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The timeline and origin of educational technology

 The history of Educational technology can be traced back to the time when tribal priests systemized bodies of knowledge, and early cultures invented pictographs or sign writing to record and transmit information  The 19th century paved in the advent of effective technological development including the production of textbooks, use of blackboards and improvements in writing implements like pen and ink. Photography was invented, giving a way to a movement called “Visual Instruction”.  By 1920, visual media became widely accepted. Then came the publication of audiovisual media texts. In 1926, educational films were used as instructional media. In 1927, Pressey wrote on programmed learning through a machine which tested and confirmed a learning task. In 1932, the first instructional television program was aired at the State University of Iowa. About the same time, the 16 mm sound motion picture was developed and this served as the educational workhorse during the audio-visual movement of the time.  During World War II, the U.S. government encouraged the implementation of technology of instruction for military training programs. This gave impetus to a system approach to instruction to include: micro-teaching, individualized instruction, Language laboratories, behavioral laboratories, behavioral objectives, computer assisted instruction and among others.  Mainframe Computer Systems: First use in public schools taught New York elementary students binary arithmetic in 1959.  Microcomputers: Introduced in late 1970’s.Adopted by public school systems during 1980’s.  AFFORDABLE POCKET CALCULATORS: Pocket calculators, which first appeared in the early 1970s, rapidly drop in price over a five-year period. By the mid1970s, most schools have pocket calculators that students can use. By the late 1970s, many students have their own personal pocket calculators. Debates rage in education circles about their appropriateness for classroom use. Those debates continue to some degree even to our present day.  Tim Berners-Lee in 1990 Developed HTML and the World Wide Web (WWW) was born.  In 1991 SMART created the world’s first interactive whiteboard.  PODCASTS:In 2004, Apple updated iTunes, making podcast distribution easier. Podcasting took off. Educators, particularly at the college level, began to distribute podcasts of educational material.  APPLE IPAD: Apple releases the iPad, the first popular tablet computer. After many failed attempts by others, Apple releases a wildly popular tablet computer. Educators instantly see many possibilities for classroom use