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Dividing the Domain of Political Science: On the Fetishism of Subfields Author(s): Timothy V. Kaufman-Osborn Source: Polity, Vol. 38, No. 1 (Jan., 2006), pp. 41-71 Published by: Palgrave Macmillan Journals Stable URL: . Accessed: 19/01/2014 21:11
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Polity * Volume 38, Number 1 * January 2006 ( 2006 NortheasternPolitical Science Association 0032-3497/06 $30.00

Dividing the Domain of Political Science: On the Fetishism of Subfields*
Timothy V. Kaufman-Osborn
Whitman College
American students of political science have repeatedly bemoaned its failure to achieve the status of a coherent intellectual discipline. This essay suggests that claims regarding the disarrayof political science are, at the very least, exaggerated. For several key purposes, the profession ascribes near totemic status to fourspecific subfields: political theory,American politics, comparativepolitics, and international relations. Whileone might argue that these categories are innocuous administrative conveniences, that claim would be mistaken. Subfields are vehicles of power insofar as they participate in the allocation of rewards within the discipline, and, more fundamentally,insofar as they participate in structuringour understandingof the nature of politics itself Inquiryinto the emergence and consolidation of political science's basic subfields, however has been almost entirely ignored in accounts of the discipline and its history This essay aims to remedy that gap in our understanding.

Polity(2006) 38, 41-71. doi:10.1057/palgrave.polity.2300035
Keywords American political behavioralism science; discipline; subfields;

Timothy Kaufman-Osborn is the Baker Ferguson Professor of Politics and Leadership at Whitman College. He is the author, most recently,of From Noose to

Needle: CapitalPunishmentand the Late LiberalState (2002). He served two
terms as president of the WesternPolitical Science Association, and is currentlythe president of the American Civil LibertiesUnion of Washington.He can be reached by e-mail at:

"Goto, let us centrifugate!" in 1882.1 Anonymousgraduatestudentat The John HopkinsUniversity
*For helpful comments on an earlier draft of this essay, I wish to thank Paul Apostolidis, Michael Brintnall, and Dvora Yanow 1. Quoted in John Higham, "The Matrix of Specialization," in The Organization of Knowledge in Modern America, 1860-1920, ed. Alexandra Oleson and John Voss (Baltimore, MD:The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1979), 7.

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The Unruly Science of Rule
On reviewing the history of American political science, one might well conclude that the only concern that has truly unified this enterprise over the course of its first century is the question of whether political science is or is not a discipline.2 While the occasional Panglossian tale has been told about the discipline's steady march toward the status of a genuine science,3 far more common are the laments regarding the inability of political scientists to agree on the nature of their distinctive object of inquiry; the methods appropriate to study of that object, however defined; the appropriate epistemic organization of a field devoted to its study; the curriculum that will best introduce students to this field; etc. Chronic anxiety about political science's title to disciplinary integrity resonates in the claims of those who fret openly about its status, and, arguably, much the same is true of those who protest, perhaps a bit too vigorously, that this warrant is secure.4 In 1913, speaking on behalf of the Committee on Instruction in Government, organized by the fledgling American Political Science Association, Charles Haines worried: "With the exception of a tendency toward uniformity in the courses announced by a few colleges and the largeruniversities there is a marked lack of agreement as to the meaning of the term political science. .. .A more definite agreement as to what constitutes political science, and a more aggressive insistence on the necessity of distinguishing these courses from other groups, seems to be the first requirement to secure the recognition of political science as

2. James Farrand Raymond Seidelman make much the same point in the preface to their edited volume titled Discipline and History (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1993): "(T)he identity of the discipline has been and continues to be constituted not by agreements over fundamental principles, but by long-standing debates over the meaning of politics, the methods of science, the theories of behavioralism or the state, and the responsibilities of public professionals and civic educators. Political science is, as it were, the history of its debates, and the state of the discipline at any one time is the state of its debates, in light of their history" (v). 3. For an example of such a Panglossian tale, see the introduction to A New Handbook of Political Science, ed. Robert Goodin and Hans-Dieter Kingemann (NY: Oxford University Press, 1996). For a helpful review of what they call "Whiggish"and "skeptical"narrativesof the history of political science, see John Dryzek and Stephen Leonard, "Historyand Discipline in Political Science," American Political Science Review 82 (December 1988): 1245-60. 4. For an example of the latter,see the report issued by the Committee on Standards of Instruction of the American Political Science Association under the title "PoliticalScience as a Discipline'"American Political Science Review 56 (June 1962): "Political science is a basic discipline in the social sciences. Although it must necessarily maintain close scholarly association with the disciplines of history, economics, sociology, anthropology geography, and social psychology, political science cannot be considered a part of any of these social sciences. Political science has its own area of human experience to analyze, its own body of descriptive and factual data to gather, its own conceptual schemes to formulate and test for truth" (417).

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19 Jan 2014 21:11:56 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . volume Handbook of Political Science. political science still lacks consensus on basic epistemological assumptions. is amplified by a cursory examination of a recent edition of the American Political Science Association Directory of Members.' PS: PoliticalScience and Politics 21 (Fall 1988): 828. if not outright incoherence. Almond acknowledged that the discipline does indeed display some measure of unity. on the basic concepts that should guide and organize research. Vol. in 1990. 1997). Kaufman-Osborn 43 worthy of a place in the colleges as a distinct department. 8. "SeparateTables:Schools and Sects in Political Science. Public Administration."6Stillmore recently. and the like. I (Reading. liberal leave policies. 1997-99 (Washington. Gabriel Almond. Designating "methods" as one general field among several. deploying the metaphor of "solitary diners in a second-rate residential hotel. Methods. The resulting lack of a body of empirical theory. Public Law and Courts. and then furnishes an additional 92 "special" fields for those who find the basic eight too Procrustean. International Politics.253. Directoryof Members. For a study indicating that departments have apparently paid little or no heed to this exhortation. and on what methods of analysis to apply and when. "Liberal Learning and the Political Science Major:A Report to the Profession:' PS: Political Science & Politics 24 (March 1991): "While no longer rent by such bitter disputes. this categorization scheme effectively concedes the absence of a single dominant mode of inquiry 5. v.'5Some sixty years later. reductions in teaching loads. Comparative Politics. the heterogeneity of such courses as do exist. "The Nature of Contemporary Political Science: A Roundtable Discussion:' PS: Political Science and Politics 23 (March 1990): 35. salary increases. MA: Addison-Wesley. amorphous.'8 This impression of disciplinary disarray.Timothy V. This content downloaded from 157. see John Wahlke. the paucity of general introductory courses. and Public Policy). and heterogeneous. held together by shared avarice in maintaining or increasing the departmental share of resources: tenure-track billets. the diverse character of higher-level courses and the loose programmatic structure tying them together constitute formidable the prefaceto theireight his disciplineis ill-defined. "Reporton Instruction in Political Science in Colleges and Universities: Portion of Preliminary Report of Committee of American Political Science Association on Instruction in Government ' Proceedings of the American Political Science Association 10 (1913): 255-56. Charles Haines. 9. For a comparable lament.' Gabriel Almond contended that "in some sense the various schools and sects of political science now sit at separate tables. but only insofar as the various departments bearing its name comprise a "loose aggregation of special interests. 7. 6. the fledgling political scientist learns that thatHaines's suggesting plea had fallenon deaf ears.1975).' PS: Political Science & Politics 38 (January 2005): 71-74.50. Gabriel Almond. DC: American Political Science Association. see John Ishiyama. Fred Greenstein and Nelson Polsby conceded that "earlyin his [sic] career. Political Philosophy and Theory. each with its own conception of Two political science. Fred Greenstein and Nelson Polsby. Handbook of Political Science. but each protecting some secret island of vulnerability. "Examiningthe Impact of the Wahlke Report: Surveying the Structure of the Political Science Curricula at Liberal Arts and Science Colleges and Universities in the Midwest. It lacks agreement on the basic questions it should address..9That directory identifies its members through reference to eight "general"fields (American Government. eds.10 on Sun. which must be addressed when considering the political science curriculum" (51)."' years later.

Spain)."Introduction:Setting the Stage" in Political Science: Looking to the Future. for example.253. ed. at the very least. evaluation research.44 SUBFIELDS OF POLITICAL SCIENCE within the discipline. exaggerated. to entire continents (e... Native American politics).' In this essay.g. finally. Latino politics. Instead. lesbian and gay politics. The 'heterogeneity' has been greatly nourished by exchanges with neighboring disciplines through the building of bridges between specialized fields of the various social sciences. and politics). 1991)... and forms of political commitment" Moon concludes by arguing that the quest to achieve anything akin to a Kuhnian "normal science" of politics is "chimerical" (45-46).Vol. Mattei Dogan.50. the profession ascribes near totemic status to four privileged subfields: political theory. A few students of the discipline have suggested that the proliferation of subfields is not a sign of a discipline in disarray but of its status as an innovative hybrid. political development). which are not 'amorphous' but rather well-organized and creative. IL:Northwestern UniversityPress.g.g.g. Scandanavia. Canada. concerns." Moon argues that the conflict spawned by the various contending approaches to the study of politics has produced "a luxuriant growth of different fields. one which suggests that lamentations regarding the wholesale disarray of political science are. 10. to political practices (e.g. When this hodge-podge is considered in conjunction with the ferment recently provoked by the loosely organized movement dubbed "Perestroika" and. for that matter. it is no surprise that so many recent assessments of political science conclude on a sour note: "Thereis:' wrote WilliamCrottyin 1991. presidency legislative studies).g.. Donald Moon. one finds categories ranging from specific countries (e. and.which is distinguished from normative as well as positive political theory). This content downloaded from 157.... although acknowledging that there are "genuine costs associated with fragmentation. more specifically its challenge to the internalgovernance structureof the organization that works so assiduously to sustain our belief that we do indeed belong together. perhaps they have already been abandoned. I do not intend to argue on behalf of a more unified discipline or. "Pluralismand Progress in the Study of Politics" in Political Science: Looking to the Future. political psychology religion and politics. William Crotty. 19 Jan 2014 21:11:56 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . as yet another general field of inquiry Turningto the officially sanctioned "special" fields. "a mood of disenchantment. and perhaps tongue in cheek. life sciences. See.g. "PoliticalScience and the Other Social Sciences" in New Handbook: "Theprocess of specialization has generated an increasing fragmentation in subfields. to geographical regions ( idiosyncratic areas whose exact status within the discipline is unclear except perhaps to their adherents (e. 3.. This process of cross-fertilization is achieved by hybridization" (97).a more fragmented one.g. and commonalities of the field seem to be in eclipse. approaches. methodologies.g. to policy domains (e. I. Africa). to specific institutions (e. creating order out of the discipline's apparent chaos.. Southeast Asia.g. to identity-based groupings (e. to expressly interdisciplinaryareas (e. I am interested in what I take to be a puzzle. only to betray additional confusion by identifying "comparativepolitics:'which would appear to be one such method. energy policy education policy regulatory policy). political thought: history. For another argument to the effect that the multiplication of subfields is to be celebrated rather than bemoaned.There. The unity cohesiveness. to canonical traditions (e. electoral systems. the Balkans).10 on Sun. see J. Japan. For several key purposes. literatureand politics). William Crotty(Evanston.

in the standards against which colleagues are measured for purposes of contract renewal. in short. The American Science of Politics (Berkeley: University of California Press. The work they do is apparent. in the allocation of positions within departments. The categories currently employed by the APSA in posting positions include the four basic subfields. in our very conception of the enterprise of politics as well as the discipline's role in articulating and often confirming historically specific constellations of political order. and international relations. one might expect that they would secure considerable attention from a discipline that prides itself on its special expertise in studying power's dynamics. and promotion. that claim would be mistaken. 1985). are vehicles of power. This inquiry is conducted in the skeptical spirit suggested by Wendy Brown who.50. their identities mutate. in this essay I offer a genealogical inquiry into its current epistemic organization and. and Raymond Seidelman (with Edward Harpham). to organize doctoral programs in political science as well as undergraduate major programs. their rules and regulations appear contingent and contestable. these four subfields have now become at least partly constitutive of the discipline and so of the identities of its members. tenure. are innocuous in their import. Albert Somit and Joseph Tanenhaus.Timothy V. Most disciplines. and. 1884-1984 (Albany: State Universityof New YorkPress. when peered at closely. David Ricci. in turf wars over teaching areas. the definitions of all disciplines wobble. as such. 19 Jan 2014 21:11:56 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Kaufman-Osborn 45 American politics. Yet. I would argue. As a first step toward remedying this gap in our understanding of political science and its history. Public Administration. in the structuring of curricula and examinations at the undergraduate and graduate levels. comparative politics. See. The Tragedyof Political Science (New Haven: Yale University Press.253. Disenchanted Realists: Political Science and the American Crisis. founded through necessary exclusions and illusions about the 11. second.10 on Sun. 1984). The Development of American Political Science (Boston: Allyn and Bacon. in our professional selfidentifications and so in our relations to one another. for example.of the four-subfield model. which. but also the following: Administration. and. in the context of a study into the history of women's studies programs. as evidenced by their deployment to categorize all scholarship reviewed in the American Political Science Association's recently created Perspectives on Politics. Subfields. although we have many histories of the discipline. Although other manifestations can be cited. Bernard Crick. This content downloaded from 157. 12. 1967). Public Law. in the categories to which job advertisements are most often assigned in the APSA personnel newsletter. for example. for that reason alone. While one might be inclined to argue that these categories are mere administrative conveniences.12 inquiry into the emergence and consolidation of political science's four basic subfields has been nominal at best. 1959). these four subfields are most consequentially employed. more particularly. Non-Academic and Other. Public Policy. wrote: "Certainly. and. first. Methodology. In certain crucial ways." in market-driven pressures on graduate students to produce dissertations that can be located in terms of these subfields. to divide our intellectual productions.

This content downloaded from 157. methodism. The upshot is an American political science absent much in the way of genuine politics. 19 Jan 2014 21:11:56 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the desire to persist over time has resulted in a certain conservatism. while at the same time reinforcing the cardinal subfields for which we cannot provide a coherent rationale but which we also apparently cannot do without. especially at liberal arts colleges. In section that follows. And in most cases. and then I offer an explanation for this consolidation through reference to the thwarting of the behavioral revolution's effort to transform the discipline of political science into a methodologically unified enterprise. have reached crises in their attempts to secure their boundaries. must itself be understood in relation to the exhaustion of political energies that coincided roughly with the end of the war in Vietnam. as many assume. a place seemingly untouched by the agitation that marks the 13. I substantiate my claim about the hegemony of the foursubfield model in doctoral programs in political science as well as undergraduate major programs. absent subfields. once found its home. I suggest in my conclusion. and that.10 on Sun. in order to show that this model is not in fact coeval with the history of political science in the United States. in the next section.50.253. although that rebuff."'13 To demonstrate one form such conservatism has assumed in political science. The Four-Subfield Model Within the Curriculum of Political Science Within the apparent disjointedness of political science as a discipline there resides an oasis. I argue. Wendy Brown. arguably is just what we might anticipate in a nation where interest groups proliferate with abandon while the structural imperatives of the late liberal state prove more or less impervious to significant transformation. and in the next two sections I indicate the fluid and inconstant character of the borders erected during the first half of the twentieth century in order to partition the new discipline into different domains of inquiry. define an exclusive terrain of inquiry. I show that the foursubfield model did not clearly emerge until after World War II and was not consolidated until the early 1970s. I explain how the university model of higher education at the turn of the twentieth century displaced the classical curriculum within which the study of politics.46 SUBFIELDSOF POLITICALSCIENCE stability and boundedness of their objects. The net result. or its close cousin. "The Impossibility of Women's Studies:' Differences 9 (Fall 1997): 85. is a sort of unreflective compromise that tolerates the haphazard multiplication and formalization of new areas of political inquiry in response to changing configurations of power within the discipline. In the following section. by tracking the various ways scholarship has been organized in the pages of the American Political Science Review since its inception. and fix their object of study.

edu/ polisci/initiative.16 On this basis. and 10. have begun to experiment with new ways of structuring the political science curriculum. such as the design and operation of institutions and issues of conflict and violence. and the Best in Political Science:' PS: Political Science & Politics 31 (December 1998): 826-28.9 percent of the 57 offer a field in methodology.207. Looking at "major fields:' defined as areas in which students may write dissertations. including those at Yale and the University of Pennsylvania.pdf (last visited on April 21.10 on Sun.S. and 37%require three or more.5 percent in public administration. For more specific information on the experiment now underway at Yale. it would appear. the Better. That place is found in our disciplinary curricula.utah. and 79. rather than traditional subfields such as comparative politics. more particularly.6 percent in public policy. which in turn accounted for 61 percent of the U. and Michael Ballard and Neil Mitchell. 17. Of the 57 institutions investigated by Schwartz-Shea. 16.html (last visited on April 21. Peregrine Schwartz-Sheapublished a study of political science graduate This sample included 43% of the doctoral programs programs at 57 institutions. 19 Jan 2014 21:11:56 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . "a significant proportion of the most highly ranked programs has given up on the notion of a substantive core that should be transmitted to all doctoral students. Kaufman-Osborn 47 larger field.0 percent in political theory. 2005).5 percent in political economy. Offerings. Among other findings. American politics. in recent years. their numbers pale in comparison to the principal four. and international relations" (5). she found that 96. "IsThis the CurriculumWe Want?Doctoral Requirements and Offerings in Method and Methodology.'381-82. including seven of the ten top-ranked programs. "Curricular Visions: Doctoral Programs. SchwartzShea%20Curricular%20Visions. 21 percent in public the fields employed to structure doctoral programs in political science as well as the major programs of this nation's undergraduate colleges. she concludes. the National Research Council.14 identified in the 1998-2000 APSA GraduateProgram and Faculty Guide. and the Meanings of 'Political Science"' at http://www.17 whereas relatively few. DC: American Political Science Association. graduate student population in political science.0 percent in formal theory. and. On this point.yale. For example.15The ascendancy of these four central subfields is perhaps still more striking since 30 percent of the programs reviewed by Schwartz-Shea require no core course aimed at introducing graduate students to the discipline. only 44. see http://www. Requirements. "IsThis the Curriculum We Want?. The rankings employed by Schwartz-Sheacome from three sources: US News and WorldReport. 17. Peregrine Schwartz-Shea. a small number of graduate programs.Timothy V.50. In 2003.5 percent of the 57 institutions offer fields in American politics and international relations. see Peregrine Schwartz-Shea. Schwartz-Shea determined that the four-subfield model predominates in these programs. Schwartz-Shea.htm 15. 2005). This content downloaded from 157. see "Report from the Task Force on Graduate Education" (Washington.197/imgtest/graduateeducation. 95. For a more detailed account of her findings. The report is available at: (last visited on April 19.0 percent in comparative politics. 33% require one or two courses of all graduate students. 2004): "A few departments have recently begun to restructuretheir program to feature the study of various sorts of substantive political problems.poli-sci. 2005). regardless of field. 16. While other fields are occasionally offered. It is worth noting that. have given up on the 14."PS: Politics & Political Science 36 (July 2003): 379-86. "The Good. 31.

each of which uses the same four subfields to structure the major program. See http://www. I employed the 2003 version of US. 19 Jan 2014 21:11:56 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Bowdoin requires each political science major to complete an area of concentration. and Pomona. Oberlin.18Virtually without exception. For example. but permit students to develop an alternative area of concentration. at least one of which must be in each of these four standard subfields. Colby College requires its students to take a total of ten courses in political science. Mount Holyoke.10 on Sun. Bryn Mawrand Williams both employ the conventional four subfields to structure their major programs.50. a fifth subfield. Introduction to International Relations. Skidmore.usnews. also requires at least one additional course in each of the four standard subfields. to complete ten courses in political science. In sum. and courses are recommended but not required in any. Almost identically. is added to the standard four. (last visited This content downloaded from 157.48 SUBFIELDSOF POLITICALSCIENCE notion that the discipline should require the vast majority of Ph. News & WorldReport's ranking of liberal arts colleges to generate a sample of fifty institutions.S.php on April 19. and Introduction to Political Theory. and then erect their major requirements on the basis of those subfields. in addition to introductory courses in each of the four standard subfields. At Carleton.D. including Introduction to American Government and Politics. To cite just a few representative examples. Turning to political science major programs at undergraduate liberal arts colleges. and. the hegemony of the four-subfield model is still more pronounced. another in WorldPolitics. as well as at least one upper-level seminar. they are modest at best. law and public policy. 2005). variations on this basic structure are few and far all of the political science departments at these top-ranked institutions take the four basic subfields as their central organizing principle. where they do appear. at Haverford. Among these fifty colleges. besides requiring an introductory course in U. students are required to take courses in at least three of the four. requires at least one course in each of these same four subfields. the variations that do appear in the political science major programs at these fifty institutions involve not their basic organizational 18. majors are required to take a course titled Methods of Political Research (although methodology is not listed as a separate subfield). in addition to requiring three unspecified upper-level courses. Comparative Politics. Kenyon requires its majors. candidates to identify themselves in terms of the four-subfield model. should they so desire. involving at least four courses. in one of these same subfields and to complete at least one course in each of the remaining three. Government. again in addition to at least one upper-level seminar. and six credits of upper-level course work. In order to determine the typical requirements of such programs. At Amherst.

"concluded. National Institutions. is that each map would prove to be an internally complex construction..50. the identity of its major provinces. it seems remarkable that the 1991 report of the APSAs Task Force on the Political Science Major. only three depart in any significant way from the basic model exemplified by the others. . has been extraordinary. Now.D. of the discipline's overall intellectual structure.253.Timothy V. Instead. opting instead to permit each student to develop his or her own course of study in consultation with a departmental advisor. that the map drawn by any one would not differ dramatically from that drawn by students at different institutions. the opportunity for students to substitute a subfield of their own design for one of the elementary four. It is my guess that few would find this an unduly perplexing task. as it did. that many would differ from one another in significant ways. however ill-defined. include the following: U. so to speak. each student works with an academic advisor in order to design an individual program of study.1 and that the "plasticity of definitions of 'subfields. which is perhaps overly generous. This content downloaded from 157.S. Kaufman-Osborn 49 structure. although students may choose to concentrate in any one of 35 fields. and Politics of Development and Transformation). Political Processes. 19 Jan 2014 21:11:56 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Legal Studies. but. Bates College requires each declared political science major to complete either a self-designed area of concentration or one of the department's approved concentrations (which.S. My guess. "LiberalLearning:'50. Cultural Politics.the number of courses that must be taken in each subfield.U. rather. circumscribing the discipline as a whole.over time and This conclusion would surely among departments. Wahlke. International Studies. the presence or absence of an introductory course that precedes the required courses in the various subfields. Economic Aspects of Politics. candidates at research-oriented universities as well). that "undergraduate political science programs today collectively present a picture of disparate and unstructured practices. Postcolonial Politics.19 In light of this evidence. Whitman College is perhaps the most anarchic in the sense that its Department of Politics does not make reference to or employ any subfields in the organization of its major program. with 19. "Liberal Leaning and the Political Science Major. very occasionally. and the sublocalities within each province as well as the precise location of the borders demarcating each from the others. Women and Politics. History of Western Political Thought. and that these differences would be indicative of disagreements about the boundaries. imagine putting the same question to several undergraduate political science majors at several liberal arts colleges in the United States (and possibly to an equal number of Ph.10 on Sun.Sarah Lawrence College is truly the maverick of the group insofar as it has no major programs in any discipline. as the following thought experiment suggests: Imagine asking several tenured faculty members of several political science departments at several large research-oriented universities to draw a map. one of which is political science (although it is not itself partitioned in accordance with the standard subfields). at the time of this writing. Of the fifty institutions whose programs I examined. the specific number of subfields that must be completed. and that each would most likely consist of something akin to a four-cell structure. Finally. and. 20."20 come as news to the vast majority of this nation's political science undergraduates.

19 Jan 2014 21:11:56 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . "TheDevelopment of the Social Sciences" in Discipline and History 81-104. This content downloaded from 157. Enterprise"in Handbook of Political Science. Richard Hofstadter and Wilson Smith (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Development of American Political Science. then perhaps there is something to be said for an inquiry into this formulaic structure. "TheEmergence of Political Science as a Discipline: History and the Study of Politics in America. The Idea of a University ed. Political Science in American Colleges and Universities. Somit and Tanenhaus. "PoliticalScience: Tradition.50.22 More often than not. 1875-1910:' History of Political Thought 24 (Autumn 2003): 481-508. Tragedyof PoliticalScience. but by instilling Christianand/or republican civic virtue as well as the wisdom necessary to its exercise. or citizen. 1965).50 SUBFIELDS OF POLITICAL SCIENCE each cell tidily demarcated from the others. and Dwight Waldo.23The typical character of that curriculum. finally. see "TheYale Report of 1828"in American Higher Education:A Documentary History Vol. For the best known and most vigorous defense of the classical curriculum." PS: Political Science and Politics 24 (June 1991): 204-05. let alone those with which we are now familiar. public servant. I. By and large. 18-41. 23.253. as well as the emergence of universities and. conventionally known as the "classical"curriculum. why do they persist today.21 of the nineteenth century. as well as "Fromthe Science to the Art of Politics. For accounts of the liberal arts colleges of the nineteenth century. 1961): 275-91. 29-56. If this hypothesis is plausible. America's colleges during this period offered a fairly standard course of instruction. especially in light of the unsettled disciplinary context within which it is situated. The Emergence of the American University (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ed. the discipline's status within the larger political order of which it is a part? The Classical Curriculum and Its Decomposition The discipline of political science at its inception was not divided into any Prior to the last third subfields. most American higher education took place in small colleges. When did these subfields first emerge within the discipline. our professional identities. Frank Turner (New Haven: Yale University Press. Anna Hadow. Laurence Veysey. and what effects do they generate in terms of our conceptualization of politics. of which there were more than two hundred by 1860. Discipline. 1996). For the results of my earlier inquiries into the history and structure of political science major the Political Science Majorat Liberal Arts Colleges:' PS: programs in the United States. John Henry Newman. and. whose theo-philosophical underpinnings were best elucidated in John Newman's The Idea of a University(1852). 24. 22. see Robert Adcock. Science. graduate programs in political science. Ricci. 11-41. 1636-1900 (New York:D. Dorothy Ross. more specifically. whether as minister. In addition to training young men (for the most part) for participation in public life. Appleton-Century 1939). beginning in the 1870s. see "Re-Thinking Political Science and Politics 23 (March 1990): 56-61. these institutions were founded by clerics seeking to advance a particular body of sectarian doctrine. the transmission of knowledge within such institutions aimed at improving its recipients not so much by expanding their grasp of value-neutral facts. Profession. how were they consolidated.10 on Sun.24 is well21.

Timothy V. David Ricci writes: "Itwas not unusual for the senior course to include logic. reproduced from the 1882-83 catalogue of one of the 50 liberal arts colleges included in the sample discussed in the previous section: Whitman College Classical course Fall term Virgil Xenophon Geometry Winter term Freshman year Cicero Herodotus Geometry Spring term English Literature Homer Algebra Sophomore year Livy Trigonometry Physiology Thucydides Analytical Geometry Zoology Horace Calculus Botany Junior year Rhetoric Mechanics Chemistry Greek Drama Optics Chemistry Tacitus Astronomy Geology Senior year Psychology Quintillian Greek Testament Ethics Constitution of the U. obviously. philosophy. of which there were none. as they were. during the culminating senior year and in conjunction with two other cardinal areas of inquiry: Ethics and Evidences of Religion. Explaining the place of political inquiry in the final year of instruction at such liberal arts colleges.50. these courses were not taught in academic departments. Constitution and Political Economy However. 19 Jan 2014 21:11:56 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .10 on Sun. specifically.S. rhetoric. nor."it also held a place for the study of politics. taught. This content downloaded from 157. That said.S. in the form of courses on the U. the law of nations.253. Didactics Political Economy Evidences of religion Orations Although this strictly prescribed curriculum was weighted toward the study of Greek and Roman classics. as well as mathematics and the various natural sciences that were rapidly disaggregating themselves from what was once "naturalphilosophy. Kaufman-Osborn 51 indicated by the following diagram. these courses did constitute an essential component of the classical course. were they the offerings of an autonomous social scientific discipline. natural law.

With displacement of the idea of knowledge ultimately grounded in the architectonic structure furnished by Christian faith. second. See Ricci. 26. there gradually appeared in its stead our more familiar understanding of knowledge as something to be accumulated by experts and conveyed by professionals whose authority stems from their mastery of a specialized discipline. the typical college president would enjoy an imposing academic title. the modern university (which must itself be understood in relation to larger structural developments within the liberal state and capitalist economy during the late nineteenth century). "the development of academic departments transformed heterogeneous and somewhat inchoate bodies of intellectual activities and beliefs into disciplines"27 (although.50. Although not quite as neatly as my account suggests. more or less haphazardly. "TheOrder of Learning in the United States: The Ascendancy of the University"in Organization of Knowledge. such as 'Professor of Moral and Mental Philosophy.253. 41: "Theswitch to elective courses received an imprimatur of respectability in 1869.52 SUBFIELDSOF POLITICALSCIENCE politics. As students. this development was in large measure a function. This content downloaded from 157. 58. To the contrary.10 on Sun. as Somit and Tanenhaus point out. Tragedyof Political Science. and political economy Accordingly. were gradually released from the uniform requirements of the classical course via adoption of elective systems. . 38-39. beginning at Harvard in 1869. first. and would be responsible for teaching subjects ranging from constitutional law to evidences of Christianity He was. and. that an overarching synthesis of wisdom must combine various realms of learning-the Temple's columns-into a comprehensive point of view"'25 The decomposition of the classical curriculum is inseparable from the emergence of a new institutional form. when President Eliot announced his intention to remake Harvard'scurriculum according to the new principle. of the vertical introduction of newly constituted research-oriented graduate programs patterned. of the lateral proliferation of new courses on topics once covered. after the German programs to which so many Americans flocked following the end of the Civil War. . Ricci.Eliot attacked the classical notion that a student's mind can be trained only by proper exposure to the right subjects. for the most part. 19 Jan 2014 21:11:56 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . in fact. within the more comprehensive offerings of the classical curriculum (e.he argued.26 something akin to contemporary academic departments were invented.. a student can acquire mental competence by strict attention to any important and challenging field of study" 27. a personification of the classical notion that some sort of a roof must be provided for the Temple of Science. and Polite Literature. Edward Shils.' writes Edward Shils. Tragedyof PoliticalScience.g. Political Economy. the boundaries dividing these departments from one another would remain 25. in order to provide some measure of organizational structure to this less tidy curriculum. the emergence of courses on politics and economics out of the category of political economy). more or less well.but especially in the 1890s. "Inthe social sciences as in other subjects.

6. See Hadow. During most of the formative era. it is inaccurate to say that these were 'departments' of political science as we know them today. The nation's first graduate program in political science was created under the leadership of John W Burgess at Columbia University in 1880 (although Francis Lieber had been appointed the nation's first professor of history and political science. D. Gunnell's claim here concerns the early discipline of political science as a whole. 1880-8731 Firstyear First term Physical and Political Geography Ethnology General Political and Constitutional History of Europe Political and Constitutional History of England to 1688 Political Economy: History of Politico-Economic Institutions Philosophy: History of Political Theories from Plato to Hegel Bibliography of the Political Sciences Second term Political and Constitutional History of the United States 28. Development of American Political Science. This content downloaded from 157. in 1857). doctoral training in political science was not clearly differentiated. Somit and Tanenhaus. John Gunnell.Timothy V. as the following diagram indicates. "was less a distinct discipline than a holding company for a variety of endeavors that were in various ways related.: The American Political Science Association. 1955). as we have seen. from the three-fold standpoint of History. see Veysey Emergence of the American University.10 on Sun.320-24. ed. 305-06. Ada Finifter (Washington. R. from training in history. (New York:Columbia University Press. Kaufman-Osborn 53 "relatively unhardened"28 for at least another generation). ed. Gordon Hoxie. also at Columbia.C. although it applies equally well to Columbia's graduate program. even at Hopkins and Columbia. 180. Thus did an administrative solution to an organizational problem help to constitute disciplines that in time came to imagine themselves as progenitors of the departments bearing their names."29 Its inaugural curriculum. 50 nl: "Strictlyspeaking. but no longer easily resided in other disciplines":30 Columbia University Course of study in the School of Political Science. 19 Jan 2014 21:11:56 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 1983).50. Political Science in American Colleges. et al. and sociology" For more on the emergence of departments in response to growing administrative dilemmas. Law and Philosophy. 29. The stated purpose of the School of Political Science was "to give a complete general view of all the subjects both of internal and external public polity. 31. 30. A History of the Faculty of Political Science. economics. "PoliticalTheory: The Evolution of a Subfield" in Political Science: The State of the Discipline.253.

the Columbia This content downloaded from 157. albeit absent the architectonic structure that drew the classical curriculum to its theo-philosophical apex in the senior year. Methods and Results Third year First term History of Diplomacy Private International Law Comparative Administrative Law of the Principal States of Europe and of the United States Social Sciences: Communistic and Socialistic Theories Second term Public International Law Private International Law Comparative AdministrativeLaw of the Several Commonwealths of the American Union Social Sciences: Communistic and Socialistic Theories Note that this curriculum included courses in history.50. rather. and geography. Also. In thematic was its classical counterpart.10 on Sun. in terms of a chronological sequencing. Methods and Results Second term Comparative Jurisprudence of the Principal European Systems of Civil Law Comparative Constitutional Law of the Several Commonwealths of the American Union Statistical Science. but.54 SUBFIELDS OF POLITICAL SCIENCE Political and Constitutional History of England since 1688 Political Economy: Taxation and Finance Philosophy: History of Political Theories from Plato to Hegel Bibliography of the Political Sciences Second year First term History of Roman Law. note that this curriculum was organized not in terms of subfields. but cannot in fact be read in those terms since the social sciences were not yet unambiguously differentiated from one another. 19 Jan 2014 21:11:56 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . which might be taken as evidence of an interdisciplinary orientation. ethnology.253. the present day Comparative Constitutional Law of the Principal European States and of the United States Statistical Science. Burgess explained.

10 on Sun. as an expression of that state's will.50. that courses in several traditions of inquiry. including Politics: 32. note that no method of inquiry clearly predominated. the law. aiming thus to escape the dangers of a barren empiricism on the one side. note that each term of the first year of instruction included a bibliographical course on what to us cannot help but sound quaint. Gunnell and M. that would eventually be incorporated within the four canonical subfields were taught as part of this curriculum). 33."32Additionally."InternationalReview 12 (1882): 348. understood as the locus of sovereign power within a given political order."FromModern Republic to AdministrativeState: American Political Science in the Nineteenth Century"in Regime and Discipline:Democracy and the Development of Political Science. were most commonly employed. ed. Stein (Ann Arbor: Universityof Michigan Press. Finally. 19 Jan 2014 21:11:56 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Kaufman-Osborn 55 curriculum was ordered around the concept of the state. e. On the decline of the state as the conceptual centerpiece of political science. Easton. and in the section that follows I am chiefly interested in early efforts to partition that discipline once its external borders had been secured. focusing for the most part on the United States and England. "TheStudy of the Political Sciences in Columbia College. "The This content downloaded from 157. Securing the Discipline's External Borders In this section. On this point. obviously. see John Gunnell. the conceptual linchpin of academic inquiry into politics during the late nineteenth century was the state.253. What it does not so clearly anticipate is a discipline that derives its organizational structure or its intellectual rationale from the existence of certain clearly demarcated and privileged subfields (which is not to deny.g. or perhaps even dissonant: the "political sciences. D. political theory.indicating persistence of the European view that several forms of knowledge are crucial to the enterprise of statecraft.Timothy V. John Burgess. 1995): 131-67. and. J. I am interested in consolidation of the discipline of political science following creation of Columbia's inaugural program." In any event. As already noted. although historical and comparative forms of analysis.. a comparison of Columbia's initial graduate program in political science with Whitman'sclassical curriculum clearly anticipates the accelerating irrelevance of the liberal arts college in determining the shape of higher education in the United States. and consisting chiefly of descriptive and formal institutional inquiries. and of a baseless speculation on the other. for the most part." and concluding in an effort "through comprehensive comparison to generalize the ultimate principles of our political philosophy. see James Farr.33 This focus was reflected in popular textbooks. beginning at the undergraduate level with the "the origin and development of the State through its several phases of political organization down to the modern constitutional form:' followed by graduate study of "the existing actual and legal relations of the State.

philosophy. and third."37 Regardless of their differences. though. Politics: An Introduction to the Study of Comparative ConstitutionalLaw (New York:G. economics. lastly J. most particularly. or the science of politics. political science. 1884). or governmental organizations considered at rest.ed. 36. Leonard (New York:Cambridge University Press. he insisted that "intimate as are these relationships. The first.An Examination of the Nature of the State: A Study in Political Philosophy (New York:Macmillan. and administration. Farr. J. although his concerned the distinction between politics. Goodnow's Politics and Administration. and history are so closely related that an attempt to wholly separate them.acknowledged that the "interests of political science. these divisions cannot be considered equivalent to the subfields of contemporary political science because there was as yet no clearly defined discipline to subdivide. Goodnow also offered a two-fold structure. the description of political institutions. second. 37. William Crane and Bernard Moses. WW Willoughby. 38." Immediately thereafter. 19 Jan 2014 21:11:56 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Willoughby. 1896). the determination of the laws of political life and development. J. Goodnow. A similar argument had been advanced some two decades prior by Munroe This content downloaded from 157.the determination of fundamental philosophical principles.published in 1900. that is. and ethics. J.36 Crane and Moses held that the study of politics. 382-83. who. Politics and Administration: A Study in Government (New York:Macmillan.253. 1900). "practical"politics. offered a tripartite scheme: "first. the field of political science is one that may be clearly distinguished from that of history as well as from that of economics.56 SUBFIELDSOF POLITICALSCIENCE An Introductionto the Study of Comparative ConstitutionalLaw by William Crane and BernardMoses. understood as determining the will of the state. 1995): 19-40. The centrality of that aim was articulated by Willoughby. WW. 108. political economy.34 An Examination of the Nature of the State: A Study in Political Philosophy by WW Willoughby. which the authors called "analytical"politics. 34. published in 1896. The primary epistemic aim of students of politics during the final quarter of the nineteenth century was to distinguish the study of the state.50. published in 1884. or the art of politics. would be as practically impossible as it would be undesirable. by way of contrast. "The American Political Science Association7' Political Science Quarterly 19 (March 1904): 107. Putnam's. deals with what the state should do. in a 1904 article published in Political Science Quarterly. qua the study of the state. deals with the development and structure of the state.35 and. chiefly because its special concern is "withsocieties of men effectively organized under a supreme authority for the maintenance of an orderly and progressive existence. history. Willoughby. from competing areas of inquiry. and the second. or to pursue their study as absolutely independent subjects.10 on Sun.."38 Declination of the 'State' and the Origins of American Pluralism"in PoliticalScience in History. Willoughby.An Examination. 35. was properly divided into two branches. Dryzek and S. understood as executing that will.

" American Political Science Review 56 (June 1962). each seeking to establish its exclusive rights over the field to which it staked a unique claim.40 However much liberal arts Smith in "The Domain of Political Science:' Political Science Quarterly1 (March 1886): 1-7. Although he acknowledged the inevitability of considerable overlap with other social sciences. Indicating that professional association most often furnishes the stimulus to departmental development. or 'sociologist."39By the turn of the century. sociology. In 1884. 1. like Willoughby.Timothy V. political science acquired departmental status at the University of California in 1903. and. finally. and the latter he defined in terms of historical and comparative analysis. the American Political Science Association in 1903. a total of forty of 531 colleges surveyed by the American Political Science Association supported independent political science departments (although another two hundred offered political science courses in more encompassing departments that also offered instruction in history. 1916). Smith made no effort to subdivide the emerging discipline of political science.Smith'sprimaryaim was to circumscribe the area of inquiry appropriate to political science by distinguishing its subject-matter and specifying its characteristic modes of inquiry The former he defined in terms of the study of the state. in a move that can only be regarded as mythological. and helped to propagate a newly emergent scholarly identity-the 'political scientist. early twentieth century America witnessed a partitioning of knowledge among so many camps of specialists. whereas 320 were still linked to social science or humanities disciplines (417-21). and at the University of Michigan in 1911. economics.10 on Sun. Perhaps most significant for the purposes of this essay. Robert Adcock explains: "Thefounding of the APSA in 1903 did not give institutional substance to an already stable and delimited field of study Rather it marked. in "Political Science as a Discipline: A Statement by the Committee on Standards of Instruction of the American Political Science Association. the American Historical Association broke away from the ASSA. various professional associations were invented. at an ever faster clip. and in particular law and economics. the APSA reported that there were 466 independent political science departments. in 1905 the desiccated remains of this once inclusive association were officially reconstituted as the American Sociological Association. To help secure those rights. rather than vice versa.' 482. at the Universities of Illinois and Wisconsin in 1904. By 1914. 39. founded in 1865 to ensure the integration of all knowledge regarding specifically human subjects. the American Psychological Association in 1892.253. This volume consists of the 1914 "Report to the American Political Science Association by the Committee on Instruction" In 1960. the American Social Science Association (ASSA). Adcock. were often then credited with responsibility for creating these same associations. "Studyof Politics in America. Kaufman-Osborn 57 Consonant with Willoughby's aspiration. The Teachingof Government (New York:Macmillan. This content downloaded from 157. and/or philosophy). ethics. which. 'economist. the American Economic Association in 1885. These inventions fostered the coherence and autonomy of the disciplines. understood as pursuing a field of study distinct from that of the 'historian. the American Anthropological Association in 1902. 40. 19 Jan 2014 21:11:56 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . solidified.50. could no longer resist the centrifugal forces generated by this dynamic.

For example. International Law and Diplomacy. these early efforts secured no consensus. Paul Reinsch. and as the work of examining college catalogues 41. WW Willoughby. it was clear that political science had achieved sufficient critical mass to declare its disciplinary autonomy. "The Work of the American Political Science Association. such as the philosophy and methods of parties. and. 42. simply ducked the issue: "Forit seems to me that such an attempt at definition is dangerous. "The American Political Science Association. the 1913 report issued by the Committee on Instruction in Government began by noting that "atthe outset of its investigations the committee was informed on good authority that there is no such thing as political science. by the outbreak of World War I."43 Earlyefforts to secure agreement on the most apt way to construct a standard political science curriculum for undergraduates fared little better. which included constitutional.253. international. in his capacity as the APSA's newly elected secretary and treasurer.10 on Sun. public law. and. Willoughby offered a slightly modified version of the tripartitescheme he had proposed eight years earlier in An Examination of the Nature of the State: political theory or philosophy. in 1904. defined as the science of the state and its ends. Political Theory.58 SUBFIELDSOF POLITICALSCIENCE colleges might lag behind in this regard. and similar questions"). "The American Political Science Association. in the APSA'sinaugural presidential address in 1904. Paul Reinsch. the influence of public opinion. interestingly." Proceedings of the American Political Science Association 1 (1904): 35.and.Politics (which he defined as study of "questions of political dynamics. Constitutional Law.41Writingin the same year. the choosing of political leaders. even then. particularly if it shall result in the endeavor to formulate a definition of Political Science which is at the same time inclusive and exclusive. reported that the work of the APSA would be divided into seven "departments:"Comparative Legislation.42Perhaps recognizing that in the early stages of a discipline it is sometimes politic to leave certain questions unanswered. This content downloaded from 157. Early Efforts to Secure the Discipline's Internal Borders Attempts to organize the internal domain of political science. Comparative and Historical Jurisprudence. its various organs. In a confessional mode. 19 Jan 2014 21:11:56 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the first in 1913 and the second in 1915. Administration. did not emerge until after formation of the American Political Science Association. and the principles of its administration. the distribution of its powers. Frank Goodnow. which he defined in terms of its different forms. Most revealing in this regard are two reports issued by the APSA on instruction. 43. government. and administrative law. Frank Goodnow." Iowa Journal of History 2 (1904): 157-58. a vice-president of the newly created organization. finally.' in Discipline and History 60. self-consciously construed in disciplinary terms.50.

(10) Elements of law. finally demonstrated that because virtually all courses were designated as electives. the Committee proposed the following four-folddivision of courses: (1) Descriptive and historical (including American government. (7) Party government.if not entirely. although this contribution in our judgment is often exaggerated. now titled the Committee of Seven on Instruction in Colleges and Universities. "Reporton Instruction in Political Science. 45. party government. (11) Political theories. and it recommended that a full-year course on American government be prescribed as the basic introductory course for all undergraduates. and the history of political 44."264. state." 258. generated no standard set of course offerings. See also "PoliticalScience as a Discipline2'418: "Webelieve that the small college has an educational contribution to make in our society. "Reporton Instruction in Political Science'. "Reporton Instruction in Political Science. The small college is misguided in its efforts when it seeks to imitate a university in the scope and number of its course offerings" This content downloaded from 157.10 on Sun. and. (6) Administrative law and administrative methods. 47. 48. (2) General political science. 19 Jan 2014 21:11:56 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . (5) Legislation and legislative procedure. These courses. (4) Constitutional law. 46. which can be adopted indiscriminately by any institution. let alone what its nature should be."44 of this dispirited assessment."45Although disclaiming "any intention to prescribe a standard plan of courses in political science. and diplomacy). In a very loose sense.with the universities."48 What chiefly distinguished the 1915 report of this committee. include the following: (1) American government.Timothy V. the committee offered the results of its inquiry into the political science curriculum at 458 colleges and universities throughout the United States."for "the function of college instruction in politics is to train for citizenship as well as to train for the professions. (8) Colonial government. (3) Comparative government. national. listed on page 255 of the Committee's report. political theories. comparative government. (2) Theoretical (including the introductory course in political science.253. jurisprudence and judicial procedure.' 255." 254."46the Committee nonetheless specified twelve courses. "Reporton Instruction in Political Science.whose conclusions uncannily parallel that of the 1991 APSATask Force report cited above. the report suggested that the training of government experts and those committed to research in political science should be "left largely. which.50. and (12) Constitutional history and history of political literature. comprise the heart of political science. on its analysis. That inquiry. Kaufman-Osborn 59 In support progressed the truth of this observation became painfully apparent. the vast majority of political science departments failed to specify "a regular sequence of courses.. this scheme might be understood as a progenitor of the contemporary subfields. was its effort to partition the principal courses of political science into a coherent classification scheme. indicated no agreement on whether a basic introductory course should be required of all majors. colonial government. and municipal. but its content is quite different from that familiar to us today Specifically. (9) International law and diplomacy.47 Finally in a claim that is indicative of an institutional split that will become far more pronounced in decades to come.

253. who. 1926-49. finally. In 1930 it received 19 pages of space. book notes." 58-59. one sees a pattern of fluctuation that mirrorswhat I suggest below with respect to the journal's categorization of book reviews: "The early reports [of the APSR'seditors] seem to indicate that no space was devoted to items in the American government field.5o and that it is only in the wake of the behavioral revolution in political science that the four-subfield model became predominant. like 'Public Administration. appears only once in the first report. My general conclusion regarding the absence of any consensus on this matter is confirmed by Harold Zink. public administration. As in the case of 'MunicipalAffairs:one should expect some coverage under American Government and Politics: 'Rural Local Government. by 1925 it had fallen back to only 12 pages. as such." American PoliticalScience Review 9 (May 1915): 356-57. see Wahlke.60 SUBFIELDSOF POLITICALSCIENCE literature). in 1940. it drew a blank." Disciplining the Scholarship of Political Science To trace the discipline's move from these early inconclusive efforts to partition its internal epistemic space to successful consolidation of the contemporary foursubfield model. in 1935. less generously. classified the articles appearing in the Review during this period by subject-matter. its category of "special" courses.50. Roman. 19 Jan 2014 21:11:56 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . I have taken as an indicator changes in the way scholarship under review has been organized in the profession's official journal. (4) Special courses (including legislation and legislative procedure. and 1916 this category appears in 1920 for the first time with 32 pages. Charles Haines. appears to be either a catch-all container for (some but not all) formal governmental institutions or. This content downloaded from 157. its specification of law as a separate domain indicates persistence of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century's preoccupation with the state and the formal articulation of its will. accounted for 24 pages in both 1930 and 1935..Here. with two pages. 54 pages. 'Public Administration'does not appear as a category prior to the Ogg editorship. and. and recent publications sections suggests that for half a century or more no single method of dividing the discipline's scholarship secured a clear consensus. and in 1949. This inquiry into the APSR'sbook review. something akin to "miscellaneous. After blanks for 1906. "Reportof the Committee on Seven in Instruction in Colleges and Universities'.As one examines the reports of the editors at 5-year intervals. 26 pages. commercial. lumping it together with comparative government. in 1945. finally. for example. and. and judicial administration). 47 pages. dropped back to six pages in 1940. 49. 'Colonial Government. For a chart indicating some of the other ways in which the discipline was internally divided between 1912 and 1973. attracted comparatively little attention until the middle years of the Review" (262-63). and disappeared entirely in 1945 and 1949. increased to 47 pages in 1911. for which no explanation or justification is offered. 'Municipal Affairs'started out with 11 pages in 1906.. but this must be the result of the classification used."American Political Science Review 44 (June 1950). 1911. it is apparent that some features have come and gone. fell to 13 pages in 1925. in "The Growth of the American Political Science Review. from its inception in 1906 to the present. (3) Legal (including jurisprudence as well as constitutional.49Unlike that familiar to us today this scheme carves out no separate domain for the study of American politics. reappeared in 1920 with 22 pages. 50.10 on Sun. "LiberalLearning and the Political Science Major. the American Political Science Review. and international law). dropped out entirely in 1916.

it is sufficient. (7) Miscellaneous (which includes. works on France. along with International Law This last point.organized democracy.S. (4) Internationallaw. England. Indo-Chine. (2) Foreign and Comparative Government. (6) Political theory. German colonies in Africa. (3) International Relations. works dealing with Reconstruction in North Carolina. French. could not be located unambiguously in any of its substantive categories. finally. among others. as well as our attachment to the latter. and Muslim law). 19 Jan 2014 21:11:56 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .10 on Sun. Here. Kaufman-Osborn 61 The first issue of the APSR employed no categories in organizing its book reviews. and (d) the fact that "Miscellaneous. the categories employed to organize "recent publications of political interest" were modified as follows: (1) American Government and Public Law. Italy. is one of the two largest categories. (c) the absence of a separate category devoted to American politics. I would suggest. and its list of recently published periodical articles in political science uses their titles in alphabetical order to arrange its entries.50. the reduction of law to a single category (leaving aside the addition of public law to the category of American Government). and (6) Political Theory and Miscellaneous.). among others. the United States. second. (To appreciate the contrast of this scheme with that currently in use.) In 1917. Kentucky. entry into World War I). (4) Jurisprudence.253. However.Timothy V. and that in spite of their very general character. (5) Jurisprudence (which includes references to Roman. although no categories order its book review section. published in February. the list of recently published literature is divided as follows: (1) Administration (which includes."in terms of the number of entries grouped together beneath this rubric. the Railroad Rate Act of 1906. which indicates persistence of the discipline's early preoccupation with the state and its will. as the research we would now group together beneath this heading is dispersed throughout this scheme. (3) Constitutional law."and. Belgium." it reflects one of the foremost issues of public debate at that time. indicating This content downloaded from 157. first. and. to ask how most contemporary political scientists would respond were their work to be relegated to the category of "Miscellaneous. to note that today most of us would not find it inordinately difficult to locate the 1907 articles appearing under this category within one of the principal subfields now employed to partition the discipline. and New York). (5) Local Government. 1907. according to the APSR. (2) Colonies (which includes citations to work on Algeria. and the "passing of Korea"). The salient points to note about this scheme include (a) the fact that three of its seven categories deal with law. in the second issue. the annexation of Transvaal. we see an intimation of what in time will become the subfield of American politics (which may well reflect the nationalism that accompanied U. which appear in no particular order. etc. indicates the fluidity of the discipline insofar as much of the scholarship then published in political science. the history of the Papacy in the 19th century. (b) the presence of the category which is as much a political as an academic category in the sense that "Colonies.

and. its categories were as follows: (1) Political Theory. a 1962 report issued by the Committee on Standards of Instruction of the American Political Science Association stated that "political science as a discipline is ordinarily divided into four broad areas of study These are political theory.50. the political philosophy of Francis Bacon. elections in the United States. the elimination of the categories of Administration and Colonies as well as the addition of Local Government. these slight mutations became ever less frequent. (6) Other Books Received. Foreign and Comparative Government was re-christened as Comparative Government and Cross-National Research. (5) International Law. joining together. and perhaps most interestingly. Organization. and international relations. although the latter persisted until 1949 when it. organization and The report then recommended that the undergraduate curriculum in law.62 SUBFIELDS OF POLITICAL SCIENCE erosion of the jurisprudential conception of the state.). finally. following a brief period in which it disappeared altogether as a literature category (suggesting that those partial to such inquiry had reason to grouse about their marginality long before the advent of behavioralism). However. This content downloaded from 157. as did Methodology and Research. this pale heir of the Miscellaneous category disappeared. the consignment of Political Theory to the category of Miscellaneous. Comparative Public Administration. and Methodology." political science include. along with the APSR'slisting of recent publications. while book reviews remain consistently unorganized by category. In the 1950s and 1960s. leaving only the former. enduring more or less unchanged until 1944 when the category of Political and Legal Philosophy was distinguished from that of Miscellaneous. was introduced. while a new category. in addition to a general introductory course. 19 Jan 2014 21:11:56 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and. the particulars of the scheme employed to arrange entries beneath what was now labeled "Book Notes" fluctuate somewhat. and Politics. etc. (2) Methodology and Research in the Social Sciences. History of Political Thought. American political institutions and processes. These six categories prove quite resilient. for example. Additional signs of this scheme's consolidation were evident in 1971 when these same four subfields were incorporated into the APSR's Table of Contents (although the Book Reviews section remained a hodge-podge. (4) Foreign and Comparative Government. and still more so in 1972 when the distinction between book reviews and book notes was abolished. still appearing in random order. works on political leadership in India.10 on Sun. all of which were now unambiguously situated in one of the four basic subfield categories. In 1965. was consigned to the dustbin of history. as the four-subfield scheme familiar to us today began to displace all rivals. in 1960. For example. at least one course in each of these subfields.253. finally. in the same year. Thus. and. for example. comparative political institutions and processes. (3) American Government and Politics.

among other things. was essentially fixed. in which the book reviews previously published in the American Political Science Review now appear. For the source of this section's title. Kaufman-Osborn 63 After 1972. the APSAs creation of Perspectives on Politics in 2003. Indicative of this transformation is the adoption in 1949 of a new APSA constitution. Indeed. which. First.""AmericanPolitics'. each of which has an intra-as well as an extra-disciplinary dimension. by the early 1950s the APSA had changed "from a relatively loosely knit. provided for the establishment of a Washington. As a result.50. at least for the purpose of organizing its scholarship. "The Behavioral Approach in Political Science: Epitaph for a Monument to a Successful Protest' American Political Science Review 55 (December 1961): 763-72. and that in spite of the intriguing (but apparently disregarded) question posed in its inaugural statement of purpose: "Given that disciplinary and subdisciplinary fields are useful but sometimes inhibiting conventions.Timothy V. in pristine simplicity. Jennifer Hochschild. see Robert Dahl. Seidelman and Harpham report.'Perspectiveson Politics 1 (March 2003): 1." "ComparativePolitics'. the discipline became increasingly professionalized." recent does the most Thus Relations"). 52. DC. 4. I hypothesize. although there were occasional but impermanent adjustments in these categories (e. This content downloaded from 157. "Introductionand Observations. between 1983 and 1986 Political Theory is eliminated and replaced by two categories. the basic structure of the discipline. during the decades immediately following the war.. headed by an executive director who was assigned responsibility for developing the Association's professional and research services.253. are now listed as and "International "Political Theory. reflects two larger transformations of the profession. are neither as stable nor as timeless as this statement suggests). reproduce what its editor calls "the discipline's four traditional categories" (which. secretariat. Normative Theory and Empirical Methods). 19 Jan 2014 21:11:56 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . decentralized association with reformist political tendencies into a more 51.g. scholarly endeavor. discipline's the product of extended and often contentious dispute within the APSA and among its membership.10 on Sun. as my inquiry indicates. what do we learn by rejecting some of them?"51 Epitaph for a Monument to Successful Subfields52 How are we to account for the fact that the four-subfield model that now provides the authoritative model for organizing the scholarship of political science and for giving structure to graduate and undergraduate programs made its initial appearance after World War II and was then consolidated over the course of the next two decades? This development. brought no reconsideration of the adequacy of these categories (which.

displaced pragmatism as America's dominant philosophical mode. Ourdisciplinary fields label all other nation-statesas having 'comparative'significance. exceptionally exemplary of both democracy and capitalism. What he calls the discipline's "grand quartetS'that is. 54. behavioralism as a self-conscious intellectual movement emerged out of the Cold War as well as the post-war liberal consensus. Seidelman (with Harpham). and TarekMasoud (New York:Cambridge University Press. suffice it to say that. logical positivism. Several consequences.and the desire of American political scientists to affirmthe relevance of their scholarship to this configuration. However. Ian Shapiro. although usage of the term extends back as far as the 1920s. Rogers Smith has argued. 46. The second post-war development that accounts for consolidation of the present subfield model concerns the rise of behavioralism within the discipline. 2004). Hence. the less formal research and curricular traditions of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries would become reified in the form of obdurate subfields."54 In other words. At much the same time. This content downloaded from 157. notes Terence Ball. Another was 53. the invention of the computer and other data processing equipment.64 SUBFIELDSOF POLITICALSCIENCE centrally directed. is best understood in terms of the nationalist sensibilities of American political science during the Cold War era.50. with the United States as the paradigmatic nation-state. Rogers Smith. non-partisan professional interest group. in and of itself. as the APSA sought to rationalize and standardize the profession. the advance of survey techniques.253. and capitalism.10 on Sun. democracy. the ascendancy of the American nation-state in particular. ed. as Perspectives on Politics would have us believe. accompanied by rapid growth in various hard and soft technologies."53 Everything Max Weber taught us about bureaucratic organizations suggests their tendency to ossify over time. it should come as no surprise to learn that. explain why these particularsubfields came to hold sway That. the current subfield model represents the institutionalized articulation of the specific configuration of political forces that attended the rise of post-World War II nationalism. with its sharp delineation of fact from value. to point to the discipline's professionalization as an explanation for subfield consolidation does not. "articulates a perspective in which politics takes place essentially within and between nationstates. rather than standing as the discipline's fixed organizational categories. Disenchanted Realists. Rogers Smith. including the development of operations research. "The Politics of Identities and the Tasks of Political Science" in Problems and Methods in the Study of Politics. Forpresent purposes. the four-subfield model. 19 Jan 2014 21:11:56 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . 155. I have no intention of rehearsing that history in this context. or else they matter in their roles as international allies or adversaries of America. followed for the conduct of political science: One was a turn away from the formal and legal analysis of institutions to a deliberate and self-conscious focus on actual political behavior.

like all modern revolutions."in New Handbook. John Gunnell. this one had its manifestoes and its own program for reforming and indeed remaking an ostensibly backward and dormant discipline. And. "PoliticalScience: The History of the Discipline. see Gabriel Almond. David Truman.210. Terence Ball. and that resistance was methodological as well as political.58 Others believed that behavioralism's commitment to value neutrality rendered it ill-suited to contribute to political science's traditional role 55. 57. "American Political Science in Its Postwar Political Context. Explanation. writing in 1961.55 No doubt the most famous of these manifestoes was "The Behavioral Approach in Political Science. "Deduction. and especially its claim to be able to discover cross-cultural laws of political life. and Social Scientific Inquiry" American Political Science Review 63 (December 1969): 1233-58. 56. Emphasis original. and the political climate of the Cold War created an atmosphere in which the claims of political scientists came to have a certain appeal. would be to defeat its major aim.50. international relations. American hegemony following the allies' successful prosecution of World War II. 19 Jan 2014 21:11:56 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . for example. 'the state') and approaches (especially political theory or philosophy).253.' 770. and so on. claimed that behavioralism would in time disappear as a distinctive way of studying politics not because it had failed. Thus began the 'behavioral revolution. 58. the modern multiversity. That aim includes an eventual reworking and extension of most of the conventional 'fields' of political science. "The Behavioral Approach in Political Science.Timothy V.g. but because it would eventually succeed in defining "the main body of the discipline. Dahl. See also 208: "Thesocial sciences. To treat it as a 'field' coordinate with (and presumably isolated from) public law. Some of that opposition stemmed from those who challenged behavioralism's epistemological pretensions.' in Discipline and History. Thus it is in the postwar period that we see for the first time the creation of an institutional infrastructure-government granting agencies. and political science in particular. which picked up steam and influence through the 1950s and peaked in the decade that followed. the behavioral approach should not be regarded as just another subfield in political science because it "representsan orientation or a point of view which aims at stating all the phenomena of government in terms of the observed and observable behavior of men.10 on Sun. "The Behavioral Approach in Political Science. The discipline owed its growing prestige to a number of developments. the hegemonic aspirations of behavioralism provoked considerable resistance within the discipline of political science.and the increasing professionalization of the social sciences themselves-for supporting social science research and training" For another account of the broader political context out of which behavioralism emerges. as David Truman had stated still more emphatically a decade earlier."'767. Kaufman-Osborn 65 a decided preference for 'scientific' modes of inquiry and a suspicion bordering on hostility toward 'traditional' concepts (e. See. The creation of the welfare state during the Great Depression of the 1930s.. quoted in Dahl.' in which Robert Dahl. This content downloaded from 157.became increasingly prominent in the wake of World War II. private foundations."56 Or.'57 As has often been told. state and local government. 68-75.

"but by ever more trenchant critiques of it. ed. There. e. 1962).60 While proponents of this last claim castigated behavioralism for being insufficiently democratic. these conflicts had so transformed the discipline that one "could not speak in any meaningful sense of 'sides' or 'victories': political science had become too complex. Profession.. Rinehart. what Sheldon Wolin called its "methodism. suggests Dwight Waldo."61 By the mid-sixties.50. 61.. See. Herbert Storing. "Political Science: Tradition. Easton asked.'62 The aftermath of that exhaustion was evident in David Easton's 1969 APSApresidential address.understand. Considered together. arguably. had fired the opening salvo in the post-war behavioral revolution with publication of The Political System in 1953. I. "Politics and Pseudopolitics: A Critical Evaluation of Some Behavioral American Political Science Review 59 (March 1965): 3-51. a political scientist who. & Winston. and anticipate the kinds of domestic needs and wants that began to express themselves as political demands during the 1960s? How can we account for our neglect of the way in which the distribution of power within the system prevents measures from being taken in sufficient degree and time to escape the resort to violence in the expression of demands." can we account for the failure of the current pluralist interpretation of democracy to identify.253. for example. Science. both at home and abroad. 62. quieting or perhaps the exhaustion of these proclamations characterize the postbehavioral era in which we arguably still reside" This content downloaded from 157.. Literature.' left it unable to grasp the import of political movements that fundamentally challenged the prevailing order.59 And still others contended that behavioralism's employment of positivist methods.66 SUBFIELDSOF POLITICALSCIENCE as educator of citizens. collectively." 60. Discipline. Sheldon Wolin. Dissenting Essays in Political Science (New York:Random House. confessed that the discipline was now defined not by "behavioral orthodoxy. Power and Community. students of Leo Strauss and others took the reverse tack by criticizing behavioralism for mirroring in its intellectual commitments "the "dangerous proclivities of democracy.10 on Sun. See."American PoliticalScience Review 63 (December 1969): 1062-82. 61-62. Essays on the Scientific Study of Politics (New York:Holt. opinions too tempered. For much the same claim. emotions too exhausted.g. Vol."Remembering the 199: "The Revolution: Behavioralism in American Political Science" in Political Science in History. Christian Bay. 19 Jan 2014 21:11:56 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . See also the essays in Philip Green and Sanford Levinson. a condition that threatens to bring about the deepest crisis of political authority that the United States has ever suffered? How can we account for the difficulty that political science as a discipline has in avoiding a commitment to the basic assumptions of national policy. see James Farr. "How. 1970). Enterprise" in Handbook of PoliticalScience. arguments too subtle. "PoliticalTheory as a Vocation. we have appeared more as 59. so that in the end. those critiques offered a damning portrait of a discipline whose quest for methodological orthodoxy had generated nothing so much as political obtuseness and intellectual irrelevance. 326. eds. Dwight Waldo.

67."67 63. CA:Sage. "PoliticalScience in the United States: Past and Present" in Divided Knowledge. a tolerance for multiple approaches in their analysis."American Political Science Review 63 (December 1969): 1057. and. without the overarching organization or intellectual vigor of a post-behavioralism-or any other 'ism' for that matter. Tragedyof Political Science. The "drift" that Eulau refers to in this essay had measurable organizational implications. 66. James Farr. he bemoaned "the drift of a discipline. Rogers Smith writes: "Postbehavioralismis best understood as describing a time period not an intellectual school or approach" Furthermore. Labeling it "the decade of disillusionment. (Beverly Hills.10 on Sun. in 1977. 65." Although reluctant to specify the principal tenets that would define this era. 211. Non-Science. During this same decade. James Farrhas suggested that "as a credo or a positive doctrine. 'postbehavioralism' did not galvanize the discipline.Temporally speaking. such as the outpouring of policy studies. and Politics"in The Historic Turnin the Human Sciences. As Joseph This content downloaded from 157."Remembering the Revolution."66 Heinz Eulau perhaps best expressed the sentiment of the now disillusioned when.' 219-20. assassinations." and "much of political science continues as it did before" (132). is ultimately rooted in certain evaluative assumptions. "TheNew Revolution:' 1058. political science is still in a nominally postbehavioral era. moreover. a "post-behavioral era. no matter how dispassionate. anti-war protests. 1996). 19 Jan 2014 21:11:56 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Ricci.. a commitment to "creative speculation about political alternatives in the largest sense. 1990). ed. In a similar vein."David Ricci has argued that in the 1970s much of the discipline remained wedded to behavioral techniques. "The New Revolution in Political Science'.' most now agree. "Driftof a Discipline:' American Behavioral Scientist 21 (September/October 1977): 3-10. Easton avowed that they would include an acknowledgment of the fact that all research. Easton. and the threat of nuclear war. David Easton and Corinne Schelling. above all else."65 Arguing in a similar vein. has proven something of a bust. McDonald (Ann Arbor:University of Michigan Press.Timothy V. "while at the same time losing faith in the larger professional outlook" that once animated their deployment.l64 Yet the promise that Easton ascribed to the "post-behavioral era. Writingtwo decades later. however uncertainly.the "variousprotests swept together by the label have little in common beyond some enemies. Terence J. it would appear that Easton was no longer so sanguine about the prospects of letting a thousand disciplinary flowers bloom: "There are now so many approaches to political research that political science seems to have lost its purpose" (143). could be brought together by the community of scholars in comprehensive and useful form. David Easton. an attentiveness to the most urgent political crises of the day. "no one succeeded in publishing a comprehensive and widely acceptable work explaining how bits and pieces of political science research. Kaufman-Osborn 67 apologists of succeeding governmental interpretations of American interests than as objective analysts of national policy and its consequences?"63 In response to these multiple failures. .50. Heinz Eulau. ed. Easton declared that political science was now entering. in "Science. located within a political context marked by race riots.

Those subfields. 18."68 were consolidated in the wake of the conflict spawned by the behavioral revolution and express the tacit compromises that attended collapse of that revolution's disciplinary ambitions. between 1974 and 1982 individual memberships in the American Political Science Association declined by nearly a third (839). boundaries. "The Making of a Discipline" in Political Science: Looking to the Future. Disenchanted Realists. on Gunnell's account. What we confront today is perhaps best labeled a post-behavioral stalemate. simply disregards) these archaic categories. with respect to the subfield of political theory. a commonly accepted language. through various mechanisms. but most particularlythrough the structure of undergraduate and graduate programs in political science as well as through the APSA's assignment of scholarship under review. that stalemate is reflected in the proliferation of what the APSA calls "special fields.68 SUBFIELDS OF POLITICAL SCIENCE It is within this context. Conclusion If Donald Freeman. Much of the behavioral revolution was marked by an attack on more traditional conceptions of theory and." PS: Political Science & Politics 31 (December 1998). control over those who practice within its ranks. 19 Jan 2014 21:11:56 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . even as its best scholarship chafes beneath (or. This content downloaded from 157. and no unified conception of the discipline. in his 1991 review of the discipline's history. On the other hand. Brian Losco points out in "WhitherIntellectual Diversity in American Political Science? The Case of APSA and Organized Sections. Or. and its success is reflected by. the founding of the Conference for the Study of Political Thought in 1967. perhaps. Consolidation of an organized subfield of political theory is. more particularly. on the one hand. is provided by John Gunnell in his The Descent of Political Theory:The Genealogy of an American Vocation(Chicago: Universityof Chicago Press. Donald Freeman.253. Seidelman (with Harpham). 69. 68. 221. and a measure of respect from others who share the world within which the discipline is practiced. that we locate the subfields that now define the organizational logic of the discipline.50. "needs an identity. for example. 1993). largely the fruitof a defensive response to this threat. was correct to claim that an academic discipline.69To attribute to these subfields any more gravity or fixity than this account suggests is to engage in disciplinary an effort to supplant that conception of theory with one that was positivist in orientation and scientific in aspiration. Within the discipline as a whole.10 on Sun. and. finally. which Seidelman and Harpham aptly characterize as "respectable political science cul-de-sacs in which the semblance of academic community [can] be rekindled through the avoidance of disturbing questions.' a proliferation that is guided by no apparent logic. no prevailing orthodoxy. I would suggest. Evidence to support this contention."O7 then perhaps political scientists are academic equivalents of the state-less peoples of the world. like a sovereign state. the discipline continues to afford privileged status to a small set of subfields.To fail to critically assess these subfields is to permit relics of the Cold Warera to circumscribe the professional study of politics. perhaps better still. formation of the APSAs Foundations of Political Theory program section in 1988. creation of the journal Political Theoryin 1973.

that "the response of political scientists to the collapse of pluralist theory in the polity has been to implement pluralist rules of the game within the discipline itself. which has generated so many laments in recent decades. however. This paradox. Kaufman-Osborn 69 Barry was closer to the mark when he proposed that the discipline of political science is akin to a confederation comprised of so many academic departments whose only internal common denominator is the shared rubric that yokes our courses to one another in college and university catalogs. Segmentation and a certain uniformity thus seemed to go hand in hand. Seidelman (with Harpham). and accommodating letters from friendly specialists during tenure decisions. 189. Soviet specialists. Political Science: The State of the Discipline. that such 71. the vocational composition of the membership."75It is not put this otherwise.7 No matter which of these accounts is most apt. and. Or.253. Disenchanted Realists. is belied by the rigid structure of university graduate programs in political science. Mathematical modelers. 73. students of Hobbes and few radicals-each group possesses its own disciplinary interest groups.Timothy V."73 Indeed. however tenuously. the uniformity cited by Veysey is a bureaucratic response to such segmentation."in Organizationof Knowledge. and no single intellectual approach is clearly predominant throughout the discipline. panels. becoming a mode of discourse of and for itself"'74 When the partisans of no one mode of inquiry within political science are able to secure control of the official apparatus of the Association. lastly. then. while heterogeneity marked the subject-matterand. 74. 19 Jan 2014 21:11:56 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . more than going hand in hand. "the organization of modern political science may triumph over its original functions. the state of the discipline since its inception appears to mock the pretense implicit in books Science:TheStateof the Discipline. this appearance of disunity.10 on Sun. 75. Ada Finifter. by the political science curriculum at liberal arts colleges. ironically and perhaps especially so for the author of the present essay.50. Laurence Veysey argues. 69. Laurence Veysey.72 bearingtitlessuch as Political Yet." Political Theory 9 (August 1981): 293-301. complete with journals. has been one of the defining features of the contemporary world of academia at universities and colleges alike since at least the 1920s: "Definiteness and coherence pertained to the standardized external forms that came into being."PluralOrganized Worldsof the Humanities. as did Seidelman and Harpham in 1985.ed. the result is an unstated policy of haphazard the employment of the four-subfield model to organize its scholarship. Disenchanted Realists. Seidelman (with Harpham).. 72. And if that is the case. and whose only external bond is that furnished. by the American Political Science Association. Brian Barry. one might say. to some extent. This content downloaded from 157. and while I do not mean to underestimate current efforts by the proponents of rational choice theory to secure hegemony over the discipline. 240. at the same time."Do Neighbors Make Good Fences? Political Theory and the TerritorialImperative.

The normalization of such de-politicization is apparent. to create "special fields:' whether these be in gender politics. to cite but one example. it is not clear that a set of categories that privileges the nation-state as a political form (indeed. More specifically. in the APSAs recently issued pamphlet titled "PoliticalScience: An Ideal LiberalArts which states that the "undergraduatestudy of politics usually consists of Major.70 SUBFIELDS OF POLITICAL SCIENCE pluralism. acknowledging the positivist aspirations that continue to define much of the discipline. and ideas that are part of rapidly increasing global cultural transactions. in "The Politics of Identities.""they provide evidence that the time when the prevailing field structure served the discipline's analytical purposes well is passing. to quote Michael Shapiro.. or whatever: "Asthese demands accumulate. political theory" and. what might otherwise be an issue of intellectually fruitful contestation within the discipline assumes the form of a bland claim.50.' and that are now "creating a different and nonstatic planetary map.. capital." courses on American politics." Here. fosters much in the way of genuine intellectual confrontation. 3-4.253."77 A profession whose organizational structure frustrates inquiry into this newly emerging planetary map has only itself to blame if it ends up on the sidelines. technologies.76 Such de-politicization is also arguably accompanied by a reprise of the sort of irrelevance that so worried David Easton. "methodology. Michael Shapiro and Hayward Alker (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. at the graduate as well as undergraduate levels. That the present subfield structure is now creaking under its own weight is indicated by the ever larger number of requests from students.and if the residual effects of that conflict are ever less salient in shaping the contemporary political world. lastly. that structure now stands in the way of even asking.10 on Sun. 76. but also in its privileged place in the discourses and literatures of global representation. images. if indeed it ever really did so. 19 Jan 2014 21:11:56 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . although appearing to be merely descriptive. If Rogers Smith is correct in claiming that the substantive subfields that now dominate political science are so many memorials to the Cold War. rooted in professional differentiation and sustained by an ethos of liberal tolerance. By reifying a certain subset of political identities as all-important."in Challenging Boundaries. international relations. much less answering. all the questions that should concern us in the contemporary world" (52). such tolerance may serve to de-politicize the study of politics by disguising the appearance and dampening the articulation of latent but very real conflicts within the discipline. Indeed. 1996). "Introduction to Part I.The hegemony of the state has existed not only in its political and administrative control over its spaces and populations. race and ethnic politics."suggests Rogers Smith. comparative political systems. which. Michael Shapiro. then scholarship that is informed by these subfields runs a real danger of anachronism. much like the pluralist account of politics. a set that carves out an exceptional status for one nation-state in particular) can effectively grasp. is in fact a performative statement that ratifies and perpetuates a particular way of ordering the academic enterprise of thinking about politics. 77. ed. "the flows of people. This content downloaded from 157.

but their durability is also a function of the way they have become constitutive of our very identities as professional political scientists. apparently.253. prevents our students. and perhaps us as well. from catching on to the truth about political science.Timothy V. 19 Jan 2014 21:11:56 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . It is such conservatism that is articulated within an organizational structure that denies the incoherence of the discipline in order to sustain the apparent integrity of the subject matter that furnishes its raison d'etre and. Part of their persistence is an effect of bureaucratic inertia. This content downloaded from 157. in so doing.10 on Sun. we become enforcers patrolling and fortifying borders that. As such. we can no longer do without. these categories are tenaciously defended (or simply accepted uncritically).50. often by those whose scholarship and teaching ill fits their confines. Kaufman-Osborn 71 As these reified subfields take on lives of their own.