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I configured this lab in order to see and to tell you how an ABR chooses the Forward Address among two Forward Addresses received from one ASBR: Let's look the topology ,R2 the ABR is connected to R3 the ASBR with two links, each link is configured in different area :link s0/0--s0/0 in area 2,link s0/1--s0/1 in area 3 let's configure both areas 2 and 3 as nssa: In nssa the FA is set to non-zero,we will verify in R2: R2#$abase nssa-external | include Advertising Router|Forward Address Advertising Router: 3.3.3.3 Forward Address: 10.2.2.3 Advertising Router: 3.3.3.3 Forward Address: 10.3.3.3 as expected R2 receives two LSA Type 7 setting two Forward Addresses, 10.2.2.3 from area 2 and 10.3.3.3 from area 3 now let's verify which LSA is used by the ABR to convert it to the LSA Type 5: R2#show ip ospf database external | include Forward Address Forward Address: 10.3.3.3 we can see that the FA 10.3.3.3 set in the LSA Type 7 generated in area 3 is selected over the FA 10.2.2.3 which rule is used by the ABR to prefer one FA over anther FA? we changes the ip addresses between s0/0's R2 and s0/0's R3: R2(config-if)#ip address 10.20.20.2 255.255.255.0 R3(config-if)#ip address 10.20.20.3 255.255.255.0 R2#$f database nssa-external | include Advertising Router|Forward Address Advertising Router: 3.3.3.3 Forward Address: 10.20.20.3 Advertising Router: 3.3.3.3 Forward Address: 10.3.3.3 as said above we have two LSA Type7 created by R3 and advertised to R2 setting two different FA: 10.20.20.3 from area 2 and 10.3.3.3 from area 3 which FA is selected by R2 for its LSA Type 5 ? R2#show ip ospf database external | include Forward Address Forward Address: 10.20.20.3 Now the Forward Address preferred is 10.20.20.3 from the area 2 over 10.3.3.3 so let's summarize in the first case above 10.3.3.3 wins over 10.2.2.3 in the second case 10.20.20.3 wins over 10.3.3.3 thus R2 the ABR chooses always the highest Forward Address when the ASBR advertises two Forward Address choosen among physical interfaces running ospf (s0/0 an s0/1 of R3 in this case) in an nssa . also notice we have load balancing on R2 to reach 30.30.30.0 R2#show ip route | begin 30.30.30.0 O N2 30.30.30.0 [110/20] via 10.20.20.3, 00:06:15, Serial0/0 [110/20] via 10.3.3.3, 00:06:15, Serial0/1 the reason is that when R2 learns two LSA Type 7 with two Forward Address for the same destination , R2 looks at the cost to reach both Forward Addresses and find it is the same cost to reach 10.20.20.3 is equal to the cost to reach 10.3.3.3 (both subnet 10.20.20.0 and 10.3.3.0 are directly connected to R2) .

255.255.3.168.168.0 O N2 30.3.3.30.3.3 is less than the cost to reach 192.3 Forward Address: 192.3 Forward Address: 10.255.30.3.168.30.this cost represent the cost of the intra-area route to reach the subnet 192.if there is no loopback configured .3.16.168.20.3.3.3.logically we should see the FA 10.3.before verifiying .3.. R2#show ip ospf database external | include Forward Address Forward Address: 10.3 because when choosing the FA the ASBR looks first the loopback interfaces running ospf.3 Now we can see that R3 advertises two LSA Type 7 but the FA for the area 2 is now 192.168.3.3.3 in the LSA Type 5 of R2 (even if 192.3.3.3.3.3 for the area 3 .3.168.3.the loopback interfaces configured above: R2#$ nssa-external | include Advertising Router|Forward Address|Area Type-7 AS External Link States (Area 2) Advertising Router: 3.3 Forward Address: 192.3.3.3.we will verify if R2 the ABR chooses always the highest Forward Address among loopback interfaces: R3(config-if)#int lo30 R3(config-if)#no ip address 172.255.3.3 .30. instead we should see only one route through the serial link s0/1--s0/1 configured in area 3 because the Forward Address 10.3.0 R3(config-if)#ip address 192.3 is higher than 10.30.16. Serial0/1 we added lo3 in area 2.3.3.3 for the area 2 and 172.255.we will continue the lab without changing: we adds loopback interface in R3: R3(config)#int loopback 3 R3(config-if)#ip address 192.3 255.3. But which FA is choosen . 00:09:19.now what happen if we adds another loopback interface in area 3: R3(config-if)#int lo30 R3(config-if)#ip address 172.3.3.30.it looks the physical interfaces running ospf.255.0 R3(config-if)#ip ospf 1 area 3 verifying that we have still two LSA Type 7 with two different FA received by R2: R2#$ nssa-external | include Advertising Router|Forward Address|Area Type-7 AS External Link States (Area 2) Advertising Router: 3.3. 192.3.3 .3.16.3.3.3 Type-7 AS External Link States (Area 3) Advertising Router: 3.3 is in area 3 R2#show ip route | begin 30.3 yes as expected the FA choosen is 10.168.3 255.0 R3(config-if)#ip ospf 1 area 3 we have still two LSA Type 7 received by R2 from R3 with two FA.3.3 255.0 [110/20] via 10.3 Type-7 AS External Link States (Area 3) Advertising Router: 3.3 Forward Address: 172.3.0 R3(config-if)#ip ospf 1 area 2 R2#$ nssa-external | include Advertising Router|Forward Address|Area Type-7 AS External Link States (Area 2) Advertising Router: 3.3 Forward Address: 192.3.168.thus we should not see load balancing in the routing table of R2 toward 30.3.20.3 instead of 10.3 Type-7 AS External Link States (Area 3) Advertising Router: 3..3.30.3 255.3.0.3(area3).3 from area 2 is preferred than 172.0: let's confirm my assumption.3.3 Forward Address: 192.3 which is 65 (64 cost serial link +1 cost loopback) .30.16.3) because the cost to reach 10.168.3.255.168.3.16.168.168.255.3.3.168.3 the FA 192.3 which FA is selected by R2 for its LSA Type 5? let's verify: R2#show ip ospf database external | include Forward Address Forward Address: 192.

100.100.168.168.20..168.255.20.100.255.168.255.168.255.0 R3(config-if)#ip ospf 1 area 2 R2#show ip ospf database external | include Forward Address Forward Address: 192.3 the FA is now 192.2 255.0 ip ospf 1 area 1 ! interface Loopback30 ip address 192.35.3 from area 3 now which FA is choosen by R2? R2#show ip ospf database external | include Forward Address Forward Address: 192.3 255.35.3 255.20.30.35.255.168.3 R2 receives three LSA Type 7 with 3 different FA .168.35.255.20.35.100.100.30.0 ip ospf 1 area 3 ! interface Loopback300 ip address 192.255.3 from still the area 2.3 255.168.3 which is configured in area 1 let's making another change in loopback interfaces: interface Loopback3 ip address 192.192..168.255.0 ip ospf 1 area 3 .3.100.255.3.255.3 255.3 from area 2 .35.192.3 255.3.3 Forward Address: 192.35.168.168.3 Forward Address: 192.255.35.3.255.3 Type-7 AS External Link States (Area 3) Advertising Router: 3.255.168.s0/2--s0/2 in area 1 nssa and configure R2 R3 as follow: R3 interface Serial0/2 ip address 172.0 ip ospf 1 area 1 R2 interface Serial0/2 ip address 172.3 Type-7 AS External Link States (Area 2) Advertising Router: 3.3 255.255.3.168.3 R3(config-if)# int lo3 R3(config-if)#ip address 192.255.now let's look which FA is choosen?? the result is not expected?? the FA selected is the lowest ip address..3.0 ip ospf 1 area 1 ! interface Loopback300 ip address 192.one 192.30.0 ip ospf 1 area 2 R2#show ip ospf database external | include Forward Address Forward Address: 192.3 which is the FA learned through the area 1 let's making some change in loopback interfaces: interface Loopback3 ip address 192.168.168.0 ip ospf 1 area 1 what happen in R2? R2#show ip ospf data nssa-external | include Advertising Router|Forward Address|Area Type-7 AS External Link States (Area 1) Advertising Router: 3.168.168. R2#show ip ospf database external | include Forward Address Forward Address: 192.3.3 255..35.168.3 the FA selected is 192.255.168. now we adds another link between R2 and R3 .3 the FA selected is 192.3 Forward Address: 192.3 from area 1.

! interface Loopback30 ip address 192.3 in area 6 R2#show ip ospf database external | include Forward Address Forward Address: 192.0 ip ospf 1 area 1 ! interface Loopback300 ip address 192.255.3 the FA is 192.30.168.168.168.35.30.168.168.3 which is configured in area 6 now let's changes yet: int lo3 ip ospf 1 area 5 int lo30 ip ospf 1 area 6 int lo300 ip ospf 1 area 4 R2#show ip ospf database external | include Forward Address Forward Address: 192.30.3 which is configured in area 1 let's configure the three links as follow: s0/0--s0/0 in area 4 s0/1--s0/1 in area 5 s0/2--s0/2 in area 6 interface Loopback3 192.35.3 in area 5 interface Loopback300 192.168.30.255.168.168.3 which is also configured in area 6 what do you think about the choice between multiple FA under multiple nssa for the same destination when the FA is selected by the ASBR among the loopback interfaces running OSPF? .100.30.168.30.3 255.255.3 the FA is 192.3 in area 4 interface Loopback30 192.100.35.100.3 255.168.168.168.3 the FA now is 192.0 ip ospf 1 area 2 R2#show ip ospf database external | include Forward Address Forward Address: 192.3 the FA choosen is the FA from the area 6 Now let's changes area s'interface loopback as follow: int lo3 ip ospf 1 area 6 int lo30 ip ospf 1 area 5 int lo300 ip ospf 1 area 4 R2#show ip ospf database external | include Forward Address Forward Address: 192.255.