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Chapter 1

Introduction
1.1 History:
PAKISTAN is one of the developing countries, where always remaining the deficiency of the power like those of other developing countries, so for this purpose KOT A ! T"#$%A& PO'#$ STATION pro(ect was initiated in )*+, -y 'AP A with the purpose to fulfil the increasing demand of electricity in PAKISTAN. Installing the latest technology completed this power pro(ect. In )**/ following the policy of privatisation 0#NA1I$ 2O3#$N%#NT privatised this power station. NATIONA& PO'#$ 4a !K -ased company5 gave the highest -id, a-out $S 6+ -illion to purchase 7/8 shares of this powerhouse. Thus a company named KAP9O -ecame the owner of this thermal station -ecause according to the contract the management of this organisation was transferred to KAP9O. &ater on KAP9O purchased ):8 more shares from 'AP A. SO now KAP9O is having ;/8 shares of this powerhouse with total management control.

1.2 About The Project:
Kot Addu is situated in istrict %u<affar 2arh, )::=K% north west of %ultan on the left -ank of Indus $iver at a distance of )/=K% from TA!NSA 0A$$A2# in ivision era 2ha<i Khan. The area is covered with fertile agricultural land. There are some ad(acent areas covered with wind -lown land dunes, which were formed with the passage of time. These sand areas too are -eing gradually converted into agricultural land. 'ith the installation of Kot Addu power station, (o- opportunities have -een provided to a-out **7 personnel. 9urrently the strength of the officers and staff is **7. 0eside the regular staff a num-er of people have -een engaged on daily wages also. Kot Addu, which is now on the National map as a power plant site, has -een supplying power on the National 2rid since )*+, through );7 k3 and 77: k3 transmission, lines.

1.3 Site Selection:
'hile making the site selection following factors was kept in view. #>isting PA$9O facility for transportation of "S from Karachi to %ehmood Kot, which is

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a-out ;6 km from Kot Addu. ?rom %ehmood Kot, a ): inches pipeline has -een laid to this power station and "S pumping was started in @une )*+*. • • • • • • Sweet under ground water. ?uture load centre of Northwest areas. Possi-le use of 2as from near-y hodak field. Kot Addu (unction railway station. To provide (o-s opportunities to the locals. 2eneral uplift and development of areas.

1.4

About The Plant:

The gas tur-ines, despite of their low installation cost, easy and speedy erection and high rate, perhaps could not win the deserving popularity over the steam tur-ines due to the poor efficiency. In the conventional gas tur-ine unit, su-stantial amount of heat energy was lost through the tur-ine e>haust gases, which leave the tur-ine at a-out 6+: degree centigrade. To make use of this wasteful energy, an innovative concept of the com-ined cycle plant, now has -een introduced -y the gas tur-ine manufacturers. !nder this design, the e>haust of the gas tur-ine is made to pass through a conduction type -oiler. The high=pressure steam so generated is then used to run the steam tur-ine, which thus produces power without any fuel. This raises the plant efficiency to nearly A78 against the 7+8 of the conventional gas tur-ine. 2enerally a com-ined cycle plant comprises of two gas tur-ines and one steam tur-ine. ?or relia-ility of machines, each gas tur-ine is provided with e>haust gases control dampers. These dampers lead the got gases into the -oiler or to the atmosphere as per operation mode of the machine. 'ith this provision, the gas tur-ine can -e run in single cycle mode if the associated steam tur-ine is under maintenance or unavaila-le due to some other reason.

1.

!"er"ie#:

There are many different types of power plants including thermal power plants and hydel power plants. Thermal power plants -urn fuel such as 2as, "S , ?urnace Oil or nuclear fuel to produce heat energy that is converted to electrical energy through a series of intermediate processes. "ydel power plants convert the potential energy of water to electrical power as it flows from higher to lower elevations.

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The BtraditionalB thermal power plant is the $ankine cycle plant, named after the man who invented the cycle. A power plant cycle is a series of processes in which a fluid, generally waterCsteam, is used to convert heat energy to mechanical energy. The $ankine cycle in its simplest form consists of a -oiler, a tur-ine, a condenser, and a -oiler feed pump. #arly plants had thermal efficiencies of appro>imately 768 to ;:8. Only 768 to ;:8 of the heat energy in the fuel -urned in these plants was converted to electrical energy. The rest was lost in various ways. The $ankine cycle has -een refined considera-ly over the years and made more efficient -y the addition of components like #conomi<er, ?eedwater heaters, Superheaters and $eheaters. The efficiency of the $ankine cycle has also -een improved -y increasing the pressure and temperature of the cycle. The laws of thermodynamics and considerations such as material limitations have prevented any significant improvement since then. Power plants commonly use heat rate to measure efficiency. "eat rates in KAP9O power plant on different fuels are shown in ta-le ). Thus, heat rate shows the amount of heat in k@Ckwh that is reDuired to produce a kilowatt=hour of electrical energy. Thermal efficiency can -e converted to heat rate -y using the conversion factor given -elow.The heat rate of the KAP9O 2eneration 9omple> varies -etween A:8 to AA8. Thermal efficiency depending on fuel selection and am-ient conditions.

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Chapter 2

An Introduction To All $loc%s:&
 CC' 1  Block 1  CC' 2  Block 2  CC' 3  Block 3

2.1

Plant (esi)n (ata !* $loc% + ,1:

2.1.1 -as Turbines ,1 . ,2:

• • • • • • • •

%anufacturer %odel Starting evice

Siemens 42ermany5 3 *A.7 2en runs as %otor A min A A7/ kgCsec Iskamatics *6 %'

Starting time upto ;::: rpm Tur-ine Stages ?lue gass mass flow 9ontrol 9apacity I 9

2.1.2 -as Turbines ,3 . ,4:

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77 kgCsec 9onventional relay type +7 %' Starting time upto .3 Stea/ Turbines ./ 9 +7 %' *..7 %' :.• • • • • • • • %anufacturer %odel Starting evice ?IAT %CS 2I# 4Italy5 T2 6: ))K3E)*)6K' 76 min A .::: rpm Tur-ine Stages ?lue gass mass flow 9ontrol 9apacity I 9 2.0 .* -ar C )*:..: • • • • • • • • %anufacturer %odel $ated Power 3accume "P Steam inlet pressCTemp &P Steam inlet pressCTemp 9apacity I 9 ST2 F :* 9apacity I 9 ST2 F ): A00 42ermany5 K7:6/ ))7. 1. %' 5 ..1.* -ar C A*6 9 .:*) -ar A.

1 -as Turbines ..2 Stea/ Turbines 11 .::: rpm Tur-ine Stages ?lue gass mass flow 9ontrol 9apacity I 9 2T F :6 9apacity I 9 2T F :/ 9apacity I 9 2T F :.%' . 9apacity I 9 2T F :+ 2./K3E):::K' ): min . A:/ kgCsec %ark A Speedtronic .2 2.1: • • • • • • • • • • • %anufacturer %odel Starting evice A&ST"O% 4?rance5 %S *::) # /. 12: • • %anufacturer %odel $AT#A! 4?rance5 3#2A 7:*=)):0 6 .2.* %' Starting time upto .2.* %' +7 %' .2.2 Plant (esi)n (ata !* $loc% + . To .

• • • • • $ated Power 3accume "P Steam inlet pressCTemp 9apacity I 9 ST2 F )) 9apacity I 9 ST2 F )7 ):.3.:*) -ar A: -ar C 6): 9 . -ar C 67+ 9 7 .1 -as Turbines 13 .2 Stea/ Turbine 1 :& • • • • %anufacturer %odel $ated Power "P Steam inlet pressCTemp SI#%#NS 42ermany5 :.7 2en runs as a %otor A min A A./ %' 6.A %' :.: G 7H6 G + I* )A+.3 2.:=)/ . N.::: rpm Tur-ine Stages ?lue gass mass flow 9ontrol 9apacity I 9 2T F :6 2.) kgCsec T#&#P#$% ):/ %' Starting time upto ./ %' +7 %' 2. 14:& • • • • • • • • %anufacturer %odel Starting evice SI#%#NS 42ermany5 3=*A.3 Plant (esi)n (ata !* $loc% + ..3.

.+ -ar C 77) 9 )7: %' Chapter 3 Turbine Side As we are using com-ined cycle in our power station. 3.1 Introduction to Co/bined Cycle Po#er -eneration: 8 .• • &P Steam inlet pressCTemp 9apacity I 9 ST2 F )6 6. we will discuss it first then will move forward a-out a little -it description of each part.

the com-ined cycle can -e represented -y (oining the high temperature 0rayton cycle with the moderate pressure and temperature $ankine cycle. 9om-ined cycle plants can achieve these high efficiencies -ecause much of the heat e>haust from the gas tur-ine4s5 is captured and used in the $ankine cycle portion of the plant. Fig Process of GTPS 3. The heat from the e>haust gases would normally -e lost to the atmosphere in an open cycle gas tur-ine.2 • 2hy co/bined cycle is pre*erable:& One of the principal reasons for the popularity of the com-ined cycle power plants is their high thermal efficiency.9om-ine cycle refers to a power plant in which a gas tur-ine is integrated with a steam tur-ine cycle unit. Thermodynamically. 9om-ined cycle plants with thermal efficiencies as high as 678 have -een -uilt.The rankine cycle makes use of the much of the heat in the gas tur-ine e>haust gases . 9 .

Although it takes longer time to -uild a com-ined cycle plant than a simple gas tur-ine plant 3. The -asic gas tur-ine consists of a compressor.6: °9 at the compressor discharge. The air is drawn into the compressor.In installation where the gas tur-ine e>hausts directly to the atmosphere.4 The -as Turbine 5$rayton6 Cycle:& The ma(or component of the com-ine cycle power plant is the gas tur-ine.3 Co//on 3uels 4sed In Co/bine Cycle:& Natural gas is the most common fuel used -y com-ined cycle gas tur-ine power plants. the plant is referred to as a com-ined cycle power plant. a com-ustion cham-er and a tur-ine. A common arrangement of a gas tur-ine driving an electric generator is shown in figure. 'hen a gas tur-ine e>hausts into a heat recovery steam generator 4"$S25 the resultant steam is used to operate a steam tur-ine generator. The temperature also increases with compression and may -e as high as .• Another reason for the popularity of com-ined cycle plant is that it reDuires less time for their construction as compared to a conventional steam power plant of the same output. 10 . it is said to -e operating in Jopen cycleK mode. At KAP9O three fuels are used • • • 2as "S 4"igh speed diesel5 ?urnace Oil 3. which raise the pressure.

°9 to 66:°9. Fig Gas Turbine Rotor 11 .a-out /:8 is used to drive the compressor .The e>haust temperature of unit )M7 is in the range of 6:.the thermal energy of gas is converted into mechanial energy that is used to do work. 0urning the fuel results in a high temperature and high pressure gases with considera-le thermal energy.The remaider of the tur-ine work is availale to produce power -y driving a generator.A large of work from the tur-ine .giving up their thermal energy to the -lades of the rotating tur-ine.These hot gases enter the tur-ine where they e>pand .In the process of e>panding and cooling through tur-ine . fuel is in(ected into the compressed air and is -urnt to convert the fuelLs chemical energy into heat energy.Fig Gas Turbine In the com-ustion cham-er .

1. 9ompressor Assem-ly 7.. A. ?lame Tu-e 0urner %i>ing 9ham-er Tur-ine Tur-ine shaft #>haust iffuser Fig Gas turbine Parts 3.4.. 6. . .3.1 Co/pressor The a>ial=flow compressor consists of the rotor and the enclosing casing.4.1 7ain Co/ponents !* -as Turbine: ). the ). stages of 12 . Included within the compressor casing are the inlet guide vanes. /.

tie -olts and the compressor rotor -lades. Since minimum clearance -etween rotor and stator provides -est performance in a compressor. The compressed air e>its through the compressor discharge casing to the com-ustion cham-ers. each with an integral wheel. Air is e>tracted from the compressor 6 th stage for -earing sealing and from ))th stage for pulsation control. They support the rotor at the -earing points and constitute the outer wall of the gas=path annulus. • Inlet Casin) The inlet casing is located at the forward end of the gas tur-ine. Its prime function is to uniformly direct air into the compressor. a speed ring. #ach wheel and the wheel portion of each stu-=shaft have slots -roached around its periphery. parts have to -e made and assem-led very accurately. In the compressor. in con(unction with the tur-ine shell and e>haust frame form the primary structure of the gas tur-ine. Selective positioning of the wheels is made during assem-ly to reduce -alance correction b6 Co/pressor Stator: The stator 4casing5 area of the compressor section is composed of four ma(or sectionsN • • • • inlet casing forward compressor casing aft compressor casing compressor discharge casing These sections.rotor and stator -lades and the e>it guide vanes. The rotor -lades and spacers are inserted into these slots. The rotor -lades supply the force needed to compress the air in each stage and the stator -lades guide the air so that it enters in the following rotor stage at the proper angle. The inlet casing also 13 . air is confined to the space -etween the rotor and stator -lades where it is compressed in stages -y a series of alternate rotating and stationary airfoil= shaped -lades. two stu-=shafts. a6 Co/pressor 'otor: The compressor rotor is an assem-ly of )6 individual wheels.

3or#ard Casin) Inlet Casing The forward compressor casing contains the first four compressor stator stages c6 Co/pressor 'otor $lades 14 .) -earing housingO a separate casing that contains the P ) -earing.supports the no. Fig • .

The compressor stator -lades are also airfoil shaped and are mounted -y similar dovetails into ring segments. The -lades of first eight stages are attached to their wheels -y dovetail arrangements. The stator -lades of the last nine stages and two e>it guide vanes have a sDuare -ase dovetail that are inserted directly into circumferential grooves in the casing.4.The compressor rotor -lades are airfoil shaped and designed to compress air efficiently at synchronous speed. &ocking keys also hold them in place.2 Co/bustion Section 15 . Fig Com ressor Rotor 3.1.

This system also includes fuel no<<les. Fig Combustion !ra er 16 . ?uel is supplied to each com-ustor through a no<<le designed to disperse and mi> the fuel with the proper amount of com-ustion air. This air enters the com-ustion <one through metering holes for proper fuel com-ustion and through slots to cool the com-ustor liner. spark plug ignition system.The com-ustion system is of the reverse=flow type with )A com-ustors arranged around the periphery of the compressor discharge casing. flame detectors and crossfire tu-es. 9om-ustors are num-ered counter=clockwise when viewed looking down= stream and starting from the top of the machine. generated from -urning fuel in the com-ustors. "ot gases. "igh pressure air from the compressor discharge is directed around the transition pieces and into the com-ustor liners. are used to drive the tur-ine.

813 (8. To Co'er Combustor Liner GT 5-8 Retaining 4ut 5ock Plate Insulator Gasket b6 Co/bustors: "isc#arge air from t#e a$ial%flo& com ressor flo&s into eac# combustion flo& slee'e from t#e combustion &ra er (see figure). T#is air enters t#e combustor+s reaction .8883 (8.one t#roug# t#e fuel no.39 mm) 8. .one &#ere a**itional air is mi$e* &it# t#e combustion gases.etering #oles in t#e *ilution . Its secondary purpose is to act as a support for the com-ustorLs assem-lies.le s&irl ti .one allo& t#e correct amount of air to enter an* cool t#e gases to *esire* tem erature.. In turn.8213 (1.22 mm) 8.a6 Co/bustion 2rapper: The com-ustion wrapper forms a plenum in which the compressor discharge air flow is directed to the com-ustors.one an* t#en into a *ilution .t#roug# metering #oles in bot# t#e ca an* liner an* t#roug# combustion #oles in t#e for&ar* #alf of t#e liner. T#e air flo&s u stream along t#e outsi*e of t#e combustion liner to&ar* t#e liner ca . /long t#e lengt# of t#e combustion liner an* in t#e liner ca are o enings &#ose function is to Tie Bolt Terminal 0$tension S ring Cylin*er 1.one ass t#roug# a t#ermal soaking .88 mm) 17 Figure CI-40 Spark Plug Assembly . T#e #ot combustion gases from t#e reaction . the wrapper is supported -y the compressor discharge casing and the tur-ine shell.23 (111 mm) Stroke Piston 6 Ro* /ssembly S ark Plug !as#ers Core /ssembly 07ual Ga s &it#in 8.

If flame is present. and an electronic amplifier which is mounted in the tur-ine control panel. cham-er pressure causes the spark plugs to retract and the electrodes are removed from the com-ustion <one. Once a flame is esta-lished in one com-ustor. the a-sence of flame will generate an opposite output defining Bno flameB.. a spark at one or -oth of these plugs ignites the gases in a cham-erO the remaining cham-ers are ignited -y crossfire through the tu-es that interconnect the reaction <one of the remaining cham-ers. ?or this reason.flo& slee'es an* transition ieces are i*entical. e6 3la/e (etectors: uring the starting seDuence. the ioni<ation of the gas in the detector allows conduction of current in the circuit which activates the electronics to give an output defining flame. d6 Spar% Plu)s: 9om-ustion is initiated -y means of the discharge from two high=voltage retracta-le electrode spark plugs installed in ad(acent com-ustors no. /ll 11 combustion liners. 6 and )). After the esta-lishment of flame. A dc voltage. The gas within this flame sensor detector is sensitive to the presence of ultraviolet radiation which is emitted -y a hydrocar-on flame. These spring=in(ected and pressure=retracted plugs receive their energy from ignition transformers at ). K3. 9onversely. a flame monitoring system is used consisting of four sensors which are installed on four com-ustors no. supplied -y the amplifier.. it is essential that an indication of the presence or a-sence of flame -e transmitted to the control system. is impressed across the detector terminals. . the difference of pressure e>isting -etween a fired com-ustor -asket and an unfired one. A. is enough to cause a temporary flame through the crossfire tu-e which fires the com-ustor -asket unfired. Transition ieces *irect t#e #ot gases from t#e liners to t#e turbine no.les.ro'i*e a film of air for cooling t#e &alls of t#e liner an* ca as s#o&n in figure.. )7 and ). c6 Cross*ire Tubes: All fourteen com-ustors are interconnected -y means of crossfire tu-es. The ultraviolet flame sensor consists of a flame sensor. At the time of firing. As rotor speed increases. containing a gas filled detector. if voltage is re=esta-lished to the sensors defining the loss 4or lack5 of flame a signal is sent to a relay panel in the 18 .

in a manner which promotes uniform. starting means circuit. In this way fuel ignites easily and -urns completely. they are introduced through separate -ut concentric passages in the no<<le -ody. *6 3uel 8o99les: #ach com-ustor is eDuipped with a fuel no<<le that emits the metered amount of the reDuired fuel into the com-ustion liner. The J?ailure to ?ireK or J&oss of ?lameK is also indicated on the annunciator.. The liDuid fuel and atomi<ing air enter the fuel no<<le assem-ly through separate connections. etc.ing air <C=%1 To Sum Tank 19 .tur-ine electronic control circuitry where au>iliary relays in the tur-ine firing trip circuit. ?uel -urning process completes within com-ustor liner <one and flame finishes after the liner. If a loss of flame is sensed -y two flame detector sensor. shut down the tur-ine. only flue gas enters into the transition piece. Therefore.S" or Furnace :il Combustion /ir /tomi. rapid and complete com-ustion.ing /ir 5i7ui* Fuel Inlet Fig System :f Fuel 4o. Atomi<ing air enters around the fuel no<<le and split fuel into very fine particles. the control circuitry will cause an annunciation only of this condition. The fuel no<<le functions to distri-ute the liDuid fuel into the reaction <one of the com-ustion liner. SR< S ee* Ratio <al'e Purge air <C=%2 Combustion /ir Gas outlet /tomi. Then.le 5i7ui* Fuel "rain . Purge /ir Fuel Gas GC< Gas Control <al'e Atomi<ing air is utili<ed with liDuid fuel to assist in the formation of a finely divided spray. ?uel enters the inner passage.

A tur-ine..Fig Fuel 4o. The $ankine 9ycle used in conventional steam power plants can -e represented on a T=S diagram. A condenser A -oiler feed pump.68 .:8 to .Typically only +68 to *:8 of the heat energy input is a-sor-ed in -oilers. A simple $ankine 9ycle consists of only four componentsO The efficiency of conventinal steam power plants is a-out .&PM"P ?eed water heaters. Actual steam power plants are considera-ly more comple than the simple cycle as shown in figure. each line segment corresponds to a process in the cycle. • • • • The Stea/ 2ater 5 'an%ine 6 Cycle The -oiler 4often called a steam generator5. 0ecause the components such as #conomiser.le 3. 20 . As with the 0rayton 9ycle.Air preheater are added to improve efficeincy.This means tat the -oiler is only +68 to *:8 efficient.

The output in this process can -e easily calculated using the #nthalpy=entropy chart or the steam ta-les. and some condensation may occur. Isobaric Heat 'ejection5Condenser6 The high pressure liDuid enters a -oiler where it is heated at constant pressure -y an e>ternal heat source to -ecome a dry saturated vapor. as the fluid is a liDuid at this stage the pump reDuires little input energy.0oiler is shown with a superheater. This decreases the temperature and pressure of the vapor. iii. 21 .pention5Stea/ Turbine6 The working fluid is pumped from low to high pressure. Fig > Gra # :f Rankine Cycle i. Isentropic Co/pression5Pu/p6 The dry saturated vapour e>pands through a tur-ine. generating power. ii. thus the steam entering the tur-ine is a-ove saturation temperature. Issentropic :.

i" Isobaric Heat Supply5$oiler6 The wet vapour then enters a condenser where it is condensed at a constant temperature to -ecome a saturated liDuid. Impulse and $eaction types.e. i. . The "P section is a single flow cylinder and the &P section is a dou-le flow cylinder. which reduces the energy removed -y the condensers. 3.1 Stea/ Turbine The tur-ine converts the thermal and kinetic energy of the steam into rotational mechanical energy. Tur-ine -ypass system is to dump the e>tra steam in the condenserduring start up and steam unloading conditions. ST=)6 has 7/ stages of "P and +Q+ stages of &P tur-ine and their sealing steam system. In an ideal $ankine cycle the pump and tur-ine would -e isentropic..6 %3A . Normally. ).The steam tur-ine is designed as a single = shaft machine with separate "P and &P sections. There are two types of tur-ine -lades. the pump and tur-ine would generate no entropy and hence ma>imi<e the net work output. The main steam flows to the steam tur-ine which drives the air cooled generator of ma>. The $ankine cycle shown here prevents the vapor ending up in the superheat region after the e>pansion in the tur-ine.=A would -e represented -y vertical lines on the T=S diagram and more closely resem-le that of the 9arnot cycle. 22 . Processes )=7 and . tur-ine consists of com-ination of impulse and reaction types.

1.2 'eaction Turbine: A reaction tur-ine utili<es a (et of steam that flows from a no<<le on the rotor. the steam is directed into the moving -lades -y fi>ed -lades designed to e>pand the steam. The steam flow is partially reversed -y the moving -lades. So more rows of moving -lades are needed in a reaction tur-ine than in an impulse tur-ine. The velocity of the steam is a-out twice as fast as the velocity of the -lades.Fig Steam turbines 3. Actually. 3. 23 . . Only tur-ines utili<ing fi>ed no<<les are classified as impulse tur-ines. Since the pressure drop is small across each row of no<<les 4-lades5. .1 I/pulse Turbine : The -asic idea of an impulse tur-ine is that a (et of steam from a fi>ed no<<le pushes against the rotor -lades and impels them forward. These -lades form a wall of moving no<<les that further e>pand the steam. The result is a small increase in velocity over that of the moving -lades. producing reaction on the -lades.1. the speed is comparatively low.

The "$S2 provides the critical link -etween the gas tur-ine and the rankine cycle in a com-ined cycle plant.2 Heat 'eco"ery Stea/ -enerator The "$S2 is -asically a heat e>changer composed of a series of economiser. 0y recovering some of this waste heat.The heat recovered in the "$S2 is used to supply steam to the steam tur-ine at the proper temperature and pressure.The steam is then used to generate additional power in a steam tur-ine driven generator.1 HP section: 24 . "igh temperature gas represents a source of heat energy. The function of heat recoThe function of heat recovery steam generator 4"$S25 is to recover the waste heat availa-le in these e>haust gases and transfer that waste heat to water and steam. 3.These sections are positioned from gas inlet to gas outlet to ma>imi<e heat recovery from the gas tur-ine e>haust gases.some of which can -e recovered if the means to do are availa-le.the output and the efficiency of a power plant is increased.3.the temperature of e>haust gases of unit ) and 7 leaving KAP9O is 6:. .2.The heat is used to generate steam at high pressure and high temperature.° 9 to 66:° 9. . In open cycle mode of operation. The "$S2 is a key component in com-ined cycle efficiency.evaporator and super heater sections.

The "P section consists of #conomiser, #vaporator, and 9irculation system for economiser and evaporator and Super heater.

3ro/ Condensate Pu/ps
"earator Fee* !ater Storage Tank

<P 3# Pu/p 5P "rum HP 3eed#ater Pu/p

<P :"aporator

HP :cono/i9er ;P "rum
.

HP :"aporator

Super heater 3lue -ases Inlet = 4, >C

To Stea/ Turbine "esu er#eater

Figure ! " #$SG-! Simpli%ie& 'iagram

3. .2.2

<P section:

The &P section consists of #vaporator and 9irculation system for evaporator. The re=circulating pumps cause the mechanically induced circulation in the -oiler.

3. .2.3

Pu/ps:

These pumps are installed for the circulation of water and they include "P ?eedwater pumps or "P #vaporator recirculation pumps deliver the feedwater into -oiler drums of the steam generators at the design pressure under all operating conditions. The function of the circulating water system is to provide a heat sink for the condenser and remove the heat to the environment via the cooling tower. ?urther the system is connected with the closed cooling water system via the service cooling water system. &P ?eedwater pumps or &P #vaporator recirculation pumps feed the water from the storage tank to the drums of the preheating system in the "$S2Ls in order to preheat the feed water in the feed water storage tank.

3. .2.4

HP Syste/:

The "P=system of the -oiler is producing the "P steam. ?or this purpose it has to -e supplied with the right amount of feedwater at any time during its operationN

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e.g. during start up, load variations etc. Additional it has to produce steam of a specific Duality, which means of correct pressure and temperature which varies again with the different operation modes and load conditions. The "P=system generates steam at /: -ar I 6;: R9 from the thermal energy contained in the 2T e>haust gas.

3.2.2.2

<P Syste/:

The &P=system of the -oiler is producing the &P=steam. ?or this purpose it has to -e supplied with the right amount of feedwater at any time during its operationN e.g. during start up, load variations etc. The &P=steam in the range of ;=): -ar is used for condensate heating and for the feedwater deaeration in the deaerator.

3. .3

Condenser and ?accu/ Pu/p

It condenses steam when it finishes its work and e>it from the tur-ine. 3acuum pump regularly runs to evacuate any air accumulation in the condenser.

3. .3.1

Condensate Tan%:

One condensate storage tank for controlling the water level is provided. The condensate is further deaerated in the feedwater tank to the specified o>ygen content

3. .3.2

Condensate Pu/p:

0oth the e>haust steam and the -ypass steam are condensed -y means of a water cooled -o> type condenser. 9ondensate pumps take suction from the condenser hot well and discharge through the gland steam condenser and the &P=preheater to the feedwater storage tank

Chapter 4

The :lectrical Section
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4.1 The -enerator :
Synchronous generator or alternator is used to convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. ItLs working principle is as followsN

4.1.1 2or%in) principle:
According to ?areadayLs law of electromagnetic inductionN JIf there is a relative motion -etween conductor and magnetic field, then an #%? will -e induced into the conductorK. To create this relative movement, it doesnLt matter weather the magnet is rotating and the conductor is stationary or weather the conductor is moving and magnet is stationary. The magnitude of the induced #%? is directly proportional to the No of conductors 4N5 and the rate of change of magnetic flu> crossing the conductors. # S N 4dTCdt5

4.2

(i**erence bet#een AC )enerator and (C )enerator:

27

There is one important difference -etween an A9 and 9 generator. In 9 2enerator the armature rotates -ut the field system remains stationary -ut in A9 generator the case is reverse -ecause here armature remains stationary -ut field winding rotates. The general thing to keep in mind in this reference is that armature is a thing which produces alternating magnetic field. So in 9 this magnetic field is -eing produced -y rotor which is called the armature and in A9 this remains stationary and here it is called the stator. The stator consists of a cast iron frame which supports the armature core having slots on its inner periphery for housing the armature conductors. In a slip ring induction machine the rotor winding terminals are coming out and then they are supplied with a 9 supply to produce the stationary magnetic field which is converted into the rotating magnetic field -y rotating the rotor -y an e>ternal source which is called the prime mover. 'hen the rotor rotates, the stator conductors are cut -y magnetic flu>, hence they have an induced #%? produced in them. As magnetic poles are alternately N and S, they induce an #%? and hence current starts flowing in armature conductors, which first flows in one direction and then in the other. "ence alternating #%? is produced in the stator conductors whose freDuency depends on the No of N and S poles moving past a conductor in one second and itLs direction is given -y ?lemingLs right hand ruleN ?irst fingerUUUUUUUU..%otion of the conductor Second fingerUUUUUUU. irection of current Thum-UUUUUUUUUU irection of #%? induced

4.3

2hy #e use stationary ar/ature@

The advantages of having stationary armature and a rotating field system areN ). The output current can -e led directly from fi>ed terminals from the stator to the load circuit without having to pass it from -rush contact. 7. It is easier to insulate stationary armature winding for a high A9 voltage which may have a high value as ;: kv or more. ;. The sliding contacts 4slip rings5 are transferred to the low voltage, low power 9 field circuit which can therefore -e easily insulated. A. The armature winding can -e more easily -raced to prevent any deformation -eing produced -y the mechanical stress set up as a result of short circuit current and the high centrifugal force.

(ata sheet:

28

* tons 4..4 (etails o* construction: 29 . G phase VV 6: "< ). Stator weight $otor weight .6::: K3A :.+6 !3' #>ternal .Type of generator Type of winding esigned for freDuency $ating esigned for power factor 4cos W5 SeDuence of phases Type of e>citation #>citation voltage #>citation current Type of cooling %a> air cooling temp. 3 /A) A Air cooling A:R9 )/6 tons ..

The two pole generator uses directly air cooling for the rotor winding and indirect air cooling for the stator winding. #nd shields are also -olted to this frame. ?or the foundation purposes feet are provided. It is the heaviest part of the generator. 7. 2enerally a generator consists of following partsN ). Stator $otor #>citation system 9ar-on -rushes and Slip rings $etaining rings 0earing $otor grounding system 9ooling system 516 Stator It is a stationary part of the generator. . Air ducts are provided for the rigidity of stator frame. All types of losses 4iron. windage. /. friction. +. Stator *ra/e: The frame is for to support the laminated core and winding and also for to increase the mechanical strength of the machine.. 6. stray and etc5 are also dissipated through air. .. The stator has two main componentsN • • • • Stator frame %agnetic core Stator winding Stator #nd shields i. 30 . A.

31 . The segments are punched in one operation from . #ach lamination core is made up from a num-er of individual segments.6 thick electrical sheet steel lamination having high silicon content. The core is stacked with lamination segments in individual layers while -eing supported on the pressure plate.. 7a)netic core: The stator core is stacked from insulated electrical sheet=steel laminations with a low loss inde> and suspended in the stator frame from insulated guide -ars.ii. then Alcid test is performed to check the insulation -etween layers. The No of slots are created in the core to accommodate the stator winding. The entire magnetic core is -uild up of thin laminations in order to minimi<e the hysteretic and eddy current losses of rotating magnetic field which interact with core. The complete stack is kept under pressure and located in the frame -y means of clamping -olts and pressure plates. If there is any damage to the core occur during operation. The segments are staggered from layer to layer so that a core of high mechanical strength and uniform permea-ility to magnetic flu> is o-tained.

It is composed of conductors wedged into the magnetic core./:R. the -ars are composed of insulated strands which are transposed -y . 7. There are two distinct parts of stator windingN ). This winding is fractional pitch two layer type consisting of individual -ars. 32 . The end winding which are outside the core and which serve to connect -ars of different slots together to complete the winding. The straight part is within magnetic core.Fig ( stator core) iii. Stator #indin): It is no-le part of the generator. #ach stator slot accommodates two -ars. In order to minimi<e the stray losses.

The mica tapped is sandwiched -etween two fa-ric layers with epo>y as an adhesive. It contains the generator -earings and also the generator coolers. The generator coolers are accommodated in the vertical wells of stator end shields. The No of layers depends upon the machine voltage. This high voltage insulation o-tained is characteri<ed -y e>cellent electrical. 33 . a final coat of semiconducting varnish is applied to the surface of all -ars within the slot range. then it is discharged from the lower half of the end shield and then is returned to the tur-ine oil tank. i". Stator :nd shields: The stator end shields are attached to the end of the stator frame. mechanical and thermal properties in addition to -eing fully waterproof and oil resinant. To minimi<e the 9orona discharge -etween the insulation and the slot wall. The oil drained from the -earing is collected in the -earing compartment. The -earing oil is supplied to the -earing saddle via a piece permanently installed in the end shield and is then passed on to the lu-ricating gap via ducts in the lower -earing sleeve. high voltage insulation is provided -y which several half=overlapped layers of mica are applied to the -ars.Fig(stator en* &in*ing) According to the %icalastic system.

using clamping pieces and glass fa-ric tape. so that the -eginning of each strand is connected without having any electrical contact with the remaining strands. The ends of each phase are attached to the circular phase connector. the cross section of which results in a low specific current loading. 34 . The phase connectors are mounted on the winding support. This connection offers the advantage that circulating current losses in the stator -ars are kept small. The phase connectors consists of flat copper sections. which leads from winding ends to the top of the frame.Fig (stator en* s#iel*) :lectrical connection o* bars and Phase connectors: #lectrical connection -etween the top and -ottom -ars is made -y -ra<ing. One top -ar strand -eing -ra<ed to one strand of associated -ottom -ar.

::: rpm. $otor has the following main componentsN 35 . There are two types of rotorN • 9ylindrical type • Salient=pole type The cylindrical type rotor is used in tur-o alternators and a having a uniform air gap. we use . It is driven -y the tur-ine and it creates rotating magnetic field. it has two poles. Salient pole rotors are used for low speed operation like a-out )/. ?or this arrangement. Normally it is used in all types of thermal power stations where the rotating speed of rotor is high like .::: rpm in PAKISTAN. The field winding is accumulated in slots on the solid rotor. rpm for 6: "<./ poles of the rotor.Fig (stator en* &in*ing) 526 'otor: It is the rotating part of the generator. ?or .

The rotor consists of an electrically active portion and the two shaft ends. The edges of slots is made up of high conductivity material and they are there to act as damper winding.i6 'otor sha*t: The rotor shaft is made of single gorging whose ingot is made in an electric furnace and then vacuum cast. $otor teeth are provided with a>ial and radial ducts ena-ling the cooling air to -e discharged into the air gap for intensive cooling of the end winding. In these slots field coils are milled into shaft -ody and is arranged so as to generate magnetomotive force wave approaching a sine wave. The shaft contained in shaft -ody. 36 . Fig (rotor s#aft) ii6 'otor #indin): $otor winding has also two distinct partsN ). 7. At the ends the clots are short circuited -y retaining rings. The insulated turns are insulated from each other -y strips of laminated glass fa-ric. The rotor winding consists of several coils which are inserted into the slots and series connected such that two coil groups form one pole. The longitudinal slots hold the field winding. The part outside the shaft -ody. A forged coupling is used to couple the rotor to the tur-ine. #ach coil consists of several series connected turns. Slot pitch is selected so that two solid poles are displaced -y )+:R electrical. each of which consists of two half turns which are connected -y -ra<ing in the end section.

The e>citation power for the generator is supplied -y an e>citer with rotating diodes that are fitted at the end of main generator shaft.iii6 'otor *an: The generator cooling air is circulated -y two a>ial flow fan located at the end of the shaft. The e>citation voltage is developed -y rotating diode -ridge that supplies the rotor winding. and car-on -rushes are used to supply the e>citation current to the rotor. Then the secondary winding is rectified -y a three phase thyrister -ridge. To argument the cooling of the rotor winding. If there comes a need to change the -rushes of the machine during operation at full load or any load. -rush gear assem-ly is used to do this (o-. the pressure esta-lished -y the fan in con(unction with the air e>pelled from the discharge port along the rotor.citation syste/: The e>citation system is to supply the direct current to rotor which allows the generator to maintain a controlled voltage -etween itLs terminals when connected to the network. These rectifying diodes are given supply -y an e>citation transformer of which the primary winding is supplied -y the main generator. Threaded roots fastening permits the -lade angle to the reDuired level. the e>citation power is supplied -y 77: 3 9 source. The e>citation system is driven -y a voltage regulator. e= e>citation of the generator is performed -y the 37 . The moving of the fan have threaded roots for -eing screwed into the rotor shaft. uring start up and in case of stator voltage drop. Slip ring. The e>citation eDuipment. 536 :.

Fig (sli ring) 9ar-on -rushes are used to make live connection -etween the e>citation system and rotor winding. Steel slip rings are fitted to the shaft e>tension at the non drive end and insulated from the end. radial connecting rod. 38 . and outer a>ial connection that feed directly into the winding.opening of the e>citation contactor and a non linear resistor ensures the discharging of the e>citer.citation connection: The current supplied -y e>citation unit to the rotor winding is sent through -ars 4central shaft connection5. i6 :. The electrical connection -etween slip rings and rotor winding is esta-lished -y means of radial -olts and insulated conductors arranged in hollow -ore of rotor at the e>citer end.9ar-on -rushes and two slip rings arranged at the end of the shaft. It is made up of two shaped solid -ars. separated -y a layer of insulation and housed in shaft -ore. 546 Carbon brushes and slip rin)s: ?ield connection provide electrical connection -etween rotor winding and slip ring. -ecause our rotor is moving continuously and this is the only option to make such a connection. The slip ring contain a uniform current distri-ution.

5 6 'etainin) rin): The end winding which are e>tend -eyond the shaft -ody are held against centrifugal forces -y retaining ring of non magnetic steel cylinders. A snap ring is provided for additional protection against a>ial displacement of the retaining ring. The shrunk on the end ring at the free end of the retaining ring serves to reinforce the retaining ring and also secures the winding in the a>ial direction. This forced ventilation system ensure the removal of car-on dust sue to -rush wear. while other end of the ring over hangs the end winding without contacting the shaft. 39 .Fig Rings Sli The slip rings have a>ial and radial holes for ventilation of slip ring. One end of each ring is shrunk on the rotor -ody.

Ta main purpose of using oil in these -earings is cooling of -earings which are heated -ecause of running of the shaft. ?riction is also reduced when we use oil in the -earing. to make the vi-ration of rotor as small as possi-le and to make the friction during the movement of the shaft. all -earings are insulated from the stator and -ase plate respectively. As shaft is connected with -earing. To eliminate the shaft currents. 5B6 'otor )roundin): 2rounding system is necessary thing to make the generator grounded -ecause when we are working at the generator then flu> or static charge which was stored in the rotor winding during operation is needed to -e grounded. That flu> can -e harmful if not grounded. this shaft is lifted -y oil flowing in the -earing. The temperature of the -earing is monitored -y thermocouples mounted tin the lower -earing part so that the measuring points are located directly -elow the -a--it. 40 .Fig (retaining ring) To reduce the straw losses the ring is made up of non=magnetic material. 9omprehensive tests such as ultra sonic e>amination and liDuid penetration e>amination ensures the specified mechanical properties. 5A6 $earin)s: 0earing are used to lift the shaft.

516 The coolin) syste/ The heat losses arising in the generator interior are dissipated to the secondary coolant 4cooling water5 through air. i6 Ad"anta)es o* Air coolin) ). lower cost price 7. Short inspection ii6 Air coolin) circuit 41 . #asy maintenance .2rounding -rushes are fitted to the stator end shield. Air and hydrogen are two cooling media for the generator cooling. In KAP9O all generators are air cooled. Indirect cooling is used for stator winding. The a>ial fans circulate the air.. irect cooling of rotor removes hot spots and differential temperature -etween the ad(acent components. The field and armature copper losses are evacuated -y airC hydrogen gas flowing inside the generator.

This path mainly cools the rotor retaining rings. 42 . 9old air is drawn -y fans from cooler and then divided into three partsN • 3lo# path 1: Is directed into the rotor end winding and cools the rotor winding. Along this path heat of the rotor winding is directly transferred to the cooling air. Then this flow of air is mi>ed up in air gap from where it goes for the cooling of the other remaining portion of the stator core and the stator winding. • 3lo# path 2: Is directed over the stator end winding to the cold air ducts and in the stator frame space -etween the generator housing and the stator core. the end of the rotor -ody and end portion of the stator frame. The hot air is returned to the cooler via hot air ducts recooling and draw again -y the fans.9ooling air is circulated in the generator -y two a>ial=flow fans on the rotor shaft. • 3lo# path 3: Is directed into the air gap via the rotor retaining rings.

Fig (air circulation system) iii6 Air cooler: 43 .

"ydrogen increases the life of generator -ecause of the a-sence of O>ygen. ?our identical coolers are provided. The reDuired cooling water flow depends on the generator output and is ad(usted -y control valves on the hot water side.. i"6 Ad"anta)es o* hydro)en coolin) syste/: ). "6 (ra#bac%s o* Hydro)en coolin): 44 . 'indage losses of the rotor turning are only )8 of those in air. The higher thermal conductivity of "ydrogen allows generator to develop 768 more output than those of air. 7. The stator end shields contain the vertically mounted coolers. The X of generator can -e taken as *+8 with air cooling and **8 with hydrogen cooling. A. All four coolers are parallel connected on their water side.Air cooler is shell and tu-e type heat e>changer which cools the air in the generator. The cooler section is solidly -olted to the upper half of the stator end shield. .

One cooling <one includes the slots from center to the end of the rotor -ody. A. along itLs whole length into packets separated from each other -y radial spacer ri-s. A mi>ture of air and hydrogen inside the machine casing is risky and may cause in e>plosion. This is called indirect cooling. The cooling air for the slot portion is admitted into the slot -ottom ducts -elow the rotor winding. 45 . 7. This generator is now connected to the unit transformer converting the out put voltage into ). Special type of oil seal is used on the -earing to stop the leakage of "ydrogen. while another cover s half of the end winding.5 which then goes to the switch yard for the transmission purposes. "i6 Stator coolin): The magnetic core is cooled -y the air flowing through the radial vent ducts under the action of the fans. It is dissipated -y direct contact with air flowing through the coil. Precaution should -e taken to prevent any air leakage into the machine. The vent ducts are formed -y splitting up the core. All rotor winding is su-divided into four cooling <ones.7 kv4-lock )5 or 77: kv 4-lock 7 M . 2enerator -ody must -e gas tight. The slot portion of the winding is cooled circulating air.. . The end winding area is cooled circulation of air. The current flowing through the stator winding creates heat losses which is escaped to the core due to close contact -etween the winding and core. 9ore cooling is thus of radial type. The cooling air is drawn from -elow the rotor end winding.). It rises radially along the individual coils and is then discharged into the air gap via ssssa>ial and radial slots in the end portion of the rotor teeth. "ii6 'otor coolin): The main rotor heat losses occur in the field winding. The hot air is then discharged into the air gap -etween the rotor -ody and stator sore though radial opening in the conductors and in the rotor slot wedges.

This law states that.1 2or%in) Principle !* The Trans*or/er: A transformer is a static piece of apparatus -y means of which electric power in one circuit is transformed into the electric power of the same freDuency in another circuit.m. It can raise or lower the voltage in a circuit -ut with a corresponding increase or decrease of the current. The overall power remains same to the -oth sides of the transformer. an alternating flu> is setup most of which is linked with the other coil in which it produces mutually induced e. If one coil is connected to an A9 source. The -asic working principle of the transformer is the mutual induction -etween two circuits linked -y a common magnetic flu>. 46 .f.Chapter The Trans*or/er . according to the ?aradayLs &aw of electromagnetic induction. Simply it consists of two inductive coils which are electrically separated -ut magnetically coupled with each other.

we can say that eS % dICdt where e S Induced voltage % S mutual inductance dI S rete of change in the current dt S rate of change in time If the circuit of the second coil is closed. Suita-le -ushing for insulation and -ringing out the terminals of the winding from the tank. Other necessary parts areN • • • Some suita-le container for the assem-led core and winding. The two coils are insulated from each other and from the steel core.J'hen one coil is placed in such a medium where it faces change in the flu> then an emf is induced in that coilK %athematically. In a -rief transformer is a device that • • • • Transfers electric power form one circuit to the other. It accomplishes it -y the electromagnetic induction.3 Types o* the Trans*or/er: 47 . It does so without change in freDuency. a current flows in it and so in this way electric energy is transferred from one coil to the coil. The first coil in which electric supply is connected is called the primary coil and other coil to which the power is supplied is called the secondary coil. 'here two circuits are electrically isolated -ut magnetically coupled. . . Suita-le insulating medium to provide insulation -etween the core and its winding from itLs container.2 Trans*or/er construction: Simple elements a transformer consist of two coils having mutual inductance and laminated steel core.

3. 9ore type. .2 4se #ise Transformers can -e classified according to there use. istri-ution transformers are those which are directly connected with the consumer or which are looked -eside roads or in streets. transformers are of two general types. . steel laminations to provide a continuous magnetic path with minimum air gap. Power transformers are those which are connected to the transmission lines.3 $ased upon ratin) 48 . Transformers are classified -y several meansN • • • • • 9onstruction wise. • • Shell type.3.1 Construction #ise: 9onstructionally. the core is constructed of transformer sheets. They convert power from very lowChigh voltage to very lowChigh current keeping the power same. • Instrument transformer • istri-ution transformer • Power transformer • !nit au>iliary transformer • &ow voltage au>iliary transformer • Start up transformer Instrument transformers are of very small rating and mostly they are used in appliances. !se wise According to cooling media According to consumer 0ased upon rating Or -y some other means.3. .g. They are distinguished from each other -y such manner in which the primary and the secondary coils are placed around laminated steel core.In all types of transformer. e.

primary current is large than that of secondary.)::kva.e. • ry 4Air cooled5 These are used according to the environment temperature and heat dissipation.3. output voltage is greater than input voltage -ut on the other hand.4 Accordin) to coolin) /edia They are classified as.):::kva and n the same pattern the others. They are less e>pensive and they reDuire less maintenance.4 4nit trans*or/er (ata sheet 49 . e. • Step up trans*or/er "ere turns of secondary are large then that of primary. Its main disadvantage is that itLs output rating decreases -y )amp with an increase of )Yc temp.'e can classify them according to there rating.3.g. i. . Generally following type of transformers are used in our power house: • • • • !nit transformer Start up transformer Au>iliary transformer &ow voltage au>iliary transformer . • Step do#n trans*or/er "ere reverse process takes place than that of the step up transformer. . Accordin) to consu/er Transformers are also classified -y means that how a consumers uses it. 6::kva. 7:kva.

Automatic voltage regulator 516 Po#er 3ans: 50 .4. Thermostat and thermometer +.. 9ondenser type -ushing .* Z . Air drier /. #arthing tower )7.6 %va unit step up transformer Three phase.A7+8 • 3ector group 4primary to secondary5 • The neutral of the transformer is solidly grounded ..[).C*6. Power fans 7. Pressure relief valve . core type... 0uchol< relay 6. 9urrent transformers ):. ?ire protection cooling system ). Tap changer )). oil immersed power transformer ONANCONA? 6: "< Primary ))kv On load Star VNd)) elta Secondary ). Oil conservator A.$ating Type of transformer Type of cooling ?reDuency 'inding • • • $ated voltage Tape changer type 9onnection .1 !ur 4nit Trans*or/er Consist !* 3ollo#in) Parts: ). Iron and oil temp detector *.

536 At/oseal Type air&cell oil conser"ator: 51 . generally in the vertical position. it is advisa-le to check the operation of the fans and to remove all traces of drift dust from the fan wheel -lades. allowing operation -y means of push -uttons on the protection and control cover. 0efore using the -ushing this film should -e removed with a -lunt tool. The -ushing should -e stored in dry place. even for short period. 526 Condenser type $ushin): The -ushing are packaged in cases. On spare -ushing.The natural cooling of the transformer can -e increased -y the addition of power fans placed at the -ase or along the side of radiators. %oreover. self cooling. so as not to damage the surface underneath.76 \) "P is closed. a water proof film may -e found for some construction type on the surface of resin paper. whether they are fitted directly to the tank or groups in outside gangs. Normally the fans are controlled automatically through a thermostate. The fans are of helical type and are of capa-le of generating an air flow. the part of each -ushing normally immersed in oil is protected from moisture -y a cup shaped metal or plastic covering directly fitted to the -ushing flange. with cage rotor and mounted on -earing. Packing is provide to protect the -ushing from -lows and moisture during transients. not used for transformer testing. In addition to make manual operation possi-le as well. s this is put into the closed housing of the -earing at the time of assem-ly. • 7aintenance Once a month. a preselector is often -uilt into the system. The motor designed for an a-sor-ed power . The motor -earing do not reDuire any lu-ricant. always in the vertical position. 'hen forced cooling is provided the power fans unit is split into two units each controlled through itLs own switch -y same thermal relay.

In conservator an oil resistant. 546 $uchhol9 type )as accu/ulation relay: This relay is provided for transformer protection when electrical -reakdown occurs -etween the live parts. ). -urning of core. 9onservator designed to allow oil e>pansionfrom =7:9 to *:9. 6. oil leakage in the tank or in the oil cooling system... ):. when due to an inflow of gas to the relay or the other reason. -y putting the transformer out of service. %oreover the pressure on the oil surface remains constant and eDual to the atmosphere pressure.The 0uchhol< relay is installed directly on the oil pipe connecting the tank to the conservator and is normally flooded with oil. 'hen transformer is running. . 2ate valve for filter pressure for connection of vacuum pump during operations. or in the event of fault to ground. short circuits -etween turns. )). in which itLs inner armature is permanently immersed with the actuating device. $emova-le -ottom to allow air=cell assem-ly and conservator cleaning. fle>i-le. Oil level window.?or air cell conservator the contact -etween oil and ouside air is prevented. The upper contact for signalling purpose is closed -y operation of pertaining float. 0uchols relays with On=Off valve )7. *.The working condition of the 0uchols relays installed on the tank to conservator pipe are not out all affected -y the air cell. it reDuires a very small maintenance limited to routine inspection. the oil level contained in the upper part of the relay is lowered. 52 . phase interruptions.. Oil resistant ru--er air=cell . 0y pass -etween air cell inside the conservator. /. Oil level gauge in conservator. Silica gel drier on the pipe -etween air=cell and outside air 4in order to avoid that most air enters the cell and forms condensated5. This relay will operate on the occurrence of gas formation or on sudden variations of oil level resulting from a-normal transformer conditions -y actuating an alarm signal and if the fault is serious or persistent. 2ate valve for eventual vacuum gauge. On=Off valve on pipe. The air cell gets -igger or smaller so as to compensate oil volume variations and to keep pressure an oil surface at the atmospheric valve. +. Overpressure valve. • Co/ponents: ). A. 7. ru--er oil=cell is arranged in communication with the outside through a dreir that prevents condensation in the cell. 9onservaotr drain cock.

provided to select the desired oil speed at which the cooling should occur. is operated -y the corresponding float when the oil level reaches the lower part of the relay. The alarm and trip contacts are also closed in the event that the oil level should -ecome e>ceedingly low. eDuipped with two cocks. The vane is fitted with an ad(usta-le counterpoise. open very slightly the gas drawing cock and put a flame close to it. It is always advisa-le to perform a chemical analysis of the gas -y means of the gas tester. 53 . it is recommended that the operation of float and of alarm and of tripping contacts -e checked at regular interval. If no gas comes out of the cock. thus closing he contact to trip the circuit -reaker of the transformer. the oil is too low. it is necessary to check through the relay windows the colour and Duantity of gas. Thus the speed of gas accumulation and conseDuently the speed of action depends upon the e>tent of fault. 'henever the 0uchhol< relay operates the alarm and the tripping circuit. -esides the one for the connection to the relay. In order to facilitate gas inspection the relay is connected -y means of a pipe to a gas collector located at manLs height. If the gas proves not -e flamma-le . grey denotes -urning of core and -lack means oil decomposition. Such device consists of -o> with wide windows. 'hen the alarm and tripping contacts close. One of them is for gas -reathing and the other is for oil drain. or even air is sucked in. In order to see weather the gas is inflamma-le . thee gas developed and collected in the 0uchhol< relay actuates the alarm and tripping contacts.The lower contact which controls the tripping circuit. yellowish gas denotes faults in wooden parts. it is necessary to open the gas drawing cock and to make sure that gas is released. colourless gas indicates decomposition of paper and card -oard. the transformer can -e put again in the service. ?or this purpose. In the event that an internal fault should occur in the transformer. the relay is fitted with a test device which may -e Duite different for each type of 0uchhol< relay. • 7aintenance The relay does not reDuire any special maintenance. 2enerally. however.

Fig 2 with air intake having hydraulic seal for transformers containing up to *:. The drier is formed -y a glass vessel with silicagel grains. the whole -eing enclosed inside a metallic protection container having a metallic protection container having suita-le opening for visual inspection of silicagel conditions. with gas pipe threaded connections .? Fig Buc##ol. The following types of driers are used generallyN Fig 1 with air intrack having a seal for transformer or accessories containing up to /6: liters of oil . or in the opening of other accessories in which the insulating oil is in contact with the atmosphere.+s relay 5 6 Air driers The silica gel drier is fitted on the -reather opening of the oil conservator in each transformer. 54 .::: liters of oil with flange connection.

Pink colorUUUUUUUU. to season and to the loading cycles of transformer..::: liters of oil. • !peration The silica gel is used for the driers is chemically pure silicon o>ide having a very high power of a-sorption. In all types of driers the silica gel should have .Fig 3 with threaded lower flange for Nitrogen admission pipe and with filter . 0lue colorUUUUUUUU. The silica gel is treated with a special coloring su-stance sensitive to the humidity. The charge is saturated with moisture. so that a charge may -e renewed at .9harge is dry 3iolet colorUUUUUUUUA-sor-ed humidity is 7: to ..6 to / mm grain si<e.:Y. with flange connection suita-le for transformers or accessories containing up to *:. The charge will -e reactivated when all silica gel grains have acDuired the -lue color again. so that itLs saturation condition can -e evaluated -y itLs color.. It is recommended to mi> it during heating in order to o-tain a homogeneous drying of whole charge. to / months intervals according to the degree of humidity of am-ient where the transformer is installed. • 7aintenance: The silica gel is reactivated -y heating it at )7: to 7::9. 55 .

5A6 Pressure relie* "al"e This valve is normally located on the transformer cover or on the wall of the transformer tank and has the purpose of providing release of e>cess pressure that may -e produced in the transformer in the con(unction with serious damage such as an under oil arc produced through -reakage of short circuit. 516 Iron and oil te/perature detector According to the terms of the specifications. (etails o* the detectors are as *ollo#s: Nickle thermometric resistor $esistance valueN ):: ohms at :9 Temperature coefficientN /. The terminals of the iron temperature detectors are -rought outside through appropriate terminal -oard located on the coverN from here they too go to the terminal -oard of the au>iliary service -o>. • A num-er of thermometric pro-es to measure the temperature of magnetic core..[ ): %a>imum temperatureN )7: 9 Platinium thermometric resistor $esistance valueN ):: ohms at :9 Temperature coefficientN . 0esides indicating the temperature. The measurement system can -e of liDuid thermometer type.+6[ ): %a>imum temperatureN )7: 9 506 Current trans*or/ers : 56 .at the top part of the transformer tank and connected through the capillary tu-e to a dial indicator. The scale is not linear -ut appro>imately logrethmic e>panda-le with the temperature. the following are installed in the transformerN • One or more thermometric pro-es to measure the coil temperature.). 5B6 Ther/ostat and ther/o/eter This device is used for the temperature control and consist of a -ul. The oil temperature detectors are directly installed on the cover in the position indicated in the overall drawingO connected to the head of the pro-e the leads to the terminal -oard of au>iliary service -o>. this instrument closed a circuit connected to an alarm device and su-seDuently a second circuit directly connected to the main -reaker and capa-le to cause the detatchment of the transformer from the line.

If the e>citation current decreases then out put voltage of our generator decreases. There are two types of tap changerN ). with the secondary connected to the resistance of 6: ohms and gradually reducing the resistance to <ero. Normally tapping is kept at the place manufactureLs advice. If -y some how. 51. As far as possi-le. these current transformers are arranged on the machine in an easily accessi-le position. the core may -ecome permanently magneti<ed and dangerously high voltage will e>ist across the secondary terminals. there comes a condition that out put voltage drops or increases. If the transformer ratio is very low and the accuracy is high.6 Tap chan)er: This is such a type of component of our power transformer that changes the out put voltage manually. and also noting the reading of -efore and after regulating the voltage and if there come a condition to change out put voltage they do it -y changing the tapping. The operation of tap changer is controlled and e>amined -y &9$ and also -y 99$. 0oth centers are e>amining each and every time the out put voltage of the transformer. On load tap changer 7.9urrent transformers are used in power transformers as a source of energy for operation of relays.The primary is formed -y connection which goes from the winding of each individual phase of the transformer to the corresponding insulator and which crosses the transformer centrally. it is advisa-le to use the type with the primary winding. this means that out put of unit transformer also decreases which is -eing controlled -y this tap changer. to measure the eDuipment of a thermal image plant.TLs can -e demagneti<ed -y passing a-out )6: percent normal current through the primary. The 9. then tap changer changes the tapping of transformer to -ring the out put voltage at reDuired level e. a line drop compensator and protection system etc. Off load tap changer • !n load tap chan)er: 57 . • 7aintenance If the secondary of the transformer is left open.g. The current transformers normally incorporated in power transformers may -e of -ushing type with primary winding.

e. .In this type of tap changer tapping is changed -y keeping the transformer loaded. ItLs operation is also checked -y &9$ or 99$. Such a type of counter is installed on each tower. 5116 :arthin) to#ers: They are installed on each out going phase of transformer. This is done in running condition. the lightning is -eing earthed. out put voltage increases then it controls the voltage automatically. Tap changer is always installed to the high voltage side -ecause in this side current is very small and if the current is small then there will -e very rare chance of producing arcs and if they are produced. i.g. As a result of which water comes out from the pipe. 5126 3ire protection coolin) syste/: These are special type of no<<les consisting of alcohol. These no<<les are installed on water pipes surrounding the transformer from almost all sides and if any of the no<<les -urns all are opened. They are there to protect the transformer winding -ecause during lightning the voltage is increased to the very high level and it can damage the winding. there intensity will -e very small. So -y installing these towers. the transformer is not -eing isolated for to change the tapping.4. so water comes from all sides. ifferent alcohols of different colors sense the temperature of different level. e. 2reen alcohol S +: to +6 9 Vellow alcohol S *6 to ):: 9 136 Auto/atic "olta)e re)ulator: This device senses out put voltage if. -y ?rauntyLs effect or -y increasing the capacitive -ehavior of the transmission line.2 !ther types o* trans*or/ers used in po#er house: ). !nit Au>iliary transformer 58 . There is a counter on each tower which is counting that how many times lightning occurred. • !** load tap chan)er: In this type of tap changer transformer is made off or disconnected from the system and then the tapping is changed. This alcohol senses the temperature and if the temperature rises from a certain level then they are -urn out.

&ow voltage au>iliary transformer .g. e. #>citation transformer All are small transformers as compared to unit transformers. TT$4transformer turns ratio test5 7. Silica (ell test Similarly some other important tests are also performed.4. Start up transformer A.3!"erall /aintenance o* trans*or/ers: All kinds of maintenance tests are -eing performed at the time of there reDuirement. The only difference is of there si<e and there use and depending on there use some e>ternal parts are not used in small transformers. .7. The working principle and other parts are almost same. ). Chapter A 59 . "ere is a drawing which is showing the connection -Cw all transformers.. ?ire protection system test A. Oil analysis ..

$ and the other is in the tur-ine hall near the generator.c. A. @. one is in 9.They are also source of e>citation in case of -lackout thud have vital use as d.3 The $atteries: They are of the two types w. Chapter B S#itch Card 60 .e. the out put voltage • • out put voltage of A+3 out put voltage of 77:3 They are of led acid type having sulfuric acid 4"7SOA5 as the electrolyte.1 Purpose? The purpose of the -attery room is to provoid d.23 gm/lit. when charged fully. minimum resistance for high efficiency and insulated properly to fulfil reDuirements.1 The Conductor: They are made of copper and are stranded to provide fle>i-ility and heavy eligi-le of carrying ma>imum possi-le current at any condition .r.The $attery 'oo/s A.c.2 The $attery 'oo/ In 4nit &1 : They are two in num-er i. The standard specific gravity of the acid is 1.t. supply needed for the relay action 4mostly for protection purposes5. -ackup supply. A.9.

1 $rea%er Sche/es: There are usually two schemesN  Single 0reaker Scheme 61 . B. is usually located in an area close to the plant. and electrical power is sent from the plant.::: or ).g. sulfur he>aflouride5 or oil is used to e>tinguish the arc caused when a -reaker is opened. The su-station is used as the distri-ution center whereN electrical power is supplied to the plant from the outside. Often there are at least 7 main 3ery high voltages 4typically 77:. 2as and oil circuit -reakers are used.::: volts5 are present.A Switchyard or Su-station. The gas 4e. consisting of large -reakers and towers.7. either -y a control switch or due to a fault %anually or motor operated disconnects are provided on either side of the -reaker to allow the -reaker to -e electrically isolated so that maintenance work can -e performed.

1 Sin)le $rea%er Sche/e In this scheme two circuits 4-us -ars5 share the two -reakers. B. One and "alf 0reaker Scheme B. thus a -reaker and one=half per circuitO this scheme provides relia-ility and operating 62 .1. The main disadvantage of this scheme whenever we want to work on a -reaker the entire circuit -us -ar should -e disconnected from the generator and feeder sides.2 !ne and Hal* $rea%er Sche/e A method of interconnecting several circuits and -reakers in a switchyard so that three circuit -reakers can provide dual switching to each of two circuits 4-us -ars5 -y having the circuits share one of the -reakers.1. The scheme is used for ).7 k3 or lower switchyards.

). Any of the line is no longer in contact with the generator. On the other hand. and is generally used at 77: k3. This is an automatic device which opens and closes -y sensing the characteristics defined -y the designer. then we make open the connections of the circuit -reaker. all lines are coming out from the -us -ar and there is a circuit -reaker in -etween the line and the -us -ar. So that there can -e a -ridge -etween the two parts. -reakers. The scheme is so called -ecause there are 7 circuits 4-us -ars5 and . -y chance. 9onductor *. then current transformer which is certainly installed with a -reaker.fle>i-ility. So. whenever we want to work on a -reaker the -us -ars are still alive from the generator and feeder sides.. Potential transformer 4P. 9urrent transformer 49. The main advantage of this scheme.5 /. 9ontrol Switch ):. if there occurs a fault in transmission line 63 e . Suppose if we want to work on the transmission line going to any other region. Insulator strings A. • !bjecti"e This is installed to protect or making some disconnection or connection part. 0us 0ar 6. we are reDuired to provide protection to it to avoid the -urning and the familiar of the -reaker. Isolators are used for itLs protection -ecause the minimum cost of the circuit -reaker which has -een installed in KAP9O is of ): million rupees.2 Inside the S#itchyard %ainly there are different -ut most important things for the protection. metering and for the other purposes. Auto Transformer +. Isolator . measurement. senses the a-normal current and sends information to the central control room and also perform some action to protect the system from any accident.5 . 9ircuit 0reaker 7.T. if any fault occurs on any side of the -reaker. So.T.. $elays 516 Circuit $rea%er This is the -asic and the most important part of the switchyard. B.

0. then Normally open contacts are closed and in the similar fashion descri-ed a-ove. So. e.9.g.$.e. 64 . opening and closing of the -reaker is done at some pressure defined. i6 Co/ponents o* the circuit brea%er 5a6 Au. if the -reaker is closed then information from the Normally closed contacts is sent to 9. i. -ars than -reaker is opened and then does not close itself until it is done manually. the transmission line or su-station or -us -ar itself and also generator are protected from any kind of small or -ig accidents. -us -ar and the transmission line. Similarly is the -reaker is open. Similarly the line from the step=up transformer to the -us -ar is also protected -y a circuit -reaker. A certain oil pressure is o-tained and then according to the information supplied -y the manufacturer.. So.The information a-out the opening and the closing of the -reaker is taken -y such a way that there are some Normally open and Normally closed contacts in au>iliary switch. 5b6 7echanical s#itchin) This process is done with help of the oil pressure. if pressure goes less than 7. showing that -reaker is in open condition. -y this way. 49entral 9ontrol $oom5 and a light is made ON there showing that 0reaker is in closed condition. this circuit -reaker is a kind of connection and disconnection -etween the generator. So. light is made ON in 9. it consists of P&9Ls which take information that whether the -reaker is open or close.iliary s#itch This is only for the purpose of the taking information a-out the working of the 9.then we can easily recover it -y opening the -reaker.$.9.

5c6 Inside protection As -ecause of the opening and closing of contacts os -y some other reasons . these archs must -e Duenched.g. ii6 Ter/inolo)y !* $rea%er: 'upture Current: The current at the time of opening operation of the -reaker is called rupture current. 65 . So. There are many methods for Duenching these archs. most commonly used methods for Duenching these archs is the use of the S?/ gas which is very much efficient for doing this task. archs are produced inside the -reaker which are dangerous for the life and the characteristics of the -reaker. • Air Duenching • 2as Duenching • 3acuum Duenching Now a days. e. It may -e the ordinary regular current value or very large fault current value depending on the condition of operation .

7a%in) Current: This is the value of load current at the point of making contacts close 'ated 7a%in) Current? This is the ma>imum -eara-le current at the time of making the contact . $rea% Ti/e : This is the time reDuired to do the -reak operation.t. 'ated 8or/al ?olta)e: The ma>imum amount of voltage applica-le for long passage of time.t. construction w.t. 'ated 8or/al Current: This is the ma>imum amount of current that can -e applied to the -reaker on normal working conditions for long time without effecting the efficiency . 'ated Short Ti/e Current? This is the ma>imum -eara-le short interval 4second or less5 current that can -e applied to the circuit -reaker.r. we have most used types listed -elow • • • • the oil circuit -reakers the air circuit -reakers the S?/ circuit -reakers the vacuum type 66 .r.r. arc Duenching media .t arc Duenching w.r. iii6 Types o* Circuit $rea%er They can -e classified w.'upture Current 'atin): This the ma>imum interrupti-le value of current at the instant of operation. This is the ma>imum value of current at which the -reaker can successfully provide protection against re striking of arc. without a-normal temperature and without any damage. two criteria w.

?acuu/ Type: In this type. Air Type? A>ial. 'hen the contacts open. a rating of . the vacuum is created at the contact position. It is necessary to replenish the gas from time to time. They are special with compact si<e.!il Type: In the oil type ckt -reaker. radial or cross -last is used in these -reakers to e>tinguish arc and also insulators can -e added to increase the dielectric strength. Addition can -e done to increase the rating -y providing pressure pot and e>ternally generated pressure to e>tinguish the arc -y pushing it and also -y dividing it into sections -y means of insulators . 67 .0y these means. Such an arrangement can work for -reaking duty not e>ceeding )6:%3A. the resistance -ecome very high since no ioni<ation in the medium occurs only source of electrons is thermionic emission through the surfaces.7 k3 is possi-le. Also low oil content -reaker can -e used to decrease the si<e and increase the life and performance of oil. The sf/ gas has high affinity to electrons thus have great de=ioni<ation power. the arc is produced in the oil thus oil decomposes and replaced -y the surrounding oil thus provides -oth cooling and give proper dielectric strength.6::%3A at ). So no chance of re=striking arc after it is once e>tinguished. The S3A $rea%ers: They are the -reakers using sf/ gas as the arc Duenching media. high relia-ility and heavy ratings .

have isolators at the -oth ends . They can -e controlled from c.. 2. -. withstand $oltage 1 min 3() * %() k$ #ated normal current 31&) ! #ated short time current 1sec+ %) k! #ated peak current 1)) k! #ated .The specifications are as under 1.t. #ach one is manufactured -y S:I7:8S 5-er/any6 The model num-er is 3!" 1 . 0. 3.Fig SF@ i"6 $rea%ers In The S#itch yard !* 4nit&3: They have hydraulic type mechanic and are advance. (. and c.t. 68 . for their operating system.They get information from p.reaking current %) k! #ated making current 1)) k! /reak time (& or &) msec inspection after 2) years The working temperature conditions at Kot Addu are very tough ranging from as high as 6:Q in summer to as low as += degrees 9elsius . There are three -reakers in each -ay.r.c. . #ated $oltage 2%&k$ power fre'.Since used in one and the half scheme.They use sf/ as arc Duenching medium . %. &.. or from the local control ca-in in the switch yard .

526 Isolator: 69 . 0ut the -reaker has wonderful working performance since have -een tested and used even harder weather conditions.Also the humidity conditions are also very hard ranging from very high humid conditions in summer 4 -ecause of the great river Indus and wet land conditions5 to very low humidity conditions in winter4foggy most of the time5.

%ainly two isolators are used for the protection of -reaker. Fig Isolators 536 Insulation Strin) ItLs main purpose is to provide the insulation -etween the transmission line. This is such an important device that without it there is not any concept of the transmission. Fig Insulating string 546 22. .$.These are used for the protection of the any unit.9. This is a mechanical device and information a-out the opening and closing of the isolator is send to the 9. su-station. transformer etc. in the same manner as descri-ed a-ove. %" D132 %" $us $ar 70 . • !bjecti"e ItLs main purpose is to isolate one unit from the other unit.

. If we want to design an ammeter for this purpose.77: kv -us -ar is our main -us -ar. ). to overcome this pro-lem. %easurement of the current. As very high amount of current is flowing through the line so we canLt measure such a -ig amount of current -y simple ammeters. if not then 71 . %etering And the forth one is A. it counts current flowing through them to ensure that whether the current is flowing in the limited region or not. Protection of the relays and -reakers etc. -ecause it is (ust like a see of electrical power in which all rivers 42enerators5 are supplying water 4Power5 and some rivers 4Power5 are taking water 4Power5 out of it. This is the line to which all generator are connected and supplying there power. for the 0reaker failure protection. Similarly for the protection of relays. Similarly we can say that if ) amp current is flowing in secondary of 9T then itLs mean that 7A:: or /:: amp are flowing in the primary of it. Fig 228 k' Bus Bar 5 6 Current Trans*or/er There are five ciols of 9T and three -asic purposes of using 9T. . 7. So. we use 9T which gives output in ratio like 7A::C) or /::C) or 7AC) which means that if suppose 7A:: amperes current is flowing then it will give the output as ) ampere. 'e can take out or in it the reDuired power. ?or e>ample the load side. then the si<e and the cost of that meter will -e very -ig costly respectively. This is the line or -us -ar which is connected to the our national 77: kv -us -ar forming ring main system. Power is delivered to any area only through this -us -ar.

As KAP9O or any generating company is also supplying energy to the 'AP A. Circuit *iagram of PT Fig PT 72 . So we use 9T for this purpose of metering. Similarly. then it counts current and sends information to distance protection relay to operate it earlier which is nearest to the fault and similarly to send information to the over current relay to make itLs operation. so it is to count that energy which is given to 'AP A and to take the charges from them.make the relay isolated from the system with the help of the of the Isolator. if -y chance there occurs a fault in transmission line.

we keep on checking for the low voltage and the high voltage. 'e have to use P.T. Circuit *iagram of PT Fig PT 73 .5A6 Potential trans*or/ers It is used to measure the voltages and it has -een installed with the -us -ar to measure the voltage across the -us -ar. 'e are checking for high voltage and low voltage -ut carefully for the low voltage -ecause the au>iliaries which we are running from this voltage will draw very high current if the voltage is very low and this can damage our eDuipment. -ecause we canLt design such a -ig voltmeter. So.

g.:=7A: volt range. The auto prefi> refers to the coil acting on itself rather than any automatic mechanism. lighter and cheaper than a standard dual=winding. Autotransformers are often used to step up or down -etween voltages in the )):= )). In an autotransformer portions of the same winding act as -oth the primary and secondary.=)7: volt range and voltages in the 77:=7.:3 input. An autotransformer can -e smaller.. 'e can say that 74 . These are important -ecause they are controlling the switching action of the -reaker and making connection of the relays to make it operate at the reDuired time.5B6Auto Trans*or/er An autotransformer is an electrical transformer with only one winding. transformer however the autotransformer does not provide electrical isolation. 506 Control s#itches: These are some -ut important -o>es looked inside the switch yard. These conductors are necessary things for to make connections -etween the unit transformer and the -reaker similarly -etween the -reaker to the -us -ar or even we can say that -etween the -us -ar and the transmission line. These are also used for the opening and closing of the isolator to make the connection and the disconnection -etween the two things. 'e adopt such a scheme to make one conductor cool and to avoid from the -urning of the conductor -ecause one cone conductor may not carry such high amount current. e. to output either )): or )7:3 4with taps5 from 7. The winding has at least three taps where electrical connections are made. This conductor scheme can -e of three or four conductors -ut such schemes are used for the transmission lines. Fig /uto Transformer 516 Conductors: Normally we use two conductor scheme for our switch yard to distri-ute the load of the current in a conductor..

Similarly there are many other types of the relays which we will discuss later. They sense every fault for which it has -een designed and then some other important devices are operated from the signal of the relay. 51.we are controlling every thing in switch yard -ecause all remaining things are going to operate on the -asis of the -reaker and the isolator -ecause these are the most important and the -asic things in switch yard. and P. #ach and every thing of the system even in the switch yard is -eing protected -y relays -ecause they are made very much sensitive for the faults.6 'elays: These are operated -y taking information from 9. There are many types of the relaysN • • • • ifferential over current relay.T. irectional over current relay. Chapter 1 3uels Section 1.1 • • • Co//on 3uel 4sed In EAPC! Natural 2as "i Speed iesel 4"S 5 ?urnace Oil 4?O5 75 .T. Over current relay. Over and under voltage relay.

Initially when pumping of &S?O starts fom &al Pir depot the line is packed with "S .The capacity of all tanks is almost the same.In this period "S valves are kept 76 .5 are placed out side the tanks. There are twenty seven tanks in the tank farm .five of them 4A.)) M 7:5 are used for "S storage.Fig Fuels Section 1.. • Pi) station this is the station where fuel is received from the pipeline coming from the &al Pir depot.=): M 7)=7A5 are used for the storage of treated &S?O. .Pig is entered in the line from &al Pir in order to avoid the mi>ing of two fuels.5 are used for the storage of untreated &S?O and remaining eleven tanks4)=.The suction heaters of tanks 47)=7.eleven tanks 4)7=)* M 76=7./.6.from Pig station &S?O 4&ow Sulphur ?uel Oil5 and "S are fed to the respective headers for filling the tanks.2 Tan% area introduction.

The difference -etween two reading gives the Duantity of the fuel pumped from %ehmood Kot.6 m4working capacity5 Over ?low S)7=)7. • <S3! Pu/pin): 'hen &S?O is -eing pumped through pipeline then the valve of the "S is closed that of &S?O header going to the untreated tanks is opened.:: m.::: m.'hen ?O reaches at the comple> the "S valves are closed after checking the result of the fuel and valves for feeding the untreated tanks are opened.which pumps &S?O in the &S?O header and "S in the respective header. It raised the temp. ?illing $ate S .0ut now only ?O is -rought at the comple> tankers. • PS! 'eceipt At the Site: The Duantity of pumped oil is measured -y taking the dip of tank at the %ehmood Kot and the site tank in which fuel is -eing filled./ m iameter S.open.:: 95.The pig takes seven and half hours to reach at the Pig Station.of the &S?O in the tank. 77 .which are decanted at the decanting station..C hr.:: m. esign capacity S*6:: m.'hen ?O pumping is stopped pig is entered in the line and "S is pumped in the line for removing the ?O from the line. • Suction Heater. • (i/ension and Construction (etail o* the Tan%s "eight S). headers valve is opned • (ecantin) station 0oth of the fuels are -rought to KAP9O through tankers . of the &S?O up to A: : 9 4can -e up to .There are four pumps at the decanting station.The capacity for the parking and decanting of 7: tankers at the time .6 m4changing from tank to tank5 9apacity S.Chr. • $otto/ Heater 1t is a steam heater .which are placed at the -ottom the tank.: m ?illed "eight S)). header • HS( Pu/pin): 'hen "S is pumped through the pipeline then "S and &S?O header valve is closed.which is used for raising the temp.It consists of tu-es and fins ?O$ the purpose of the heat e>changing .After at the Pig Station .it is taken out of the line. #mptying $ate S.6.

M 7.there are two 0ooster Pumps for the common header.The suction heater is at ).)6 . • (i**erence $et#een di**erent Tan%s tanks from 7)=7. M ). It consists of !=shaped tu-es through which steam flow.there are two 0ooster Pumps for the common header. $ecycling header from ?OTPs.M 7A. ?or tanks )A.3 Pipin) in Tan% Area: There are different headers in the tank area Othe details of the headers are under : 1. have their suction heater placed out side the tank in the retaining wall. o* $ooster Pu/ps *or di**erent -roup Tan%s ?or tanks )A. • 8o. rise is achieved at the suction of -ooster pump . .7/.. As "S needs no heating therefore "S tanks do not need -ottom and suction heaters.77. ?or tanks 7). These tanks have no recycle line.)+ M )*. which force the oil to flow through the heater in <ig<ag style in order to increase the time for heat e>change -y which 7: : 9 temp. ?or tanks )7.. 78 . "eader from untreated tanks to ?OTPs.there are two 0ooster Pumps for the common header. There are -affle plates mounted on the heater.)/ M ).7. 3or untreated tan%s • • • ?illing header from Pig Station and ecanting Station .while other tanks have their suction heaters at a height of ).6 m a-ove the -ottom of the tank to avoid the suction of sludge. 3or treated tan%s: • • ?illing headers for treated fuel from ?OTPs to the treated tanks. 2.there are two 0ooster Pumps for the common header. ?or tanks 76. 1.6 m from the -ottom of the tank. in case of leakage from the tanks.)6.. • 'etainin) #all All the tanks have retaining walls to retain the spillage of oil a-out ). $ecycling header from ?OTPs./:: m .).there are two 0ooster Pumps for the common header. Therefore this facility is not provided to these tanks. ?or tanks )) M 7:.there are two 0ooster Pumps for the common header.)/..

). $ecycling headers from ?OTPs. 3or HS( Tan%s: • • • • • ?illing header from Pig Station and ecanting Station.7.4 !perations !* Tan%s:  !peration o* untreated tan%s: ?or filling of untreated tanks the filling valve of that tank is opened . The procedure for shifting of fuel from one tank to another is as underN 79 . $eturn header from unit. Color Codin) o* the ?al"es: ?or untreated tanks the color coding is as underN $ed Sfilling valve 0lue S?OTP feeding valve Vellow S$ecyling valve ?or treated tanks the color coding ia as underO 0lue S?OTOP feeding valve Vellow S$ecyling valve 0rown Streated ?O from ?OTP 0lack M white Scommon header valve of all units feeding 0lack Sunit 6=+ feeding valve 'hite Sunit ). ?illing headers for treated fuel from ?OTPs to the treated tanks.• • !nits feeding header from tanks.?or sending the fuel for treatment to ?OTPs the suction valve of the 0ooster Pumps is opened. 3. M )A feeding valve 2reen Sreturn valve from units ?or "S tanks color coding is same as for treated tanks -ut with yellow strip. !nit feeding header from tanks. 1. $etun header from unit.In this way fuel from the filling header is filled to the tank .

The recycle valve of the desired tank is opened. The inlet valve of the ?OTP is opened and after treating the fuel it is fed to the desired tank through treated from ?OTP via tank filling pipe. In this way the fuel is feed to the header going to feed ?OTP. Open the ?OTP feeding valve. In this case the divertor valve is selected to recycle mode and the fuel is recycled to the desired tank. 80 . Now the filling valve of the tank to -e filled is opened. uring this process all ?OTPs should not operate and also the suction valve of ?OTPs remain closed. The shifting valve near tank F +4-lue Cyellow5 is opened. Open the shifting valve4-lueCyellow5 Open the recycle valve of the desired tank. It should -e checked carefully that the recycle valve of any other tank should not -e opened. 2he procedure for feeding the F32P is as under: The suction valve to -ooster pump is opened. If the result of treatment are not satisfied then there is an option to recycle the fuel in any of the untreated tank.  !peration o* HS( Tan%s: ?or filling of "S tanks from the Pig Station the &S?O filling header valve is closed and the "S filling header valve is opened. To shift untreated "S underN • • • • from one tank to the other .• • • • The discharge valve of the desired tank and 0ooster pump are opened.The inlet valve to ?OTP is opened and so the fuel is supplied from untreated tanks. ?or the treatment of "S the 0ooster Pump of the tank is operated and the valve for feeding ?OTP is opened.the procedure is as The discharge valve of the desired tank and 0ooster pump are opened.

?or shifting of treated &S?O -etween tank )=. 81 . Open the filling valve 4-rown5 of the desired tank. This process is called recycling of the treated tank. • • • Open the valve 4white5 for feeding 2T ). • The discharge valves of the desired tank and 0ooster pump are opened.In case if the Duality fuel of the treated tank is poor then it fed the ?OTP and from ?OTP it is again fed to the treated tank. 9lose the valve of the header for feeding units 6=+ near tank F). • • • Open the valve of the header for feeding 2T 6=+. Open the valve connected to the filling line of the tank where ?O is to -e shifted.)A are unavaila-le on "S . • • • Open the valve of the header for feeding units 6=+. Open the shifting vave Open the shifting valve of desired tank. uring this process ?OTP are not service.  !peration o* Treated Tan%s: After treatment of &S?O from the ?OTP it is filled in any of the treated tank through the treated header.the procedure is as under. ?or shifting of the treated &S?O from one tank to another . The shift treated "S from one tank to another tank. .• uring this process ?OTP F7 should not -e in service and the inlet valve should -e closed.).7.. At the same time the recycle valve of any other tank must -e closed.)A.the procedure is as underN • The discharge valves of the desired tank and 0ooster pump are opened.the procedure is as under.7. uring this process 2T ). • The discharge valves of the desired tank and the 0ooster pump are opened. Open the shift valve 4-rownCwhite5.)..

1.7.M A are of same type while ?OTP=6 is of different type than )st four i.e. • • • • Open the valve of the header for feeding units ).This is the procedure for shifting the ?O from tank 7 M . In this way header for units 6=+ is energi<ed. 9lose the valve of the header for feeding units ).M .7. !P51&26: 82 .0ut for shifting the ?O from tank F) to any one of 7 M . The fuel is filtered and then pumped -y the OP pumps. centrifuge type. these salt melt and deposit on the surface of the tur-ine -lades and cause un-alance of shaft. to any of the tanks ). M )A near tank F ) to stop feeding to the unit from this section of header. 3uel !il Treat/ent Plant: Introduction There are five ?OTPs in this comple>. 9losed the valve of the header for feeding units )6=+ near tank F) to stop feeding to the units from this section of the header..The ?OTPs ).the procedure is as underN • The discharge valves of the desired tank and -ooster pump are opened.Therefore when fuel -urn at the high temp. A brie* introduction to the operation o* 3!TP51&46 The function and the operation of different parts of ?OTP are descri-ed as under in seDuence. .).The purpose for the treatment of fuel is to remove waterGsolu-le salts of potassium and sodium from the fuel -ecause the metling point of these salt is low. 3uel oil circuit ?uel oil is fed to ?OTP -y opening the main feeding valve.. Open the valve of the header for feeding units 6=+.).7. M )A. ?OTP =7 is used for the treatment of "S while others are used for the treatment of &S?O.7.

It is fed to the stage ) -y means of OP .?rom economi<er the fuel goes to the thermal oil heat e>changer . of untreated fuel.There is also an option to -ypass the economi<ers.These pumps are used to pump the oil in the economi<er for the heating of fuel.chan)ers There are two heat e>changers in which fuel oil is further heated -y thermal oil. Heat :. 83 .After heating the fuel . :cono/i9er: These are two economi<er .where heat is e>changed from treated fuel to untreated fuel.=A.These are screw pumps. In this way the hot treated oil is used to raise the temp.

=A5 is fed to stage =).'ater coming out of stage=)) and demulsifer are fed to the fuel feeding line of stage =) -efore mi>ing valve. ?rom stage=) fuel is fed to stage=)).The discharge of OP 4. 84 . Treated fuel from stage=)))is sent to the treated tanks. Thermal oil is supplied to each stage for heating the contens of the stage. 'ater coming out of stage =))) and demulsifier are fed to the fuel feeding line of stage= )) -efore mi>ing valve. The high voltage is used to produce dipole moment in the water . There are two transformer on each stage . ?resh water and demulsifier are fed to the fuel feeding line of stage=)) -efore mi>ing valve . ?rom stage=)) fuel is fed to stage=))) . 3!TP Sta)es There are three different stage in the ?OTP.Fig Process *iagram of F:TP !P 53&46 These pumps are used to pump the oil into the ?OTP. The rating of the transformer is A::C)*:::v.

This chemical is stored in ?locculant storage tank. -efore mi>ing valve. 'P 51&46 There are four recycling pumps .which is an emulsion -reaker . (e/ulsi*ier (osin) The demulsifier is a chemical . Che/ical 3or#ardin) and (osin) S%id ?or the treatment of fuel oil different chemical are dosed at the ?OTP. emulsifier is pumped in three different lines .?rom this heater the heated fresh water is fed to the fuel feeding line of stge=))).'hich works on the level of the flocculant dilution tank. %i>ing fresh water in the flocculant dilution tank makes the diluted solution .ue to the creation of dipole moment the dia of the water drop increase. The discharge of 'P is heated in economi<er in order to raise the temp of the fresh water.?O having low specific gravity than water comes up . 2P 51&26 These pumps are used to fresh water into stage=))).?rom where it is collected and is discharged from the stage. The . The dosing of demulsifier in any stage depends upon the Duantity of water in that stage . rd line is connected to the fuel oil line after the duple> filter. 'here as $P4.This chemical is stored in the demulsifier storage tank from where it is pumped -y 9P pumps to three stages. 2ater Heater. 3locculant (osin). ue to increase in dia the setting rate of the water drop increase and it settles at the -ottom of the stage .The fresh water is pumped in the flocculant dilution tank -y means of ? P. ?rom the 85 . This chemical is used to separate oil from water . The effluent water is then fed to the effluent storage tank. If Duantity of water is more then demulsifier dosing is increased and vice versa. Two of them are connected to the fuel oil feeding to stages 7M .=A5 is used to pump the water from stage=)) to stage=).$P4)=75 are used to pump the water from stage =))) to stage =)). The water after heating from the economi<er is further heated in a heater -y thermal oil.The details of dosing process are as under.

package .the oil -eing lighter than water comes up through these tu-es and water deposits in the -ase of the oily water separator tank . !il 2ater Seprator: The effluent water is pumped -y water recycling pumps 4'$P ). The effluent helps oil drops present in the effluent water to separator from the water.'here oil mi>ing in water is separated -y means of "oney com.The flocculent also dosed in the oily water separator feeding line.The flocculent is added in feeding line of water and in the . The water is pumped into the pit of pit for the 9T of "$S2s.dilution tank the diluted solution is pumped -y two pumps to AS? and oily water separator through three feeding lines. rd stage of A?S. 3uel Additi"e Seprator: ?uel oil dosing chemical is stored in this storage tank. This assem-ly has small tu-es through which the effluent water passes . Air 3lotation 4nit: In this unit the oil still present in the effluent water is removed -y using air flotation techniDue . ?our -lenders driven -y motors -lend the effluent water . The water from the separator goes into the Air ?lotation !nit. ?rom this cham-er oil is pumped and sent to sludge tank. ue to this process the oil comes up like -utter and is collected in the oil cham-er of A?S. 86 . The oil separated -y this separator is stored in the sludge tanks .75 into oily water separator . ?rom this tank the chemical is sent to the additive=dosing skid through pumps for -eing dosed in the fuel.