAL RULE: Possession cannot be recognized in two different personalities. b. Accion publiciana ʹ based on superior right of possession. EXCEPTION: In cases of co-possession by co-possessors without conflicting claims or interest In case of conflicting possession. if disturbed therein. Effects of Possession 1.

Presumption of just title and cannot be obliged to show or prove it Art 541 EXCEPTION: Art 1131 Possessor may bring all actions necessary to protect his possession except accion reivindicatoria May employ self-help under Art 429 Possessor may ask for inscription of such real right of possession in the Registry of Property Has rights to fruits and reimbursements for expenses (assuming he is a possessor in good faith) Upon recovery of possession which he has been unlawfully deprived. 4. Of enjoyment of possession in the same character in which possession was acquired until contrary is proved Art 529 Of non-interruption of possession in favor of present possessor who proves possession at a previous time until the contrary is proved Art 554 Art 1120 Art 1121 Art 1122 Art 1123 Art 1124 Of continuous possession or non-interruption of possession of which he was wrongfully deprived for all purposes favorable to him Art 561 Other presumptions with respect to specific properties of property rights a. Effect of possession in the concept of an owner 1. 2. may demand fruits and damages Generally. . subject to certain exceptions. Of good faith until the contrary is proved Art 528 Of continuity of initial good faith in which possession was commenced or possession in good faith does not lose his character except in the case and from the moment possessor became aware or is not unaware of improper or wrongful possession Art 528 2. CORDERO v CABRAL ( ) 3. 9. 1. 7. he can do on the things possessed everything that the law authorizes the owner to do until he is ousted by the one who has a better right Possession in good faith and possession in bad faith Art 528 y Mistake upon a doubtful or difficult question of law as a basis of good faith Art 526.PROPERTY ʹ Prof. 6. J. Labitag y y Page 23 of 47 Possessor has actual title which is defeasible only by true owner One who has lost a movable or has been unlawfully deprived thereof may recover it but without reimbursement EXCEPT: If possessor acquired it at a public sale I. 8. Of extension of possession of real property to all movables contained therein so long as it is not shown that they should be excluded Art 426 4. Possession may by lapse of time ripen into full ownership. Par 3 Presumptions in favor of the possessor 3. 5. 6. 5.

Abandonment Assignment. etc) . either onerous or gratuitous Destruction or total loss of thing or it goes out of commerce Possession by another. Possession may be lost by 1. real right of possession not lost until after 10 years y Subject to Art 537 (on acts merely tolerated.PROPERTY ʹ Prof. K. Labitag b. Art 1141 Page 24 of 47 c. Non-interruption of possession of hereditary property Art 533 Art 1078 Of just title in favor of possessor in concept of owner Art 541 cf. 3. if possession has lasted longer than one year. 2. 4.

B. As to the fruits i. Simple Multiple i. irregular or quasi-usufruct 4. By object of usufruct a. FC Mixed c. temporary in character that authorizes the holder to enjoy all the advantages derived from a normal exploitation of another͛s property.PROPERTY ʹ Prof. b. C. Simultaneous ii. Labitag Page 25 of 47 VII. from Servitude Usufruct Lease Usufruct Servitude E. Normal ii. Rights Art 574 Things i. Historical Considerations Characteristics of Usufruct Usufruct Distinguished from Lease. By person enjoying the right of usufruct a. b. D. either the thing itself or its equivalent. b. Abnormal. Total ii. Concept Art 562 USUFRUCT y Is a real right. 2. Voluntary Legal Art 321 Art 226. Succession Limitation on successive usufruct Art 756 Art 863 Art 869 3. USUFRUCT A. By the extent of usufruct a. and imposes an obligation of restoring at the time specified. By origin a. according to its destination or purpose. Classes of Usufruct 1. Partial Art 598 .

Singular ii. Rights of Naked Owner 1. Right to possess and enjoy the thing itself. b. Labitag b. usufructuary is considered a stranger Art 566 Art 436 y Fruits pending at the beginning of usufruct Art 567 y Civil fruits Art 569 Art 588 Right to lease the thing Art 572 y Limitations y Liability of usufructuary Art 590 y Exceptions to right of leasing the thing b. As to the legal right of usufruct itself a. By the terms of the usufruct Art 564 a. FABIE v DAVID () c. Universal Art 595 Subject to provisions of: Art 758 Art 759 5. its fruits and accessions y Fruits consist of natural. As to the thing and its fruit a. G.PROPERTY ʹ Prof. c. and termination of usufruct (See obligations of usufructuary at the beginning of the usufruct) During the usufruct 2. F. during. . Page 26 of 47 Pure Conditional With a term (period) Rights of Usufructuary 1. As to object i. Right to improve the thing Art 579 2. industrial and civil fruits y As to hidden treasure. Right to mortgage Right of usufruct Art 572 Right to alienate the usufruct EXCEPT: y In purely personal usufructs y When title constituting it prohibits the same b. At the beginning.

PROPERTY ʹ Prof. it may be made by usufructuary. b. iii. 2 Par c. To take care of the thing like a good father of a family Art 589 Effect of failure to comply with obligation Art 610 b. During the usufruct a. Obligations of Usufructuary 1. b. At the beginning of usufruct or before exercising the usufruct a. No bond are required in the following: 1) No prejudice would result Art 585 2) Usufruct is reserved by donor Art 584 3) Title constituting usufruct excused usufructuary 4) If usufructuary takes possession under a caucion juratoria Effect of filing a bond Art 588 Effect of failure to give bond Art 586 Art 599 ii. 1 Par 3) Naked owner cannot be compelled to undertake extraordinary repairs  If indispensable and owner fails to undertake extraordinary repairs. 2. Labitag a. REQUISITES OF INVENTORY 1) Immovables described 2) Movables appraised EXCEPTION TO REQUIREMENT OF INVENTORY 1) No one will be injured thereby Art 585 2) Title constituting usufruct excused the making of inventory 3) Title constituting usufruct already makes an inventory ii. To give a bond for the faithful performance of duties as usufructuary i. To make inventory Art 583 i. .  Repairs usufructuary rights nd Art 594. To undertake ordinary repairs Art 592 ORDINARY REPAIRS To notify owner of need to undertake extra-ordinary repairs Art 593 EXTRA-ORDINARY REPAIRS 1) Concept of extraordinary repairs 2) Naked owner obliged to undertake them but when made by owner. usufructuary pays legal interest on the amount while usufruct lasts st Art 594. Retains title to the thing or property He may alienate the property Limitations: Art 581 Page 27 of 47 H.

To deliver the thing in usufruct to the owner in the condition in which he has received it. Death of usufructuary EXCEPTION: unless a contrary intention clearly appeals Expiration of period or fulfillment of resolutory condition imposed on usufruct by person constituting the usufruct y Time may elapse before a third person attains a certain age. lessee or agent of usufructuary Art 590 f. 9. 6. 3. even if the latter dies before period expires ʹ unless granted only in consideration of his existence Art 606 2. 3. g. To notify owner of any act detrimental to ownership Art 601 To shoulder the costs of litigation re usufruct Art 602 To answer for fault or negligence of alienee. 4. To pay for annual charges and taxes on the fruits Page 28 of 47 BD. OF ASSESSMENT APPEALS OF ZAMBOANGA DEL SUR v SAMAR MINING COMPANY INC () e. J. after undertaking ordinary repairs EXCEPTION: abnormal usufruct I. Special Cases of Usufruct 1. 7.PROPERTY ʹ Prof. Labitag d. 1. Usufruct over a pension or periodical income Art 570 Usufruct of property owned in common Art 582 Usufruct of head of cattle Art 591 Usufruct over vineyards and woodlands Art 575 Art 576 Usufruct on a right of action Art 578 Usufruct on mortgaged property Art 600 Usufruct over an entire patrimony Art 598 Liability of usufructuary for debts Usufruct over deteriorable property Art 578 Usufruct over consumable property (or quasi-usufruct) Art 574 Extinguishment of Usufruct Art 603 2. 8. At the time of termination of the usufruct a. BALURAN v NAVARRO () . 5.

but value of both land and materials (____???) 6. 2. If there is a tacit abandonment or non-user of thing held in usufruct for required period 8. If owner does not rebuild. Owner does not share in insurance proceeds 5. If building forms part of an immovable under usufruct i. If owner rebuilds. 3. waiver may be rescinded by them through action under Art 1381 Extinction or loss of property a. usufruct continues over remaining land and/or owner may pay interest on value of both Art 607 iii. If made in fraud of creditors. 7. usufruct does not continue on new building. Owner entitled to insurance money (no interest paid to usufructuary) ii.PROPERTY ʹ Prof. No obligation to rebuild iii. If third party acquires ownership of thing or property in usufruct b. b. . Merger of rights of usufruct and naked ownership in one person Renunciation of usufruct a. usufruct continues over the land and materials ii. interest upon insurance proceeds paid to usufructuary When the insurance taken by owner only because usufructuary refuses nd Art 608. Usufruct continues on the land iv. If destroyed property is insured before the termination of the usufruct Art 608 1. What do not cause extinguishment of usufruct a. 1 Par i. 4. If owner does not rebuild. Right of ownership lost through prescription c. If owner rebuilds. but owner must pay interest on value on land and old materials When insurance taken by usufructuary only depends on value of usufructuary͛s insurable interest (not provided for in the Civil Code) i. usufructuary must allow owner to occupy the land and to make use of materials. If he does not rebuild. Limitations b. Insurance proceeds to usufructuary ii. 2 Par i. If owner rebuilds. If destroyed property is not insured Art 607 1. When insurance premium paid by owner and usufructuary st Art 608. Termination of right of person constituting the usufruct Prescription Cases covered: a. Right of usufruct not began within prescriptive period d. Expropriation of thing in usufruct Art 609 Bad use of thing in usufruct Art 810 Owner͛s right b. Labitag NHA v CA () BULACAN GARDEN CORP v MANILA SEEDLING BANK () Page 29 of 47 3. usufruct subsists on new building ii. Must be express c.

Labitag c.PROPERTY ʹ Prof. Usufruct over a building Art 607 Art 608 Page 30 of 47 .

B. Art 616 11. i.e. Classification of Servitudes 1. It limits the servient owner͛s right of ownership for the benefit of the dominant estate ʹ Right of limited use. or that the latter permit that something be done over the servient property (servitus in patendo). it cannot exist in one͛s own property (nemini nulli res sua servit or ͞no one can have servitude on a property of his own͟). but not in the right to demand that the owner of the servient estate to do something (servitus in faciendo) EXCEPT if such act is an accessory obligation to a praedial servitude (obligation propter rem) 3. As to course or origin a. It is a real right. it gives an action in rem or real action against any possessor of servient estate. it cannot be alienated separately from the tenement affected. It creates a relation between tenements. 7. EASEMENTS OR SERVITUDES A. It is inherent or inseparable from estate to which they actively or passively belong. it continues and may be used anytime. Definition EASEMENT or REAL SERVITUDES y y Is a real right which burdens a thing with a prestation consisting of determinate servitudes for the exclusive enjoyment of a person who is not its owner or of a tenement belonging to another. 10. it may consist in the owner of the dominant estate demanding that the owner of the servient estate refrain from doing something (servitus in non faciendo). it cannot be presumed. but no right to possess servient estate. Is the real right over an immovable by nature i. or benefited. Legal.PROPERTY ʹ Prof. It cannot consists in requiring the owner of the servient estate to do an act (servitus in faciendo consistere nequit or ͞servitudes may not impose positive acts͟) unless the act is accessory to a praedial servitude (obligation propter rem) Generally. 6. once it attaches. b. and operae servorum were classified as personal servitude] Art 614 2.e. Being an abnormal limitation of ownership. 4. b. It is a right constituted over an immovable by nature (land and buildings). whether for public use or for the interest of private persons Art 634 Voluntary . by virtue of which the owner of the same has to abstain from doing or to allow somebody else to do something in his property for the benefit of another thing or person. 5. As to recipient of benefits a. CHARACTERISTICS OF EASEMENTS (Nos.: Under Roman Law. Art 617 It is intransmissible. usufruct together with usus habitatio. whether used or not. i. land and buildings. Real or Praedial Personal N.B.e.e. i. C. 9. Essential feature of easements/real servitudes/praedial servitudes 1. It is a right enjoyed over another property (jus in re aliena or ͞a right in the property of another) i. It is indivisible. 8-11) 8. It has permanence. Labitag Page 31 of 47 VIII. 2. not over immovables.e.

Rights and obligations of owners of dominant and servient estates Dominant Estate 1. in a way least burdensome to the owner of the land. i. law. By prescription RONQUILLO v ROCO () F. donations. b.e. all necessary works for the use and preservation of the easement Art 627 In a right of way. . and easement is one that cannot be acquired by prescription.PROPERTY ʹ Prof. E. 4. A servitude must have a perpetual cause. 4. No one can have a servitude over his own property (nulli res sua servit) A servitude cannot consist in doing (servitus in faciendo consistere nequit) There cannot be a servitude over another servitude (servitus servitudes esse non potest) A servitude must be exercised civiliter. 3. at his expense. Existence of an apparent sign considered a title Art 624 AMOR v FLORENTINO () 2. 5.g. As to its exercise Art 615 a. b. b. Labitag 3. then͙ i. to ask for change in width of easement sufficient for needs of dominant estate b. Right of owner of dominant estate a. To use the easement Art 626 To exercise all rights necessary for the use of the easement Art 625 To do. General rules relating to servitudes 1. 2. By the object or obligation imposed Art 616 a. contracts or wills DUMANGAS v BISHOP OF JARO () a. Positive Negative y Prescription starts to run from service of notarial prohibition D. If easement has been acquired but no proof of existence of easement available. By final judgment iii. Modes of acquiring easements NORTH NEGROS v HIDALGO () 1. By title y Juridical act which give rise to the servitude e. Apparent Non-apparent 5. Continuous Discontinuous Page 32 of 47 As indication of its existence Art 615 a. May be cured by deed of recognition by owner of servient estate ii. c.

Not to impair the use of the easement Art 628. clear. 5. perfect and definite. Labitag Art 651 DE LUNA v ENCARNACION () 2. 4. Merger in the same person of the ownership of the dominant and servient estates y Must be absolute. Modes of extinguishment of easements Art 631 Easements are extinguished by: 1. 6. G. To retain ownership and use of his property Art 630 To change the place and manner of use the easement nd Art 629. Servitudes not yet exercised cannot be extinguished by non-use Extinguishment by impossibility of use Expiration of the term or fulfillment of resolutory condition Renunciation of the owner of dominant estate y Must be specific.PROPERTY ʹ Prof. To contribute to expenses of works necessary for use and preservation of servitude. Rights of owner of servient estate a. 1st Par To contribute proportionately to expenses if he uses the easement nd Art 628. Page 33 of 47 c. unless he renounces his interest Art 628 Servient Estate 3. 2 Par b. 2 Par b. express (distinguished from non-user) Redemption agreed upon between the owners 2. 3. To use the easement for benefit of immovable and in the manner originally established Art 626 To notify owner of servient estate before making repairs and to make repairs in a manner least inconvenient to servient estate Art 627 Not to alter easement or render it more burdensome Art 627 VALDERRAMA v NORTH NEGROS () d. b. Discontinuous easements ʹ counted from the day they ceased to be used ii. 4. Computation of the period i. Continuous easements ʹ counted from the day an act adverse to the exercise took place b. Obligations of the servient estate a. The use by a co-owner of the dominant estate bars prescription with respect to the others Art 633 c. not merely temporary Non-user for 10 years a. Obligations of the owner of dominant estate a. . if there are several dominant estates.

Private legal easements provided for by the New Civil Code a) Those established for the use of water or easements relating to waters 1) Natural drainage of waters Art 637 ONGSIAKO v ONGSIAKO () 2) Easements on lands along riverbanks Art 638 See Water Code Abutment of a dam Art 639 Aqueduct Art 642 Art 643 Art 644 Art 645 Art 646 Drawing waters and watering animals Art 640 Art 641 Stop lock or sluice gate Art 649 b) The easement of right of way 3) 4) 5) 6) Art 649 Art 650 Art 651 Art 652 Art 653 Art 654 Art 655 Art 656 Art 657 . 2. Book II of CC (Legal Easements) For private legal easements rd i. Other causes not mentioned in Art 631 a. Special cause for extinction of legal easement of rights of way. Special laws and regulations relating thereto 1) PD 1067 ʹ Water Code 2) PD 705 ʹ Forestry Reform Code ii. By the provisions of Chapter 2. Title VII. Abandonment of the servient estate d.PROPERTY ʹ Prof. Annulment or rescission of the title constituting the easement b. Labitag 7. if right of way no longer necessary Legal Easements Page 34 of 47 H. 1. Termination of the right of grantor c. Book II of CC (Legal Easements) b. Law governing legal easements a. By agreement of the interested parties whenever the law does not prohibit it and no injury is suffered by a 3 person ii. Provisions of Chapter 2. For public easements i. Eminent domain e. Title VII.

PROPERTY ʹ Prof. DE BELTAZAr v CA () SPS. Labitag Page 35 of 47 QUIMEN v CA (1996) CHAN v CA () LA VISTA ASSN v CA (1997) VDA. DELA CRUZ v RAMISCAL (2005) c) The easement of party wall Art 658 Art 659 Art 660 Art 661 Art 662 Art 663 Art 664 Art 665 Art 666 d) The easement of light and view Art 667 Art 668 Art 669 Art 670 Art 671 Art 672 Art 673 e) The easement of drainage of buildings Art 674 Art 675 Art 676 f) The easement of distance for certain constructions Art 677 Art 678 Art 679 Art 680 Art 681 g) The easement against nuisances Art 682 Art 683 h) The easement of lateral and subjacent supports Art 684 Art 685 Art 686 Art 687 .

free from any burdens or encumbrances a. burden etc as when held by previous owner y Law .g. o Registration under Act 496 o Estoppel of title Art 1434 o Marriage under ACP o Hidden treasure o Accession Art 445 o Change in river͛s course Art 461 o Accession continua over movables Art 466 Art 6681 Art 1456 Art 120 a) b) c) d) Donation Succession Prescription Tradition REQUISITES: (1) Pre-existence of right in estate of grantor (2) Just cause or title for the transmission (3) Intention (of both grantor and grantee) (4) Capacity (to transmit and to acquire) (5) An act giving it outward form. but by delivery. b. sed traditione. capacity and intention of persons and fulfillment of requisites of law Proximate cause TITLE y y Every juridical right which gives a means to the acquisition of real rights but which in itself is insufficient Remote cause Modes of Acquiring Ownership ORIGINAL MODES y Which produce the acquisition of ownership independent of any pre-existing right of another person. subject to the same characteristics. physically. symbolically or legally LEGAL MAXIM: ͞Non nudis pactis.) . is ownership transferred.PROPERTY ʹ Prof. hence. Labitag Page 36 of 47 BOOK III Ȃ DIFFERENT MODES OF ACQUIRING OWNERSHIP Mode and Title Differentiated MODE y y The specific cause which produces dominion and other real rights as a result of the co-existence of special status of things. Occupation Intellectual creation DERIVATIVE MODES y Based on a right previously held by another person and therefore. powers. dominia rerum transferentur͟ (Not by mere agreement.e.

Trademarks & service marks c. Traditio constitutum possessorium vi. Industrial designs e. Tradition by operation of law Page 37 of 47 Occupation a. Rights of performers. producers of sound recordings & broadcasting orgs h. Laws repealed by the IPC Sec 239 All acts and part of acts inconsistent with Intellectual Property Code. Intellectual creation Intellectual Property Code (RA 8293) Intellectual Property Rights (IPR): a. Delivery of public instrument iii. d. particularly: y PD 49 ʹ Intellectual Property Decree. b.PROPERTY ʹ Prof. Traditio longamanu iv. Symbolical delivery ii. Geographic indications d. as amended ʹ Patent Law y RA 166. Labitag KINDS OF TRADITION a. f. as amended y Arts 188 and 189 of the RPC . Topographies of integrated circuits g. e. Not applicable to ownership of a piece of land Art 714 Privilege to hunt and fish regulated by special law Art 715 Occupation of a swarm of bees or domesticated animals Art 716 Art 560 Pigeons and fish Art 717 Hidden treasure Art 718 Art 438 Art 439 Lost movables Art 719 Art 720 Procedure after finding lost movables b. Quasi-tradition vii. including PD 285 as amended y RA 165. c. Real tradition Constructive tradition i. Traditio brevi manu v. Copyright & related rights b. Patents f. Protection of undisclosed information i.

6. Remuneratory c. As to its taking effect a. FC Art 87. Mortis causa Art 728 c. c. As to form b. 3. 5. As to governing rules c. Conditional Art 730 Art 731  EFFECT OF AN IMPOSSIBLE CONDITION: c. Mixed donations ʹ negotium mixtum cum donatione e. As to impossible conditions Art 727 Art 1183 Characteristics of a donation mortis causa a. FC As to cause or consideration a. sale for price lower than value of property As to effectivity or extinguishment a. Onerous ʹ imposes a burden inferior to the value of property donated i. 4.g. d. Before donor͛s death. Convey no title or ownership before donor͛s death b. b. transfer is revocable c.g. Transfer is void if donor survives donee Distinction between donation mortis causa and donation inter vivos 2. Improper ʹ burden equal in value to property donated ii. . imposes a prestation upon donee as to how property donated will be applied Art 882 iii. Simple b. Pure b. NOTE y Consent and capacity of the parties Animus donandi (causa) Delivery of the thing donated Form as prescribed by law There must be impoverishment (in fact) of donor͛s patrimony and enrichment on part of donee Kinds of donation 1. Sub-modo or modal ʹ E. Labitag Page 38 of 47 DONATION Nature of donation y A bilateral contract creating unilateral obligations on donor͛s part Requisites of donation a. With a term Importance of classification a.PROPERTY ʹ Prof. Propter nuptias Art 82. Inter vivos Art 729 Art 730 Art 731 b.

that no person may give or receive. . Donations propter nuptias 2. of donor a. more than he may give or receive by will Art 752 Also. Form of donations 1. Personal property Art 748 Real property Art 749 Rules in Art 748 and Art 749 not applicable to: a. PROVIDED. or part thereof. All present property. he reserves in full ownership or usufruct. sufficient means for support of himself and all relatives entitled to be supported by donor at the time of acceptance Art 750 PROVIDED. Page 39 of 47 What is important is the time of transfer of ownership even if transfer of property donated may be subject to a condition or a term Importance of classification ʹ validity and revocation of donation Who may not give or receive donations Art 735 Art 737 Art 738 Art 741 Art 742 Who may give or receive donations Art 736 Art 739 Art 1027 Art 1032 Art 740 Art 743 Art 744 Acceptance of donation 1. Modal donations c. otherwise. What may be donated 1. Labitag a. Onerous donations b. donation is in fraud of creditors Art 759 Art 1387 b. b. of donation inter vivos Art 746 b.PROPERTY ʹ Prof. Mortis causa donations d. reserves property sufficient to pay donor͛s debts contracted before donation. by way of donation. Who may accept Art 745 Art 747 Time of acceptance a. of donation mortis causa 2. 3.

4.no right of accretion. donation is inofficious EXCEPTIONS a. Donations provided for in marriage settlements between future spouses ʹ not more than 1/5 of present property Art 84. 3. Special provisions 1. furniture or clothing not to exceed 1/10 of disposable portion Art 1070 b. donor must release property donated from mortgages and other encumbrances. 4. 2. unless contrary has been stipulated Art 131. 6. B. Donee may demand actual delivery of thing donated Donee is subrogated to rights of donor in property donated Art 754 Donor not obliged to warrant things donated. Reservation by donor of power to dispose (in whole or in part) or to encumber property donated Art 755 Donation of naked ownership to one donee and usufruct to another Art 756 Conventional reversion in favor of donor or other person Art 757 Payment of donor͛s debt Art 758 a. 2. EXCEPT a. Donor provides otherwise b. 5. If donation exceeds the disposable or free portion of his estate. EXCEPT in onerous donations in which case donor is liable for eviction up to the extent of burden Art 754 Donor is liable for eviction or hidden defects in case of bad faith on his part Art 754 In donations propter nuptias. FC Art 130. CC Donations to several donees jointly . 3. UNLESS specified otherwise . What may not be donated a. Labitag Page 40 of 47 2.PROPERTY ʹ Prof. In general SHOPPER͛S PARADISE REALTY v ROQUE (2004) 1. CC Donations propter nuptias by an ascendant consisting of jewelry. If expressly stipulated o Donee to pay only debts contracted before the donation. Donation to husband and wife jointly with right of accretion (jus accrescendi) UNLESS donor provides otherwise Art 753 3. Future property Art 751 Anything which donor cannot dispose of at the time of donation EXCEPTION y Marriage settlements of future spouses only in event of death to extent laid down in CC re: testamentary succession Art 84. FC Art 130 CC Effect of donation A.

UNLESS clearly intended If there is no stipulation o Donee answerable only for donor͛s debt only in case of donation is in fraud of creditors Illegal or impossible conditions Art 727 Art 1183 Revocation and Reduction of Donations A. b. Effect of revocation or reduction . Page 41 of 47 o But in no case shall donee be responsible for debts exceeding the value of property donated. Subsequent birth. d.PROPERTY ʹ Prof. Revocation only 1. Causes Art 765 Time to file action for revocation Art 769 Who may file Art 770 Effect of revocation On alienation and mortgages Art 766 Art 767 b. Labitag b. Who may ask for reduction Art 772 Rule applied: If disposable portion is not sufficient to cover 2 or more donation Art 773 b. 5. reappearance of child or adoption of minor by donor Art 760 C. Violation of condition a. 2. Prescription of action Transmissibility of action YULO AND SONS v ROMAN CATHOLIC BISHOP OF SAN PABLO (2005) 3. Revocation distinguished from reduction of donations Revocation Reduction B. Causes of Reduction/Revocation 1. Inofficiousness of donation Art 752 Art 771 Art 773 Art 911 Art 912 a. Ingratitude a. 2. c.

Effect as to fruits Art 768 . Labitag Art 762 Art 764 Par 2 Art 767 Page 42 of 47 4.PROPERTY ʹ Prof.

Labitag Page 43 of 47 .PROPERTY ʹ Prof.

Temporary duration Onerous Price is fixed according to contract duration Kinds of leases 1. b.PROPERTY ʹ Prof. B. General characteristics of every lease 1. 2. 3. Labitag Page 44 of 47 LEASE A. c. Household service Contract for a piece of work Art 1713 Art 1714 Art 1715 Art 1716 Art 1717 Art 1718 Art 1719 Art 1720 Art 1721 Art 1722 Art 1723 Art 1724 Art 1725 Art 1726 Art 1727 Art 1728 Art 1729 Art 1730 Art 1731 Lease of services of common carriers Art 1732 Art 1733 Art 1734 Art 1735 Art 1736 Art 1737 3. 2. Lease of things ʹ movables and immovables Lease of work or contract of labor Art 1700 Art 1701 Art 1702 Art 1703 Art 1704 Art 1705 Art 1706 Art 1707 Art 1708 Art 1709 Art 1710 Art 1711 Art 1712 Lease of services a. .

Urban land Art 1687 2. Onerous d. Lease of things Page 45 of 47 1. Concept Art 1643 Consumable things cannot be the subject matter of lease EXCEPT Art 1645 a. Labitag Art 1738 Art 1739 Art 1740 Art 1741 Art 1742 Art 1743 Art 1744 Art 1745 Art 1746 Art 1747 Art 1748 Art 1749 Art 1750 Art 1751 Art 1752 Art 1753 Art 1754 Art 1755 Art 1756 Art 1757 Art 1758 Art 1759 Art 1760 Art 1761 Art 1762 Art 1763 C.PROPERTY ʹ Prof. Temporary Lease distinguished from Sale. Definite period ʹ not more than 99 years Indefinite period i. Rural land Art 1682 ii. 3. Usufruct. Consensual c. Price fixed in relation to period of use or enjoyment e. 5. Assignment of lease Art 1649 Sublease Art 1650 7. Goods are accessory to an industrial establishment Special characteristics of lease of things a. . 4. Consumable only for display or advertising (Lease ad pompam et ostentationem) b. Essential purpose is to transmit the use and enjoyment of a thing b. b. 6. Commodatum Period of lease ʹ cannot be perpetual a.

Implied extension of lease Art 1670 Art 1682 Art 1687 Art 1675 12. Grounds for ejectment of lessee by lessor Art 1673 Note the grounds under the House Rental Law. e. QUERY: Are they still effective? 10. Rights and obligations of lessor and lessee a. Right of purchase of leased land Art 1676 Art 1677 13. d. Obligations of a lessor Art 1654 Art 1661 Obligations of lessee Art 1657 Art 1662 Art 1663 Art 1665 Art 1668 Art 1667 Right of lessee to suspend payment of rentals Art 1658 Right to ask for rescission Art 1659 Art 1660 Lessor not obliged to answer for mere act of trespass by a 3 person Art 1664 rd b. House Rental Law (RA 9653) Obligation of sublessee to lessor Art 1651 For rents Art 1652 Page 46 of 47 8. Right to ask for writ of preliminary mandatory injunction in unlawful detainer cases Art 1674 Art 539. b. c. Special provisions for leases of rural lands Art 1680 Art 1681 Art 1682 Art 1683 Art 1684 Art 1685 . 9.PROPERTY ʹ Prof. Useful improvements in good faith made by lessee Art 1678 14. Labitag a. Par 2 11.

Labitag 15.PROPERTY ʹ Prof. Special provisions for leases of urban lands Art 1686 Art 1687 Art 1688 Page 47 of 47 .