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**Data and Signals
**

Part 1

3.1

Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Note

To be transmitted, data must be transformed to electromagnetic signals.

3.2

Terms & Concepts

Data - Logical Signal - Physical Channel - Logical Link – Physical (carries one or more channels) Bit Rate (N) (bit per second) - Data Bandwidth (B) (Hz cycle per second) – Signal and Channel Capacity (C) (bit per second) - Channel Signal Element - Physical Signal Rate (S) (Baud Rate) Data Element - Logical Data Rate (N)

3.3

Data & Signals

Data Analog Analog Signal Digital Digital

3.4

**3-1 ANALOG AND DIGITAL
**

Data can be analog or digital. The term analog data refers to information that is continuous; digital data refers to information that has discrete states. Analog data take on continuous values. Digital data take on discrete values.

**Topics discussed in this section:
**

Analog and Digital Data Analog and Digital Signals Periodic and Nonperiodic Signals

3.5

6 . 3. Digital data have discrete states and take discrete values. Analog data are continuous and take continuous values.Note Data can be analog or digital.

Note Signals can be analog or digital. 3. digital signals can have only a limited number of values.7 . Analog signals can have an infinite number of values in a range.

8 .2 Comparison of analog and digital signals 3.Figure 3.

we commonly use periodic analog signals and nonperiodic digital signals. 3.9 .Note In data communications.

A composite periodic analog signal is composed of multiple sine waves. Topics discussed in this section: Sine Wave Wavelength Time and Frequency Domain Composite Signals Bandwidth 3.10 . cannot be decomposed into simpler signals. A simple periodic analog signal. a sine wave.3-2 PERIODIC ANALOG SIGNALS Periodic analog signals can be classified as simple or composite.

3 A sine wave 3.Figure 3.11 .

Note We discuss a mathematical approach to sine waves in Appendix E online.12 . 3.

The peak value is equal to 2½ × rms value. it is common knowledge that the voltage of the power in U. However.13 . This discrepancy is due to the fact that these are root mean square (rms) values.1 The power in your house can be represented by a sine wave with a peak amplitude of 155 to 170 V. 3. The signal is squared and then the average amplitude is calculated. homes is 110 to 120 V.Example 3.S.

Figure 3. but different amplitudes 3.14 .4 Two signals with the same phase and frequency.

5 V.2 The voltage of a battery is a constant. the peak value of an AA battery is normally 1. as we will see later. 3.Example 3. For example.15 . this constant value can be considered a sine wave.

Note Frequency and period are the inverse of each other.16 . 3.

17 .Figure 3. but different frequencies 3.5 Two signals with the same amplitude and phase.

1 Units of period and frequency 3.18 .Table 3.

3 The power we use at home has a frequency of 60 Hz.Example 3.19 . The period of this sine wave can be determined as follows: 3.

4 Express a period of 100 ms in microseconds. We make the following substitutions:. Solution From Table 3.1 we find the equivalents of 1 ms (1 ms is 10−3 s) and 1 s (1 s is 106 μs).20 .Example 3. 3.

and then we calculate the frequency from the period (1 Hz = 10−3 kHz).21 . 3.Example 3. What is its frequency in kilohertz? Solution First we change 100 ms to seconds.5 The period of a signal is 100 ms.

22 . Change in a short span of time means high frequency.Note Frequency is the rate of change with respect to time. 3. Change over a long span of time means low frequency.

3.Note If a signal does not change at all.23 . its frequency is zero (for example. its frequency is infinite (like the sharp vertical edge of a pulse) . DC) If a signal changes instantaneously.

24 . 3.Note Phase describes the position of the waveform relative to time 0.

25 . but different phases 3.Figure 3.6 Three sine waves with the same amplitude and frequency.

26 .Example 3. 1/6 cycle is 3.6 A sine wave is offset 1/6 cycle with respect to time 0. Therefore. What is its phase in degrees and radians? Solution We know that 1 complete cycle is 360°.

Figure 3.7 Wavelength and period 3.27 .

Figure 3.8 The time-domain and frequency-domain plots of a sine wave 3.28 .

29 . 3.Note A complete sine wave in the time domain can be represented by one single spike in the frequency domain.

3.7 The frequency domain is more compact and useful when we are dealing with more than one sine wave. All can be represented by three spikes in the frequency domain. For example. Figure 3.30 .Example 3. each with different amplitude and frequency.8 shows three sine waves.

Figure 3.31 .9 The time domain and frequency domain of three sine waves 3.

3. we need to send a composite signal.32 .Note A single-frequency sine wave is not useful in data communications. a signal made of many simple sine waves.

amplitudes. 3. and phases.Note According to Fourier analysis. Fourier analysis is discussed in Appendix E.33 . any composite signal is a combination of simple sine waves with different frequencies.

the decomposition gives a combination of sine waves with continuous frequencies.Note If the composite signal is periodic. the decomposition gives a series of signals with discrete frequencies. if the composite signal is nonperiodic.34 . 3.

3. This type of signal is not typical of those found in data communications.10 shows a periodic composite signal with frequency f.35 .8 Figure 3. We can consider it to be three alarm systems.Example 3. each with a different frequency. The analysis of this signal can give us a good understanding of how to decompose signals.

36 .10 A composite periodic signal 3.Figure 3.

11 Decomposition of a composite periodic signal in the time and frequency domains 3.37 .Figure 3.

the composite signal cannot be periodic.9 Figure 3. because that implies that we are repeating the same word or words with exactly the same tone.12 shows a nonperiodic composite signal. It can be the signal created by a microphone or a telephone set when a word or two is pronounced.38 . 3.Example 3. In this case.

Figure 3.39 .12 The time and frequency domains of a nonperiodic signal 3.

40 .Note The bandwidth of a composite signal is the difference between the highest and the lowest frequencies contained in that signal. 3.

41 .13 The bandwidth of periodic and nonperiodic composite signals 3.Figure 3.

300. what is its bandwidth? Draw the spectrum. and B the bandwidth. Solution Let fh be the highest frequency. 500. 500. 700. at 100.13).Example 3. Then The spectrum has only five spikes. 300. fl the lowest frequency. 700.42 . 3. and 900 Hz (see Figure 3.10 If a periodic signal is decomposed into five sine waves with frequencies of 100. and 900 Hz. assuming all components have a maximum amplitude of 10 V.

43 .Figure 3.13 The bandwidth of periodic and nonperiodic composite signals 3.

10 3.14 The bandwidth for Example 3.44 .Figure 3.

What is the lowest frequency? Draw the spectrum if the signal contains all frequencies of the same amplitude.Example 3. Solution Let fh be the highest frequency. We show this by a series of spikes (see Figure 3. Then The spectrum contains all integer frequencies.11 A periodic signal has a bandwidth of 20 Hz. 3. fl the lowest frequency. and B the bandwidth.45 .14). The highest frequency is 60 Hz.

11 3.Figure 3.46 .15 The bandwidth for Example 3.

15 shows the frequency domain and the bandwidth. Solution The lowest frequency must be at 40 kHz and the highest at 240 kHz. Figure 3. with a middle frequency of 140 kHz and peak amplitude of 20 V.47 .Example 3. Draw the frequency domain of the signal.12 A nonperiodic composite signal has a bandwidth of 200 kHz. 3. The two extreme frequencies have an amplitude of 0.

12 3.16 The bandwidth for Example 3.48 .Figure 3.

We will show the rationale behind this 10-kHz bandwidth in Chapter 5. 3.Example 3.13 An example of a nonperiodic composite signal is the signal propagated by an AM radio station. In the United States. The total bandwidth dedicated to AM radio ranges from 530 to 1700 kHz. each AM radio station is assigned a 10-kHz bandwidth.49 .

The total bandwidth dedicated to FM radio ranges from 88 to 108 MHz.14 Another example of a nonperiodic composite signal is the signal propagated by an FM radio station.50 . each FM radio station is assigned a 200kHz bandwidth. 3. We will show the rationale behind this 200-kHz bandwidth in Chapter 5.Example 3. In the United States.

we have 367.025.51 . The worst-case scenario is alternating black and white pixels. Therefore.500 cycles per second. 3.000 / 2 = 5.500 pixels per screen. or Hz.Example 3.000 pixels per second. A TV screen is made up of pixels.500 × 30 = 11. The bandwidth needed is 5. we need 11.15 Another example of a nonperiodic composite signal is the signal received by an old-fashioned analog blackand-white TV. If we assume a resolution of 525 × 700.025. We can send 2 pixels per cycle.512. If we scan the screen 30 times per second. this is 367.5125 MHz.

edu/~signals/listennew/listen-newindex.Listen to Waveforms http://www.52 .jhu.htm 3.

Fourier Series Demo http://www.com/fourier/ 3.falstad.53 .

1/Tp=5kHz Envelope zeros @ multiple integers of 2/Tw.Tw=1 msec. Tp=2 msec. 1/Tw =1kHz. peaks @ multiple integers of 1/Tw .

5 msec (zeros except at zero Hz) .periodic discrete spectral components Period = 5 msec (peaks) Width = 2.

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