Sir Norman Foster & Peter Eisenman

Dustin Taljaard 208091783

Sir Norman Foster

Introduction
Foster’s architectural career spans more than thirty years. He has designed structures in Tokyo, Hong Kong, London, Barcelona and Omaha. Many of his designs have been heralded as “groundbreaking” or “landmark,” as Foster constantly strives to stay ahead of architectural trends. Foster’s design style, which he calls “high-tech,” not only stems from his background and love of intricate machinery, but also emanates from the influence of his teachers, who taught him to think at the edge of the modern technological curve.

History
Norman Foster was born in Manchester, England in 1939. Foster’s home life was stable, albeit humble. Norman was neither an exceptional nor a challenged student, doing well but not passing all of his subjects in the general Certificate Examination. Foster believes that he did not think of himself as bright. He however did show, however, a great interest for model construction sets and motors. This fascination with working machines and the details of assembling models continues to show itself in his current fascination with airplanes and gliders.

Influences
During the last year of grammar school, Foster nurtured a growing interest in the public library. Here, Foster discovered the philosophy of Tolstoy and Dostoyevsky. In further browsing, Foster happened upon two influential books, Le Corbusier’s Towards a New Architecture and Henry Russell Hitchcock’s In the Nature of Materials. These books were powerful for Foster and as his first exposures to architecture, shaped the method by which Foster perceived materials and design. Foster eventually made his way to Manchester University in 1957 where he studied architecture as an undergraduate for four years. At the end of these studies, Foster received a Henry Fellowship to continue his architectural studies in the United States at Yale. In graduate work, Foster would study under Rudolph and notables like Phillip Johnson and Vincent Sully. Foster would later become close friends with another British student, Richard Rogers. Norman’s friendships paid off as he traveled back to London to create a partnership called Team 4—one of the partners was Richard Rogers. In this group there was only one certified architect: Georgie Wolton.

The British Museum
Introduction
The British Museum in London central is a restoration and expansion of an existing building. Using a fusion of high-tech engineering and economy of form to achieve a new dynamic public space, results in a modern version of and Italian plaza. This plaza in turn connects all the surrounding galleys of the museum.

History
The courtyard was originally a garden, then soon after completion the addition of a round reading room resulted in a chaotic assembly of wasted space and smaller out buildings. The need for additional space was a great concern for the museum. Work on the design began in 1994 and was completed in 2000

Design
Foster used unique solution of covering the space to simplify the needs of his client. The area that was needed to be covered was not uniform and the reading room was not in the center of the courtyard. To solve this, a steel frame of triangulated double glazed panels was designed to create a dome. The design of this project was at three levels; first he addressed the urban issue by sinking the galleries and lecture hall below floor level. This allowed the space to become freed of the need to house displays. In addition to this, the floor of the courtyard was raised to that of the museum so it could be enjoyed as a public portal. Secondly there was damage to the south entrance during WWII. For the continual aesthetic around the courtyard this needed to be rebuilt. A contemporized design was used to achieve this. However the issue of which stone to use for the renovation proved to be a more troublesome design specification.

Thirdly, the eccentrically place reading room meant that the entire glass dome had to be engineered as not one of the triangular section are identical. This resulted in a unique geometry that creates multiple optical effects. The dome is also designed with a careful consideration to the amount of energy needed to control the environment

The complete project is an example of Fosters mature style by making a hugely complex project look simple to the point of inevitability. The creation of a positive space out of a negative space and maximizing the available floor area has accomplished a feat of architectural genius.

Material Selection
Glass: double glazed engineered units were used on top of a steel lattice. Solar heat gain was reduced with the use of reflective fritting technology. This achieved 75% reduction of solar heat gain by covering only 56% of total surface. Structure: throughout the courtyard no columns were used, this was achieved by supporting the metal lattice on hidden columns on both the reading room as well as the original masonry load bearing walls. Cladding: the vertical walls of the reading room were cladded with sand stone which in turn hid the down pipes and ventilation shafts. The same sand stone units were used on the floor for visual continuity. Steel lattice: toughen steel was used due to its ability to absorb high stresses as well as its slender visual appearance. After coating the steel can endure weathering for prolonged periods with little maintenance.

30 St Mary axe

Introduction
Officially known as 30 St. Mary Axe, and mocked as the "gherkin." Although its height is far less than other London skyscrapers, its prominent location, behind the Tower of London makes it one of the most recognizable landmarks in the city. With each floor offset from the one below by five degrees and diamond shaped glazing that makes the building appears to spiral. Even though the building appears round, the glass facade is actually all made of flat panels. The only curved piece of glass is the lens that tops the structure.

Design
The cylindrical shape is tapered at both top and bottom as was necessary for high wind loads experienced on the building. The footprint of the building on the site is less than its maximum circumference and results in a greater public space on ground level. Due to its shape the building appears more slender than what it truly is.

The floor plan of the main office spaces, although in a cylindrical envelope, is divided by 6 triangular spaces between rectilinear floored areas. These floors in turn rotate by 5 degrees from the floor below, creating spiral light wells. These light wells reduce the need for artificial lighting in the workspace. Duly these voids allow for the rotation of air in the work space by natural ventilation, again reducing the cost of artificial ventilation. All of the available floor space is column free

Foster has created a humanizing work space where employees are democratized with the they communicate within the working realm On the sixth floor Foster created an atria which is commonly referred to as the ‘Sky garden’. This garden within the building is used as a natural air filter and provides fresh air to the building.

Foster’s Design Ideals
I believe that Foster’s design technique, while manifested differently at each site, can be summarized and concentrated in the form of basic principles. High-tech: Foster believes that in designing his buildings, the most technologically advanced solution must be considered. He believes that in using high-tech equipment and pushing the edge of structural engineering, he is able to push the edge of architectural designing. Using high-tech equipment allows Foster to break through usual paradigms of

building and find solutions, such as pushing structural members to the edge of skyscrapers. Foster also believes that high-tech buildings are more flexible and radical, and thus more distinctive. A high-tech building, according to Foster, is also energy efficient. Foster believes that paying attention to the ecology of a building is highly important, for technology affords the architect methods by which to design a building more ecologically efficient. Flexibility: Foster believes that it is important to eliminate divisions in buildings. If architectural divisions are eliminated, Foster argues, that internal divisions will also be eliminated. Foster believes that flexibility is essential to a building, as the myriad roles of it’s life. In the commercial world, walls separate employees and discourage communication; eliminating walls eliminates that separation. In residential buildings, flexibility allows the resident to choose his own living style, instead of having that style dictated by the building. A building that is not flexible, Foster believes, is an obsolete building. In designing buildings for flexibility, Foster places them in a design tradition that reaches back to Albert Kahn. Foster took Kahn’s approach and applied it to different building types. Light: Foster’s fixation on the element of light is obvious. Foster believes that through the harnessing and collection of light, individuals living in the modern world relate to nature. The design of each of Foster’s buildings takes into consideration light and its effects on the structure. Most of his commercial buildings have a central atrium that draws light to the core of the building. Foster believes that light has a healing function, one that keeps individuals sane in a busy, modern world. In each building, Foster deals with light by a different and innovative method, trying to understand the ways in which light affects the building and the individual. In looking at his previous structures, Foster approaches the element of light by a different method in each building.

Conclusion
Norman Foster is often described as “the most envied architect in the world.” Foster certainly deserves this honor, given his long career and the acclaim that many of his buildings have received. He often ignores the usual trends and traditional methods of architecture and envisions new solutions to design challenges. I believe that Foster has cultivated this radical nature in his architectural upbringing, starting with his informal education of Le Corbusier and continuing through with his graduate education at Yale under Paul Rudolph and Phillip Johnson.In the latter half of the twentieth century, Norman Foster has designed buildings which are thoroughly modern and envisioned new paradigms for architectural design. With his innovative designs and radical ideas, Norman Foster has indelibly stamped his image onto the milieu of modern architecture.

Peter Eisenman

Introduction
Born on the 11 of August 1932 in Newark, New Jersey. Eisenman is an American architect who is often in the spotlight for his controversial views. Educated and associated with some of the most prolific tertiary institutions in America, he is an active teacher of his own theories, while running a practice involved in some of the most notable contemporary projects. Eisenman's identifiable fragmented forms are the cornerstone of the deconstructivists architectural movement.

History
As a child Eisenman attended Columbia High School located in Maplewood, New Jersey. He discovered architecture as an undergraduate at Cornell University where he received a Bachelor of Architecture Degree. He went on to complete his Master of Architecture Degree from Columbia University's Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation. Furthermore he completed his M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Cambridge. Later in 2007 he received an honorary degree from Syracuse University School of Architecture. Eisenman currently teaches theory seminars and an advanced design studios at the Yale School of Architecture.

Influences
Eisenman first rose to prominence as a member of the New York Five (Eisenman, Charles Gwathmey, John Hejduk, Richard Meier, and Michael Graves). These architects' worked at a time that was often considered to be a reworking of the ideas of Le Corbusier. Subsequently, the five architects each developed unique styles and ideologies with Eisenman becoming more affiliated with the Deconstructivists movement. He always had strong cultural relationships with European intellectuals like his mentor Colin Rowe and the Italian historian Manfredo Tafuri. Furthermore, the work of philosopher Jacques Derrida , who was a close friend, had a key influence in his architecture.

House VI
Introduction

The Frank Residence, is a significant building designed by Peter Eisenman, completed in 1975. His second built work, the getaway house in Cornwall, Connecticut has become famous for both its revolutionary definition of a house as much as for the physical problems of design and difficulty of use. At the time of construction, the architect was known almost exclusively as a theorist, with a highly formalist approach to architecture which he calls "post-functionalism." Rather than form following function, the design emerged from a conceptual framework.

History
This house is constructed using primarily a post and beam system, with box beams and large dimension timbers which forms the major elements of the structural system. Many of the forms that appear structural are actually included to reinforce the concepts behind the design. It was not Eisenman's intent to convey the actual structure, but expose the system to define a module, which is augmented by additional space defining forms. Eisenman's limited construction experience meant that the building was poorly detailed. The construction took 3 years to build, and went over budget, and finally had to be reconstructed in 1987, leaving only the basic structure original.

Design

The building is meant to be a "record of design process," where the structure that results is the methodical manipulation of a grid. As a start, Eisenman created a form from the intersection of four planes, subsequently manipulating the structures again and again, until coherent spaces began to emerge. In this way, the fragmented slabs and columns don’t use a traditional purpose. The envelope and structure of the building are changed elements of the original four slabs with added modifications. The purely conceptual design meant that the architecture is strictly plastic, bearing no relationship to construction techniques or purely ornamental form. Consequently, the use of the building was intentionally ignored - not fought against. Eisenman grudgingly permitted a handful of compromises, such as a bathroom, but the staircase lacks a handrail, there is a column abutting the kitchen table, and a glass strip originally divided the bedroom.

Material Selection
Due to the houses location in an area which experiences severe winters, the structural system begins with the poured concrete foundation walls and footings several feet below grade. A double mud sill is secured to the tops of the foundation walls with anchor bolts embedded in the concrete. This continuous sill forms the basis of the connections between the post and beam system and the more traditional platform style framing supplementing it. The columns rest on the sill and the rim joists secure them to the rest of the framing. As the organization of the house is based on a modular system, many of the openings formed by the posts and beams are in filled with stud walls. Together with the wall sheathing, the framing acts as a shear wall, giving the structure lateral stability. Because there are numerous openings and windows that occupy the entire module of a post and beam unit, the distribution of the shear walls throughout the structure is essential. Certain portions of the house are cantilevered out from the outer planes of the exterior and present special structural problems to be considered. Here, iron diagonal members function in tension to support the cantilevers which are framed as a part of the platform system. The same iron diagonals can be found in walls that are too thin to accommodate stud framing to act as a shear wall. In walls where a "slit" window is located, diagonal bracing takes up the spaces on each side of the window. Some walls of the house are located outside of the rim joists and corresponding foundation walls. These are supported by steel angle brackets bolted to the rim joists forming their own platform for the wall to sit on. Plywood sheathing covers the exterior of the house, continued around the posts and beams in a gesture that allows some of the structural method to be seen.

Conclusion
Many critics considered House VI Eisenman's most important work. It certainly generated considerable dialogue within the architecture community among architects, critics and historians. Critics have noted Eisenman's attempt to marry linguistic theory to design; his interest the theory of syntax and transformational grammar is particularly evident in the series of "transformational" axonometric drawings he made of House VI

Columbus Convention Center

Introduction
The Columbus Convention Center is a convention center located in downtown Columbus, Ohio, along the east side of High Street. The convention center was designed by Peter Eisenman, constructed in 1993, and expanded in 1999. The 158,000 m2 facility includes 39,600 m2 of exhibit space, two ballrooms, and 61 meeting rooms.

Design
While the Columbus Convention Center is considered an outlandish design too many, the true plan developed by Eisenman was limited by money. Because of this, the original materials and finishes desired were cheapened to fit within the budget of the project. What resulted was a series of interesting geometries with little architectural development.

In an attempt to tame the large volume, Eisenman created a series of separate pavilions on the High Street facade, predictably canted at odd angles. These pavilions were intended to echo the rhythm of the brick facades on the opposite side of the street. The metallic colors originally proposed for the pavilions would have lent greater definition, but the pavilions are nonetheless blank.

These pavilions initiate long, curving volumes which extend back to the truck loading docks along the rear. These volumes were designed to resemble trains in a train yard from overhead. Along the street facade these volumes coincide with meeting rooms, the grand ballroom, and eating facilities. In the main exhibition space, however, they simply run above the supporting trusses without regard to the structural or spatial grid below.

The general plan of the convention center is quite simple and functional. A major circulation spine runs from the parking lot through the complex to a pedestrian bridge which crosses a series of railroad tracks leading to the Hyatt Regency and shopping areas beyond. Most of the meeting rooms and offices are located on the High Street side of the spine, while the opposite side is dominated by the gargantuan exhibit area. This spine extends up to the roof level, with skylights bringing natural light directly into the interior corridor. Balconies overlooking the space from the meeting room side create a series of intersecting viewpoints. These are further enhanced by the level change in the circulation spine; from the connecting bridge over the railroad tracks where one descends a bank of escalators which slowly reveals the complex spatial nature of this central spine.

Eisenman’s Design Ideals
Having been a part of the New York Five, Eisenman has been part of developing theoretical understanding of new design principles. With his deconstructivisum and post modern style, Eisenman has started a new way of looking at the way in witch we understand the relationship of people in there environment.

Conclusion
An American architect, educator and theoretician, Peter Eisenman founded the Institute for Architecture and Urban Studies in New York City in 1967. The Corbusier-inspired design of House VI, Eisenman's sixth house design, signals the formalist aesthetic of his design philosophy. Published widely, the house thus garnered both recognition and controversy for Eisenman.

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