You are on page 1of 28

WRBCS412A

WRBCS412A Cosmetic Chemistry/Version 1/Feb 2009

 Cosmetic:

Substances used to improve or beautify appearance.

 Chemistry

The study of substances – their composition, properties and interactions with each other.

WRBCS412A Cosmetic Chemistry/Version 1/Feb 2009

 The

study of the composition, properties and effects of those substances applied to the skin, nails and hair for the purpose of beautifying and improving appearance.

WRBCS412A Cosmetic Chemistry/Version 1/Feb 2009

 Choose

and use products correctly  Discuss the reasons for the choice  Answer product queries from clients  Categorise new products accurately  Read and comprehend literature about new developments in the industry.

WRBCS412A Cosmetic Chemistry/Version 1/Feb 2009

WRBCS412A Cosmetic Chemistry/Version 1/Feb 2009

 Substance

that occupies space which has physical and chemical properties.  Exist in the form of a solid, liquid or gas.  Matter is all around us, even though we can not see air it is still matter. If air were not matter then we would not feel the wind when it blows.  Made up of atoms

WRBCS412A Cosmetic Chemistry/Version 1/Feb 2009

 Smallest

particle of matter  Consist of the nucleus and the orbit  The nucleus contains protons (+) and neutrons (N) while electrons (-) orbit around the nucleus.  Atomic Mass = no. of proton + no. of neutrons  Atomic Number = no. of protons  Number of Electrons = no. of protons
WRBCS412A Cosmetic Chemistry/Version 1/Feb 2009

WRBCS412A Cosmetic Chemistry/Version 1/Feb 2009

 Pure

substance that can not be further decomposed into other element.  E.g. Hydrogen, Oxygen, Carbon.

WRBCS412A Cosmetic Chemistry/Version 1/Feb 2009

WRBCS412A Cosmetic Chemistry/Version 1/Feb 2009

 Pure

substance which consists of chemically combined elements and can be broken down into simpler substances only by chemical means. Water = Oxygen (O) + Hydrogen (H) = H2O, Carbon dioxide = Carbon (C) + Oxygen (O) = CO2

 E.g.

 The

smallest unit of compound is molecule.
WRBCS412A Cosmetic Chemistry/Version 1/Feb 2009

Three types of chemical bonds: 1. Ionic Bonds:
 

Strongest, when a metal reacts with a nonmetal Electrons form one atom are donated to the atom. When two non-metals react Electrons are shared between the two atoms When two metals react.

2.

Covalent Bonds:
 

3.

Metallic Bonds:

WRBCS412A Cosmetic Chemistry/Version 1/Feb 2009

WRBCS412A Cosmetic Chemistry/Version 1/Feb 2009

All matter is composed of atoms, which react to form molecules. Matter that we see, touch, smell and taste everyday is a combination of both atoms and molecules and these combination are classified into two different properties of matter as:
 Physical

properties of matter

 Chemical

properties of matter

WRBCS412A Cosmetic Chemistry/Version 1/Feb 2009

 Physical

properties can be seen, felt and

smelt.
 Most

physical properties of matter can be easily evaluated without the aid of scientific instruments.

WRBCS412A Cosmetic Chemistry/Version 1/Feb 2009

Physical properties of matter relating to cosmetic products are:

Organoleptic
Sensory characteristics such as colour and smell


Physical form or state
Solid, Liquid and Gas.


Melting point
Solid is heated into a liquid. In cosmetic products, a product with a melting point close to that of the skin’s temperature will spread very easily.


Boiling Point
Is the temperature when liquid turn into a gas. E.g. Fragrances are composed of volatile molecules that evaporated easily.


Conductivity
Ability to conduct electricity


Hardness and Softness
Refer to the application of products such as lipstick.


Density
To measure the weight per unit


Viscosity
To describe the thickness of a product

WRBCS412A Cosmetic Chemistry/Version 1/Feb 2009

The chemical properties of matter are difficult to examine without carrying out chemical reactions such as:  Elemental composition  pH  Chemical reactivity  Stability  Irritation potential

Buffers Oxidation Reactions

Corrosiveness

WRBCS412A Cosmetic Chemistry/Version 1/Feb 2009

Buffers  A substance that acts as a store of acid or alkali.  E.g. For an alkali product, an acid would be added and vice versa for an acidic product that an alkali would be added instead.
WRBCS412A Cosmetic Chemistry/Version 1/Feb 2009

Oxidation Reactions  When oxygen is combined with the chemical properties. Reduction  The chemical reaction which accompanies oxidation, but in which a substance loses oxygen. E.g. Fruits

 An

atom or a molecule that contains an unpaired electron which can be extremely reactive.  It is capable of engaging in a chain reactions which destabilise other molecules and generated many more free radicals.

WRBCS412A Cosmetic Chemistry/Version 1/Feb 2009

 The

chemistry of materials derived from living things
chemistry of carbon based chemicals.

 The

 Carbon

has some unique properties and its ability to bond with other carbon atoms to form long chains. containing compounds behave differently to non-carbon or inorganic containing compounds.
WRBCS412A Cosmetic Chemistry/Version 1/Feb 2009

 Carbon

There are many types of organic chemicals which include the following:  Hydrocarbons  Carbohydrates  Alcohols  Carboxylic Acids  Proteins  Lipids

WRBCS412A Cosmetic Chemistry/Version 1/Feb 2009

 Proteins

aid moisturising capability  Proteins are polymers of amino acids.  Amino acids are the building blocks of protein.  There are around 23 naturally occurring proteins, 8 are described as “essential” amino acids which the body cannot produce.  Amino acids are made up of the elements of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen.

WRBCS412A Cosmetic Chemistry/Version 1/Feb 2009

Proteins are usually subdivided into two major groups:  Soluble
 Albumins, e.g. Lactalbumin  Enzymes, e.g. Lactose dehydrogenase  Globins, e.g. Haemoglobin

 Insoluble  Collagens  Elastins  Keratins  Chitins  Wheat proteins

WRBCS412A Cosmetic Chemistry/Version 1/Feb 2009

 They

are characterised by being insoluble in water but soluble if a surfactant such as soaps or detergent which can bind water at one end of the molecule and the lipid at the other. This forms a head and tail structure of hydorphilic and lipophilic ends.
can be broken into two categories:
 

 Lipids

Nonsaponifiable Saponifiable
WRBCS412A Cosmetic Chemistry/Version 1/Feb 2009

Nonsaponifiable
Can not be broken down by strong alkalis or be made into soaps.  Nonsaponifiable lipids are the basis of many body chemicals such as cortisone, vitamin D, testosterone and progesterone.

Saponifiable
Can be made into soaps when attached by strong alkalis such as sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide.  They are broken down into two further classes: 1. Simple lipids, comprise of oils, fats and waxes. 2. Complex lipids, such as phospholipids and sphingolipids.

WRBCS412A Cosmetic Chemistry/Version 1/Feb 2009

 The

simplest and most abundant lipids are the triglycerides which consist of a backbone of glycerol (alcohol) with three fatty acids.  Lipids may be of animal origin such as:
 Lanolin,

Emu oil, Fish oil, Beeswax

 Plant derived oils of saturated oils:  Coconut, cottonseed, cocoa butter  Unsaturated oils (less stable products)  Sunflower, Safflower, Evening Primrose  Waxes  Protective

include:

functions as they are waterproofing, flexible and non reactive.  The larger molecules weight waxes such as carnauba and candela are required in lipsticks to maintain the crayon shape.
WRBCS412A Cosmetic Chemistry/Version 1/Feb 2009

 There

are two major classes of complex lipids are found in cosmetic products:  Phospholipids  Also known as lecithins and used as surfactants.  Various phospholipids are used to make liposomes.

WRBCS412A Cosmetic Chemistry/Version 1/Feb 2009


Liposomes are sub-microscopic in size and are very tiny balls of lipids. The selected lipids are capable of forming bilayers because they have hydrophilic and hydrophobic ends. The centre of the ball consists of water and water soluble chemicals. Liposomes are a good delivery vehicle of cosmetic products to the skin. The surfactant bi-layer provides a protective film for both the oil and water soluble ingredients and so stable formulations can be prepared where simple emulsion would be unstable.
WRBCS412A Cosmetic Chemistry/Version 1/Feb 2009