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State-Space Systems
• State-space model features
• Observability
• Controllability
• Minimal Realizations

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16.31 Feedback Control

State-Space Systems

• State-space model features

• Observability

• Controllability

• Minimal Realizations

Copyright2001byJonathanHow.

1

Fall 2001 16.31 11—1

State-Space Model Features

• There are some key characteristics of a state-space model that we

need to identify.

— Will see that these are very closely associated with the concepts

of pole/zero cancellation in transfer functions.

• Example: Consider a simple system

G(s) =

6

s + 2

for which we develop the state-space model

Model # 1 ˙ x = −2x + 2u

y = 3x

• But now consider the new state space model ¯ x = [x x

2

]

T

Model # 2

˙

¯ x =

_

_

−2 0

0 −1

_

_

¯ x +

∙

2

1

¸

u

y =

£

3 0

¤

¯ x

which is clearly diﬀerent than the ﬁrst model.

• But let’s looks at the transfer function of the new model:

¯

G(s) = C(sI −A)

−1

B + D

Fall 2001 16.31 11—2

• This is a bit strange, because previously our ﬁgure of merit when

comparing one state-space model to another (page 8-8) was whether

they reproduced the same same transfer function

— Now we have two very diﬀerent models that result in the same

transfer function

— Note that I showed the second model as having 1 extra state,

but I could easily have done it with 99 extra states!!

• So what is going on?

— The clue is that the dynamics associated with the second state

of the model x

2

were eliminated when we formed the product

¯

G(s) =

£

3 0

¤

"

2

s+2

1

s+1

#

because the A is decoupled and there is a zero in the C matrix

— Which is exactly the same as saying that there is a pole-zero

cancellation in the transfer function

˜

G(s)

6

s + 2

=

6(s + 1)

(s + 2)(s + 1)

,

˜

G(s)

— Note that model #2 is one possible state-space model of

˜

G(s)

(has 2 poles)

• For this system we say that the dynamics associated with the second

state are unobservable using this sensor (deﬁnes the C matrix).

— There could be a lot “motion” associated with x

2

, but we would

be unware of it using this sensor.

Fall 2001 16.31 11—3

• There is an analogous problem on the input side as well. Consider:

Model # 1 ˙ x = −2x + 2u

y = 3x

with ¯ x = [ x x

2

]

T

Model # 3

˙

¯ x =

_

_

−2 0

0 −1

_

_

¯ x +

∙

2

0

¸

u

y =

£

3 2

¤

¯ x

which is also clearly diﬀerent than model #1, and has a diﬀerent

form from the second model.

ˆ

G(s) =

£

3 2

¤

_

_

sI −

_

_

−2 0

0 −1

_

_

_

_

−1

∙

2

0

¸

=

£

3

s+2

2

s+1

¤

∙

2

0

¸

=

6

s + 2

!!

• Once again the dynamics associated with the pole at s = −1 are

cancelled out of the transfer function.

— But in this case it occurred because there is a 0 in the B matrix

• So in this case we can “see” the state x

2

in the output C =

£

3 2

¤

,

but we cannot “inﬂuence” that state with the input since B =

∙

2

0

¸

• So we say that the dynamics associated with the second state are

uncontrollable using this actuator (deﬁnes the B matrix).

Fall 2001 16.31 11—4

• Of course it can get even worse because we could have

˙

¯ x =

_

_

−2 0

0 −1

_

_

¯ x +

∙

2

0

¸

u

y =

£

3 0

¤

¯ x

• So now we have

]

G(s) =

£

3 0

¤

_

_

sI −

_

_

−2 0

0 −1

_

_

_

_

−1

∙

2

0

¸

=

£

3

s+2

0

s+1

¤

∙

2

0

¸

=

6

s + 2

!!

• Get same result for the transfer function, but now the dynamics

associated with x

2

are both unobservable and uncontrollable.

• Summary:

Dynamics in the state-space model that are uncontrollable, un-

observable, or both do not show up in the transfer function.

• Would like to develop models that only have dynamics that are

both controllable and observable

Vcalled a minimal realization

— It is has the lowest possible order for the given transfer function.

• But ﬁrst need to develop tests to determine if the models are ob-

servable and/or controllable

Fall 2001 16.31 11—5

Observability

• Deﬁnition: An LTI system is observable if the initial state

x(0) can be uniquely deduced from the knowledge of the input u(t)

and output y(t) for all t between 0 and any T > 0.

— If x(0) can be deduced, then we can reconstruct x(t) exactly

because we know u(t) Vwe can ﬁnd x(t) ∀ t.

— Thus we need only consider the zero-input (homogeneous) solu-

tion to study observability.

y(t) = Ce

At

x(0)

• This deﬁnition of observability is consistent with the notion we used

before of being able to “see” all the states in the output of the

decoupled examples

— ROT: For those decoupled examples, if part of the state cannot

be “seen” in y(t), then it would be impossible to deduce that

part of x(0) from the outputs y(t).

Fall 2001 16.31 11—6

• Deﬁnition: A state x

?

6= 0 is said to be unobservable if the

zero-input solution y(t), with x(0) = x

?

, is zero for all t ≥ 0

— Equivalent to saying that x

?

is an unobservable state if

Ce

At

x

?

= 0 ∀ t ≥ 0

• For the problem we were just looking at, consider Model #2 with

x

?

= [ 0 1 ]

T

6= 0, then

˙

¯ x =

_

_

−2 0

0 −1

_

_

¯ x +

∙

2

1

¸

u

y =

£

3 0

¤

¯ x

so

Ce

At

x

?

=

£

3 0

¤

∙

e

−2t

0

0 e

−t

¸ ∙

0

1

¸

=

£

3e

−2t

0

¤

∙

0

1

¸

= 0 ∀ t

So, x

?

= [ 0 1 ]

T

is an unobservable state for this system.

• But that is as expected, because we knew there was a problem with

the state x

2

from the previous analysis

Fall 2001 16.31 11—7

• Theorem: An LTI system is observable iﬀ it has no

unobservable states.

— We normally just say that the pair (A,C) is observable.

• Pseudo-Proof: Let x

?

6= 0 be an unobservable state and compute

the outputs from the initial conditions x

1

(0) and x

2

(0) = x

1

(0) +x

?

— Then

y

1

(t) = Ce

At

x

1

(0) and y

2

(t) = Ce

At

x

2

(0)

but

— Thus 2 diﬀerent initial conditions give the same output y(t), so it

would be impossible for us to deduce the actual initial condition

of the system x

1

(t) or x

2

(t) given y

1

(t)

• Testing system observability by searching for a vector x(0) such that

Ce

At

x(0) = 0 ∀ t is feasible, but very hard in general.

— Better tests are available.

Fall 2001 16.31 11—8

• Theorem: The vector x

?

is an unobservable state if

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

C

CA

CA

2

.

.

.

CA

n−1

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

x

?

= 0

• Pseudo-Proof: If x

?

is an unobservable state, then by deﬁnition,

Ce

At

x

?

= 0 ∀ t ≥ 0

But all the derivatives of Ce

At

exist and for this condition to hold,

all derivatives must be zero at t = 0. Then

Ce

At

x

?

¯

¯

t=0

= 0 ⇒ Cx

?

= 0

d

dt

Ce

At

x

?

¯

¯

¯

¯

t=0

= 0 ⇒

d

2

dt

2

Ce

At

x

?

¯

¯

¯

¯

t=0

= 0 ⇒

.

.

.

d

k

dt

k

Ce

At

x

?

¯

¯

¯

¯

t=0

= 0 ⇒

• We only need retain up to the n − 1

th

derivative because of the

Cayley-Hamilton theorem.

Fall 2001 16.31 11—9

• Simple test: Necessary and suﬃcient condition for observability

is that

rank M

o

, rank

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

C

CA

CA

2

.

.

.

CA

n−1

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

= n

• Why does this make sense?

— The requirement for an unobservable state is that for x

?

6= 0

M

o

x

?

= 0

— Which is equivalent to saying that x

?

is orthogonal to each row

of M

o

.

— But if the rows of M

o

are considered to be vectors and these

span the full n-dimensional space, then it is not possible

to ﬁnd an n-vector x

?

that is orthogonal to each of these.

— To determine if the n rows of M

o

span the full n-dimensional

space, we need to test their linear independence, which is

equivalent to the rank test

1

.

1

Let M be a m ×p matrix, then the rank of M satisﬁes:

1. rank M ≡ number of linearly independent columns of M

2. rank M ≡ number of linearly independent rows of M

3. rank M ≤ min{m, p}

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