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Clauses of place. Clauses of contingency. Clauses of condition, concession, and contrast.


Adverbial clauses of place: are introduced by the following subordinating conjunctions: - where - wherever - whence („from where‟) and whither („to where‟) are archaic forms indicate: - direction - position An overpowering smell of sweat followed him about [wherever he went] (direction) [Where I used to built sand castles] , there was now a giant manure pile (position) adverbial clauses of place introduced by where may express a combination of place and contrast [Where I saw only wilderness] , they saw abundant signs of life (Quirk, p. 1087) (=[Whereas I saw only] …., they saw …) Some temporal subordinating conjunctions (after, as, once, until, when etc.) may refer primarily to place, when used to describe movement from one place to another. (Quirk, p. 1087) Take the right fork [when the road splits into two] The river continues winding [until it reaches a large lake] The building becomes narrower [as it rises higher] The road stops [just after it goes under a bridge] [Once the mountains rise above the snow line], vegetation is sparse

condition etc. purpose… There is a kind of habitual contingency conveyed by the following subordinating conjunctions: if once when/whenever where/wherever The specific meaning of these conjunctions (time. in the direction where… o where/wherever: to wherever …. concession. where they could be paraphrased by “in case when” / „in circumstances where”. 1086) [When(ever)/Where(ver)/If /Once there’s smoke]. (Cambridge Dictionary online) Adverbials of contingency convey relationships such as: reason.1. contingent on the weather. Examples (Quirk (p. condition. ) is neutralized in certain linguistic contexts. Clauses of condition. one may well miss direction signs [Fresh from the oven]. there’s fire [When(ever)/Where(ver)/If possible]. place. toward(s) where She finally arrived [at the place that had once been her sweet home] Take me [to wherever you go] 2. Adverbial Clauses of Contingency 2. as ever. result. you should test all moving parts The same habitual/recurrent contingency can be conveyed by NFingCls and VlessCls [Driving at high speed]. rolls are delicious . A place relationship can also be expressed by PPs having as object/complement: o an NP the head of which is postmodifed by a relative clause: at the place that.THE SYNTAX OF THE MULTIPLE SENTENCE Clauses of place. Our success is contingent upon your support. and contrast. concession. Clauses of contingency. In other words. Introduction Contingent on/upon something: “depending on something else in the future in order to happen” Outdoor arrangements are. the situation in the matrix/main clause is contingent on the circumstances provided by the adverbial clause. cause.

(then) I’ll take you with me in Europe Adverbial Clauses of Contrast: o contrast Whereas adoptive organizations such as Catholic Church have sometimes lasted for thousands of years]. Adverbial Clauses of Condition 2. the speaker does not expect the event in the matrix/main clause to happen. these adverbial clauses occupy the initial position in the sentence. 2.2. a great deal of overlap between their meanings. frequently.The same subordinating conjunction can introduce more than one type of adverbial clause. There are three important logical relationships covered by the term contingency: condition concession contrast All these adverbial clauses convey the same general meaning: the event in the matrix/main clause is contingent upon that in the adverbial clause. each type conveys certain specific nuances of meaning – there is also.Normally. .2. Clauses of contingency. she hasn’t yet come to visit us We should also keep in mind that: . These specific meanings are: Adverbial Clauses of Condition: o contingency: the event in the matrix/main clause is contingent on that in the adverbial clause [If you pass all the final examinations]. However.THE SYNTAX OF THE MULTIPLE SENTENCE Clauses of place. Direct and Indirect conditions Adverbial clauses of condition express two types of conditions: . Clauses of condition. [Although she returned from America last week]. hereditary aristocracies have always been short-lived Adverbial Clause of Concession: o contrast and o unexpected situation: starting from what is said in the adverbial clause. and contrast.1. concession.

unless  Complex subordinators: . this implies that the direct condition should be seen as one of a semantic nature – the contingency does not concern the speech event). o these if-clauses perform the function of style disjuncts.if (the most frequently used) .  direct condition  indirect condition Adverbial clauses that express a direct condition: The grain of whitish dust will be shaken off [if the book is moved] o are clauses of contingency: the event in the matrix/main is directly dependent/contingent upon the event of the conditional clause.2. o it is a central use of conditional clauses. Clauses of condition.on condition (that) .in case .given (that) . Subordinating Conjunctions that Introduce Conditional Clauses The following subordinators introduce conditional clauses:  Simple subordinators: . the truth of the proposition in the matrix/ main clause is not conditioned by the subordinate clause. o this is a peripheral use of conditional clauses. 1088). and contrast. he has a right to be proud o it is not a clause of contingency: there is no dependency/contingency between the two events.supposing (that) . concession. but to the speech event.assuming (that) . o in logical terms.THE SYNTAX OF THE MULTIPLE SENTENCE Clauses of place.2. p. Clauses of contingency. “the truth of the proposition in the matrix clause is a consequence of the fulfillment of the condition in the conditional clause” (Quirk. it relates the conditional clause not to the matrix. 2. o in logical terms. Adverbial clauses that express an indirect condition: [If I may so express it].as long as / so long as / provided (that) / providing (that) . o this is a sort of pragmatic condition. o this conditional clause performs the function of adjunct.

in case of . [ unless expressly sent for] It has little the event of 2. Open and hypothetical conditions The DCd may be: . [unless hot] (Quirk. Direct Condition (DCd) 2. Clauses of condition.informal Nonfinite and verbless clauses can be introduced only by .they are semantically equivalent = „if and only if).2.hypothetical condition (unreal/nonfactual/counterfactual/closed condition) (HpCd) .open condition (real/factual/neutral condition) (OpCd) . concession. you would feel lonely [With him in our team].with the stipulation that . 1090) Nonfinite and verbless clauses introduced by the prepositions with or without may express a relation of contingency (condition) [Without a companion].3. .unless This idea would be terrible [if realised] [If necessary].2. and contrast.if and . we’ll win the game Except (synonym of unless) is used in informal AmE You’ll not be listened to [except you repent] The same semantic relationship (contingency) may be expressed by complex prepositions such as: In addition to the above subordinators. .just so (that) .3.on condition that .THE SYNTAX OF THE MULTIPLE SENTENCE Clauses of place.on the assumption/supposition that .1. p. avoid her company She must not on any account think of venturing in sight of the ladies. adverbial clauses of contingency can be introduced by complex PPs such as: .provided (that) and providing (that) are more formal . Clauses of contingency.

a future condition will not be fulfilled (2) .RT = present time > the condition is contrary to assumption .THE SYNTAX OF THE MULTIPLE SENTENCE Clauses of place. What the speaker actually communicates by the above sentences is: You are not me > I don’t think/expect you to like cats I don’t expect her to come tomorrow > He probably will not be happy I didn’t know where it was > I didn’t feel the pain in my liver  There is a strong relationship between the reference time (RT) of the conditional clause and the speaker‟s belief (in the hypothetical condition): . he expects the proposition expressed by the matrix/main clause to be improbable (1.present and future hypothetical conditions:  . the speaker does not commit himself to either the fulfilment of the condition in the if-clause or to the truth of the matrix/main clause the speaker does not tell the hearer whether they have more or not.a past condition was not fulfilled (3) and.RT = past time > the condition is contrary to fact there is a strong connection between the hypothetical/unreal nature of the action and the tense of the verb in the conditional clause . Clauses of contingency. concession. consequently. and. [if I had known where it was] (3)  a sentence containing a HpCd expresses the fact that the speaker takes a stance towards the condition in the if-clause and.RT = future time > the condition is contrary to expectation . the condition is open to fulfillment – the speaker sees it as possible Hypothetical/unreal condition Would you like cats [if you were me?] (1) He would be very happy [if she came tomorrow] (2) I dare say I should have felt a pain in my liver. The speaker believes that: . whether it is true that they are apt to be careless) however. Clauses of condition. too.2) or false (3). they are apt to be careless and lose them    using a sentence containing an OpCd.a present condition is not fulfilled (1) . Open/real condition [If they have more]. and contrast. towards the truth of the matrix/main clause. implicitly. implicitly.

it is used esp. if so.3. if that’s the case. [unless he mortified mine] .2. to some extent. in case.a conditional clause introduced by if only can function alone as a hypothetical wish If only they had listened to him!  to introduce open conditions which he assumes are. given (that). Clauses of condition. Clauses of contingency. you would understand what am talking about  if only: . in hypothetical conditions . therefore there are contexts in which the two constructions are not interchangeable. in the event that are usually accompanied by nonassertive forms [In the event that he is at all interested]. [if he had not mortified mine] *I could easily forgive his pride. [unless I am particularly acquainted with my partner] = You know how I detest it [if I am not …] I could easily forgive his pride. I’ll speak to him (Quirk. . will be fulfilled. please do not hesitate to call us on [If you had ever been there].THE SYNTAX OF THE MULTIPLE SENTENCE Clauses of place. assuming (that). the speaker can use: if.past perfect/perfective (past perfect/perfective modal in the matrix/ main clause) (3) 2. what harm will come to you if you gamble on its truth and it proves false?  an unless-clause is. You know how I detest it. he must have fought in the war [Given that x is an integer]. were.intensifies if .past tense/were (past modal in the matrix/main clause) (1.past reference: . 1092) [In case you need any further clarification]. if that’s true. concession. the condition is focused as an exception („only if …not‟).2. similar to a negative if-clause („if …not‟). and contrast. granted (that) (the last two are preferred in formal written style) [If the soldier had a wooden leg]. p. state the relation representing each of the following by listing a set of ordered pairs [Granted that faith cannot be proved]. the difference is that in the former. More on subordinators for conditional clauses   a conditional clause that expresses a hypothetical condition is usually introduced by if conditional clauses introduced by if.2) .

it would be a comfort to know that it was in pursuit of him . past simple is normally used.3. in legal contexts. I dare say. This may happen in a conditional clause (with the omission of if) when the operator is:  had (most common)  were (preferred in literary style) and  should (literary style) [Had he had any compassion for me]. live peaceably with all men 2) In a conditional clause that expresses a future unreal/hypothetical condition. and contrast.formal) was + to infinitive (past tense – informal) [If I were to see you at it]. Clauses of contingency. concession. Clauses of condition.THE SYNTAX OF THE MULTIPLE SENTENCE Clauses of place. he would not have danced half so much [Were she determined to get a rich husband]. since you will not visit them 3) As we mentioned in a previous lecture. she should adopt it [Should your daughter have a dangerous fit of illness].2. [if twenty such should come].the reference time in the in case–clause is normally future I’ll take an umbrella. [in case it rains] 2. two other verb forms can be used to convey tentativeness:  were + to infinitive (subjunctive .  in case (= „if it should happen that‟) normally used in real/open conditions . I should take away your bottle directly If it was to happen again. it might be more damaging  should + the base form of the verb It will be no use to us. present subjunctive is also possible in formal style. [If it be possible]. however. the relation of dependency can also be marked by subject-operator inversion. More on the use of the verb phrase in the conditional clause 1) In addition to the present simple tense which is normal in an conditional clause that expresses an open condition (traditionally called type I conditional). who knows. closer to the election].

they are open conditions Being peripheral to the matrix/main clause. concession. 4) The condition under which the utterance is produced . but some other subordinating conjunctions can be used: in case (that). if I may change the subject 2) Metalinguistic comment: the speaker seems . sir. Introduction • We already know that indirect conditions do not refer to a relation of contingency between the two clauses. if we can believe the experts. [if you understand what I mean] Other expressions: if I may put it so.2. if that’s the correct term. Being related to the speech event (which is a fact). if you like etc. [in case you don’t know] Other possible expressions: if I’m correct. Clauses of contingency.2. reference is made to the context in which the sentence is uttered. if you remember.4. people do not die of little trifling colds Other possible introductory expressions: if I may say so.THE SYNTAX OF THE MULTIPLE SENTENCE Clauses of place. [if this is the right word] He is highly qualified. 2. if I understand you correctly. if you can keep a secret.4.4. if that’s the word for it.1. if I may put it bluntly. Indirect Condition 2. The wearer of this cloak was your brother. Clauses of call for the interlocutor‟s agreement in relation to the appropriateness of the words he uses .2. assuming (that). and contrast. Semantic classes of conditional clauses that express an indirect condition Quirk distinguishes the following four types of semantic content conveyed by open conditions: 1) politeness: the speaker seems to ask the interlocutor‟s permission to perform the speech act [If I may interrupt]. supposing (that)… • • • suggest a certain path for the interpretation of his utterance Patrick is an infidel. if you see what I mean. if I may be personal. in case you don’t remember etc. they function as style disjuncts They are usually introduced by the subordinating conjunction if. 3) speaker‟s reference to his or the interlocutor‟s uncertainty about the contextual knowledge that is necessary to correctly interpret the sentence he has produced.2.

3. hence the matrix/clause (its proposition) is also true The painting must be worth a thousand dollars [if it’s worth a cent] (The painting must certainly worth a thousand dollars – Quirk. Markers of adverbial clauses of concession 2. Clauses of condition. 1096) If the condition is seen as a fact (certain). [If you’re going my way]. the subordinating conjunction since is used [Since you’re going my way].2. their actual pragmatic function is to make a strong assertion. I need a lift back 2.1. I need a lift back (Quirk.3.although . Clauses of contingency. p. p.3. 1095) 2. and contrast. Adverbial Clauses of Concession 2. adverbial clauses of concession are introduced by the following subordinating conjunctions: . Quirk identifies two types of rhetorical conditional clauses:  if the matrix clause (its proposition) is absurd (false). although apparently (semantically) express an open condition. p. concession. familiar style) (> She is not marrying a man who …)  if the conditional clause (its proposition) is true. he had greatly improved his condition .though: informal [Although he had not quite cured him]. Subordinating conjunctions „Concessive clauses indicate that the situation in the matrix clause is contrary to expectation in the light of what is said in the concessive clause‟ (Quirk.THE SYNTAX OF THE MULTIPLE SENTENCE Clauses of place. Typically.1. the conditional clause (its proposition) is asserted as false [If this is a learned man].5.1. 1098). Rhetorical conditional clauses There is a type of conditional clauses which. I’m the president of the US] (the assertion is: I‟m not the president > this is not a learned man) I’ll eat my hat/I’ll be damned / I’ll be hanged [if she’s marrying a man who she met yesterday] (informal.

Quirk.they are usually correlated with a conjunct in the matrix/clause. Clauses of contingency. p. I insist on a definite reply (Quirk.whereas [+ finite …] (formal) . and VlessCls without being introduced by a subordinator may express concession . [even though he had been playing squash] I don’t think I should stay [even if they were to invite me] Martin looked at Janice.finite…] . he wanted to buy the building Pierce. you will gain no additional support (= Even if you will change your mind… .finite …] Examples She came of the princely stock of M….when [+ finite …] . NFedCls. [whilst adopting a similar approach to Saussure].whilst (BrE) [+/. Clauses of condition.even if [+/. [if difficult] (if = even though) He looked quite fresh. a large collection of friends had assembled to greet him Other subordinating conjunctions used to introduce adverbial clauses of concession: .finite clause] . a decidedly ancient family (if = although) It’s possible.1. we rejected his invitation to lunch (= Even if we were starved. he married the wealthiest and most beautiful girl ( = Even though he was…) 2. p. was at all events. Non finite clauses followed by a correlative conjunct NFingCls.even though [+/.THE SYNTAX OF THE MULTIPLE SENTENCE Clauses of place. paid greater attention to the relationship between signifiers/signifieds and what he called their referents [Though only a five-year-old child]. 1098) [Poor and ugly that he was]. .while [+/.3. which [if not a brilliant]. he knows multiplication table [Even though written in plain English].if [+/. and contrast. 1097) • as and that (subordinating conjunctions) can introduce adverbial clauses of concession.finite…] . [when Peter suggested for one of his sisters] (although… ) [While he was broke]. but they require that the predicator in the adverbial clause be fronted [Starved as we were]. concession. …) [Change your mind as you will].2. he did not understand anything [While not wanting to seem obstinate].finite …] . [Though Paul had declared that he left town secretly].

The Semantics and Pragmatics of the AdvClC 2. he nevertheless used a gun to defend himself [Aware of the dangers to American citizens during the crisis]. unexpected facts [Although he had not quite cured him]. spite of the fact (that) .2. p.3.1. Nuances of meaning conveyed by certain subordinators As a rule.irrespective of the fact (that) .3.1. Certain Prepositional Phrases The concessive relationship can also be expressed by certain PPs containing relative clauses: .3. she still insisted on staying with the others 2.notwithstanding the fact (that) 2. they did so all the same [Trained in karate].despite the fact (that) .THE SYNTAX OF THE MULTIPLE SENTENCE Clauses of place. his aunt bought him a similar toy (anyway)  contrary expectation: usually conveyed by while/whilst [While he was broke]. 1097) [Not wanting to give offence]. He had greatly improved This semantic relation between the two clauses can have nuances of meaning  contrast and unexpectedness (“pure” concession – the example above)  similarity (not necessarily contrast) – conveyed. Clauses of condition. in certain linguistic contexts. he wanted to buy the building . by although/ though [Though his uncle had bought him a toy airplane]. and contrast.2.3. He had not quite cured him 2. a sentence containing an AdvClC makes two assertions:  the adverbial clause asserts something  the matrix comes to break the logical expectations (consequences/outcome) of the adverbial clause by expressing some contrasting.regardless the fact (that) . Examples (Quirk. he had greatly improved his condition 1. Clauses of contingency.

3. concession. Alternative conditional-concession clauses They are introduced/expressed by:  subordinating conjunctions: whether …or (whether) in o finite.  antithesis between matrix/main clause and AdvClC.1. even if does not imply that the proposition expressed by the adverbial clause is true (one hates animals). Conditional-concessive Clauses There are adverbial clauses that convey a combination of . and contrast. [even though he had been playing squash] Notice: even though imposes the presupposition of factuality: he played squash) 2. expressed by whereas But. Clauses of contingency.2.universal conditional-concessive clauses 2. one must visit the Wild Animal Park .3. Clauses of condition. NF and Vless clauses o emphatic constructions:  no matter whether  it doesn’t matter whether  regardless of whether  irrespective of whether  NF and Vless clauses o in initial position (without being introduced by whether) o Vless clauses may function.condition and . he did not  focus on unexpectedness: even though He looked quite fresh.unlike even though.2.2. Quirk distinguishes two types of condition-concession clauses: . in the pattern: with + NP … or without NP / with or without NP .THE SYNTAX OF THE MULTIPLE SENTENCE Clauses of place. [whereas they would have made her vaguely responsible for being born as she was].2. in both final and initial position.concession They are normally introduced by the subordinating conjunction even if [Even if one hates animals].alternative conditional-concessive clauses and . it is open to both possibilities.

 NPs in the pattern: NP or no NP These clauses express the fact that the situation in the matrix/main clause “applies under two contrasting conditions” (Quirk. however…  constructions such as No matter/It doesn’t matter (only initial) + wh. whoever. [with a center forward or without one] [Rain or no rain]. Universal conditional-concession clauses (UC-CCls) They differ from the alternative conditional-concession clauses in that they (the former) do not limit the number of conditions to two. wherever. p.THE SYNTAX OF THE MULTIPLE SENTENCE Clauses of place. home is best (when the correlated unit is a complete clause whether may be repeated) She will study all day in her room. he must always be her model of the amiable and pleasing [Working or playing]. I will go there (= Whatever may happen/No matter what happens. they “indicate a free choice from any number of conditions” [Whatever I say to them].2. p. I will…) . we will set out early in the morning You will win the trophy the next season.words  finite clause (without introductory subordinator) + initial verb in the subjunctive Examples: [Whoever she is]. 1100) [Educated or not]. and contrast. I’m not going to do what she says [No matter where you are].1101) UC-CCls may be introduced/expressed by:  (wh-) + (-ever) words: whatever.3. 1100) Examples: [Whether he feels more of pain or of pleasure in seeing her]. p. concession. I’m sure you’re listening to me [Come what may]. Clauses of condition.2. she is always intense (Quirk.2. he will stay here all afternoon [Whether you go East or (whether) you go West]. Clauses of contingency. this man knows a lot of interesting things [With or without you]. we’ll go fishing tomorrow 2. [no matter whether she likes it or not [Whether married or single]. I can’t keep them quiet (Quirk.

THE SYNTAX OF THE MULTIPLE SENTENCE Clauses of place. these subordinators are also used to introduce adverbial clauses of concession. concession. hence the possibility of coexistence of the two meanings: concession and contrast. Examples Sam went into the bedroom next to the sitting room. 2. Adverbial Clauses of Contrast The contrastive clause conveys a meaning that contrasts with that of the matrix/main clause.while and . These adverbial clauses are introduced by the following interchangeable subordinating conjunctions: . [while Mary prefers hot dogs] . Clauses of condition. and contrast. but [Mary prefers hot dogs] = John likes hamburgers.whilst (BrE) As we can see.4. [while Charles stood at the window] (whereas/whilst Charles…) Poetics starts with attested meanings of effects and seeks to understand what structures or devices make them possible. Clauses of contingency. [whereas hermeneutics argues about what the meanings are or should be] [John likes hamburgers]. Contrastive clauses resemble clauses coordinated by but.whereas (more formal than while) .