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**Tuning of PID controllers
**

10.1 Introduction

This chapter describes several methods for tuning of controller parameters in PID controllers, that is, methods for ﬁnding proper values of Kp , Ti and Td . Some of the methods — the Good Gain method1 , and the Ziegler-Nichols’ method — are experimental, that is, they require experiments to be made on the process to be controlled. If you have a mathematical process model, you can of course use these experimental methods on a simulator based on the model. One method — Skogestad’s method — is model-based, i.e. you can get good PID parameter values directly from the transfer function model of the process, without doing any experiment. Still, you should verify that the PID tuning is proper by simulating. What is the aim of the controller tuning? If it was possible to obtain, we would like to obtain both of the following for the control system: • Fast responses, and • Good stability Unfortunately, for practical systems these two wishes can not be achieved simultaneously. In other words:

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So. for the control system. What is “acceptable stability” more speciﬁcally? There exists no single deﬁnition.) It is useful to have this compromise in mind when you perform controller tuning. and the compromise. and • The better stability. The ﬁgure shows the response in the process output variable due to a step change of the setpoint.122 • The faster response. the slower response. but poor stability (bad) 1. the worse stability. Assume a positive step change of the setpoint. but slow response (bad) 0.8 0. and medium fastness of response Figure 10. 1.1: In controller tuning we want to achieve this compromise: Acceptable stability and medium fastness of response.4 Setpoint (a step) Acceptable stability and medium fastness (good compromise) 1.2 1 0.6 Very fast response (good). . One simple yet useful deﬁnition is as follows.2 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Figure 10.6 Very stable (good). (The responses are with three diﬀerent controller gains in a simulated control system.4 0.1 illustrates the two mutual excluding wishes presented above. we look for the following compromise: Acceptable stability.

2 Good Gain method The Good Gain method2 is a simple method which seems to give good results on the lab and on simulators.) The response shown with thick line in Figure 10.3. . The method is based on experiments on a real or simulated control system. (If the step change is negative. is that it does not require the control system to be brought into sustained oscillations in the tuning phase. As an alternative to observing the response after a step change of the setpoint.e. 10. i. you can regard the response after a step change of the process disturbance. The deﬁnition of acceptable stability is the same as for the setpoint change. Section 10. below assumes a PI controller.) The procedure described ySP t ySP e Controller u0 Manual PID Auto u v y t y Process Measured y Sensor Figure 10. see Figure 10. that the undershoot (or overshoot — depending on the sign of the disturbance step change) that follows the ﬁrst overshoot (or undershoot) is small. cf. which is the most commonly used controller function (more common than the P controller and the PID controller). the terms undershoot and overshoot are interchanged.2: The Good Gain method for PID tuning is applied to the established control system. of course. or barely observable. or barely observable.2.123 Acceptable stability is when the undershoot that follows the ﬁrst overshoot of the response is small.1 is representative for acceptable stability. 2 I am responsible for this name. (A beneﬁt of the method as compared to the Ziegler-Nichols’ closed loop method.

If you do not want to start with Kp = 0. you can try Kp = 1 (which is a good initial guess in many cases) and then increase or decrease the Kp value until you observe a slight overshoot but a well damped response. Check the stability of the control system by applying a setpoint step.5Tou (10. Step response Setpoint step Tou Figure 10. Because of the introduction of the I-term. 2. but it possible in a simulator).124 However. is also given. see Figure 10. Bring the process to or close to the normal or speciﬁed operation point by adjusting the nominal control signal u0 (with the controller in manual mode). so that the controller becomes a PID controller. 1.3.g. the loop with the PI controller in action will probably have somewhat reduced stability . 3. a step in the setpoint or in the disturbance (exciting with a step in the disturbance may be impossible on a real system. a comment about how to include the D-term.1) where Tou is the time between the ﬁrst overshoot and the ﬁrst undershoot of the step response (a step in the setpoint) with the P controller. Increase Kp until the control loop gets satisfactory stability as seen in the response in the measurement signal after e. Set the integral time Ti equal to Ti = 1. Ensure that the controller is a P controller with Kp = 0 (set Ti = ∞ and Td = 0).3: Reading oﬀ the time between the ﬁrst overshoot and the ﬁrst undershoot of the step response with P controller 4.

Example 10. Ti = 1100 s.9). The PI parameter values became Kp = 1. Figure 7. 5 Or the Process reaction curve method 3 . cf. 4 Also denoted the Ultimate gain method. reduce it to 80% of the original value. causing noisy controller signal. These two methods are the Ziegler-Nichols’ closed loop method 4 .3.1] 10.125 than with the P controller only.3.1 Ziegler-Nichols’ closed loop method Introduction Ziegler and Nichols published in 1942 a paper [8] where they described two methods for tuning the parameters of P-.) [End of Example 10.4.1 PI controller tuning of a wood-chip level control system with the Good Gain Method I have used the Dummies method on a simulator of the level control system for the wood-chip tank. Of these methods the closed-loop method is the most useful.1) — (7. item 4 above. so that the controller becomes a PID controller3 . and it is described below. you can try setting Td as follows: Td = Ti 4 (10. If you think that the stability has become too poor.2 with parameters (7. cf. PI.3) Figure 10. The open-loop method is not described here. and the Ziegler-Nichols’ open loop method5 . Section 10. 5. The control system seems to have satisfactory stability.and PID controllers.g. Td = 0 s (10. try reducing Kp somewhat. e.4 shows the resulting responses.3 10. (I did not reduce the Kp value. cf.2) which is the Td —Ti relation that was used by Ziegler and Nichols. If you want to include the D-term. But remember the drawbacks about the D-term. namely that it ampliﬁes the measurement noise.

but it should not be very diﬀerent from 1/4.4) However. This deﬁnition of acceptable stability implies worse stability than the deﬁnition given in Section 10.126 Figure 10.1 of this chapter.4: Example 10.5: A2 1 = A1 4 (10. see Figure 10.1: Level control of the wood-chip tank with a PI controller. Ziegler and Nichols [8] used the following deﬁnition of acceptable stability as a basis for their contoller tuning rules: The ratio of the amplitudes of subsequent peaks in the same direction (due to a step change of the disturbance or a step change of the setpoint in the control loop) is approximately 1/4. there is no guaranty that the actual amplitude ratio of a given control system becomes 1/4 after tuning with one of the Ziegler and Nichols’ methods. It has actually become common point of view that the 1/4 decay ratio of the step response .

6) (10. cf. Section 10.6. for example a 20% decrease. which may be the only adjustment needed.5: If A2 /A1 ≈ 1/4 the stability of the system is ok. . If you think that the stability of the control loop becomes too poor.127 v t y yr A1 A2 t Figure 10. It is also important to remember the impact of the measurement noise on the control signal. The ﬁrst aid. Note that the Ziegler-Nichols’ closed loop method can be applied only to processes having a time delay or having dynamics of order higher than 3.7) K Ts + 1 K s + 2ζ ω +1 0 Controller tuning for processes as above can be executed with a transfer function based method. Again. to descrease this sensitivity. For the second order system the Good Gain Method can also be used. according to Ziegler and Nichols corresponds too poor stability of the control loop. The more aggressive controller — fast control — the more sensitive is the control signal to the measurement noise.5) (10. is to decrease Kp somewhat. you can try to adjust the controller parameters. Here are a few examples of process transfer function models for which the method can not be used: H (s) = H (s) = H (s) = s 2 (ω ) 0 K s (integrator) (ﬁrst order system) (second order system) (10. the controller gain can be descreased.

corresponding to Ti = ∞. Turn the PID controller into a P controller by setting set Ti = ∞7 and Td = 0. see Figure 10. until the process variable is approximately equal to the setpoint. e. Initially set gain Kp = 0. with the controller in manual mode. 3. Bring the process to (or as close to as possible) the speciﬁed operating point of the control system to ensure that the controller during the tuning is “feeling” representative process dynamic6 and to minimize the chance that variables during the tuning reach limits. The tuning procedure is as follows: 1.6: The Ziegler-Nichols’ closed loop method is executed on an established control system.g.6.2 The Ziegler-Nichols’ PID tuning procedure The Ziegler-Nichols’ closed loop method is based on experiments executed on an established control loop (a real system or a simulated system). Controller u0 Manual e ySP Tp Measured y Sensor PID Auto u Process v y Figure 10. 2.3. Increase Kp until there are sustained oscillations in the signals in the control system. in the process measurement. 7 6 .128 10. In some commercial controllers Ti = 0 is a code that is used to deactivate the I-term. You can bring the process to the operating point by manually adjusting the control variable. after an excitation of the system. Close the control loop by setting the controller in automatic mode. (The sustained oscillations corresponds to the system This may be important for nonlinear processes.

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