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# Newcastle University Assignment of Energy Sources and Storage By Roberto Sacoto Student number: 120395769 Msc.

Mechanical Engineering Dr. Lidija Siller a) Assuming that we can model the Earth as a perfect blackbody with a temperature of 300 K, at what wavelength is the emission of radiation the most intense? Which region of the electromagnetic spectrum does this correspond to? Wien’s displacement law states next: λmax x T= Υ
Simplification of Planck distribution

Where, λmax= wavelength where the emission radiation is the most intense T = temperature of the black-body Υ = constant = 2898 μmK Hence, λmax = 2898 μmK/ 300 K = 9.66 μm = 0,00966 mm Table 1 shows the light comparison values.

Light Comparison Table Name Wavelength Gamma ray Less than 0.01nm X-Ray 0.01nm - 10nm Ultraviolet 10nm - 380nm Visible 380nm - 700nm Infrared 700nm - 1mm Microwave 1mm - 1 m Radio 1m - 100,000Km
Table 1. Light Comparison Table (Haynes, 2011)

The result obtained above indicates that if the Earth is considered as a blackbody and it’s temperature is 300 K. Then, the maximum wavelength the emission of radiation is the most intense is at 9.66 μm. Table 1 indicates that

hence the maximum bulb brightness. this is because the coated glass used in this kind of bulbs avoids to get out the radiation of infrared light. which reduce transmission of infrared radiation. Glass coated energy saving lightbulb. for later reach a higher temperature. This is demonstrated next wit he Stefan-Boltzmann Law: . which goes from 700nm to 1mm. which is the light who makes the bulbs surface heat. Nevertheless. b) Some types of energy saving lightbulbs still have tungsten filaments but incorporate special coatings on the glass envelope. so the tungsten filament must warm up first the inside of the bulb. Answering to the question why energy saver lightbulbs are usually dull when first switched on and gradually reach their maximum brightness over a short period time. Figure 1 describes how the lightbulb works. Figure 1. Such bulbs are usually dull when first switched on and gradually reach their maximum brightness over a short period of time.this result belongs to the Infrared wavelength ranking. Explain this change of brightness with time by using the Stefan-Boltzmann Law and ‘Green house effect’. this coating makes the glass emissivity lower.

If a lightbulb is in a place at a room temperature of 273 K. - Temperature = 273 K Sb = 0.67 x 10-8 W m-2 k-4 x (373 K)4 Sb = 878.8 (Omega. thus according to the formula of a grey body: Sb = ε x σ x T 4 (W/m2) Where ε is the emissivity: 0≤ ε ≥1. The ε coefficient of a light bulb is 0. the maximum temperature of work is 373 K.8 x 5.67 x 10-8 W m-2 k-4 x (273 K)4 Sb = 251.67 x 10-8 W m-2 k-4 Next an example is given.95 W/m2 - Temperature = 373 K Sb = 0. which depends on the material and surface finish. 2014). demonstrates how the bulb brightness fluctuates with the increasing of temperature. and then this is turned on. References . we can calculate the energy radiated when the lightbulb is turned on and after it has reached the maximum working temperature.02 W/m2 The results obtained above.8 x 5. And σ is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant: σ = 5.The Black-body radiation Stefan-Boltzmann Law states “ The rate of the emitted energy increases with temperature”. With these data.

CRC Handbook of Chemestry and Physics (92nd ed).(2011)..pdf.Omega (2013) Table of emissivity of materials. .com/temperature/Z/pdf/z088-089. CRC Press.Haynes W. http://www. access online (01/01/2014) .omega.