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A computer is a fast and accurate electronic symbol (or data) manipulating system that’s designed and organized to automatically accept

and store input data, process them and produce output results under the direction of detailed step-by-step stored program of instructions. Because computers are the backbone of modern business and you want to become a success in the job of your choice, as well as experience new and exciting learning opportunities. The need to know how to input, process, store, and output data and information has become increasingly relevant to anyone who plans to enter the business environment. Your survival in the business world of today and tomorrow depends more and more on how well you understand what a computer is, how it’s works, and what it can be used for. The computer is ualifies as a system. ! computer system is a combination of five elements" • #ardware • $oftware • %eople • %rocedures • &ata 'information
Data comprises the raw, unevaluated facts, concepts, or instructions processed by the

computer to output information, the useful product of processing. (nformation is used to make decisions. People have always been extremely important to the functioning of a computer system. (n the past, when computers weren’t so commonplace in business, many people were able to ignore them. Today, however , it is much more difficult to avoid becoming part of a computer system. Hardware is the actual computer e uipment must be used with software, the instructions that tell the computer what to do. $oftware is written by people. $ystem software comprises the general instructions that tell the computer how to operate) applications software comprises the specific business*task*related instructions that help a user get his or her job done. %rocedures are represented by documentation such as users’ manuals, which tell users how to proceed. +omputers are generally classified into one of for categories, based on seven factors" • Type of +%,

such as a keyboard or mouse. The microcomputer’s t basic hardware components are" • input hardware • storage hardware • processing hardware • output hardware nput De!ices (nput devices. which converts images such as photographs into binary information that the computer can manipulate) a light pen. or select objects from. can use • $torage capacity • $peed of output devices • %rocessing speed • -umber of users that can access the computer at one time • +ost The smallest. followed by minicomputer. and the supercomputer. /ther input devices include a joystick. the mainframe computer. slowest.nowledge of a microcomputer is especially relevant for people in business today. a computer0s video display by pressing the . a godlike device often used by game players) a scanner. and at least expensive computer is the microcomputer. which can draw on.• !mount of main memory the +%. permit the computer user to communicate with the computer. .

used to gather sound information. or 33. the number of representations is doubled. . which store about 6 megabytes of information) hard drives. 332. the number of possible patterns is doubled. such as magnetic floppy disks. Typically. data are stored in a computer in the form of binary digits. /ne way to store memory is within the circuitry of the computer. and several character*si9ed graphics symbols. which can be read by the computer but not altered. ! byte is a useful uantity in which to store information because it provides enough possible patterns to represent the entire alphabet. in lower and upper cases. (f a second bit is added to a single bit of information. 223. 23.!<4. 323. The bus enables the components in a computer. and memory. 5ach time a bit is added.!<. resulting in four possible combinations" 22. ! third bit added to this two* bit representation again doubles the number of combinations. ! kilobyte:3222 bytes:can store 3222 characters) a megabyte can store 3 million characters) and a gigabyte can store 3 billion characters. 232. "omputer #emory To process information electronically. as well as numeric digits./<s 1compact discs4. each having two possible representations 12 or 34. which can store up to 822 megabytes of information. $he %us The bus is usually a flat cable with numerous parallel wires. or read*only memory 1. which can store thousands of megabytes of information) and +&*. usually in tiny computer chips that hold millions of bytes of information. 32. such as the +%. 233. The physical memory of a computer is either random access memory 1. or bits. <emory also can be stored outside the circuitry of the computer on external storage devices. 5ight bits is called a byte) a byte has 678 possible combinations of 2s and 3s. or computer. punctuation marks. ! byte also can be interpreted as a pattern that represents a number between 2 and 677. which can be read or changed by the user. including non*5nglish characters such as . which senses the placement of a user0s finger) and a microphone. resulting in eight possibilities" 222. or 333. 322.pen against the display0s surface) a touch panel. The memory within these computer chips is . to communicate./<4.

which is the part of the computer that translates commands and runs programs. which determines what the instruction will do. . >hen a program is run. divides and does comparisons" @less thanA.0s registers. The +%. =or example. and input'output devices. @ greater thanA or @ e ual toA and its combinations. (utput De!ices . with 38 parallel wires.. (n a typical se uence. The instruction then travels along the bus from the computer0s memory to the +%. multiples. is a microprocessor chip:that is. (t reads and interprets software instructions and coordinates the processing activities that must take place. The +%. and the results are stored in another register or copied to specific memory locations. The +%. has two main parts" $he "ontrol unit $he arithmetic (logic unit)-A'& The control unit does not execute instructions itself) it tells other parts of the computer system what to do. executes the instruction.0s control unit coordinates and times the +%. a 38*bit bus. <eanwhile. !ny data the instruction needs are retrieved via the bus and placed in the +%.0s functions. The central processing unit ("P&) is the brain of the computer. subtracts.0s tiny scratchpad. temporarily storing instructions or data. locates the next instruction in the appropriate memory device. (nformation is stored in a +%.. $he "entral Processing &nit ("P&) (nformation from an input device or memory is communicated via the bus to the +%. a single piece of silicon containing millions of electrical components. The current instruction is analy9ed by a decoder. (t determines the movement of electronic signals between main memory and arithmetic' logic unit as well as the control signals between the +%. performs all the arithmetic and logical 1comparison4 functions* that is it adds. The !?. The +%. one register called the program counter keeps track of which program instruction comes next. where it is stored in a special instruction register.egisters can be thought of as the +%.several bits at a time are sent along the bus. the program counter is incremented to prepare for the next instruction. and it retrieves the next instruction from memory. allows the simultaneous transmission of 38 bits 16 bytes4 of information from one device to another. the +%. memory location called a register.

but it has no substance. you are buying software. you need to buy the disk 1hardware4 on which the software is recorded. keyboards. =or example. and symbols. and speakers. you can say" CThe problem lies in the software. and chips. Books provide a useful analogy. paragraphs. has executed the program instruction. $oftware exists as ideas./nce the +%. You can also say" C(t0s a software problem. the program may re uest that information be communicated to an output device. concepts.)oftware categories $oftware is often divided into two categories" .+ systems software. -+ application software+ .+. ! computer without software is like a book full of blank pages ** you need software to make the computer useful just as you need words to make a book meaningful. *+ ! computer system . printers. display screens. videocassette recorders 1B+. while the words. The pages and the ink are the hardware. /ther output devices are printers. (n contrast. boards. The terms software and hardware are used as both nouns and adjectives. +learly. and the overall meaning are the software. not with the computer itself. overhead projectors.refers to the hardware and software components that run a computer or computers. . such as a video display monitor or a flat li uid crystal display. Hardcopy output can be paper with text 1words or numbers4 or graphic printed on it )oftcopy output is displayed on a monitor a television like screen on which you can read text and graphics.s4. when you purchase a program.C meaning that there is a problem with the program or data. "omputer system+ Hardware refers to objects that you can actually touch. But to buy the software. disk drives. like disks. software is untouchable.C The distinction between software and hardware is sometimes confusing because they are so integrally linked. sentences.

The most important program that runs on a computer. files. =or large systems. /perating systems perform basic tasks. dri!ers of your computer) 2ecycle %in D everything you delete >indows saves in the 2ecycle %in+ You can restore items. 5very general* purpose computer must have an operating system to run other programs. printers. !fter >indows is set up on your computer. Turn on your computer and after you will see some cryptic information displays this information to let you know how of is configuring stops scrolling past and so on. or may be published separately.+ systems software / (ncludes the operating system and all the utilities that enable the computer to function. the operating system has even greater responsibilities and powers. if you accidentally deleted them) #y 3etwor0 Places displays all of the shared computers. and other resources on the networ0 to which your computer is connected.. sending output to the display screen. it’s easy to start. 5xamples include enterprise software. >eb. To open #y 3etwor0 Place. operating system . The operating system is also responsible for security. also known as an application or an CappC. graphics software and media players. office suites. ensuring that unauthori9ed users do not access the system. $he des0top main elements/ • • • #y computer 1 for seeing all folders. !pps may be bundled with the computer and its system software. (t is like a traffic cop * it makes sure that different programs and users running at the same time do not interfere with each other.34. <any application programs deal principally with documents. and controlling peripheral devices such as disk drives and printers. $ome users are satisfied with the bundled apps and need never install one. and =T% servers. keeping track of files and directories on the disk. You can use the !dd 3etwor0 Place wi9ard to create shortcuts to networ0. such as recogni9ing input from the keyboard. accounting software. Application software. +omputers -ear <e enable you to narrow your search to computers in the same workgroup. You do your work in rectangular areas of the screen called windows+ These windows appear on a background called des0top 1fig. is computer software designed to help the user to perform specific tasks. double*click #y 3etwor0 Place on the desktop. .

• $as0 bar 1the bar that contains the )tart button and appears on the bottom of the desktop. You choose an icon by double*clicking it with the mouse 1fig. !n application icon is a small picture representing an application. • $he control-menu bo4 is in the upper*left corner of each window. You can reduce any open application window to an application icon. si9e and close a window) . =or example. You can click the tas0 bar buttons to switch between running programs. +lick the control menu box to open the "ontrol menu 1fig. You can also hide the task bar. and customi9e it in other ways. have every element 1fig.E4 The control menu is most useful if you use your keyboard 1rather than a mouse4 to move. it runs in an application window on the desktop. such as a title bar and a menu bar+ -ot all windows.educed application windows applications1fig. however.64. By reducing application window to icons.34.5ig+. The applications you work with 1such as" WinWord or Excel) are represented in >indows by small graphical symbol called icons+ You often carry out an action in >indows by choosing an item. choosing an icon you can start an application. !fter you start an application. Parts of window+ <ost windows have certain elements in common.34. move it to the sides or top of the desktop. you can free space on your desktop without uitting the .

a dotted rectangle. directory. $election alone does not start an action. group.5ig+* 5ig-+ • The title bar shows the name of the application. =or ex. +lick item. • $o select a single item by using a mouse/ 1. or file. (f necessary. 2.. which can appear as a highlight. You choose an item to carry out an action. for ex. click the scroll arrows until the item you want appears. or both. (f more than one window is open. the title bar for the acti!e 1the one in which you are working4 has a colour or intensity different from other title) • <oving the window corner shortens or lengthens two adjoining side of a window border in the same time) "hoosing and selecting+ (n >indows the terms choose and select have different meaning. . choosing an icon might start an application. >hen using a dialog box. document. )electing items+ You often need to select an item or multiple items from a list. )electing an item usually means marking it with the selection cursor. open a window or carry out a command.

. 1fig364  A triangle () to the right of a command . and then click the left mouse button.  A 0ey combination to the right of a command . click any item in list . To cancel the selection. 1fig334  An ellipsis (⋅⋅⋅ ) following a command. and then drag the cursor to the last item you want. the command is no longer in effect 1fig. it is not recommended that you create file names with 637 characters.334 3.1fig. click the first item you want to select. press and hold down "trl. /r drag the selection cursor down the menu until the menu item is highlighted. /r click the first item you want to select. $ip+ To move directly to a command on a a shortcut for choosing the command. and then release the mouse button. 2.G4  A • to the left of a command D only one of the command at a time can be in effect 1fig. (n windows are used the following convention" • Dimmed (or not !isible) command *you cannot use command with your application at the current time.a dialog box appears when you choose the command. including spaces. To cancel. #owever. and then click each item you want to select. and then click item to cancel the selection.• $o select or cancel multiple se6uential items+ To select items. ! file name can contain up to 637 characters. $o open a menu and choose an item 1. press and hold down "trl. +lick the menu item you want. and then click the last item you want.when you choose this command. press and hold down )hift. <ove the mouse pointer so that it points to the name of the menu on the menu bar. 1fig324  A chec0 mar0 (√ ) to the left of a command *the command is in effect. You can press the keys listed to choose the command without first opening the menu. You can also rename a file or folder by right*clicking it and then clicking 2ename. type the letter that is underlined in the item name.F4. <ost programs cannot interpret extremely long file names. =ile names cannot contain the following characters" H'"IJCKLM 6. The dialog box contains options you need to select before the command can be carried out. • $o select or cancel multiple nonse6uential items+ • To select. >hen you remove the check mark 1by choosing the command again4. a cascading menu appears.

3N4 . N. +lick the file or folder you want to delete. /n the 5ile menu. or $ystemE6 cannot be changed because they are re uired for >indows to run properly. 1fig. point to )earch. and then click 5or 5iles or 5olders. folder. The name of system folders such as &ocuments and $ettings. $elect )ize to look for files of a specific si9e. double*click 2ecycle %in on the desktop. To specify additional search criteria. To search for files containing specific text. 3otes &eleted files remain in the 2ecycle %in until you empty it unless you press and hold down )H 5$ while dragging an item to the 2ecycle %in. type the text you want to find. You can also delete files or folders by right*clicking the file or folder and then clicking Delete. $o search for a file or folder 3. click Delete. click the drive.3N4 6. $elect $ype to look for files of a specific type. (n )earch for files or folders named. (f you want to retrieve a file you have deleted. $elect Ad!anced (ptions to specify additional search criteria. E. /pen 7indows 84plorer 6. or network you want to search. o o o 8. E. $o delete a file or folder 3. +lick )earch 3ow 1fig. in "ontaining te4t. click )earch (ptions. >innt. (n 'oo0 in. 7. and then click 2estore. such as a text or >ord%ad document. and then click one or more of the following options to narrow your search" o $elect Date to look for files that were created or modified on or between specific dates. +lick )tart. right*click the file you want to retrieve. Then the item is deleted from your computer without being stored in the 2ecycle %in. type all or part of the file name or folder you want to find.E.

9 3otes • (f you get too many results. and then click $as0bar : )tart #enu 1fig. /pen 7indows 84plorer. point to )ettings. (n the =olders list. ! shortcut is a uick way to start a fre uently used program or open a file or folder without having to go to its installed location. E. These files may need to be copied to a faster storage medium before the contents can be searched. click 3ew. 6. +lick )tart. try entering additional search criteria to make your search more specific. /n the 5ile menu. =ollow the instructions on your screen. To clear the search criteria fields and begin a new search. such as optical or tape backup. N.nder !dvanced /ptions. point to 3ew. $o add a shortcut to the )tart menu or a submenu 3. 3otes • • =olders can also be opened by double*clicking the folder in the details pane on the right. • • $o create a shortcut in a folder 3. )earch slow files refers to files that reside on removable storage media.374 . . and then click )hortcut.5ig+. click the folder in which you want to create the shortcut.

select or clear the options you want to turn on or off.384. point to )ettings. !dds a 'ogoff command to the )tart #enu. &isplays the "ontrol Panel )tart #enu contents in a list instead of a window.. and then click Properties. +lick the Ad!anced tab fig.6. and then click $as0bar : )tart menu 6.&) 3= )$A2$ #83& • To change the )tart menu settings 3. E. right*click an empty area on the taskbar. (n )tart menu )ettings.. 3ote • To open the $as0bar and )tart #enu Properties dialog box. <+. 5ig+. . +lick )tart.3F4 E. !dds the 5a!orites menu to the )tart #enu. +lick Add. +lick the Ad!anced tab 1fig. 1fig384 $his option Display Administrati!e $ools Display 5a!orites Display 'ogoff 84pand "ontrol Panel Does this !dds the Administrati!e $ools menu to the Programs menu. and then follow the instructions in the +reate $hortcut wi9ard.

&isplays the contents of the Programs menu in a )croll the Programs menu scrolling list instead of columns.? .> 5ig+. &isplays the Printers menu contents in a list instead of 84pand Printers a window. 84pand #y Documents Note • To open the $as0bar and )tart #enu Properties dialog box. 84pand 3etwor0 and Dial-up &isplays the 3etwor0 Dial-up "onnections menu "onnections contents in a list instead of a window. 5ig+. right*click an empty area on the taskbar and then click Properties.&isplays the #y Documents menu contents in a list instead of a window.

The method you use to transfer information onto the +lipboard depends on whether you are using a >indow*based or <$*&/$*based application and whether it’s running in a window or a full screen. You can copy also the image of the entire desktop or a single window. 6. you can paste the information into a document as often as you like. you can cut. 8. Try pressing AltAPrint )creen or )hiftAPrint )creen to copy screen. choose "ut or "opy. You can cut or copy text. +hoose "opy to transfer the selected information onto +lipboard 1fig.3O4. choose 8dit. graphics. 3ote (f Print )creen does not copy the screen onto the +lipboard you may not have an enhanced the "ut command for to -+ remove information from a file and place it onto the +lipboard. . #ar0+ the "opy command to place a copy of the information onto the +lipboard leaving the information in its original location as well. and then choose 8dit+ The 8dit drop*down menu appears. • $o copy an image of the des0top onto "lipboard ⇒ press Print )creen button. copy selected information onto the +lipboard. Because the information remains on the +lipboard. (f you are copying from <$*&/$*based application. a bitmap of the window is placed onto the +lipboard.un <$*&/$ prompt application.3O4 . &rag the mouse pointer across the information you want to copy 1fig. • $o copy the contents of the acti!e window onto the "lipboard → press AltAPrint )creen+ (f you are copying from >indow*based application. 7.<+*+$2A3)582 3= 35(2#A$ (3 %8$7883 APP' "A$ (3) %@ &) 3= $H8 "' P%(A2D (nformation you cut or copy onto the "lipboard remains there until you clear it or cut or copy another piece of information onto it. +lick on the right mouse’s button and. . +lick "ontrol-menu box. the information is placed onto the +lipboard as a text • $o copy from #)-&/$ based application running in a window 3.+ $elect the information you want to cut or copy. or a combination of text and graphics) =rom the application’s 8dit menu. • $o cut or copy information onto the "lipboard . (f you are using a >indow*based application. or until you uit 7indows. .

• >hen you create a lin0ed obDect. changes you make to the object do not affect the source document. a drawing.F. $tart the application) %lace the insertion point where you want to paste the information) +hoose Paste (8dit menu4 of application. or text that can be linked an embedded. 5ig+. without switching away from the document you’re working in. • !n obDect is a piece of information such as a chart. you establish a link between the destination and source documents. By double*clicking it * you start application that was used to create it. • ! source document is the document in this the object originates • ! destination document is the document into which you place an object • !n embedded obDect is an object in a destination document that is a copy of information that was created in another application . >hen you make changes to a linked object. • $o paste information 3. !lthough the linked object displayed in the destination document and you can print the object.< • Pasting the information from the "lipboard You can paste information from the +lipboard into an application at any time. <+9+ (%B8"$ ' 3C 3= A3D 8#%8DD 3= To understand object linking and embedding. an object is no longer connected to the source document . !fter it is embedded. 5xit from <$*&/$. you need to be familiar with the following terms and concepts. E. the data that makes up the object resides only in the source document. 6. you are actually changing the information in the source .

3O4. You can embed an object by starting from either the source or destination document. and then choose (0 button 1fig. =rom 8dit menu. 3ote &ifferent applications may use different menu commands for object embedding. choose nsert obDect .624 . 6.document.3G4 listing all the 6. %lace the insertion point where you want to place object. ! dialog box appears 1fig. >hen you make changes in the source document the changes appears in the destination document 1updating the linked object4. linking and /pen the #icrosoft 7ord document in which you want to embed the object 1fig. applications on your computer that support ('8+ 5ig+. starting from #icrosoft 7ord 3. • 8mbedding an obDect The way you embedded an object depends on the type of the object it is and whether the object has already been created.E $elect Paintbrush Picture. • $o embed a Paintbrush obDect.

5dit the object as need.634. =rom 5ile menu in %aintbrush . (n the Paint window. %aintbrush opens with the object displayed. To link information between documents . %aintbrush closes and you return to the #icrosoft 7ord document.5ig+-F N. 8diting an embedded obDect+ • $o edit an embedded Paintbrush obDect from within a 7ord document+ 3. +lick anywhere on the 7ord document and you 5xit Paint and return to 7ord document.1fig. choose 84it:2eturn $o 1name of document4. (n the #icrosoft 7ord document. or open the document that contains the drawing you want to embed. =rom 5ile menu. 'in0ing an obDect E. choose the embedded object. 5ig+-. by double*clicking it. create a drawing. in %aintbrush choose &pdate or clic0 anywhere+ The embedded object is updated in the #icrosoft 7ord document. 6. 8.

8diting a lin0ed obDect 3. by double*clicking Paintbrush opens. . then click (C. (f linking isn0t available. (n the Paintbrush. /n the 8dit menu. 6. E. /n the 8dit menu. choose )a!e. 5ile menu. +lick the location in the new document where you want to place the linked object. click "opy. (n the #icrosoft 7ord document. 6. N. click Paste )pecial. with the source document displayed. choose the linked object. You can link information between documents that were created in different programs. E. choose 84it+ Paintbrush closes and you return to the #icrosoft 7ord document. Notes • • $ome programs do not support linking. $elect the information that you want to link to another document. . Paste )pecial will be unavailable on the 8dit menu. =rom 5ile menu. The linked object in the #icrosoft 7ord document is updated as you make your changes.5dit the object as needed. +lick Paste 'in0. 7. it. N.3.