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Transactional, Charismatic and Transformational Leadership.

What leaders do.

Charisma

The quality of a leader that makes many people want to follow.

Charismatic leadership involves the use of power

Power
 The ability to influence people to do things.

 Five types of power
 


 

Coercive – based on punishment Reward – Based on rewards Legitimate –Based on a role Expert – Based on needed knowledge Referent – based on charisma

Halpert’s dimensions
 Charisma combines power with task

orientation
 

Referent Power Expert Power Job or task involvement

Use of power by leaders
 Socialized Charisma

Power for social good
Power for personal benefit Combines legitimate power with task needs

 Personalized charisma

 Office holder Charisma

 Personal charisma

Use referent power to lead

Leadership from a systemic and sociological perspective
Leaders

Followers

Context

Relationships

Leadership from a systemic and sociological perspective
 Leaders and followers

form a social system of relationships  Interact within a context

Leaders

Followers

Context

Charismatic Leadership
 Combines what the leader does

(behavior) with what the leader is (characteristics)  Focus on the relationship between the leader and the followers.

Charismatic Leadership Characteristics
 Charismatic leaders high in

Dominance  Self confidence  Need for influence  Belief in own values

Charismatic Leadership Behaviors
 Goal Articulation 

 

A transcendent goal inspires a movement - I have a dream Personal Image Building  Behaviors that create impression of competence/success  Prove his competence to the followers Leader role modeling of value system  Gandhi models self sacrificing behavior of non violence Leader motive arousal behavior  Message inspires needs in the followers that are needed to complete the task. (message of love=needs for affiliation=required for bringing together Hindu/Moslems/Christians) Leader communication of high performance expectations of, and confidence in, followers

Follower Behaviors
 Characteristics and behaviors of the

charismatic leader encourage behaviors in the followers  Trust, loyalty, unquestioning acceptance, obedience to the leader  Emulation of leader’s value system  Acceptance by followers of challenging goals  Enhanced self esteem and performance expectations by the followers

The Result
 Effective follower performance if the behavior

is appropriate to the task being accomplished

Charismatic Leadership Model Robert House

Leader Characteristics Dominance Self Confidence Need for influence Belief in values

Goal Articulation

Personal Image Building

Role model of value system

Motive arousal

High Expectations of and confidence in followers

Leader Behaviors Favorable perception of the leader

Trust, loyalty, acceptance and obedience

Emulation of the leader's value system Follower Behaviors

Arousal of follower needs and acceptance of challenging goals

Enhanced self esteem and performance expectations

Effective follower performance

Leader-Follower Relationships

Transactional Leadership

Transactional Leadership
 Classical management  Focus on the leader and the follower  Transaction  Work for pay  Work for psychological benefits (status, recognition or esteem)  Requires appropriate role behavior  Requires clear goals and appropriate

instructions  Transactional leadership focuses on the task.

Transactional Leadership
 Puts leaders and followers on opposite sides.

 Ebb and flow of power and reward depending

on follower performance.
 

High task performance=power and rewards to the follower. Low task performance=Leader exercises legitimate and coercive power.

 Promotes “game-playing”

Transactional Leadership

A demonstration

Transformational Leadership

Transformational leadership
 Transforms the

environment and the people in it  Focuses on building an appropriate context and on enhancing the relationships of people within the system

Leader

Follower

The environment

Transforming the culture
 People can be trusted

 Everyone has a contribution to make
 Complex problems should be handled at the

lowest level  Norms are flexable adapting to changing environment  Superiors are coaches, mentors, models

Transforming the leader’s behavior
 Identifying and articulating a vision-Behavior on the part of the

leader aimed at identifying new opportunities for his or her unit/division/company, and developing, articulating, and inspiring others with his or her vision of the future.  Providing an appropriate model-Behavior on the part of the leader that sets an example for employees to follow that is consistent with the values the leader espouses.
 Fostering the acceptance of group goals-Behavior on the part of the

leader aimed at promoting cooperation among employees and getting them to work together toward a common goal.

Transforming the leader’s behavior
 High performance expectations-Behavior that demonstrates the

leader's expectations for excellence, quality, and/or high performance on the part of followers.
 Providing individualized support-Behavior on the part of the leader

that indicates that he/she respects followers and is concerned about their personal feelings and needs.
 Intellectual stimulation-Behavior on the part of the leader that

challenges followers to re-examine some of their assumptions about their work and rethink how it can be performed.

What is your leadership styleTransactional or transformational?