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Click on the term of your choice to display grammatical explanations.

Index A B C DE F G H IJKL M N O P Q R S TU V WXYZ A

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B

Active voice Agreement, adjectives Agreement, nouns Adjectives Adjective Order Adjectives, demonstrative Adjectives, possessive Adverbs Adverbs, interrogative Affirmative sentences Articles, definite Articles, indefinite Articles, partitive Auxiliaries

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C

"Be" Belong (possession)

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DE

Causative constructions Comparatives Conditional Conditional, past Conditionals Countable and Uncountable Nouns

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F

Definite articles Defining and Non-Defining Relative Clauses Demonstratives Direct discourse Discourse, indirect "Do" Do and Make

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G

Future, indicated by "go" Future perfect tense Future progressive tense

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H

Gender, adjectives Gender, nouns Gerunds and Infinitives "Go" (to indicate the immediate future)

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IJKL

Habitual actions in the past "Has" "Have" Helping verbs

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M

Imperative (commands) Indefinite articles Indirect Speech "-ing" (present participle) Interrogatives Inversion Inversion (syntax) Irregular past participles Irregular preterits Irregular verb forms

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N

"Make" Modal verbs ("will," "should," etc.)

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O

Near future tense "Never" "No one" Nouns "Nothing" "Nowhere"

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P

Object pronouns Objects "Only" Order of prepositions Order of pronouns Order of words

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Participle Clauses Participle, present Partitive articles Passive Past (habitual past) Past conditional Past participles (irregular)

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Q

Past progressive Perfect (future) Perfect (present) Phrasal Verbs Plural of adjectives Plural of nouns Pluperfect Possession Present perfect Present participle Preterit Prepositions Prepositions (verbal) Prepositions & verbs Present perfect Present perfect progressive Present progressive Present Preterit (irregular forms) Preterit Progressive, future Progressive, past Progressive, present Progressive, present perfect Pronouns, demonstratives Pronouns, interrogatives Pronouns, possessives Pronouns, reciprocal Pronouns, reflexives Pronouns, relative Pronouns, subject-object

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R

Quantifiers Questions

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S

Reciprocal pronouns Reflexive pronouns Relative pronouns Relative Clauses Reporting questions in indirect speech

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TU

Say/tell Sentence Types Simple future So and neither with be and do Split adverbials Subjunctive Subject pronouns Superlatives

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V

Tag questions Tag questions with do "That" There is/there are Time Clause/Conjunctions Too, Very and Enough Transition

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WXYZ

Verbal prepositions Verbs (general information) Verbs (modals) Verbs with prepositions

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Was Which (relative pronoun) Which (interrogative adjective and pronoun) Who, what, when (question words) Whose
Copyright Ultralingua 2002

Active and Passive voice
Events may be related in the active or the passive voice. In the passive, the person or thing receiving the action becomes the grammatical subject. For example (the entity receiving the action is in boldface):

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active voice: Eric Rohmer made this film. passive voice: This film was made by Eric Rohmer.

One forms the passive by conjugating the verb "to be" before the past participle of the principal verb. the tense of the verb "to be" will determine the tense of action. When an agent of the action (that is, the person or entity performing the action) must be described, one does so by using the preposition " by":

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This industry will soon be developed in the third world. Sorry, but this car has been purchased by another customer.

English uses the passive voice frequently, although it is best to avoid it when possible. An option is to use an impersonal subject, such as "one" or "someone"

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(passive voice): This job needs to be done. (active voice): Someone needs to do this job.

Adjectives
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Forms Forms Usage Related topics

Adjectives are generally invariable in English and do not agree with nouns in number and gender. one says that a woman is beautiful while a man would be called handsome. When two adjectives precede a noun.) Examples:    He was a man (who was) always happy to help others. nor do they take case endings:    a blue car the great outdoors a group of young women However. whether they refer to people or objects:    Usage: She is an American student. hard hours. She had a mean. (In relative clauses the relative pronoun may be implicit. Related topics     Possessive adjectives Demonstrative adjectives Comparisons Superlatives Nouns    Gender Gender Plural Related topics . In a noun cluster an adjective will be placed. a few adjectives have a connotation which is slightly masculine or feminine. That fellow will be a competent worker. They were entirely satisfied. They go to a Catholic school. Thus. They enjoy Breton music. Adjectives indicating religion or nationality (or a region. An adjective may follow the noun when it is in a predicate (after the verb) or in a relative clause. in front of the noun it modifies." In a series of three or more adjectives. state or province) generally begin with a capital letter. with very few exceptions. She writes long and flowery letters. He works long.) or by the conjunction" and. one usually uses "and" before the last adjective in the list. She is a woman (who is) true to herself. they can be connected by a comma (. old and overbearing step-mother. Examples:      I like short novels.

or "it" when speaking of animals. As a general rule.actress uncle -. the plural is formed by adding "-s" to the singular form of nouns. Example:  My poor little dog died.mother The same can be said of certain male and female animals:     a buck. as appropriate. By the same token. the adjectives modifying nouns will remain unchanged. a cow a stallion.aunt father -. in which case one signals exceptions to the tradition by adding "woman" (or "lady") or "man" to the term:   Plurals They are in a group of male dancers. a mare In other cases. However.may have different forms to indicate masculin or feminine usage:      man -. unlike many other languages.woman gentleman -. When the gender is left unstated. if it is considered necessary to be specific:   a female cat a male giraffe Note: If the gender of the person or animal is known. Some objects are also considered to be gendered in certain usages: some people may refer to a boat or a car as "she. even to indicate gender. As a general rule.especially those referring to people -. the pronoun "he" is generally used when speaking of people. one will generally use the pronoun "he" or "she" to refer to it. the word "male" or "female" is added." Certain nouns (especially the names of professions) are traditionally associated with men or women. only nouns referring to people and some animals reflect gender in their form. a ewe a bull. certain nouns -.In English nouns rarely change form. a doe a ram. My wife prefers to see a woman doctor.lady actor -.    shoe --> shoes book --> books river --> rivers Nouns ending in "s" or "s" will generally take the ending "-es" :   bus --> buses kiss --> kisses Words ending in "y" will generally take the ending "-ies" in place of the "y":   party --> parties supply --> supplies .

) and religions. Capital letters Certain nouns are generally capitalized. nouns of nationality:    Minneapolis Jewish Monday . always indicating a plural meaning:   She gave me some information. Michelle has a lot of clothes. etc. including: days of the week and months.Certain words have very irregular forms in the plural:                  one man --> two men one woman --> two women one person --> two people one foot --> two feet one mouse --> two mice one goose --> two geese one tooth --> two teeth one wife --> two wives one child --> two children one knife --> two knives one thief --> two thieves one dwarf --> two dwarves (ou: dwarfs) one potato --> two potatoes one leaf --> two leaves one life --> two lives one loaf --> two loaves one half --> two halves A small set of words do not change form in the plural:    one moose --> two moose one sheep --> two sheep one aircraft --> two aircraft Words of Greek or Latin origin which have retained their original endings will generally take the plural form associated with the language they are drawn from:              one alumnus --> two alumni one syllabus --> two syllabi one alumna --> two alumnae one alga --> many algae one criterion --> many criteria one forum --> many fora (or : forums) one thesis --> two theses one hypothesis --> two hypotheses one phenomenon --> two phenomena one cactus --> two cacti (or : cactuses) one diagnosis --> two diagnoses one oasis --> two oases one analysis --> two analyses A few nouns are invariable or collective. names of holidays. cities (or states.

 April Related topics     Adjectives Definite articles Indefinite articles Partitive articles Adjectives    Forms Adjectives are generally invariable in English and do not agree with nouns in number and gender. (In relative clauses the relative pronoun may be implicit. That fellow will be a competent worker. state or province) generally begin with a capital letter. . In a noun cluster an adjective will be placed. whether they refer to people or objects:    Usage: She is an American student. An adjective may follow the noun when it is in a predicate (after the verb) or in a relative clause. nor do they take case endings: Forms Usage Related topics    a blue car the great outdoors a group of young women However. Examples:      I like short novels. one usually uses "and" before the last adjective in the list. hard hours. one says that a woman is beautiful while a man would be called handsome.) or by the conjunction" and. old and overbearing step-mother. They go to a Catholic school. Adjectives indicating religion or nationality (or a region. in front of the noun it modifies. She is a woman (who is) true to herself. She had a mean. She writes long and flowery letters. they can be connected by a comma (. with very few exceptions. Thus. He works long. They were entirely satisfied. When two adjectives precede a noun.) Examples:    He was a man (who was) always happy to help others." In a series of three or more adjectives. a few adjectives have a connotation which is slightly masculine or feminine. They enjoy Breton music.

[NOTE IN THE ABOVE CHART “shape” (round. beautiful and handsome are opinions. The following chart show the basic order of adjectives. For example. Young. opinions come before facts.Related topics     Possessive adjectives Demonstrative adjectives Comparisons Superlatives Adjective Order When two or more adjectives are used to describe something they are put in a certain order. Size comes before age. Age comes before color. and the “noun” column should be separated from the other columns.    Beautiful long black hair A handsome young man A nice new shirt Nice. Opinions come first.] . long and black are facts. with a + inserted. but you should know that sometimes this order is not followed. square) should be put between “age” and “color”. new.

He who eats well works well. the pronoun " one" is often added:      These tomatoes are fresher than those. Related topics       Relative pronouns Subject pronouns Reflexive pronouns Object pronouns Reciprocal pronouns Possessive pronouns Possession     Possessive adjectives Possessive pronouns "To belong" The "s" of possession . In front of a relative pronoun. Would you like a little of this? That strikes me as really weird! The book is more interesting than that one. "they who" (when speaking of people):    This film is the one that you hated so much. These are better than those. that) and two plural forms (these. This car is responsive.Example: We rented a nice little brown log cabin by a lake. those). This pen is the one with which the President signed the new law. Usually "this" and "these" signal proximity. while "that" and "those" suggest distance:     These books are too expensive. That man irritates me! This hotel is more expensive than that one. Demonstrative adjectives and pronouns Demonstrative adjectives Demonstrative adjectives have two singular forms ( this. Demonstrative pronouns Demonstrative pronouns have the same form as the demonstrative adjectives. when designating a specific object. These adjectives are used to designate proximity to an object. Note: We usually limit the number of adjectives preceding a noun to three. or to distinguish between an object that is close (in time or space) and one that is more remote. In the singular. but are used without the nouns to which they refer. the demonstrative pronoun becomes "the one" or "the ones" (when speaking of things). or "he / she who".

her (feminine). her. Note: In English the possessive adjective is used to refer to parts of the body:    She brushes her teeth twice a day. They are coming in their car. I'll give you one of mine. hers (feminine). but frankly.     I have my likes. I like our house. I am jealous of theirs! That's mine! The verb "to belong to" The verb "to belong to" indicates ownership or possession:   That poodle belongs to Louise. and she has hers. it --> his (masculine). Possessive pronouns Possessive pronouns. "Whose" In English possession may be expressed in five different ways: Possessive adjectives Possessive adjectives agree with the person to whom they refer:      I --> my you --> your he. agree with the person to whom they refer. like the adjectives. He broke his arm playing soccer. If you give me one of yours. it --> his (masculine). Singular and plural share the same form:      I --> mine your --> yours he. His stomach aches. . its (impersonal) we --> our they --> their So. she. The world belongs to you. This car has lost its power. I met your grandparents.     I have lost my keys. its (impersonal) we --> ours they --> theirs So.

(=The train is late again.) Adverbs    Formation Position Related topics Formation 1. The front door's lock is broken.) The train's late again. One adds the ending " --ly" to the adjectival form:    intelligent --> intelligently slow --> slowly precise --> precisely Some adverbs are irregular: A. Many of the world's countries are poor. If the adjective ends with "--le. and will refer ownership to the preceding noun:   The man whose dog bit me said he was sorry." simply replace the "e" with "y":   simple --> simply subtle --> subtly B. (The dog belongs to the man.) "Whose" for indicating possession "Whose" will be placed before the possession (the object possessed).The "s" of possession One may add "--'s" to any noun in order to indicate possession:    I just read Gustave's book.(The woman is the mother of the daughter.) Here is the woman whose daughter I intend to marry. (= Fred is going to fetch it. Most adverbs are formed from the adjective. The adverb corresponding to the adjective "good" is irregular:  good --> well C. Note: Do not confuse the "s" of possession with the contraction of the verb "is":   Fred's going to fetch it. Some adverbs have the same form as the adjective:      high low hard better fast .

Tomorrow we will try to get up early to prepare for our trip. they may be placed at the beginning of the sentence if the predicate clause is long and complicated:     I saw her yesterday. Certainly we would never do that! We will undoubtedly see a dirty political campaign this year. In general. Joseph worked diligently." "undoubtedly. She pronounced that word well. They worked hard before coming home. such as " probably. or else between the modal verb (or auxiliary) and the principal verb: o o o We are probably going to spend the summer in Corsica. however. adverbs of time and space have no corresponding adjective.. It was a brilliantly staged performance." etc. We're going to the beach today. She went to bed very early." "surely. Exceptions: certain adverbs signaling the speaker's opinion.." "certainly.D. the same can be said of adverbs of quantity:                yesterday today tomorrow early soon late here there less more as very much a lot of little of Position When an adverb modifies a verb. Adverbs of time and space generally come at the end of the sentence. it generally comes at the end of the clause (but before any prepositional phrases or subordinated clauses):     He writes poorly. Adverbs modifying adjectives or an other adverb are placed before the adjective or adverb they modify:   She was really very happy to see you. come at the beginning of the sentence. Related topics   Comparatives Superlatives .

the modal phrase would be in the affirmative: . or if it is strongly implied. etc. "what". Inversion: with certain verbs (especially the verbs "to be". a modal phrase can be used to make an interrogative form. inversion signals a literary style. wouldn't you? You can understand that. wouldn't he? You would like to go with us. "why?". (In the case of the verb " to have. "whom". questions to which one can respond by a simple "yes" or "no") may be formed in three different ways: 1. "Do": one precedes an assertion with "do" or "does" (or "don't" or "doesn't" for a negative expression. etc. in this case it is preferable to invert the subject and verb: o o o Are you coming to the reception? Was the meeting boring? Weren't you hungry? 2." which is usually combined with "do" in interrogatives. "when". repeated at the end of the sentence:     It's time to go. "would". can't you? In the case of a negative question. and modal verbs) questions are formed by inverting the subject and object. The modal phrase is typically an inversion of the subject and verb. "which one"    Simple questions Simple questions (that is.Questions  Simple questions o "Do" o Inversion o Modal verbs ("will".) Interrogative pronouns ("who". isn't it? He'd like to come with us. in the negative. Modal phrases: If a modal verb is used in a sentence. etc. "to have".) "Which".) Interrogative adverbs ("how?". or "did". "didn't" for the past):      Do you want to go to the movies? Does she work at IBM? Don't you travel quite a bit? Do they answer questions quickly? Didn't they want to eat? But: One never places "do" or "does" before the verb "to be" or before modal verbs in questions.)       Is Jack home? Have you nothing to declare? Would you like to go to the movies? Will they ever come to visit? Can the employees talk to the boss? Won't you sit down? 3. "to do".

More precise questions may be formed by using the interrogative adverbs: when. why. according to the following table: subject (person) : who + question   Who did this painting? Who wants to get an ice cream? subject (thing) : what + question   What interests you? What is good in this restaurant? direct object (person) : whom + question   Whom did you see in France? Whom are you going to meet at this reception? . where. how much. how. will she? (See also: negations) Interrogative adverbs Simple questions solicit a "yes" or "no" answer.      Where are you going? Why do you want to take this class? How much do you earn a month? How do these machines work? (Où vont ces étudiants ?) When do you expect to get home? (A quelle heure penses-tu rentrer ?) See also: Questions. the interrogative adverb precedes the rest of the question. etc. Normally these pronouns are placed at the beginning of the sentence. Generally. to whom. One chooses the pronoun based on its function. would you? She won't be back. Interrogative pronouns Interrogative pronouns are used to ask who has done what.  You wouldn't want to try it. why. with what. Interrogative pronouns. then the order of the sentence follows the rules indicated for inversion or for questions formed with "do / does". hen the order of the sentence follows the rules indicated for inversion or for questions formed with "do / does".

So am I. "which one". in which case one uses "who" instead of "whom" o o Who are you thinking about? Who did you go out with? object of a preposition (thing) : preposition + what + question   With what did you open it? In what way does that concern you? Note: In spoken English.direct objet (thing) : what + question   What do you want to do this evening? What are you preparing? object of a preposition (person) : preposition + whom + question   About whom are you thinking? With whom did you go out? Note: In spoken English. The adjective "which" and its pronominal forms ("which". ces pronoms se trouveront au début de la phrase ..?/td> subject + (negative) auxiliary I'm not.. the preposition is often put at the end of the sentence:   What did you open it with? What did did they base their opinion on? Which. Definite articles     General principles Omission of the article Use in negatives and interrogatives Related topics . then the order of the sentence follows the rules indicated for inversion or for questions formed with "do / does".. which one. which ones.. Which ones do you like? Affirmative sentences If the same is true for you. one often places the preposition at the end of the sentence. If the same is not true for you. Which one do you prefer? There are many different Burgundy wines. "which ones") ask that a person make a choice.?/td> So + auxiliary + subject I'm very sociable. Normalement.     Which film do you want to see? Which date did you choose? Here are two pizzas. Usually these pronouns will be placed at the beginning of the sentence.

I don't like animals. Friday night we are going dancing. It is often omitted after verbs expressing opinions or preferences:      Truth is the highest good. On Saturdays I sleep in. and regions:   France is seventeen times smaller than the United States. or event which has been specified or defined by the speaker:    Here's the book I bought. She likes coffee. Omission of the definite article The definite article does not always precede nouns: sometimes indefinite articles or partitive articles will be used. He said he would bring the money. the definite article is omitted before abstract nouns or nouns representing general categories. 1980. 2. the article is omitted before names of countries. Generally. such as The Hague. She met with Doctor Schmidt. the article is omitted before days of the week and dates:     On Tuesdays the museums are closed. California is larger than Brittany. as in the following cases: 1. place. Often. Time flies. though. We saw Professor Miller at the restaurant. Generally. no article at all is necessary. states. I was born on June 16. The cat is on the roof.General principles The definite article "the" (invariable in form) designates a person. 4. Cats are nicer than dogs. Exception: Some names actually include the definite article. Generally. As a general rule. but she hates tea. cities. The use of the definite article does not change in interrogatives and negatives. Related topics   Indefinite articles Partitive articles . the article is omitted before titles or nouns indicating professions:    President Mitterrand completed two terms. 3.

please. I heard some bad news. She has some cherries for sale. rather. rather than "an":    a unit not a one a unicorn As a general rule. It is often used after verbs of possession or consumption:    Give me a coffee. or a partial (or indeterminate) quantity is referred to. or any assortment or quantity from many possible assortments or quantities (in the plural). However. I have never had an accident. Related topics   Definite articles Partitive articles Partitive article:"some" When the article "some" appears before a plural noun it functions like an indefinite article:   He has some tickets for the game. Some students decided not to attend the class. This is to say that a part of something is indicated. She has some money to spend. it is being used as a partitive. before plural nouns one uses "some":    a cat an accident some dogs But: before vowels producing a "y" sound (as in "you"). In the negative. It is often used after verbs of possession or consumption:      Do you have some time? We're going to buy some milk. It does not indicate a specific objection (which is the role of the definite article). the partitive article is not used: . it indicates any one object out of many possible ones (in the singular). Would you like some help ? Note: After expressions of quantity.Indefinite articles The indefinite article has two forms: before singular nouns one uses "a" (or "an" before most vowels). when "some" appears before a singular noun. "a" is used. the plural indefinite article changes: " some" is generally replaced by "any" (this change also occurs in negative questions) :    Don't you have any cookies ? They don't have any books for sale. the indefinite article signals a person. I have a book you might like. thing or event that has not been clearly defined by the speaker.

the past conditional:   We have finished.) The only true auxiliary verbs in English are "to be. Don't you have any money? The word "any" is not strictly necessary in the negative. She was fishing with her father. They didn't have any milk. the past progressive. "To have" is an auxiliary verb for the perfect tenses." "to have. the past progressive. the future perfect." and "to do." "To be" is an auxiliary verb for the progressive teneses (See the present progressive. "To do" is an auxiliary verb for making questions and negations in both the present simple and the preterit :    Do you have any money? Did you hear me? He doesn't want to help us. which nuance the meaning of the verbs they accompany. the present perfect progressive. Related topics   Definite articles Indefinite articles Auxiliary verbs An auxiliary verb ("helping" verb) is combined with the principal verb to form certain tenses or moods. Auxiliary verbs An auxiliary verb ("helping" verb) is combined with the principal verb to form certain tenses or moods. the future progressive): . the future progressive):    I am going home. the partitive article " some" generally becomes "any" (this change will also occur in negative interrogatives):    She doesn't have any money." "to have. including the present perfect.and it may often be omitted:   I never have accidents.  Students buy a lot of pastries. the pluperfect.) The only true auxiliary verbs in English are "to be. which nuance the meaning of the verbs they accompany. (See also the modal verbs. They hadn't waited for us. We will be calling on you later." and "to do. Today people have more activities than before. In negative expressions. They didn't have milk." "To be" is an auxiliary verb for the progressive teneses (See the present progressive. (See also the modal verbs.

Singular and plural share the same form: . "To do" is an auxiliary verb for making questions and negations in both the present simple and the preterit :    Do you have any money? Did you hear me? He doesn't want to help us. the past conditional:   We have finished.   I am going home. the pluperfect. her (feminine). the future perfect. its (impersonal) we --> our they --> their So.     I have lost my keys. His stomach aches. They hadn't waited for us. Note: In English the possessive adjective is used to refer to parts of the body:    She brushes her teeth twice a day. like the adjectives. her. She was fishing with her father. Possession      Possessive adjectives Possessive pronouns "To belong" The "s" of possession "Whose" In English possession may be expressed in five different ways: Possessive adjectives Possessive adjectives agree with the person to whom they refer:      I --> my you --> your he. We will be calling on you later. Possessive pronouns Possessive pronouns. I met your grandparents. "To have" is an auxiliary verb for the perfect tenses. He broke his arm playing soccer. including the present perfect. This car has lost its power. it --> his (masculine). the present perfect progressive. They are coming in their car. agree with the person to whom they refer.

I like our house. The front door's lock is broken. The model will generally be: "to have" (conjugated) + direct object (noun or pronoun) + principal verb (in its past participle form):  We'll have a monument erected on this site. but frankly. she. I am jealous of theirs! That's mine! The verb "to belong to" The verb "to belong to" indicates ownership or possession:   That poodle belongs to Louise. (= Fred is going to fetch it.) Causative constructions When one does not carry out an action oneself but rather has the action done by someone else.) "Whose" for indicating possession "Whose" will be placed before the possession (the object possessed). If you give me one of yours. and will refer ownership to the preceding noun:   The man whose dog bit me said he was sorry.     I --> mine your --> yours he. hers (feminine).) Here is the woman whose daughter I intend to marry. (The dog belongs to the man. In English it is the verb "to have" that introduces the causative. this is expressed by a causative construction. and she has hers.(The woman is the mother of the daughter. . The world belongs to you. Many of the world's countries are poor. The "s" of possession One may add "--'s" to any noun in order to indicate possession:    I just read Gustave's book. I'll give you one of mine. (=The train is late again.) The train's late again.     I have my likes. it --> his (masculine). Note: Do not confuse the "s" of possession with the contraction of the verb "is":   Fred's going to fetch it. its (impersonal) we --> ours they --> theirs So.

Note: Especially in spoken English. I had it done by my employees. He makes me furious! That new problem made negotiations really hard! Comparatives       General principles Adjectives Adverbs Nouns Verbs Related topics General principles Comparatives are used to compare two things and to highlight the superiority. When one wishes to express a change in temperament or in general conditions. The professor got his students to write an essay. or equality of one term compared to another." in which case "to" is added to the infinitive (but not before past participles). the structure of the comparison remains the same: . it is the construction " to make + adjective" which is used:    That letter made her sad. When one wishes to designate the agent of the action (the person who has carried out the described action). This construction also suggests that it may be (or have been) difficult to produce a certain reaction on the part of the agent:   We'll get a monument erected on this site."to have" (conjugated) + agent (as a direct object noun or pronoun) + principal verb (in its infinitive form) + the object (also in the form of a direct object noun or pronoun)   The professor had his students write an essay. there are two possibilities: 1. -. The comparative can apply to adjectives. or even verbs."to have" (conjugated) + direct object (noun or pronoun) + principal verb (in its past participle form) + "by" + agent (usually not as a pronoun):   The professor had the work done by his lab assistants. I had my hair cut. 2. adverbs. nouns. I had him do it. -. inferiority. Whatever the part of speech concerned. the verb "to get" often replaces "to have.

and verbs follow: Adjectives Adjectival comparisons follow these models:    Jean is taller than Catherine. Note: Monosyllabic adjectives. and several common two-syllable adjectives. take the ending "--er" and do not include the adverb "more":    young --> younger tall --> taller old --> older If the adjective ends in "--y" the "y" becomes "i" :      heavy --> heavier early --> earlier busy --> busier healthy --> healthier chilly --> chillier If the adjective ends in "--e" only an "r" is needed:     wise --> wiser large --> larger simple --> simpler late --> later If the adjective ends with "single vowel + consonant" the consonant is doubled and one adds "--er" :     red --> redder big --> bigger thin --> thinner hot --> hotter Some very common adjectives have irregular comparatives:   good --> better bad --> worse . nouns. Leïla is as tall as Jean.Examples for adjectives. Philippe is less tall than Jean. adverbs.

far --> farther

Adverbs Adverbial comparisons follow these models:

  

The students are working more diligently than the professor. This fellow speaks less eloquently than a schoolboy. They are all working as hard as possible!

Note: In comparisons indicating superiority, adverbs ending in "--ly" do not take the adverb "more," but only the ending "--er". (However, these adverbs will function normally in comparisons using " less" or "as.")

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fast --> faster hard --> harder

And some adverbs have irregular comparative forms :

  

well --> better badly --> worse far --> farther

Nouns Noun comparisons follow these patterns:

  

I have more work than you. He has less homework than the rest of us. If only I had as much talent as she! The comparative can signal quantities of nouns:

 

I have less than five francs in my pocket. She has more than five hours worth of work to do. However, in comparisons of inferiority, and when the quantity represents a "countable" noun, one should use the term "fewer" rather than "less" :

 

He works fewer than ten hours per week. Sam has fewer students than I do.

Verbs "More," "less," and "as" can be used as adverbs to modify verbs:

  

He eats more than he used to. That boy reads less than his friends. You ought to listen as much as you talk.

Related topics

Superlatives

Conditional
The conditional is formed using the modal "would" in front of an infinitive (dropping the word "to"). The conditional is used especially in three contexts: 1) Politeness

 

I would like the menu, please. Would you have a couple of minutes for me?

2) To indicate the "future within the past":

 

She said she would come to the party. I thought he would arrive before me.

3) In hypothetical constructions with "if." When "if" is followed by the preterit or the subjunctive, the conditional is expected in the second clause:

 

If I had the time, I would do my homework. If you told me the truth, I would believe you. The "if" of hypothetical expressions can be implicit:

In your position (= if I were you), I wouldn't have stayed.

See related topics:

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Past conditional Modal verbs

Past conditional
The past conditional is expressed using the modal "would" before a past infinitive (= "have" + past participle). This construction serves to express missed opportunities and past hypotheses:

 

She told me that she would have liked to come and see us. In your position, I would have done the same thing.

One finds it often in hypothetical constructions with " if." When "if" is followed by the pluperfect, the conditional past is expected in the second clause:

  

If I had had the time, I would have done my homework. If you had told me the truth, I would have believed you. If he had worked harder, he'd have received a better grade.

Note: In certain regions (principally in the United States) one hears the conditional past in both clauses of hypothetical expressions:

If you would have told me he was going to win, I wouldn't have believed you.

See related topics:

             

Conditional Modal verbs

Conditionals
There are four common conditional forms. The zero and first conditionals are also called „real‟ conditionals. The second and third conditionals are also called „unreal‟ conditionals. Zero Conditional The zero conditional is an if/then statement that is used to express a scientific fact or something that is generally true. Form: If + subject +present simple verb, subject + present simple verb. Or Subject + present simple verb + if + subject + present simple verb. Examples: If you put sugar in your tea, it becomes sweet. The trip takes 35 minutes if you take the express train. First Conditional The first conditional is an if/then statement that expresses the consequence of a probable or possible situation in the future. Form: If + subject + present simple verb, subject + will + verb Or Subject + will + verb + if + subject + present simple verb Examples: If you call before 11 p.m., I will pick you up from the station. I‟ll burst if I eat any more food! Second Conditional The second conditional is an if/then statement that expresses the consequence of a hypothetical, imaginary, impossible, or improbable situation in the future. Form: If + subject + simple past verb, subject + would + verb Or Subject + would+ verb + if + subject + simple past verb Examples: If I had a million dollars, I would buy a mansion in Florida. I would wear a coat if I were you. (It‟s really cold outside.) Third Conditional The third conditional is an if/then statement that expresses what would have happened if events in the past were different. It is often used to express regret about actions in the past the speaker would like to change. Form: If + subject + past perfect, subject + would + have + past participle Or Subject + would + have + past participle + if + subject +past perfect Examples: If I had known about the divorce, I wouldn‟t have asked him about his wife. (I didn‟t know about the divorce and I asked him about this wife. I regret that I asked him and would change the past if possible.) Sally would have bought a new car if she had received a raise at her job. (Sally didn‟t buy the new car but would have under different circumstances in the past.)

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      

Countable and Uncountable Nouns
Countable nouns are used to name things we can count. One apple, two apples, three carrots, four fingers, etc. Uncountable nouns are used to name things we cannot count. Bread, water, air, sand, etc. Countable nouns have a singular as well as a plural form. a chair two chairs some chairs a banana the bananas many bananas Remember! Use an in front of a word that begins with a vowel sound. An apple an orange an hour Uncountable nouns do not usually take the indefinite article a or an. They are often used without any article at all, and they do not usually have a plural form. (some) bread (some) coffee (some) fruit

Definite articles

   

General principles Omission of the article Use in negatives and interrogatives Related topics

General principles The definite article "the" (invariable in form) designates a person, place, or event which has been specified or defined by the speaker:

  

Here's the book I bought. The cat is on the roof. He said he would bring the money.

Omission of the definite article The definite article does not always precede nouns: sometimes indefinite articles or partitive articles will be used. Often, though, no article at all is necessary, as in the following cases: 1. As a general rule, the definite article is omitted before abstract nouns or nouns representing general categories. It is often omitted after verbs expressing opinions or preferences:

    

Truth is the highest good. I don't like animals. Cats are nicer than dogs. Time flies. She likes coffee, but she hates tea.

2. Generally, the article is omitted before days of the week and dates:

   

On Tuesdays the museums are closed. On Saturdays I sleep in. Friday night we are going dancing. I was born on June 16, 1980.

3. Generally, the article is omitted before names of countries, states, cities, and regions:

 

France is seventeen times smaller than the United States. California is larger than Brittany. Exception: Some names actually include the definite article, such as The Hague.

4. Generally, the article is omitted before titles or nouns indicating professions:

  

President Mitterrand completed two terms. We saw Professor Miller at the restaurant. She met with Doctor Schmidt.

The use of the definite article does not change in interrogatives and negatives.

Related topics

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Indefinite articles Partitive articles

What‟s the name of the hotel that you stayed at? A non-defining relative clause gives us additional but non-essential information about the noun it modifies. This car is responsive. but are used without the nouns to which they refer. People who eat healthy foods live longer. those). that) and two plural forms (these. is a story about rabbits. Demonstrative pronouns Demonstrative pronouns have the same form as the demonstrative adjectives. The sentence would still make sense if the non-defining clause were removed. A defining relative clause gives essential information about the noun it modifies. In front of a relative pronoun. Defining relative clauses often come right after the nouns that they modify. Usually "this" and "these" signal proximity. This pen is the one with which the President signed the new law. "they who" (when speaking of people):    This film is the one that you hated so much. Isabel Allende.Defining and Non-Defining Relative Clauses A relative clause gives us information about the noun it modifies. The sentence would not make sense if the clause were removed. Related topics  Relative pronouns . These are better than those. These adjectives are used to designate proximity to an object. or "he / she who". lives in the San Francisco Bay Area. which is my favorite novel. Demonstrative adjectives and pronouns Demonstrative adjectives Demonstrative adjectives have two singular forms ( this. without a comma. In writing. the demonstrative pronoun becomes "the one" or "the ones" (when speaking of things). who wrote Daughter of Fortune. Would you like a little of this? That strikes me as really weird! The book is more interesting than that one. when designating a specific object. That man irritates me! This hotel is more expensive than that one. the pronoun " one" is often added:      These tomatoes are fresher than those. non-defining relative clauses are usually separated from the rest of the sentence by commas before and after the clause. In the singular. He who eats well works well. while "that" and "those" suggest distance:     These books are too expensive. or to distinguish between an object that is close (in time or space) and one that is more remote. Watership Down.

" indirect discourse: She said she would be on time. this is called "indirect discourse. direct discourse: I told them. when recounted in indirect discourse." It is generally signaled by the presence of quoation marks:   Philippe said.     Subject pronouns Reflexive pronouns Object pronouns Reciprocal pronouns Possessive pronouns Direct and indirect discourse When one reports what others have said word for word. Imperative forms." My roommate said. "Clean the place up." Indirect discourse entails certain changes: A. the inclusion of "that" is optional     She said that she would be late. "Get out of here!" indirect discourse: I told them to get out of here. Quotation marks are not used: direct discourse: He told me. is it generally preceded by " that". C. D. writing them so as to avoid direct quotation. care must be taken to verify that verb tenses reflect the change in temporal context: direct discourse: She said. Causative constructions When one does not carry out an action oneself but rather has the action done by someone else. They informed us that the plane was delayed. this is expressed by a causative construction. . When a quotation is put in indirect discourse. The model will generally be: "to have" (conjugated) + direct object (noun or pronoun) + principal verb (in its past participle form):  We'll have a monument erected on this site. this is called "direct discourse. "Write to me. "I will be on time. B." indirect discourse: He told me to write him. however. In English it is the verb "to have" that introduces the causative. or get out of here!" When one paraphrases the words of others. "I'll come if I have the time. OR: They informed us the plane was delayed. When the verb in the reported discourse is conjugated. generally become infinitive constructions: direct discourse: He told me. direct discourse: When he called he said. "I am at the airport" indirect discourse: When he called he said he was at the airport. OR: She said she would be late. "You're stupid" indirect discourse: He told me that I was stupid.

to make progress. He makes me furious! That new problem made negotiations really hard! Do and Make We often use do followed by words for work or indefinite activities. with the infinitive of the principal verb." conjugated in the present progressive. the verb "to get" often replaces "to have. This construction also suggests that it may be (or have been) difficult to produce a certain reaction on the part of the agent:   We'll get a monument erected on this site. . Note: Especially in spoken English." in which case "to" is added to the infinitive (but not before past participles)."to have" (conjugated) + direct object (noun or pronoun) + principal verb (in its past participle form) + "by" + agent (usually not as a pronoun):   The professor had the work done by his lab assistants. I'm going to give her a call. to do one‟s duty. Mom made a cake for Zachary‟s birthday. You must do something about the mice in the basement! We often use make with the meaning of . 2. I had him do it. the near future is not a future tense. Can you do the dishes tonight? Stan did the grocery shopping every Saturday morning. -. to make a fortune Near future Especially in spoken English one finds the near future used as a way of describing imminent events. Do your homework. I had it done by my employees. Strictly speaking.   We are going to leave soon. for it is formed by combining the present tense of the verb " to go. Do you want me to make breakfast for you? There are also many idiomatic expressions that use the verbs do or make."to have" (conjugated) + agent (as a direct object noun or pronoun) + principal verb (in its infinitive form) + the object (also in the form of a direct object noun or pronoun)   The professor had his students write an essay. -. it is the construction " to make + adjective" which is used:    That letter made her sad. To do one‟s best. I had my hair cut. there are two possibilities: 1. When one wishes to express a change in temperament or in general conditions. Let‟s make some travel plans. The professor got his students to write an essay. When one wishes to designate the agent of the action (the person who has carried out the described action).

both of which are grammatically correct:   I will be finishing my homework at 10:00. it asserts that these actions will be completed before the principal action." also conjugated in the present. The future progressive indicates that an action will be continuing at a given moment. It is formed by adding the modal "will" to the auxiliary "have. they were about to make a decision. One can also conjugate these forms in the past progressive in order to express a "future within the past":    He said he was going to do it. One can often use the simple future instead of the future perfect.) They will finish eating by the time we get there. He will be eating by the time you arrive. When I saw them. Consider these sentences. in the process of completion. It is formed by putting the present progressive into the future: will be + present participle.) Adjectives . the future perfect would emphasize that they will have finished before we arrive.) I will finish my homework at 10:00. the simple future suggests that the action will be complete. Tomorrow morning they will all have left. Thus the verb tense can nuance meaning." it is the future progressive that best expresses the action.Also used to express imminent actions is the construction "to be about to do something. They will already have finished eating by the time we get there. (This suggests that I will finish at 10:00 sharp. Hint for usage: How to choose between the future progressive and the simple future? If it is possible to use the expression "will be in the process of. (The future perfect would emphasize that they will already have departed before tomorrow morning. I will be nearing completion.   I will be waiting for you at six o'clock. but she never did.) Future progressive The future progressive serves to express an action which will be in the process of occurring. She was going to buy a new car. (They may finish just as we arrive.   I am about to lose my temper! The detective is about to stop the criminal." preceding the past participle:    She will have finished before eight o'clock. the future perfect serves to express one future action which precedes a future moment or another future action. (This suggests that I may finish my homework at 10:05 or 10:15. Future perfect Relatively rare in English. but a nuance is lost: the simple future does not emphasize the completion of the first action:   Tomorrow morning they will all leave. Moreover.

They go to a Catholic school. Thus. one usually uses "and" before the last adjective in the list. That fellow will be a competent worker. in front of the noun it modifies. She is a woman (who is) true to herself. one says that a woman is beautiful while a man would be called handsome. She writes long and flowery letters. An adjective may follow the noun when it is in a predicate (after the verb) or in a relative clause. with very few exceptions. They were entirely satisfied. Examples:      I like short novels. old and overbearing step-mother.   Forms Forms Usage Related topics Adjectives are generally invariable in English and do not agree with nouns in number and gender.) Examples:    He was a man (who was) always happy to help others. a few adjectives have a connotation which is slightly masculine or feminine.) or by the conjunction" and." In a series of three or more adjectives. hard hours. Related topics     Possessive adjectives Demonstrative adjectives Comparisons Superlatives Nouns . state or province) generally begin with a capital letter. He works long. whether they refer to people or objects:    Usage: She is an American student. In a noun cluster an adjective will be placed. nor do they take case endings:    a blue car the great outdoors a group of young women However. When two adjectives precede a noun. they can be connected by a comma (. (In relative clauses the relative pronoun may be implicit. She had a mean. Adjectives indicating religion or nationality (or a region. They enjoy Breton music.

only nouns referring to people and some animals reflect gender in their form. Some objects are also considered to be gendered in certain usages: some people may refer to a boat or a car as "she. in which case one signals exceptions to the tradition by adding "woman" (or "lady") or "man" to the term:   Plurals They are in a group of male dancers. the adjectives modifying nouns will remain unchanged. a mare In other cases. one will generally use the pronoun "he" or "she" to refer to it.may have different forms to indicate masculin or feminine usage:      man -. As a general rule. However. My wife prefers to see a woman doctor. a ewe a bull.mother The same can be said of certain male and female animals:     a buck.actress uncle -. certain nouns -. As a general rule.woman gentleman -.   Gender Gender Plural Related topics In English nouns rarely change form.    shoe --> shoes book --> books river --> rivers Nouns ending in "s" or "s" will generally take the ending "-es" :   bus --> buses kiss --> kisses ." Certain nouns (especially the names of professions) are traditionally associated with men or women. the pronoun "he" is generally used when speaking of people. if it is considered necessary to be specific:   a female cat a male giraffe Note: If the gender of the person or animal is known.lady actor -.especially those referring to people -. the word "male" or "female" is added. By the same token. Example:  My poor little dog died.aunt father -. the plural is formed by adding "-s" to the singular form of nouns. even to indicate gender. unlike many other languages. or "it" when speaking of animals. a cow a stallion. When the gender is left unstated. a doe a ram. as appropriate.

Capital letters .Words ending in "y" will generally take the ending "-ies" in place of the "y":   party --> parties supply --> supplies Certain words have very irregular forms in the plural:                  one man --> two men one woman --> two women one person --> two people one foot --> two feet one mouse --> two mice one goose --> two geese one tooth --> two teeth one wife --> two wives one child --> two children one knife --> two knives one thief --> two thieves one dwarf --> two dwarves (ou: dwarfs) one potato --> two potatoes one leaf --> two leaves one life --> two lives one loaf --> two loaves one half --> two halves A small set of words do not change form in the plural:    one moose --> two moose one sheep --> two sheep one aircraft --> two aircraft Words of Greek or Latin origin which have retained their original endings will generally take the plural form associated with the language they are drawn from:              one alumnus --> two alumni one syllabus --> two syllabi one alumna --> two alumnae one alga --> many algae one criterion --> many criteria one forum --> many fora (or : forums) one thesis --> two theses one hypothesis --> two hypotheses one phenomenon --> two phenomena one cactus --> two cacti (or : cactuses) one diagnosis --> two diagnoses one oasis --> two oases one analysis --> two analyses A few nouns are invariable or collective. always indicating a plural meaning:   She gave me some information. Michelle has a lot of clothes.

Certain nouns are generally capitalized. He‟s very good at listening to other people‟s problems. hope expect intend agree refuse appear manage promise afford decide choose fail wait volunteer . Here are some verbs that can be followed directly by an infinitive but not a gerund. names of holidays. We can use a gerund as a subject or as an object. nouns of nationality:     Minneapolis Jewish Monday April Related topics     Adjectives Definite articles Indefinite articles Partitive articles Gerunds and Infinitives Gerunds as Subjects The gerund is the –ing form of the verb when it is used as a noun. keep postpone dislike recommend avoiddetest feel like give up put off practice finish What would you recommend trying? I dislike watching violence on television. cities (or states. etc. Verbs followed by gerunds Here are some verbs that can be followed by a gerund but not an infinitve. Terry quit smoking. I am tired of worrying about money. We go dancing every Saturday night. including: days of the week and months.) and religions. Walking is good for your health. Too much dieting can be dangerous.

they would slap children who didn't behave. ." followed by the main verb:    See also: When we were kids. they were about to make a decision. they used to slap children who didn't behave.   We are going to leave soon." Thus:    When I was little. Near future Especially in spoken English one finds the near future used as a way of describing imminent events. one often uses the common construction with the modal "would. the near future is not a future tense. I used to work days. We intend to ask for a raise. When I saw them. but now I work the night shift. Strictly speaking. When my father was in school. we would haze each other quite a bit. repeated actions in the past. Annie likes to eat fast food. for it is formed by combining the present tense of the verb " to go. When my father was in school. Habitual actions in the past To describe habitual. with the infinitive of the principal verb. I'm going to give her a call. Also used to express imminent actions is the construction "to be about to do something. we would go camping a lot. When I was little.   I am about to lose my temper! The detective is about to stop the criminal. we used to go camping a lot. Some verbs can be followed by a gerund or an infinitive." also conjugated in the present.Susan refuses to try new food. try remember like forget love prefer start begin continue can‟t stand I like eating in fancy restaurants. One can also conjugate these forms in the past progressive in order to express a "future within the past":    He said he was going to do it. In spoken English." conjugated in the present progressive. one generally uses the construction " used to + verb. but she never did. She was going to buy a new car. Be careful! In some cases the meaning changes.

the future progressive):    I am going home." and "to do. She was fishing with her father.  The preterit The past progressive Auxiliary verbs An auxiliary verb ("helping" verb) is combined with the principal verb to form certain tenses or moods. the future perfect. (See also the modal verbs. . They hadn't waited for us. the present perfect progressive." "To be" is an auxiliary verb for the progressive teneses (See the present progressive.) The only true auxiliary verbs in English are "to be. the pluperfect. which nuance the meaning of the verbs they accompany. the past conditional:   We have finished. We will be calling on you later. They hadn't waited for us." "To be" is an auxiliary verb for the progressive teneses (See the present progressive. the past conditional:   We have finished. She was fishing with her father. the future perfect. "To have" is an auxiliary verb for the perfect tenses.) The only true auxiliary verbs in English are "to be. "To have" is an auxiliary verb for the perfect tenses. the past progressive." and "to do. "To do" is an auxiliary verb for making questions and negations in both the present simple and the preterit :    Do you have any money? Did you hear me? He doesn't want to help us. the future progressive):    I am going home." "to have. which nuance the meaning of the verbs they accompany." "to have. We will be calling on you later. the past progressive. the present perfect progressive. (See also the modal verbs. "To do" is an auxiliary verb for making questions and negations in both the present simple and the preterit :    Do you have any money? Did you hear me? He doesn't want to help us. Auxiliary verbs An auxiliary verb ("helping" verb) is combined with the principal verb to form certain tenses or moods. including the present perfect. the pluperfect. including the present perfect.

"To have" is an auxiliary verb for the perfect tenses. the infinitive is preceded by "let's" (or: "let us"):     Speak! Finish your homework! Let's eat! Close the door! The negative imperative is formed by placing "don't" (or "do not") before the imperative form. before plural nouns one uses "some":    a cat an accident some dogs . in the first person plural one uses "let's not" (or "let us not") :     Let's not forget who helped us." "to have. Indefinite articles The indefinite article has two forms: before singular nouns one uses "a" (or "an" before most vowels). the past conditional:   We have finished. the past progressive. They hadn't waited for us. the future progressive):    I am going home. including the present perfect. "To do" is an auxiliary verb for making questions and negations in both the present simple and the preterit :    Do you have any money? Did you hear me? He doesn't want to help us. (See also the modal verbs." and "to do. She was fishing with her father. the present perfect progressive. They use the infinitive of verbs (dropping the word " to"). which nuance the meaning of the verbs they accompany." "To be" is an auxiliary verb for the progressive teneses (See the present progressive. the pluperfect. The imperative Imperatives are used to issue commands. the future perfect.Auxiliary verbs An auxiliary verb ("helping" verb) is combined with the principal verb to form certain tenses or moods.) The only true auxiliary verbs in English are "to be. in the first person plural ("we"). We will be calling on you later. Don't leave me! Don't walk on the grass! Please don't eat the daisies! The imperative has no effect on the word order of the rest of the sentence.

rather. Sam said. or any assortment or quantity from many possible assortments or quantities (in the plural). Sam said. I have a book you might like.> Sam said (that) he was driving to work.But: before vowels producing a "y" sound (as in "you"). <I am driving to work. Notice that the verbs in the examples changed to the past in the indirect speech statements to coordinate with the past tense verb "said". It does not indicate a specific objection (which is the role of the definite article). thing or event that has not been clearly defined by the speaker. "I'm tired. it indicates any one object out of many possible ones (in the singular). I have never had an accident. Elizabeth said. please. Sam said. She has some cherries for sale.> Sam said (that) he had driven to work.> Sam said (that) he had driven to work. Look at these verb changes: Sam says. "I drive to work. "I want a new job. <I drove to work. <I have driven to work. rather than "an":    a unit not a one a unicorn As a general rule. <I will drive to work.” Jessie said. the plural indefinite article changes: " some" is generally replaced by "any" (this change also occurs in negative questions) :    Don't you have any cookies ? They don't have any books for sale." Indirect speech can also be called "reported" speech. In the negative. <I drive to work. Related topics   Definite articles Partitive articles Indirect Speech Direct and Indirect Speech Direct speech can also be called "quoted" speech.> Sam said (that) he would drive to work. "a" is used. We always use quotation marks. Sam said. We use direct speech when we want to reproduce someone's words exactly. It is often used after verbs of possession or consumption:    Give me a coffee. and quotation marks are not used. We use indirect speech when we want to reproduce the idea of someone's words without using their exact words. Jessie said that she wanted a new job. Elizabeth said that she was tired. the indefinite article signals a person." Sam says that he drives to work. The verb forms and pronouns may change. . Sam said.> Sam said (that) he drove to work.

she doodled. The present participle may often function as an adjective:   That's an interesting book. Washing clothes is not my idea of a job. In these cases it generally modifies a noun (or pronoun). the present perfect progressive) :    I am eating my dinner. We will be calling you tomorrow. he returned home. although it cannot stand by itself as a verb. Sam said. the future progressive. Present participles Formation The present participle is formed by adding the ending" --ing" to the infinitive (dropping any silent "e"at the end of the infinitive):      Use to sing --> singing to talk --> taking to bake --> baking to be --> being to have --> having A.> Sam said (that) he could drive to work. <I may drive to work. which indicate continuing actions or actions in progress (the present progressive. B. . The present participle of the auxiliary "have"may be used with the past participle to describe a past condition resulting in another action:  Having spent all his money.> Sam said (that) he might drive to work.Sam said. The present participle may be used with "while"or "by" to express an idea of simultaneity ("while") or causality ("by") :     He finished dinner while watching television. D. The present participle can be used as a noun denoting an activity (this form is also called a gerund):   Swimming is good exercise. Traveling is fun. That tree is a weeping willow. By calling the police you saved my life! F. or a past participle:    Thinking myself lost. I gave up all hope. E. By using a dictionary he could find all the words. C. Looking ahead is important. The present participle is used in progressive verb tenses. He was walking across the park. <I can drive to work. an adverb. The present participle can indicate an action that is taking place. While speaking on the phone.

"which one"    Simple questions Simple questions (that is." which is usually combined with "do" in interrogatives. she accelerated. "would". "whom". inversion signals a literary style. "to have". Having told herself that she would be too late. wouldn't he? You would like to go with us. "why?". or if it is strongly implied. etc. isn't it? He'd like to come with us. "didn't" for the past):      Do you want to go to the movies? Does she work at IBM? Don't you travel quite a bit? Do they answer questions quickly? Didn't they want to eat? But: One never places "do" or "does" before the verb "to be" or before modal verbs in questions. etc. "Do": one precedes an assertion with "do" or "does" (or "don't" or "doesn't" for a negative expression.) Interrogative adverbs ("how?". Questions  Simple questions o "Do" o Inversion o Modal verbs ("will". The modal phrase is typically an inversion of the subject and verb. a modal phrase can be used to make an interrogative form. repeated at the end of the sentence:    It's time to go. or "did". Inversion: with certain verbs (especially the verbs "to be". "when". questions to which one can respond by a simple "yes" or "no") may be formed in three different ways: 1.) Interrogative pronouns ("who". "what".)       Is Jack home? Have you nothing to declare? Would you like to go to the movies? Will they ever come to visit? Can the employees talk to the boss? Won't you sit down? 3. and modal verbs) questions are formed by inverting the subject and object. "to do". Modal phrases: If a modal verb is used in a sentence. etc.) "Which". (In the case of the verb " to have. in this case it is preferable to invert the subject and verb: o o o Are you coming to the reception? Was the meeting boring? Weren't you hungry? 2. wouldn't you? . in the negative.

One chooses the pronoun based on its function. how. how much. hen the order of the sentence follows the rules indicated for inversion or for questions formed with "do / does". to whom. why. why.      Where are you going? Why do you want to take this class? How much do you earn a month? How do these machines work? (Où vont ces étudiants ?) When do you expect to get home? (A quelle heure penses-tu rentrer ?) See also: Questions. You can understand that. Normally these pronouns are placed at the beginning of the sentence. according to the following table: subject (person) : who + question   Who did this painting? Who wants to get an ice cream? subject (thing) : what + question   What interests you? What is good in this restaurant? . Generally. will she? (See also: negations) Interrogative adverbs Simple questions solicit a "yes" or "no" answer. would you? She won't be back. More precise questions may be formed by using the interrogative adverbs: when. etc. Interrogative pronouns. then the order of the sentence follows the rules indicated for inversion or for questions formed with "do / does". can't you? In the case of a negative question. with what. the modal phrase would be in the affirmative:   You wouldn't want to try it. Interrogative pronouns Interrogative pronouns are used to ask who has done what. where. the interrogative adverb precedes the rest of the question.

"which ones") ask that a person make a choice. and in some day-to-day fixed expressions. which ones. "which one". in which case one uses "who" instead of "whom" o o Who are you thinking about? Who did you go out with? object of a preposition (thing) : preposition + what + question   With what did you open it? In what way does that concern you? Note: In spoken English. . Which one do you prefer? There are many different Burgundy wines. one often places the preposition at the end of the sentence.direct object (person) : whom + question   Whom did you see in France? Whom are you going to meet at this reception? direct objet (thing) : what + question   What do you want to do this evening? What are you preparing? object of a preposition (person) : preposition + whom + question   About whom are you thinking? With whom did you go out? Note: In spoken English. Normalement. modal verb.     Which film do you want to see? Which date did you choose? Here are two pizzas. in more formal or poetic discourse. The following are some common adverbials that can be used with inversion. It is used for emphasis. then the order of the sentence follows the rules indicated for inversion or for questions formed with "do / does". Which ones do you like? Inversion Inversion occurs when we change the order of the subject and the verb in a declarative sentence after an adverbial in initial position. The adjective "which" and its pronominal forms ("which". which one. Usually these pronouns will be placed at the beginning of the sentence. Inversion only occurs if the sentence contains an auxiliary verb. or the verb be. ces pronoms se trouveront au début de la phrase . the preposition is often put at the end of the sentence:   What did you open it with? What did did they base their opinion on? Which.

"why?". isn't it? He'd like to come with us. rarely. under no circumstances Questions  Simple questions o "Do" o Inversion o Modal verbs ("will". "which one"    Simple questions Simple questions (that is. never. or "did". "would".at no time. scarcely. nowhere. "to do".)       Is Jack home? Have you nothing to declare? Would you like to go to the movies? Will they ever come to visit? Can the employees talk to the boss? Won't you sit down? 3. only after. etc. only then. seldom. "whom". The modal phrase is typically an inversion of the subject and verb. and modal verbs) questions are formed by inverting the subject and object. in this case it is preferable to invert the subject and verb: o o o Are you coming to the reception? Was the meeting boring? Weren't you hungry? 2. repeated at the end of the sentence:    It's time to go. "when". wouldn't he? You would like to go with us.) Interrogative adverbs ("how?".) "Which". only later. Modal phrases: If a modal verb is used in a sentence.) Interrogative pronouns ("who". wouldn't you? . in the negative. "didn't" for the past):      Do you want to go to the movies? Does she work at IBM? Don't you travel quite a bit? Do they answer questions quickly? Didn't they want to eat? But: One never places "do" or "does" before the verb "to be" or before modal verbs in questions. (In the case of the verb " to have. questions to which one can respond by a simple "yes" or "no") may be formed in three different ways: 1. "Do": one precedes an assertion with "do" or "does" (or "don't" or "doesn't" for a negative expression. inversion signals a literary style. a modal phrase can be used to make an interrogative form. "to have"." which is usually combined with "do" in interrogatives. Inversion: with certain verbs (especially the verbs "to be". "what". little. etc. etc. not until. or if it is strongly implied.

hen the order of the sentence follows the rules indicated for inversion or for questions formed with "do / does". Interrogative pronouns Interrogative pronouns are used to ask who has done what. One chooses the pronoun based on its function. how much. to whom. according to the following table: subject (person) : who + question   Who did this painting? Who wants to get an ice cream? subject (thing) : what + question   What interests you? What is good in this restaurant? . You can understand that. More precise questions may be formed by using the interrogative adverbs: when. would you? She won't be back. the modal phrase would be in the affirmative:   You wouldn't want to try it. Normally these pronouns are placed at the beginning of the sentence. the interrogative adverb precedes the rest of the question. with what. then the order of the sentence follows the rules indicated for inversion or for questions formed with "do / does". why.      Where are you going? Why do you want to take this class? How much do you earn a month? How do these machines work? (Où vont ces étudiants ?) When do you expect to get home? (A quelle heure penses-tu rentrer ?) See also: Questions. where. how. why. Interrogative pronouns. can't you? In the case of a negative question. Generally. will she? (See also: negations) Interrogative adverbs Simple questions solicit a "yes" or "no" answer. etc.

can = could [pret. one often places the preposition at the end of the sentence.p. Literary or archaic forms are flagged by a cross: Ý.] may = might [pret.direct object (person) : whom + question   Whom did you see in France? Whom are you going to meet at this reception? direct objet (thing) : what + question   What do you want to do this evening? What are you preparing? object of a preposition (person) : preposition + whom + question   About whom are you thinking? With whom did you go out? Note: In spoken English. "which ones") ask that a person make a choice.]. The past participle is used in many conjugations. arisen [p. Which one do you prefer? There are many different Burgundy wines.the past conditional. in which case one uses "who" instead of "whom" o o Who are you thinking about? Who did you go out with? object of a preposition (thing) : preposition + what + question   With what did you open it? In what way does that concern you? Note: In spoken English. awakened [p. The adjective "which" and its pronominal forms ("which". been able [p. which one. and the future perfect. "which one".] to abide = abode [pret.p.] .]. ces pronoms se trouveront au début de la phrase .] to awake = awoke [pret. the pluperfect. the preposition is often put at the end of the sentence:   What did you open it with? What did did they base their opinion on? Which.p.     Which film do you want to see? Which date did you choose? Here are two pizzas. Usually these pronouns will be placed at the beginning of the sentence. including the present perfect. the preterit. which ones. Each entry includes the infinitive. In cases where variant forms exist. they will be shown at the end of the entry.]. Normalement. and the past participle. p. then the order of the sentence follows the rules indicated for inversion or for questions formed with "do / does".p.. Which ones do you like? Irregular preterits and past participles This alphabetical list shows the irregular forms of the most common verbs.] to arise = arose [pret.

p.]Ý to cling = clung [pret.] to bend = bent [pret. p.].] to freeze = froze [pret.p. p...p.p.].] to bite = bit [pret. fallen [p.p.].].] to forsake = forsook [pret.p.] to begin = began [pret.. p.p. p. p.] to bring = brought [pret. p. p.p.].] to choose = chose [pret.].p. p.].] to hurt = hurt [pret.p.p.].] to deal = dealt [pret.].p.p. known [p. done [p.]Ý to eat = ate [pret.]. p. grown [p.] to give = gave [pret.]. bade [pret.] to break = broke [pret. drawn [p.p.]. befallen [p. blown [p.] to cut = cut [pret....] to have = had [pret.p. p. p...].p.] to keep = kept [pret..].p.]. p.p.] to forbid = forbad [pret.p.] to grind = ground [pret.].p.] to hang = hung [pret.p. become [p.] to flee = fled [pret... p.. begun [p.to be = was.] to drive = drove [pret. burnt [pret.] to grow = grew [pret.. p. p..p.p. drunk [p..].].] to go = went [pret. p..] to gild = gild [p.] to fight = fought [pret. hidden [p..]. p.p. flown [p.] to kneel = kneeled [pret. p. p...p.. p.p. gotten [p. p.p. p... p.] to dream = dreamed [pret..]Ý to burst = burst [pret.] to know = knew [pret.p. forgotten [p.p.].p.] to dwell = dwelled [pret.p.]Ý to drink = drank [pret.] to fall = fell [pret.] to forget = forgot [pret..] to do = did [pret..] to beseech = besought [pret..]. frozen [p.].p. p.. p.]. broken [p. come [p.] to cast = cast [pret.] to creep = crept [pret.].] to bid = bid [pret. p.p..] to buy = bought [pret. p.] to kneel = knelt [pret.] to find = found [pret.p. p...p.] to bear = bore [pret.p..p.] to come = came [pret. p. p.p..] to bleed = bled [pret.].] to lay = laid [pret.p. driven [p.] to hide = hid [pret.] to lean = leaned [pret.] to catch = caught [pret.] to fling = flung [pret.p.p.. were [pret. p.]Ý to bind = bound [pret.] to breed = bred [pret.p. p. p.p.p.] to hew = hewn [p.p. chosen [p.] to blow = blew [pret.]. dwelt [pret.p.. p.p.p.].p. p.] to beat = beat [pret. beaten [p.p. been [p.] to become = became [pret.]. dreamt [pret.p.] to cleave = cleaved [pret.p.p. p..p..p. p.].] to hold = held [pret.].]..]. p.].p.] to befall = befell [pret.p.p.].] to burn = burned [pret.p..] to fly = flew [pret. p.] to dig = dug [pret. p. forsaken [p..] to feed = fed [pret. creeped [pret.p..] .p. p... hanged (•éxécution•) [pret.] to hit = hit [pret. cleft [pret.] to cost = cost [pret.p. forbidden [p.].p.p.p. bitten [p. p.p.] to hear = heard [pret. eaten [p.p.. p.p. p..] to lead = led [pret. given [p.p. borne [p.p.] to build = built [pret.p.p.p.p..] to get = got [pret... p.p.] to bet = bet [pret. gone [p.p.p.] to draw = drew [pret.p. p.

.p.p.p. redone [p. p.. rewritten [p.] to mean = meant [pret.p.] to quit = quit [pret. p..p. p. p. p. p. p...p.p.] to shake = shook [pret.] to lose = lost [pret. shorn [p.p.] to slay = slew [pret. p.] to sell = sold [pret.] to leave = left [pret.] to relay = relaid [pret.] to rise = rose [pret. p.].] to shoot = shot [pret.p..]. shown [p.p. p..p. p. p.] to slide = slid [pret.] to reteach = retaught [pret.p.p.] to slit = slit [pret. p.] to rid = rid [pret.] to set = set [pret.p..p.].] to meet = met [pret..p. mown [p. p..p.p..p.p.] to lend = lent [pret.. p.p.p.] to light = lit [pret. p.] to smite = smote [pret. rerun [p.... p.. p..] to sling = slung [pret.p.].] to redeal = redealt [pret..] to shed = shed [pret.] to ring = rang [pret. p...p.].] to ride = rode [pret.] to slink = slunk [pret.p.p. sung [p.] to see = saw [pret. p. p. p.] to smell = smelt [pret.p.. shaken [p.] to sleep = slept [pret. shined [pret....] to smell = smelled [pret. p.] to send = sent [pret..p.] to sing = sang [pret.]. seen [p.]..]. p.p.p.p.] to retell = retold [pret.p.].p. p.] to remake = remade [pret.. shrunk [p.].p.p.] to mow = mowed [pret.] to learn = learned [pret.p. p.] to repay = repaid [pret..] to shear = sheared [pret. p. p.p. lain [p. p. p.] .] to let = let [pret.p.p. rung [p.] to redo = redid [pret. ridden [p. p.p.p.] to rend = rent [pret.] to run = ran [pret.] to shut = shut [pret.].] to reread = reread [pret.] to sew = sewed [pret.p. p. p. p. p.].p. risen [p..p.] to show = showed [pret.] to make = made [pret.] to rerun = reran [pret.].p.p.] to sit = sat [pret.] to read = read [pret.p.p.].].. p. p.. p. p..] to reset = reset [pret.] to shrink = shrank [pret. sawn [p.] to shave = shaved [pret.p.] to rebuild = rebuilt [pret.]. p.p.p.] to shine = shone [pret.] to resend = resent [pret..p.].] to saw = sawed [pret.p. p.p. slain [p.p.p....p... p. p..] to leap = leapt [pret..p. p. p.to lean = leant [pret. smitten [p.p..] to leap = leaped [pret..p..p..] to lie = lay [pret. p.]Ý to say = said [pret.] to recut = recut [pret..] to seek = sought [pret.p.]. run [p.p.p..] to retake = retook [pret.p.p.] to rethink = rethought [pret.] to sink = sank [pret. shaven [p.p. p. p.] to pay = paid [pret. sewn [p..].p.p. p.p.p.p..p.p. p.p.] to shoe = shod [pret. retaken [p..] to rewrite = rewrote [pret... p.. p. sunk [p..].]. p.] to put = put [pret.].] to learn = learnt [pret..p.]. p.

]. p.] to withdraw = withdrew [pret.p.].p. they will be shown at the end of the entry. and the future perfect. p.] to wear = wore [pret.].]..] to thrust = thrust [pret.. stridden [p.p.p.p.p. striven [p.p. p. p.p. p.p.] to undo = undid [pret.. p.] to swing = swung [pret.p.to sow = sowed [pret.]. p.] to tell = told [pret.p.p. awakened [p.] to bear = bore [pret. and the past participle.p. p. p. spoken [p.p..] . p.p. p.].p.p. sprung [p.] to write = wrote [pret.. been [p.].p.. p. p.] to tear = tore [pret.. were [pret.. Each entry includes the infinitive.p. Literary or archaic forms are flagged by a cross: Ý.. p.]. woven [p.] to wake = woke [pret.p.p. p.].] to throw = threw [pret.p.] to weave = wove [pret. trodden [p.]. can = could [pret. woken [p. p.p.] Irregular preterits and past participles This alphabetical list shows the irregular forms of the most common verbs.] to think = thought [pret.] to tread = trod [pret.p. swollen [p.p.] to split = split [pret. swum [p.] to speak = spoke [pret..] to stink = stank [pret.]..] to wind = wound [pret..p..].p.] to begin = began [pret.] to take = took [pret.] to spell = spelt [pret..] to wring = wrung [pret.p. p. p.] to speed = sped [pret.p.] to arise = arose [pret. stunk [p. p.] to spring = sprang [pret.p.] to awake = awoke [pret. undone [p.] to sting = stung [pret.p.p. p.] to sweep = swept [pret.] to teach = taught [pret. spoilt [pret.. begun [p.] to be = was.p.].p. stolen [p....p. p.p. withdrawn [p..] to strive = strove [pret.] to swim = swam [pret.p. The past participle is used in many conjugations. p.p.].] to unlearn = unlearned [pret.] to thrive = thrived [pret.. In cases where variant forms exist. p.. p.p.].. p.].p.p.p..] to spoil = spoiled [pret... p. p.p.]. p. p.p.].p.] to weep = wept [pret.] to spit = spat [pret..].] to steal = stole [pret.p. the pluperfect.]Ý to unwind = unwound [pret. beaten [p. p.p.].p. torn [p.] to strike = struck [pret.p.] to abide = abode [pret.].].] to befall = befell [pret.] to spend = spent [pret.p.] to become = became [pret. stricken [p. borne [p. sown [p.. the preterit. befallen [p. become [p.] to string = strung [pret.p.] to spill = spilled [pret...] to spill = spilt [pret. p.] to swell = swelled [pret. thrown [p..p.] to win = won [pret.p. unlearnt [pret.].p.]..p.p. p.] to stick = stuck [pret.] may = might [pret.p. including the present perfect. sworn [p. been able [p.]..] to beat = beat [pret.p. worn [p.].p.].p.] to spell = spelled [pret.].] to spin = spun [pret.p.p.p.].. written [p. taken [p.the past conditional. weaved [pret.].p. p. arisen [p..] to swear = swore [pret.] to bend = bent [pret.].].] to spread = spread [pret.] to stand = stood [pret. p.] to stride = strode [pret.].

creeped [pret.] to cost = cost [pret. p..p.p.. chosen [p. gone [p.] to grow = grew [pret.p. grown [p.] to fall = fell [pret..p. p.] to bleed = bled [pret..] to hit = hit [pret.. p.p. p. p..].. p.] to leap = leaped [pret.p.p.p. done [p. fallen [p.p.p.. burnt [pret.p.p. p.] to fight = fought [pret. known [p.]Ý to cling = clung [pret.]. p.].]. p.p.. p.]. p. p.p..p. p.]Ý to drink = drank [pret.] to deal = dealt [pret.] to cut = cut [pret.p.p. bitten [p... p.p.] to blow = blew [pret.p. come [p.p.p.] to lean = leant [pret..p. p. p. p. p..p. forgotten [p. p. p.. driven [p.p.p.] to hide = hid [pret.. dwelt [pret.] to hurt = hurt [pret. p...].] to gild = gild [p.p.... p.. p.p.p..].]Ý to bind = bound [pret.p.p.. broken [p.. hidden [p.] to draw = drew [pret. p.p. p.] to grind = ground [pret.p.p.] to bet = bet [pret.p.p.to beseech = besought [pret. p. drunk [p.p.p.].]. p.] to lead = led [pret.] to creep = crept [pret.p. p.. p. p.] to build = built [pret.] to bring = brought [pret.].] to dream = dreamed [pret. p. p. p.. p.p.. p...] to come = came [pret.] to catch = caught [pret.. p.] to cast = cast [pret. blown [p. p.p. drawn [p.. p.] to forsake = forsook [pret..].p.] to kneel = knelt [pret. p.] to lay = laid [pret.]. hanged (•éxécution•) [pret.p.] to give = gave [pret.. cleft [pret.] to hear = heard [pret.p.].p.] to drive = drove [pret..] to flee = fled [pret.p..].]. forbidden [p. p.].]. p.p.].] to burn = burned [pret.]. flown [p.] to do = did [pret.p.p.p.p.] to forget = forgot [pret.] to hold = held [pret..p.] . p.]. forsaken [p.p.] to dig = dug [pret.] to forbid = forbad [pret.] to leap = leapt [pret..p.] to fling = flung [pret. p.p. p.] to bite = bit [pret.] to breed = bred [pret.] to fly = flew [pret.] to find = found [pret..] to freeze = froze [pret.p. dreamt [pret. p.p.p.].p.p.p.].] to bid = bid [pret.p. p.].p.] to hang = hung [pret.].. eaten [p.] to cleave = cleaved [pret.p.] to learn = learnt [pret.]Ý to eat = ate [pret...] to kneel = kneeled [pret.].]Ý to burst = burst [pret.p. p.] to feed = fed [pret.p. given [p.] to choose = chose [pret.] to have = had [pret.p..p..] to dwell = dwelled [pret. p.] to leave = left [pret.p.] to hew = hewn [p. p..] to go = went [pret... p. p.p.]..p. bade [pret.] to know = knew [pret.] to lean = leaned [pret.p.. gotten [p.] to break = broke [pret.] to learn = learned [pret. p.] to lend = lent [pret.] to keep = kept [pret. p.].p.p..] to get = got [pret.p.]. frozen [p.].p..] to buy = bought [pret..p..p.

p.p.p.] to spend = spent [pret..p.p.p.p.] to see = saw [pret.. p.].] to send = sent [pret. p.] to redo = redid [pret. p. p. shaken [p.p. p.] to remake = remade [pret. p.] to meet = met [pret... p. p.p.].] to ride = rode [pret..p..] to slide = slid [pret.] to shed = shed [pret.p.p.] to sew = sewed [pret.] to shave = shaved [pret..p.] to smite = smote [pret. rung [p. p.p.p.] to resend = resent [pret.] to put = put [pret.].p.. p. sung [p. p.].].p. p. smitten [p..p.]. spoken [p. p.].] to slay = slew [pret.].] to rise = rose [pret.p.p.p.] to shrink = shrank [pret.p.] to lose = lost [pret.] to shine = shone [pret. p.] to sell = sold [pret..] to retell = retold [pret. p.p. mown [p.p. p.. p. rewritten [p. p.] to sink = sank [pret.. p.] to speed = sped [pret..] to mow = mowed [pret.. shaven [p..] to pay = paid [pret. p.] to ring = rang [pret.. p.p. shrunk [p.p.p.] to shear = sheared [pret.] to reset = reset [pret.] to slink = slunk [pret. rerun [p..p.p.] to spill = spilled [pret.p.] to spell = spelt [pret.p.] to repay = repaid [pret..p.to let = let [pret.p.p.p..p.] to shoe = shod [pret..] to smell = smelt [pret.p.p... sewn [p. p. sawn [p. p.] to shoot = shot [pret.].] to rid = rid [pret. p. p. p.p..p. lain [p. p.] to quit = quit [pret.] to make = made [pret.p. p..p.. p. p. p.]..].p.p..p.] to redeal = redealt [pret.] to sing = sang [pret. p.] to slit = slit [pret..p. p.] to rewrite = rewrote [pret. sunk [p.]..] to recut = recut [pret.p. p. p. risen [p.p..] to rerun = reran [pret.] to rethink = rethought [pret.. run [p.] to sling = slung [pret.] to mean = meant [pret. p.].]...] to seek = sought [pret..p.]. p.] to reread = reread [pret.] to rebuild = rebuilt [pret.] to relay = relaid [pret..] to shut = shut [pret.].p. p. ridden [p. shined [pret.p.p.p..p.]..] to show = showed [pret.p. redone [p. p. p.] to smell = smelled [pret. p.] to retake = retook [pret. p. retaken [p.p.].p. p. p.] to sleep = slept [pret. shorn [p.p...p.]Ý to say = said [pret.] to sow = sowed [pret. p. slain [p. p.p.p.p.p.] to lie = lay [pret.] to set = set [pret.p.p. p.] to shake = shook [pret. p.p.p.] to reteach = retaught [pret.] to speak = spoke [pret.] to saw = sawed [pret.] to run = ran [pret..p.] to rend = rent [pret.......p.].]. p.p.... shown [p..]. sown [p.] .. p.] to sit = sat [pret. p. p.p.].] to spell = spelled [pret..p.].]. p.p..p.] to read = read [pret.].] to light = lit [pret.p. seen [p.p.p.

p.p..] to spin = spun [pret.p..p.p. p. p.p. they will be shown at the end of the entry.] to bite = bit [pret.] to thrust = thrust [pret..p. p..] to bid = bid [pret.p.].] to thrive = thrived [pret.] to begin = began [pret..p..p.] to strike = struck [pret. swollen [p. p. p. p.] to stick = stuck [pret.p.] to become = became [pret.] to bet = bet [pret.].]. stridden [p.].] to split = split [pret.]. sworn [p.p.] to weep = wept [pret. p.].] to wake = woke [pret.]Ý to unwind = unwound [pret.].p. woven [p..p. p..p..p.p.p. p. p.. can = could [pret. stricken [p.p.] to wring = wrung [pret.. been able [p.].]....]. spoilt [pret.p..] to spring = sprang [pret..]. Literary or archaic forms are flagged by a cross: Ý..p.p.p.p.p. p..p. p.p.] to withdraw = withdrew [pret.] to think = thought [pret.p.] to undo = undid [pret. p..p.p.p.] to spit = spat [pret.p.p..p. been [p.p.]. beaten [p..] to swear = swore [pret.] to teach = taught [pret. torn [p. p. p.p.]. withdrawn [p. stolen [p. p.] to swim = swam [pret.] to awake = awoke [pret.].] to sting = stung [pret.]..] to string = strung [pret. undone [p. befallen [p.] to bend = bent [pret. the preterit.] to beseech = besought [pret. become [p.].].].].].. striven [p.] to abide = abode [pret.p.] to wind = wound [pret. thrown [p. bade [pret.p. begun [p. p. p.p.] to be = was. awakened [p. and the future perfect. woken [p. The past participle is used in many conjugations.p.] may = might [pret.].] to tread = trod [pret.] to wear = wore [pret.p. bitten [p.p. In cases where variant forms exist.p.].p.] to spoil = spoiled [pret. worn [p. p. weaved [pret. Each entry includes the infinitive.]. sprung [p. arisen [p.p.p.].].p.] Irregular preterits and past participles This alphabetical list shows the irregular forms of the most common verbs.] to befall = befell [pret.] to stride = strode [pret.] to weave = wove [pret. unlearnt [pret.] to take = took [pret.].. p. p.p.] to steal = stole [pret..] to write = wrote [pret. p..] to tell = told [pret.p.] to tear = tore [pret. p.p.] to sweep = swept [pret.p.] to strive = strove [pret.p.p... p.].]. written [p.]Ý to bind = bound [pret. p. trodden [p. p. p. taken [p. the pluperfect.p.] to arise = arose [pret.p. p.] to swell = swelled [pret.] to unlearn = unlearned [pret.p.]..p. swum [p.] . p.to spill = spilt [pret..]. p.] to beat = beat [pret. borne [p.] to bear = bore [pret..] to stink = stank [pret.] to spread = spread [pret.] to win = won [pret.]..].the past conditional. including the present perfect. p.p.p. stunk [p.] to stand = stood [pret. p.] to swing = swung [pret.].] to throw = threw [pret. and the past participle.p.p. were [pret.

p..] to hold = held [pret. flown [p.] to burn = burned [pret.p.p.p.p.] to find = found [pret.p.p.] to draw = drew [pret....] to dig = dug [pret.. p.p.p. p.p...p.]...] to leave = left [pret. p..p. p.p.].p.] to hurt = hurt [pret. grown [p. p. p.]Ý to cling = clung [pret..].].. p.] to catch = caught [pret.]Ý to drink = drank [pret.].p..p..].p. frozen [p..].. p. p.p.].] to lose = lost [pret. p..p. p. p. burnt [pret. p..p.. given [p.] to go = went [pret. p.] to fly = flew [pret.].]. blown [p. come [p.p.] .].] to give = gave [pret.p. done [p.p.p.p.p.] to feed = fed [pret.] to lean = leaned [pret.]. p..] to fling = flung [pret. fallen [p.] to fight = fought [pret.] to hide = hid [pret.p...]Ý to burst = burst [pret.] to flee = fled [pret. p.] to choose = chose [pret.].p.p.].] to buy = bought [pret. p. drawn [p.] to forsake = forsook [pret. p.p. p. p.] to lead = led [pret. p.] to lie = lay [pret. hanged (•éxécution•) [pret.]. p. p.] to creep = crept [pret. p.p. forgotten [p. known [p.] to come = came [pret.] to lend = lent [pret. p.p.] to hit = hit [pret.].p.p.] to have = had [pret.p. p. p.]Ý to eat = ate [pret.. p.]. p.] to grind = ground [pret.] to cost = cost [pret. p.p..] to dwell = dwelled [pret.. p.] to learn = learnt [pret.p.p. p. hidden [p.p... chosen [p.] to drive = drove [pret..] to break = broke [pret.] to grow = grew [pret.p.] to dream = dreamed [pret.p.]. p.p. broken [p.p.] to bring = brought [pret.] to build = built [pret. p.p.p.p..] to gild = gild [p.]...p. p. gotten [p... p. p.] to cleave = cleaved [pret.] to do = did [pret.p.]...].p. forbidden [p.] to breed = bred [pret.] to forbid = forbad [pret.p. p.] to learn = learned [pret.p.] to kneel = kneeled [pret.] to lay = laid [pret. p.p.] to leap = leaped [pret.p. lain [p.] to leap = leapt [pret.] to know = knew [pret.] to hew = hewn [p. p.] to make = made [pret.p.. p.] to light = lit [pret.. p.].p.p.] to blow = blew [pret.]...p.p.] to fall = fell [pret.. p.p.p. p..p.p.].p.] to hang = hung [pret.] to cast = cast [pret. p.p. dreamt [pret.p.] to keep = kept [pret. gone [p. p..] to let = let [pret. eaten [p..]. p..] to forget = forgot [pret. forsaken [p. driven [p. p.p.p.p.] to lean = leant [pret.]. drunk [p.].p.p.p. p..] to deal = dealt [pret.p...] to freeze = froze [pret.p.] to kneel = knelt [pret.] to get = got [pret.p... creeped [pret. dwelt [pret.p.] to cut = cut [pret... p. cleft [pret. p..to bleed = bled [pret. p.].p. p.p..] to hear = heard [pret.

p.] to shave = shaved [pret. p.. p.].p.].] to sow = sowed [pret. p. p.] to shut = shut [pret.. p.] to rend = rent [pret..p.p.] to redeal = redealt [pret. p.] to sing = sang [pret.] to set = set [pret.p. p.p.] to slink = slunk [pret.p. p.].] to sit = sat [pret.. p. p.] to spell = spelled [pret.] to retell = retold [pret.] to put = put [pret.p.p.p. p..p...p.p. shorn [p. shined [pret..p.p.] to sleep = slept [pret. p.. p.]....p.]...]. slain [p..p.] to shrink = shrank [pret.] to spoil = spoiled [pret.].] to send = sent [pret. p.p..].. p.] to rise = rose [pret.].p.] to redo = redid [pret.p.] to spend = spent [pret.] to reset = reset [pret.p.] to reread = reread [pret..] to smite = smote [pret.] to rid = rid [pret.. p.]Ý to say = said [pret.p.] to rethink = rethought [pret. p. p.] to shake = shook [pret.p. p. p.p.] to spill = spilt [pret.p. shrunk [p.p.p.] to smell = smelled [pret. ridden [p. p. p.] to spell = spelt [pret.p.] to saw = sawed [pret. p.p.p.] to speed = sped [pret. p.p... p.. shown [p.] to repay = repaid [pret.p..p.p.].].p.] to spin = spun [pret.] to slit = slit [pret. p.p.] to meet = met [pret. spoken [p.] to run = ran [pret..] to rewrite = rewrote [pret.p..].. p.p.p.].p. shaken [p..] to sell = sold [pret.]..p.] to rebuild = rebuilt [pret.p.. p.. p.. redone [p. p.p.p.p.p.] to sling = slung [pret.p.p. sewn [p.] to slide = slid [pret. p..].] to mow = mowed [pret..p. sunk [p..]. seen [p.] to pay = paid [pret..] to retake = retook [pret. p. p.p.] to ride = rode [pret. p.p.p..p.].] to split = split [pret.. p. spoilt [pret.p..] to shed = shed [pret.p. p.].p.] to remake = remade [pret.p. p... p.p. p.].p. sown [p. p. sawn [p.. rewritten [p. p.p.p.p..p..] to ring = rang [pret.p. sung [p.p.p.] to seek = sought [pret.] to quit = quit [pret. p. run [p.].] to resend = resent [pret.] to speak = spoke [pret.] to show = showed [pret. risen [p. p..] to rerun = reran [pret.p. p.] to relay = relaid [pret.] to spit = spat [pret. p..] to spill = spilled [pret..] to shear = sheared [pret..p.] to slay = slew [pret. p. p.] to reteach = retaught [pret..] . shaven [p. rung [p. p.] to see = saw [pret.] to read = read [pret. mown [p.p.p.].. p..p.p.]..] to sew = sewed [pret.p.]..p. retaken [p.p.] to shoot = shot [pret.] to shine = shone [pret.p.p. p.] to smell = smelt [pret...]. p.. p. rerun [p.] to sink = sank [pret. p.] to recut = recut [pret.to mean = meant [pret. p. p. smitten [p.] to shoe = shod [pret.p.].

When one wishes to designate the agent of the action (the person who has carried out the described action).] to string = strung [pret. swum [p.. unlearnt [pret...] to swim = swam [pret.] to spring = sprang [pret.]..p.. withdrawn [p.] to steal = stole [pret. p.] to swear = swore [pret.p.. weaved [pret.] to write = wrote [pret.p.] to undo = undid [pret.p.].p. undone [p.] to tell = told [pret.p. p. p.] to swing = swung [pret.].p. p.] to withdraw = withdrew [pret.] to teach = taught [pret.] to wear = wore [pret.p.].]. 2. p.. p. p.] to wake = woke [pret.] to wring = wrung [pret.p.]Ý to unwind = unwound [pret.] to weep = wept [pret. p.p.to spread = spread [pret.. I had it done by my employees.]. ..] to swell = swelled [pret.. stunk [p.].] to think = thought [pret. thrown [p.]. In English it is the verb "to have" that introduces the causative.p.].]. p...p.p. sprung [p.p.].p.p. p. I had my hair cut..p. The model will generally be: "to have" (conjugated) + direct object (noun or pronoun) + principal verb (in its past participle form):   We'll have a monument erected on this site.p."to have" (conjugated) + direct object (noun or pronoun) + principal verb (in its past participle form) + "by" + agent (usually not as a pronoun):   The professor had the work done by his lab assistants.p.p.p.]..].] to sting = stung [pret.. -. p.p. p. stolen [p.] to strive = strove [pret.]..] to sweep = swept [pret.].] to thrive = thrived [pret. p.].] to stink = stank [pret.] Causative constructions When one does not carry out an action oneself but rather has the action done by someone else.p. taken [p.] to win = won [pret. p. woven [p.] to tread = trod [pret. there are two possibilities: 1.p.]. swollen [p.. stridden [p.p. this is expressed by a causative construction.. stricken [p. p. striven [p. written [p.] to weave = wove [pret.]."to have" (conjugated) + agent (as a direct object noun or pronoun) + principal verb (in its infinitive form) + the object (also in the form of a direct object noun or pronoun)   The professor had his students write an essay. torn [p.p. p.]. worn [p..] to stride = strode [pret.p.]. trodden [p.] to strike = struck [pret.p.p.] to thrust = thrust [pret.].p.p.] to stick = stuck [pret.p.p.p. I had him do it. p. p.] to tear = tore [pret. p. -. woken [p.p. p.p.. sworn [p.] to throw = threw [pret.p.p.] to stand = stood [pret.] to take = took [pret.] to unlearn = unlearned [pret.p.] to wind = wound [pret.

or "helping" verbs: they are used in conjunction with another verb (in infinitive form) as a way to modify its meaning. Modals can nuance the meaning of the principal verb in a number of ways: -. They exist only in the present." "will.    I may finish my paper tonight. You ought to see a doctor." "should." "wasn't it. their form does not change in the third person singular." in which case "to" is added to the infinitive (but not before past participles). The professor got his students to write an essay. or moral obligation." "might." or "should":    Students must hand in their work on time. -." "could. When one wishes to express a change in temperament or in general conditions. He makes me furious! That new problem made negotiations really hard! Modal verbs     General principles Contractions Question tag phrases: "isn't it. the verb "to get" often replaces "to have. Modal verbs are auxiliaries." "must. You may come with us. This construction also suggests that it may be (or have been) difficult to produce a certain reaction on the part of the agent:   We'll get a monument erected on this site.Possibility or permission by "may" or "might" (often translated in other languages by a different mood. and unlike most verbs in the simple present. such as the subjonctif).Note: Especially in spoken English. if you wish." "ought to. You should never play with fire. It might be helpful to have a map.Obligation. Could you please do the dishes? -. Related topics General principles The auxiliary modals "would. The modal verb "would" is used to express the conditional: . by "must." "ought to.Possibility or ability." "shall" are invariable. by "can" or "could"   I can do this job." "can. Note that "must" can also indicate probability:   You must be exhausted! He must play tennis pretty well. it is the construction " to make + adjective" which is used:    That letter made her sad." etc." may.

Note: The contraction of the modal verbs "shall. etc. If he had time. he would pick up some groceries. will she? Related topics      Conditional Future Subjunctive Questions Negation Negation   "Not" Negative questions . wouldn't you? You can understand that." "ought. would you? (Je suppose que tu ne voudrais pas l'essayer. The modal verb "will" expresses the future:  Contractions The train will arrive in an hour. "she'd"." etc. The function of such an expression is to prompt the listener to reassert or reaffirm what has been stated:   You would like to go with us.) Modals can be used in a negative interrogative form after an affirmative expression. Question tag phrases ("isn't it." "wasn't it. examples of contractions:    I wouldn't (would not) do that.). "would" is often contracted into "--'d" ("I'd". the word"not" of the negative can be contracted into "--n't" ("wouldn't". "we'd". "shouldn't". etc. in its contracted form. Exceptions : "will not" becomes "won't"." and "may. etc. "Can not" can also be written "cannot". the modal tag phrase is in the affirmative:   You wouldn't want to try it. the subject pronoun is also repeated. After all modal verbs. can't you? The modal verb used in the interrogative tag is generally the same as the modal found in the main clause. "you'll". "they'll". After a pronoun subject. if I were you! They'll (they will) never believe it! She won't (will not) bother you anymore.). the "n" is not doubled: "can't".). After a negative sentence.) She won't be back. while "will" is contracted into "--'ll" ("I'll"." is considered slightly archaic or literary.

the adverb "not" will be contracted to "--n't" after an auxiliary or modal verb: o o o o o o is not --> isn't should not --> shouldn't does not --> doesn't must not --> mustn't has not --> hasn't will not --> won't Questions The same structure (placing "not" after the verb) will hold for questions:   Isn't it time to leave? Wouldn't you care for a drink? Note: If one chooses not contract "not" to "--n't". "not" must follow an auxiliary verb ("to be". "might". Would you not care for a drink? Using "not" instead of the contraction can produce certain stylistic effects: To stress the negative meaning of the sentence:  "He will not come to your house" is stronger than "He won't come to your house" To affect a literary style. "nothing". "will".). Here are some sample phrases in both affirmative and negative form:    I want to play the piano. the adverb "not" will be placed after the subject in the question. --> They should not go out together. even if this verb adds no meaning to the sentence. This style is considered literary: o o Is it not time to leave. --> I do not want to play the piano. "no one". "must". etc. Note: Most often. They should go out together. especially in the formation of a questions:  Will you not come by and see us? .) "Not" The most common way to put a phrase in the negative is by using "not. --> He will not arrive on time. When no other modal is present or appropriate. the verb "to do" is used. "to do") or a modal ("shall"." Generally. Negative constructions ("never". etc. He will arrive on time.

. a single   Not a single letter arrived today.. She doesn't ever want to see him again.. Not a single / not.. He doesn't have a single idea what we're doing.. Neither. Never / not. Because English does not allow double or triple negatives. I don't want to see anyone tonight. anything   He does nothing at all. No one / not. anyone   No one called tonight.Negative constructions Other negative constructions are possible.   We neither ate nor drank during the ceremony. Personal pronouns    Forms Subject pronouns Predicate pronouns . I like neither tomatoes nor zucchini. When "not" is included. use the affirmative forms of other adverbs: No more / not. it is important to avoid using "not" with other negative constructions..... nor. Only (always placed before the element one whichs to limit):    She only has seven dollars.. They were the only ones to come.. anywhere   Where are you going? -. I don't want to go anywhere..... We were only playing. any more   I want no more of your money I don't want any more of your money.Nowhere. Can't you do anything right? Nowhere / not. Nothing / not.. ever   She never wants to see him again.

interrogative). I gave this present to them. the pronoun "it" will be used. "you". the pronouns "he" and "she" are generally used only for people or animals." Whatever the form of the sentence (affirmative.or the pronouns replacing them -.  Order of pronouns Related topics Here are the different forms for personal pronouns in English: Use of the subject pronoun Subject pronouns reflect the nouns they replace. negative. Prepositional objects will come after their preposition:   Will you come to the store with me? He left without her. You look tired.will follow the verb:    Did you buy it? You didn't buy it. "them. "him". . Indirect objects will generally come after the proposition "to. "her". The forms are: "me". Examples:    She wants to eat. It is hard to cook well. in which cas the proposition "to" disappears:   I have spoken to her. Use of predicate pronouns: Predicate pronouns will always have the same form whether they are used as direct. or prepositional objects. direct objects -. in the case of objects or impersonal expressions. "it". "us". indirect." except if the pronoun precedes the direct object. You bought it. Since English nouns rarely show gender.

He couldn't sell them the car. He couldn't sell the car to them. Don't tell him that. Exception: As noted above. I threw him the ball. Order of pronouns When a verb is followed by two or more pronouns. the following sequence is observed: Examples :   Don't tell that to him. one may omit the preposition "to" in front of an indirect object. I threw the ball. . BUT : I gave them this present. Related topics      Relative pronouns Reflexive pronouns Reciprocal pronouns Demonstrative pronouns Possessive pronouns Objects Direct Object: A direct object will most often be a noun (thing or idea) that receives the action of the transitive (action) verb. Indirect Object: An indirect object will most often be the person or persons expressed as the recipient of the direct object and will be found immediately after the transitive verb and before the direct object. in which cas the indirect object pronoun precedes the direct object:    He gave me it for Christmas.

In some cases. or an adverb. aged and bent from years of harsh weather. See Dependent Clause. as an adjective. The prepositional phrase functions either as an adjective. The participle may be present (ending in -ing) or past (ending in -ed or its irregular form). telling us more about a noun or pronoun. (May be as short as two words or as many as several words) The student in the purple dress walked down the hallway. (Noun Clause as Object of the Preposition) Prepositional Phrase: A prepositional phrase always begins with a preposition and ends with a noun (the object of the preposition). Clause: A clause will contain a subject and a verb and function as either a dependent or an independent clause. (Noun Clause as Direct Object) Pedro was looking for whatever he needed for the baseball game. See Dependent Clause Adjective Clause: An adjective clause will begin with a relative pronoun and give us more information about a noun or pronoun within a sentence. the object of the preposition will be a noun clause. in the object position of a sentence. functioning. the students splashed each other with verbs and nouns. (Adjective and Adverb Prepositional Phrases. always. That I studied the assignment was evident to the teacher.Phrase: A phrase adds to the meaning of a sentence but does not contain a subject or a verb. (Participle) Prepositional Verbs    Single preposition verbs o Sentence structure Mulitple preposition verbs o Sentence structure Related topics . (Past Participial Phrase) Swimming in a sea of grammar. place. respectively) Participial Phrase: A participial phrase joins together a participle and its corresponding words. fell from its state of grace. The noun clause operates in the subject position of a sentence. The school. Noun Clause: A noun clause also begins with a relative pronoun but functions differently from an adjective clause. Adverb Clause: An adverb clause will begin with a subordinating conjunction and offer readers more information about the verb (usually giving us information about time. (Noun Clause as Subject) I forgot that I needed my passport. See Dependent Clause. (Present Participial Phrase) The singing bird trilled high notes in the early morning. or in the subject complement position of a sentence. The yellow house is at the bottom of the driveway. or why something happened). providing us more information about the verb.

white.to put in jars or cans to put away -.to remove the power to (a light.to become to turn red. She put them away. It would be impossible to list all such verbs here (but you will find them in the dictionary itself). the light to turn down -.to speak loudly to speak down (to someone) -. the meaning of the base verb. the object will follow the preposition. or even dramatically change.to speak in someone's place        to put -.to release one's grasp of something to put out -.to change colors Sentence structure When the sentence includes a noun object.to turn to face the opposite direction to turn up -.to place up high to put up -. the pronoun precedes the preposition:   He turned on the television. etc. the light to turn out -. He turned it on.Single preposition verbs A great number of verbs in English can be modified by the addition of a preposition. -.to twist to turn on -.to set down to put up -. and the meaning expressed by any given preposition may be very different from one verb to another. a motor) to turn around -. These examples will suffice to provide an illustration of the principle:     to speak -.to say words to speak up -.   She put away her books.to make something function (a light. Multiple preposition verbs There are many prepositional verbs that take two prepositions: . or to take outside to put on -.to diminish the sound.to wear         to turn -.to augment the sound. a motor) to turn off -.to put something back where it belongs to put down -.to be condescending toward someone to speak for (someone) -. Often the preposition will nuance. if the object is replaced by a pronoun.to place outside. The meanings are often idiomatic.

Chocolat. Filmed in North Africa. Past progressive The past progressive is a past tense which emphasizes the ongoing nature of the action described. Both of these sentences have the same subject (Troy). . whether the object is a noun or a pronoun:   How can you put up with him? Bill should not go out with Monica. Troy is a very exciting film. Troy stars Brad Pitt and Orlando Bloom. Troy was filmed in North Africa.to tolerate someone to go out with -. Another example: Johnny Depp appeared in Pirates of the Caribbean. Troy stars Brad Pitt and Orlando Bloom. Chocolat. Appearing in Pirates of the Caribbean. Related topics   Prepositions Verbs with prepositions Participle Clauses Participle clauses use a present participle (-ing) to join together sentences. The cat was meowing last night while we tried to sleep. It is formed by using the auxiliary "to be" with the present participle:    I was working. He was eating his dinner when the phone rang. that have the same subject.to begin. It stars Brad Pitt and Orlando Bloom. It is a very exciting film.to accompany someone to go off on (a digression.    to put up with (something. He's one of the most talented actors of his generation. Johnny Depp is one of the most talented actors of his generation.to flee Sentence structure When the verb is followed by two prepositions. and many other films. an adventure) -. whether in the present or the past. Participle clauses use a past participle if the main verb is passive. to start to run away from -. Starring Brad Pitt and Orlando Bloom. and many other films. someone) -. the object follows the two prepositions.

" would be awkward.] Note: Do not use the past progressive in order to describe habitual actions in the past. if an idea could be expressed with the expression "was in the process of doing" or with "was in the midst of doing." would be awkward." which indicates. are rarely conjugated in the past progressive:   I thought that was right. verbs indicating belief. Money has always been the problem and not the solution.. the present perfect or the preterit can be used to express the recent past:   I (have) just arrived." "for." "how long. She said she would call." the past progressive will be more appropriate than the simple past. the present perfect expresses and action which has not yet occurred:   I haven't finished yet. (= I have almost finished. possession. to the contrary.Normally.. etc. It is formed by using the auxilary "to have" with the past participle:    I have always wanted to visit Israel. ["I was in the process of thinking.. After such expressions as "since.] Cheryl owned her own house." etc. emotion.. I will finish soon. Consequently. The film has just come out [or: The film just came out].. Note: do not confuse this use of "just" (which indicates the recent past) with "just about. Present perfect   General principles Recent past General principles The present perfect describes an action or emotion which began in the past and which continues in the present. but she hasn't called.) . something which will happen in the near future:  I have just about finished. ["Cheryl was in the midst of owning. Recent past In conjunction with the word "just". I have discovered the answer. one generally uses the present perfect or even the present perfect progressive:    I have been in Paris for three weeks He has been telling that story for years! How long have you lived in Quebec? In the negative..

A particle is a preposition that has become linked to a verb. don't use it to separate the verb and particle: He took off the jacket he'd bought last week at Harrods. a verb plus a particle. The burglar almost got away. The children ate all the cookies that their father had bought. Usage The pluperfect expresses the precedence of one action compared to another. the pronoun must go between the verb and particle: He took it off If the object is particularly long. Examples: The brothers set off to seek their fortunes. Often one finds such adverbs as "already." which reinforces the impression of precedence. Pluperfect The pluperfect is formed with the preterit of the auxiliary "to have. When I got home.Phrasal Verbs Phrasal verbs are made up of two parts. and I ate breakfast. Phrasal verbs that take objects can be inseparable or separable.    She learned to love the dog that had bitten her the week before. Together the verb and particle have a fixed meaning. Witness this sentence. the pluperfect is not absolutely necessary. The girls get up early every morning. When one action precedes another. She had already left when Philippe arrived. Don't forget: phrasal verbs have tenses too! Inseparable phrasal verbs always remain together. Alice is looking after her baby sister. I had already heard the bad news. I got up. It is usually only when one seeks to emphasize the precedence of one action that the pluperfect will be used. I bought the book that Corinne had recommended to me. In separable phrasal verbs. The earlier action will be described by the pluperfect. Phrasal verbs can take objects or not." followed by the past participle of the principle verb:    He had always wanted to travel in Africa. the later will generally be described by the preterit. In certain phrases one action may be left implicit: . which provides a list of actions in chronological order (all expressed by the preterit):  The alarm rang. the object can often go between the verb and its particle: He took off his jacket or He took his jacket off But if the object has been replaced by a pronoun.

see Irregular preterits and past participles). She had already thought of that. Unlike those described by the present perfect. Usage The preterit expresses actions which were completed in the past. He came. the preterit does not describe the process or duration of actions: it states them only as completed actions:    She went to the store this afternoon. They called the police. he saw. Unlike the past progressive. were (plural) to have --> had to do --> did to make --> made to eat --> ate to go --> went to drink --> drank to think --> thought to bring --> brought to drive --> drove to write --> wrote to sing --> sang to build --> built (For a complete list of this irregular forms. these actions do not continue in the present." in conjunction with the past conditional:  I would not have come if I had known he was ill. . the preterit is formed by adding the ending "--ed" to the infinitive (dropping any unpronounced "e" in final position. he conquered. The pluperfect is often used in in hypothetical expressions with "if. and changing any final "y" to "i"):      to walk --> walked to answer --> answered to want --> wanted to smile --> smiled to cry --> cried The preterit forms of many common verbs are irregular:              to be --> was (singular). Withe the adverb "just" the pluperfect indicates the immediate past in a past context:  He had just eaten lunch when I arrived. The preterit As a general rule.

The duration of the action is of no importance: the preterit may describe an action lasting an instant or many years. over -.The dog ran behind the house. prepositions are used to indicate position (in time or space) of one thing with respect to another:    I put the book on the table. Related topics   The past progressive Habitual actions in the past Prepositions       Space Geography Means of transportation Time "To" with indirect objects Related topics Space In their simplest form.It was the third day of the month. the auxiliary verb "to do" -.(time) She arrived before the movie started. from -. She owned three dogs throughout her childhood. of -. She arrived before the others. Thus verbs indicating belief. with examples:             to -. underneath -. under -. In the negative and interrogative. He came toward me.The rabbit escaped underneath the fence. location. emotion.conjugated in the preterit -will be used with the infinitive to express the past:    Did you arrive in time? Didn't you eat yet? We didn't go to the movies after all. possession.She put the plate on the table. behind -.The boy threw the rock over the tree. etc.He called his mother after he finished shopping. There are many prepositions. .That young women comes from Thailand. at -. before -. after -.The cat crawled under the bed. Here is a partial list. in front of -. I never trusted what they told me.They arrived at his house at 5 o'clock.He gave the book to his friend. will often be expressed in the preterit:    I lived in London for three years. on -.His mother parked her car in front of his apartment.

against -. I was already on (in) the train when he arrived. in the midst of -. is expressed by "in". toward -.. close to -. They arrived at 4:45. country. He went to Asia last year. is expressed by "from" (if the verb requires a pronoun):      When are you going to Canada. may be helpful.. For months one uses "in":  My birthday is in September.He went to the store for more milk.         for -. around -. state.I don't know where to find any free time in the midst of these emergencies. Transportation As a general rule.. The prepositions "in" and "on" describe one's presence inside a vehicle. and it is impossible to cover all cases. however.She sat down on the other side of the table.He placed the food close to the squirrel. etc. etc. facing -. the preposition "in" is required:     I came by bike. the preposition "by" is used to describe how one has traveled. . far from -. I spent three years in London. Traveling by plane is my favorite. He comes from Mexico. She is waiting for me in the car. presence in a city.He was hot. facing him. 1997. state. movement away from a city. or continent is generally expressed by the preposition "to". Usage of prepositions The use of prepositions is one of the most complex aspects of English.The criminal walked toward him with a gun. For dates and days of the week. It happened on March 3. one uses "on":   His birthday is on Monday. She was born in Normandy. In the case of small vehicles (a car.The athletes ran around the track six times. so he sat down next to the air conditioning. next to -. Geography Movement toward a town.Everyone was against that idea. Time To designate an hour the preposition "at" is used:   Let's meet at six o'clock. Some general guidelines. a helicopter. state.He placed the food far from the lion.).

  I already told it to him. which generally precedes an indirect object. Mais : I already told him (the news). To express duration.) Examples :   She gave John the ticket. Ou : He sent it to her. the meaning of these verbs is not dramatically changed by the addition of the preposition. We will begin work in August. Mais : He sent a letter to her. dealt with in another section. Indirect objects The preposition "to". or:    He sent her a letter. The same cannot be said of the prepositional verbs. He worked with them for three years. I can read that book in a day. Mais : She gave the ticket to John. will disappear before a noun (or pronoun) when the indirect object precedes a direct object. This can also be seen in certain phrases in which the direct object is implicit. Related topics   Verbs with prepositions Prepositional verbs Verbs with prepositions Certain verbs and verbal expressions are generally followed by a preposition before their object (and this preposition will generally be shown in the dictionary). the preposition "for" is used. However. Examples:    to wait for to look for to look at . ("To" will be retained when the indirect object follows a direct object. "in" can be used to express the time it will take to complete a task:    I am going away for a few days.

They have been working hard to finish their project. the present perfect progressive. It is formed by using the auxilary "to be" with the present participle:   I am working. Present progressive     General principles Near future In negative constructions Related topics General principles The present progressive is a version of the present which emphasizes the fact that an action is still unfolding (or is continuing) at the time one speaks. For example:   I have been trying to reach you all afternoon. .relatively complicated -. He is eating his dinner. See also   Prepositions Prepositional verbs Present perfect progressive A close relative of the present perfect. The form -. That depends on you. emphasizes the continuation of a single action: it indicates that the action is ongoing or continuing at the moment one is speaking.consists of the past auxiliary "to have" + "been" (the past participle of "to be") + the present participle of the principal verb.         to listen to to pay for to ask for to be happy with something to be mad at (or: with) someone to depend on to be interested in to thank for to be busy with Sample sentences:     She's the one who paid for our dinner! I'm not asking for anything! I'm busy with my own stuff.

Near future: To emphasize the idea of future action while using the present tense.   I work at home. the present progressive will be preferable to the simple present. If this is the idea one wishes to communicate. In this case the principle verb remains in the infinitive:   I know he is going to yell at me! They are going to regret that decision. Related topics   Negation Questions Simple present (indicative) The simple present is used to express actions which take place in the present or which occur regularly. Note: The near future can also be used in past constructions. one may use the verb "to go". Politics are a dirty business. ["I am in the process of thinking" would be awkward. They are leaving tomorrow. Present progressive in the negative The word "not" comes after the auxiliary "to be":   He is not working very hard. and possession are rarely conjugated in the present progressive:   I think that is right. Indications of emotion." the present progressive should probably not be used. it indicates what one is going to do. Usually. belief. the present progressive indicates that one is "in the process of" or "in the midst of" doing something.] In certain situations the present progressive can indicate an action which will take place in the immediate future:   I am going to the movies this evening. but the telephone rang.] Cheryl owns her own house. The cat is meowing. If you cannot replace the verb by a form of "to be in the process of. ["Cheryl is in the process of owning" would be awkward. You are not driving fast enough. It also serves to express general or absolute statements not anchored in a particular time frame. . in which case the verb "to go" is conjugated in the past progressive: o She was going to leave.

After the conjunctions "when." "to bury. "to try. On Sundays. As a general rule. the present is generally introduced by a form of the verb "to do" ("do / does"):   Does your father like to cook? Do you have time to stop by my place? The appropriate form of the verb "to do" will also be used for the negative:   I do not (don't) work at home. even though actions expressed may refer to the future:   She'll come when she can. we like to fish. or "-es" if the verb ends with a vowel: To work      I work you work he / she / it works we work they work To go      I go you go he / she / it goes we go they go However: verbs ending with "consonant + y" (for example. In the interrogative..) will end in "-ies" in the third person singular: To bury      I bury you bury he / she buries we bury they bury ." "it")." etc." "as soon as." etc. For the third person singular ("he. he does not (doesn't) like to cook. one uses the base form of the infinitive (minus the preposition "to"). the present is used." "to cry. an "-s" is added if the verb ends in a consonant. No.  Jill speaks four languages fluently." "she. Forming the simple present The present is extremely regular in its conjugation. He'll pay us as soon as we finish.

Related topics       Relative pronouns Subject pronouns Reflexive pronouns Object pronouns Demonstrative pronouns Possessive pronouns Reflexive pronouns ." and the modal verbs.    They hate each other. They killed one another. represented by a single grammatical subject. "to be" The only irregular verbs in the present are "to have. one uses the reciprocal pronouns: "each other" or "one another"."To have"." "to be. are acting on each other. To have      I have you have he / she has we have they have To be      I am you are he / she is we are they are Related topics     Negatives Questions Near future Prepositional verbs Reciprocal pronouns To show that two people. We talk to each other often.

If there are multiple verbs in the sentence. Can you talk to him yourself? Related topics       Relative pronouns Subject pronouns Object pronouns Reciprocal pronouns Demonstrative pronouns Possessive pronouns Relative pronouns         General information Subject pronouns Object pronouns Possession ("whose") As prepositional objects Time Space Related topics General information . At the end of a sentence. one can add reflexive pronouns as a way of accentuating the subject in the sentence. In this case. Look at yourself in that mirror! I would like to give myself a raise. in the case of an intransitive verb. it will follow any preposition used with the verb). the reflexive pronoun follows the verb to which it applies:     I told myself it would never happen. The forms of reflexive pronouns correspond to the forms of the subject pronouns:         I --> myself you (singular) --> yourself you (plural) --> yourselves he --> himself she --> herself it --> itself we --> ourselves they --> themselves To use a verb reflexively. She talks to herself all the time. the reflexive pronoun must follow the verb (and. the verb does not have reflexive power:   I would rather do that myself.Reflexive pronouns are used to show that the actions described by a verb act upon the subject of the verb: the subject and the object are thus the same.

For example. The pronoun is selected based on the following criteria: 1) What is the grammatical function of the pronoun? Is it a subject. what. situations. or space)? According to the role it plays. that. This apartment has three rooms. "that" or "which" are used (indifferently by most speakers) to represent subjects which are things. etc. the pronoun will take one of the following forms: Subjects The pronoun "who" expresses a grammatical subject when this subject is a person. that which. or does it represent an unknown entity? 4) Does it represent a special case (possession. a direct object. or a prepositional object? 2) Does the pronoun refer to a person or a thing (or a situation)? 3) Does the pronoun have an antecedent. Relative pronouns have many different forms: who. whom. the following two sentences. whose.    There's the man who stole my wallet! I read a novel that entertained me a great deal. He made a mistake which embarrassed him. may be joined using a relative pronoun:  I found an apartment which has three rooms.  I found an apartment. time. When the antecedent is vague or totally absent. which. one uses "what" or (less commonly) "that which" : . events.Relative pronouns are used to join two sentences.

with the pronoun "what" this structure is required. That which eludes us intrigues us the most. etc. Possession: "whose" / "of which" The pronoun "whose" expresses possession when the subject is a person.   What interests me in this film is the music. That was a good article. Objects The pronoun "whom" (in spoken language one often hears "who") expresses a grammatical object when this object is a person. after which they went home. the point of which was to make us think. He ordered a beverage he didn't drink. the same sentences as above may be written correctly without the pronoun:    She is a person I respect a great deal.    She is a person whom I respect a great deal. Moreover. situations. even in written English: . an event. "that" or "which" are used (indifferently by most speakers) to represent objects which are things. There is the man whose mother is our mayor. The woman for whom I work is quite strict. on uses "what" or (less often) "that which" :   You can do what you want. events. Note: Use of the relative pronoun is optional (except in the case of "what" or "that which" when referring to specific antecedents). What they are doing seems useful. Prepositional objects The preposition generally precedes the appropriate pronoun:     Here's the pattern with which I made this shirt. it will often be replaced by "of which" if it refers to an object. In spoken English. I don't know what happened. one often places the preposition at the end of the clause. When the antecedent is vague or absent. etc. They went out for dinner. Here's the tree next to which Newton was sitting. She is talking about the trip that we're going to take.:    The tourist whose ticket had expired filed a complaint. He ordered a beverage which he didn't drink. She is talking about the trip we're going to take.

". They tasted some delicious wines in Italy. it is rarely necessary to include this pronoun. Time The pronoun "when" is used with nouns indicating time. He arrived at the moment when we were speaking of him. The woman whom I work for is quite strict. etc. Space When more specific prepositions (such as "on. Would you like some more wine? . Here's the tree which Newton was sitting next to. the general pronoun "where" will suffice:   Here's the house where my parents were born. Do you have any Seville oranges? I don‟t have any tea. I remember the day we met.) are not necessary. Did you get any brown bread? We use some in affirmative sentences and in questions when we think the answer will be “yes. Related topics:       Subject pronouns Object pronouns Reflexive pronouns Reciprocal pronouns Demonstrative pronouns Possessive pronouns Quantifiers Using Some." "under. She doesn't know where she's going.” I bought some bread and some eggs today. However. Any. Tell me what you're thinking about.    Here's the pattern which I made this shirt with. He arrived at the moment we were speaking of him. but I have some coffee. and No We use both some and any with plural countable nouns and with uncountable nouns. and it is often omitted:     I remember the day when we met.

(wrong) Austrian food is much more heavier. but not many. With adverbs: She speaks a little more quietly than I do. If the noun is countable. Remember that we cannot use a double comparative. Many and a Lot of We use many and a lot of with countable nouns in the plural. . He drives a lot more slowly than you do. except when using fewer. They grow a lot of bananas in Ecuador. A little or a bit can be used to show a small difference. many. and nouns. and a little or a bit (for a small difference). They don‟t have much sunshine in winter. She speaks a bit more quietly than I do. There‟s a little cheese left. Austrian food is a lot heavier than Swedish food.” A little means the same as “some. With adjectives: Austrians are much more formal than Swedes. (right) Austrian food is much heavier. Austria is a bit cheaper than Sweden. Many Saabs are driven in Sweden. With nouns: If the noun is uncountable. . My family doesn‟t eat much red meat. Are there any dragons on Lombok? There aren‟t any snakes in Ireland. we use many or a lot (for a big difference). Biology is a little easier than Chemistry. adverbs. We prefer to use a lot of and lots of in affirmative sentences and much and many in negative sentences and questions. and a bit Much or a lot can be used before the comparative form to show that there is a big difference between two people or things. In Sweden they eat a lot of fish.” I eat a few apples each week. a lot.We use any in most general questions and in negative sentences. Much. and they are much less direct. They saw many stars in the sky. We can use these words with adjectives. A Little and a Few A few means the same as “some. There are a lot of university students in Boston. but not much. We use much and a lot of with uncountable nouns. Much. and a few for a small difference. They eat a lot of rice in Malaysia. we use much or a lot (for a big difference). a little.

don‟t use of. If you use only with a few or a little. We start relative clauses with which if we are referring to a thing or an idea. He‟s the person who lives next door. we would use of (the). He almost never eats them. patience. Most of the time.” They have a more positive meaning than little and few. You can use very with few as well as with little. rice. fruit. A little and a few mean “some” or “a small amount. He makes a few dishes that everyone likes. He has very little patience with people who drink too much alcohol. You‟ve gained a few pounds. Some of my friends don‟t eat pizza. There are only a few left. and meals. We must hurry to finish the cooking. We have little time before our guests arrive for dinner. meat was served. When you are talking more generally. . She ate almost all the chocolates her boyfriend gave her. both which and who can be replaced by that. Most/Some Look at these sentences. pieces. Not all the sentences contain of. For example. Relative Clauses Relative clauses give you information about something or someone. In these examples. A diary is a book which you write in every day. Use few with countable plural nouns like bananas. or if we are talking about part of a larger whole. If we are referring to a specific time period or area. A few and few A little and little Little and few (without a) mean “not a lot. During the flood of 1994. Note: Use little with non-countable nouns like bread. Very few bananas grow in Scotland. Only a few meals at the university cafeteria were strictly vegetarian. There are few vegetables that he likes. most of the rain fell within a two-day period.” They often have a negative meaning. Let‟s stop in at that cafe. and with who if we are referring to a person. We have a little time for coffee before our flight.There are fewer hours of daylight in an Alaskan winter than in a Mexican winter. They all contain the words most and some. everyone loves his spaghetti. the meaning can become more negative. Most people would rather be young than old.

Say/tell The verbs say and tell are used in both direct and indirect speech. <What‟s the time?> arrow He asked me what the time was. We use whose in place of his.” It is incorrect to use tell in this sentence. Reporting questions in indirect speech Reporting questions using the question words what.We can also form relative clauses with where and when. . or that is the subject of the relative clause. Caleb said “Good morning. why. When we report a question. <Is life expensive in Brazil?> arrow He asked me whether life was expensive in Brazil. July is a month when many people go on vacation. and with where if we are referring to a place. her or their in relative clauses. Not They asked me where did I live. We start clauses with when if we are referring to a time. Mary said that the restaurant was closed. <Where do you live?> arrow He asked me where I lived. it can be omitted. If it is the object. Whose is always followed by a noun and cannot be omitted from its clause. where. we do not put the verb in the interrogative form. we include the question word in the reported speech. They are the people whose car was stolen. when. <Can I open an account?> arrow She asked whether she could open an account. They asked me where I lived. etc. it must remain in the sentence. It can be used interchangeably with tell in indirect speech. We use tell to refer to situations where instructions or information are given. which. Remember! You need to coordinate the tense of the verb in the reported question with the verb that introduces the reported question. <Do you want an ATM card?> arrow She asked me if I wanted an ATM card. Reporting questions without question words We use if or whether to report a yes-no question that doesn‟t use a question word. When we want to report a question that starts with a question word. If who. how. The best man is the person whose job it is to help the groom. Mary told us that the restaurant was closed. but not in direct speech. A registry office is a place where a couple can get married. She‟s the friend (who) I like to go to the theater with. She‟s the friend who likes to go to the theater with me. We use say to refer to any kind of speech.

respectively) The book that was on the table was thick. So) or a semi-colon that conjoins the two independent clauses. is considered archaic:  What shall I do ? Note: this usage of "shall" to indicate the future is different from the commonplace usage of "shall" to indicate desire or wishes. It serves to express actions which will take place at a specified time. (Adjective Clause) The simple future The simple future uses the modal "will" followed by the infinitive (dropping the presposition "to").Sentence Types Simple Sentence: A sentence that contains one and only one independent clauses and no dependent clauses. We will dance all night long. Compound Sentence: A sentence that contains at least two independent clauses and no dependent clauses. the students canceled their luxurious boat cruise to the Azores. and Sarah taught them composition skills. Adverb. A dependent clause will typically be an Adjective. Or. Direct Object. or to signal the beginning of an action. One sometimes find the modal "shall" in place of "will. on the other hand. Because the weather forecaster announced the threat of an impending hurricane. generally reserved for the first person. but the cruise line would not refund the students‟ money. Complex Sentence: A sentence that contains one and only one independent clause and at least one dependent clause. (If. farmers often know that the harvest season is almost over. verb. it is the future progressive which will be used to express it. Because the weather forecaster announced the threat of an impending hurricane. She will go to the library this evening. (Adverb Clause and Noun Clause. When the frost is on the pumpkin. Dependent Clause: A clause that cannot stand alone and does not offer its reader a complete thought. The young boy smiled at the big dog. and its complement (Prepositional Phrase. See modal verbs. offering its readers a complete thought and containing a subject. Adjectival. or Adverbial). as it must contain either a comma and a coordinating conjunction (For. Yet. or Noun clause. Independent/dependent clauses Independent Clause: Typically thought of as a sentence. one wishes to describe an action which is in the process of occurring. the students canceled their luxurious boat cruise to the Azores. But. Joseph taught the students about delivering speeches. Compound-Complex Sentence: A sentence that contains at least two independent clauses and at least one dependent clause." This usage. And.)    I will meet you at five o'clock. The grammar book was thick. Essential to the compound sentence is its punctuation. Nor. .

Note that.that. Neither does he. . too. So am I. (Or: We do. At no time was I late for class.than..So and neither with be and do We use so and neither (or not…either) when we want to agree that something that is true for some person is true for us. If the main verb is be. (Or: I‟m not. Examples..that Form: Adverbial + auxiliary or modal verb + subject + main verb Or Adverbial + be + subject Examples:      Never have I seen so many cats in one place! Seldom do we feel sad while we are swimming in the ocean. (Or: He doesn‟t. not only. either. (Or: I am. We don‟t like art.. barely.. too.. so.when. Neither am I. Response form: So + verb + subject (agreement with positive sentence) Neither + verb + subject (agreement with negative sentence) Examples.) We use the verb be or the auxiliary verb do without so or neither when we want to say that what is true for some person is not true for us. He likes mushrooms. such.. So do we. use be in the response. I‟m not sleepy. No sooner had I wished to see my lost dog than she appeared before me.) We like parties.. in this last example.) She doesn‟t like snakes. We do. She doesn‟t. We use so (or …too) with positive sentences and neither (or not…either) with negative sentences. too... If the main verb is other than be... either. We‟re not. if the same is true for the respondent :     I‟m very sociable.. I am. when. Split adverbials hardly. no sooner. if the same is not true for the respondent:     They‟re tired.but also.) I‟m not very tall. the second part (than) of the two-part adverbial is positioned at the start of a new subject-verb clause. Rarely can one hear such beautiful music. use do in the response.

If she were alone. (In spoken English. B. Set phrases and proverbs:    God help us! Long live the king! Would that I were free! Superlatives    General principles Irregular forms o Adjectives o Adverbs Related topics General principles When comparing two things one uses the comparative. the superlative is not followed by "than": instead. "was" will still be used. While the word "more" or the ending "--er" signals the comparative." "she. and in much informal writing. In constructions using "if + to be" the subjunctive will amount to using the form "were" (instead of "was") with the first and third persons singular ("I" and "he.)    If I were Muriel. (In many cases the subjunctive -." or "it"). with these exceptions: A. Unlike the comparative. She is the tallest woman in town.is replaced by the modal "would. it is the superlative which must be used. the first. it is the word "most" or the ending "--est" that designates the superlative.) Other meanings often communicated by the subjunctive in other languages will be expressed by modal verbs in English. One finds vestiges of it in certain hypothetical expressions (using "if + to be") and in certain set phrases. for comparisons in larger groups. The compared term (adjective or adverb) will be preceded by the definite article:   He works the fastest of any student I know. The superlative operates like the comparative. however. the worst. I'd stop by to see her. He acts as if he were crazy." followed by the context of the comparison (although this context is sometimes implicit): . the last. etc. B. I'd never go back there.The subjunctive The subjunctive is used only in select phrases or situations in English. below):   He is the most efficient worker we have. The superlative designates extremes: the best." used to express the conditional. (See irregular forms.considered archaic or literary -. That is the poorest family in the neighborhood. one uses "of.

" the consonant is doubled and one adds "--est":     red --> reddest big --> biggest thin --> thinnest hot --> hottest Some very common superlatives have irregular forms:    good --> best bad --> worst far --> farthest Some adjectives exist only in superlative form:   first last Adverbs . Irregular forms Adjectives Monosyllabic adjectives (and several common two-syllable adjectives) take the ending "-est" in superlatives of superiority. these same adjectives will use "less. in superlatives of inferiority:    young --> youngest tall --> tallest old --> oldest If the adjective ends in "--y" the "y" becomes "i":      heavy --> heaviest early --> earliest busy --> busiest healthy --> healthiest chilly --> chilliest If the adjective ends in "--e" one adds only "--st" :     wise --> wisest large --> largest simple --> simplest late --> latest If the adjective ends in "single vowel + consonant. She's the one who arrived first." However. and thus will not use the adverb "most." like other adjectives.   It's the best day of my life! She works the best of the whole class.

A rising intonation means you are not sure and need confirmation. We form tag questions with auxiliary or modal verbs or the main verb be. in superlatives of inferiority:   fast --> fastest hard --> hardest And some adverbs have irregular forms:    well --> best badly --> worst far --> farthest Related topics  Comparatives Tag questions We often use tag questions in spoken English to check information and to ask for confirmation. but use instead the ending "--est. does it? A falling intonation on a tag question means you feel certain about what you are saying. didn‟t we? You don‟t eat much. aren‟t you? You aren‟t French. the tag question is generally negative. If the first part of the sentence is negative. didn‟t he? We did lock the door.Adverbs not ending in "--ly" do not use the adverb "--most" in the formation of superlatives of superiority. is it? This doesn‟t cost much. can she? Tag questions with do When there is no verb be or modal verb other than do in the statement. do you? . these same adverbs will use "less. don‟t you? He did his homework. If the first part of the sentence is affirmative. doesn‟t she? That‟s not Julia Roberts. You‟re Tom Cruise." However. aren‟t you? She speaks Russian. are you? Carly can swim. You like your work. You are French. followed by a pronoun. we use do in the tag question. can‟t she? Carly can‟t swim. the tag question is generally affirmative." like other adverbs.

There is a man standing outside. While and During While and during are both used to show that two things happen at the same time. I travelled all over Eastern Europe. After and before can be followed by a subject-verb clause or by a gerund. As soon as I finished lunch. I‟ll go out for a walk as soon as I finish lunch. or will happen. I felt a little sick. There is is used before singular subjects. While is a conjunction and is used before a subject-verb clause. Time Clauses / Conjunctions Conjunctions of Time We can join two sentences using a conjunction. While can be used to show two events happening at the same time. or at the same time as. Carl says there are lots of new shops in the town center. I didn‟t leave home until I got married. Not … until means the same as not … before. Notice that in the second example the verb in the present simple has a future meaning. I studied judo while I was in Japan. When she finishes this course. After I had eaten five ice cream cones. When can be used to show that one event is before. after and before. There are twenty-four students in the class.There is/there are We use there is and there are to talk about things that exist. During is a preposition and is used before a noun phrase. I‟ll wash the car. as soon as. until. While you‟re getting lunch ready. I went out for a walk. He arrived during breakfast. another. relative to each other. . What should you do during an earthquake? Don‟t run downstairs while the building is shaking. immediately after the first. Can you see if there‟s an apple in the bowl? There are is used before plural subjects. Common conjunctions of time are when. A conjunction of time gives us information about when two events happen. As soon as means that the second event happened. He arrived while I was eating breakfast. while. When can be used to convey a past or a future meaning. I studied abroad for a year when I was at university. Before coming back to Britain. she‟ll go abroad for a year.

Examples: .” Enough means “what is adequate or necessary. and order of importance. A transition expression helps the speaker or writer to construct coherent sentences. Too and very come before the adjective and adverb. or paragraphs. Everest is very high. Mt. contrast. She‟s not old enough to climb Mt. Very and Enough We use too and very to modify the meaning of adjectives and adverbs. Enough usually comes after the adjective. Magda is only two years old.” Mt.Too. Too means “more than necessary” or “more than you want.” Very intensifies an adjective or adverb and means “to a large extent. sentences. It‟s more than 8. In writing.000 meters high. Everest. Transition A transition is a word or phrase that allows for fluid movement between ideas. Everest is too high to climb in one day. Transitions include but are not limited to the following kinds: comparison. summary. a transition expression is typically set off with punctuation. Many common transitions are listed in the chart below.

. or in the third person "he..") Habitual past ("I used to work.. generally. and the mood. in the second person ("you")..." or "they").." "it. and the imperative. Verbs Verb conjugations reflect three elements: the subject.") Future perfect ("We will have finished. the tense.") Preterit ("I worked. to put up with. On the other hand. the subjunctive (rare in English)...   We‟re too tired to go jogging tonight. it‟s very cold outside... "should". present and future....") Imperative ("Let's go!") Irregular participles Past progressive ("I was working..") Subjunctive ("If I were you. she sings beautifully.") Simple present (: "I finish.") Modal verbs ("would"..                     Auxiliaries ("to be"....") Present progressive (: "I am finishing.. The subject may be singular or plural and may be in the first person ("I" or "we"). the conditional..) Prepositional verbs ("to put down.") Present conditional ("I would work." etc.. "to have") Past conditional ("I would have worked.. The different moods include the indicative.") Present perfect progressive ("I have been finishing. The term "mood" refers...... she won‟t be moving to London.") Near future ("We are going to finish.") Present perfect ("I have finished.") Simple future ("We will leave.") Future progressive ("I will be calling you." she. Verb tenses include different forms of the past.. Therefore..... etc.. to the attitude of the speaker toward his subject. Besides.") Pluperfect ("I had worked. Sally just got a job in San Francisco.) . Brittany doesn‟t dance very well.