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# THE THREE STATES OF MATTER

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Solids, liquids and gases Particles Kinetic Theory of Matter The 3 states of water Evaporation and condensation Boiling and Melting Points Subli ation !hanging the Melting and Boiling Points E"peri ent #or\$sheet

THE THREE STATES OF MATTER
Solids, liquids and gases are the three states of Matter is ade fro atter%

s all particles called atoms and molecules%

& solid has a definite shape and a definite volu e% 't cannot be co pressed%

& liquid has a definite volu e but does not have a definite shape% 't ta\$es the shape of the container it is in% 't cannot be co pressed%

& gas does not have a definite shape or a definite volu e% 't co pletely fills its container% 't is uch lighter than solids or liquids and spreads out (diffusion%) 't can be compressed (squashed into a s aller volu e%)

Why do solids, liquids and gases ha e their properties! The way that solids, liquids and gases behave is dependent upon the positions and behaviour of their particles% Solids, liquids and gases are oving% #hen they are heated, they of Matter# Kinetic eans * ove ent%* ade of particles which are constantly ove faster% #e call this the "inetic Theory

'n a solid, the particles are arranged in a regular pattern% Each particle touches another particle because there is a strong attraction between the % There is not enough space for the to change places so they si ply vibrate in their position%

'n a liquid, the particles are fairly close but no longer having to touch each other% There is no pattern + they are rando % They ove constantly and change positions% This lets the liquid flow%

'n a gas, the particles are spread out widely% They ove very quic\$ly in all different directions% ,ases can be co pressed (squashed) because the particles are so far apart%

WATER #ater has 3 states-

Solid (ice)

.iquid (water)

,as (water vapour or stea ) #e can change its state by heating or cooling% 'ce turns into water when it is heated% #e call this change / 'ce elts at 0*! so we call this the melting point% elting%

#ater turns into water vapour or stea when it is heated% #e call this change / e aporation% #ater evaporates into stea at 100*! / the \$oiling point of water% #hen stea is cooled, it condenses to for water% #hen water is cooled, it free%es to for ice% The opposite of condensing is evaporating% The opposite of free2ing is elting%

&O'(')* A)+ ME(T')* ,O')TS Every substance has its own boiling and 3"ygen Ethanol Sodiu Sulphur 'ron :ia ond Melting point Boiling point Melting point Boiling point Melting point Boiling point Melting point Boiling point Melting point Boiling point Melting point Boiling point /415*! /163*! /17*! 86*! 56*! 650*! 115*! 997*! 1790*! 4500*! 3770*! 9634*! S-&('MAT'O) Subli ation eans changing directly fro without beco ing a liquid% So e substances go fro are heated% the solid to the gaseous state elting points%

solid to gas without beco ing liquid when they

!arbon dio"ide and iodine both subli ate% 'f you heat a bloc\$ of iodine, it will produce fu es%

.HA)*')* THE ME(T')* A)+ &O'(')* ,O')TS The elting and boiling point of a substance will change if you a ount of another substance with it% E/periment 0 .hec1ing 2our Tap Water ● #ater boils at 100*!% ● Put so e tap water in a pan% ● Boil the water% ● ;se a ther o eter to chec\$ the te perature of the boiling water% ● 'f it is 100*!, your tap water is pure% 'f not, there are i purities in your tap water% &n i purity in the water will lower the free2ing point and raise its boiling point% The ore i purities in the water, the ore its free2ing and boiling points change% i" any

WOR"SHEET 1% 4% 3% 9% 7% =% 8% 6% 5% 10% 11% 14% 13% 19% 17% 1=% 18% 16% 15% 40% #hat are the three states of #hat is atter ade fro < atter<

!an a liquid be co pressed< #hat na e is given to the spreading out of particles in a gas< #hat does the word *co press* The particles in ean< oving + true or false<

atter are constantly

#hat happens to particles when they are heated< #hat is the Kinetic Theory of Matter< #hat does \$inetic ean<

#hat is the arrange ent of particles in a solid< #hat is the arrange ent of particles in a liquid< >ow do particles in a liquid ove<

#hat is the arrange ent of particles in a gas< #hat are the 3 states of water< #hat is the elting point of ice<

#hat na e is given to heating a liquid so that it turns into a gas< #hat is the boiling point of water< #hat na e is given to the process of cooling stea into water< #hat is the elting point of o"ygen< so that it turns

#hat is the boiling point of Ethanol<

41% 44% 43% 49% 47% 4=% 48% 46%

#hat is the boiling point of Sodiu < #hat is the elting point of Sulphur<

#hat is the boiling point of iron< #hat is the elting point of dia ond<

#hat is subli ation< Sulphur subli ates + true or false< !arbon dio"ide subli ates + true or false< #hat will happen to the boiling point of water if you add 1 teaspoon of salt<

A)SWERS 1% 4% 3% 9% 7% =% 8% 6% 5% 10% 11% 14% 13% 19% 17% 1=% 18% 16% 15% Solids, liquids and gases Matter is ade fro particles%

?o, a liquid cannot be co pressed% :iffusion is the spreading out of particles in a gas% !o press True #hen particles are heated, they ove faster% ove faster when eans squash%

The Kinetic Theory of Matter states that particles they are heated% Kinetic eans ove ent%

Particles in a solid are arranged in a regular pattern with each particle touching another% Particles in a liquid are fairly close but no longer have to touch each other% Particles in a liquid ove constantly and change positions%

Particles in a gas are spread out widely% The 3 states of water are ice, water and stea @water vapour% The elting point of ice is 0*!%

Evaporation The boiling point of water is 100*!% !ondensation The elting point of o"ygen is /415*!%

40% 41% 44% 43% 49% 47% 4=% 48% 46%

The boiling point of Ethanol is 86*!% The boiling point of Sodiu The is 650*!%

elting point of Sulphur is 115*!%

The boiling point of iron is 4500*!% The elting point of dia ond is 3770*!% a solid to a gas without

Subli ation is changing directly fro beco ing a liquid% Aalse True

'f you add 1 teaspoon of salt to water, the boiling point of the water will rise%

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