SCALING THE HEAVENS Everyone who is left far from his source Wishes back the time when

he was united with it. Jalal al-Din Rumi. . MESSAGES FROM OUTER SPACE In the search for intelligent life on other planets in our Galaxy and the Universe, NASA formally started a program in 1992, on the 500th anniversary of Columbus' 1492 journey to the the New World, the observations called Seti (Search for extraterestial intelligence), were conducted in the radio frequency range. Millions of dollars have been spent to find that one SIGNAL from outer space in the hope, would give mankind tremendous knowledge from Civilsations, far advanced technologically giving insights in to the Great Heavens itself. I have Seti@home a small program on my computers, desktop receiving signals from outer space, through the Telescope in Arecibo Puerto Rico, a few hundred miles from where I am writing this essay in Pembroke Pines, South Florida.

A vast number of people are engaged in this search to find out, if we are alone in this vast universe or there are other more intelligent beings. Organisations like SETI and Planetery society are in the forefront.

Now we have the tools to narrow our search. Earth based Radio and Optical Telescopes in tandem with man made satellites are scanning the sky, in the entire electro magnetic spectrum... The recent advancement in finding extra solar planets every two weeks have given tremendous optimistm that one day we might CONTACT. With recent discoveries in fields of spectometry the elements of what constivuten life in brimming the the whole universe. With time we have started to find the Factors on the right side of Francis Drake of Cornell universities famous equation. “N = R* • fp • ne • fl • fi • fc • L

N = The number of civilizations in The Milky Way Galaxy whose electromagnetic emissions are

R* =The rate of formation of stars suitable for the development of intelligent life. fp = The fraction of those stars with planetary systems. ne = The number of planets, per solar system, with an environment suitable for life. fl = The fraction of suitable planets on which life actually appears. fi fc
= The fraction of life bearing planets on which intelligent life emerges.

= The fraction of civilizations that develop a technology that releases detectable signs of their existence into space. L = The length of time such civilizations release detectable signals into space. Within the limits of our existing technology, any practical search for distant intelligent life must necessarily be a search for some manifestation of a distant technology. In each of its last four decadal reviews, the National Research Council has emphasized the relevance and importance of searching for evidence of the electromagnetic signature of distant civilizations” .1

"A religion, old or new, that stressed the magnificence of the universe as revealed by modern science might be able to draw forth reserves of reverence and awe hardly tapped by the conventional faiths." REVELATIONS FROM NATURE. The revelation Of the Book Is from Allah The exalted in Power, Full of Wisdom

Verily in the Heavens And the earth, are Signs For those who believe. And in the creation Of yourself and the fact That animals are scattered (through the earth), are Signs For those of assured Faith. And in the alternation Of Night and Day, And the fact that Allah Sends down Sustenance from The sky, and revives therewith The earth after its death. And in the change Of the winds—are Signs For those who are wise. Such are the Signs Of Allah, which We rehearse to thee In truth, then in what Exposition will they believe After (rejecting) Allah And his Signs.

We have not yet detected an extraterrestrial signal. From its inception in the 1959 paper by physicists Giuseppe Cocconi and Phillip Morrison who together wrote that the frequency of 1420 MHz which corresponds to 21-centimeter line of neutral hydrogen would be a good starting point to make contact with extraterresital civilization.. “It is reasonable to expect that sensitive receivers for this frequency will be made at an early stage of the development of radio astronomy. That would be the expectation of operators of the assumed source, and the present state of terrestrial instruments indeed justifies the expectation.” They further stated. “The reader may wish to consign these speculations wholly to the domain of science fiction. We submit, rather, that the foregoing line of argument demonstrates that the presence of interstellar signals is entirely consistent with all we now know, and that if signals are present the means of detecting them is now to hand.Few will deny the profound importance pratical and philosophical which the detection of interstellar communicatons would have. We therefore feel that a discriminating search for signals deserves a considerable effort.The probability of success is difficult to estimate but if we never search the chance of success is zero.” Cocconi and Morrison's paper started a debate which will continue till humans or their evolved forms survive doing science and in the process colonizing other star systems and galaxies.1

Not one of the beings in the Heavens and the earth. But must come to (Allah). Most Gracious as a servant. He does take an account of them (all), and hath numbered them (all) exactly. The above verses explicitly mentions life in outer space scattered throughout the cosmos.We find complex organic materials the precursor of life everywhere in the universe The enigma with revelations or messages from the Supreme Intelligence being which we call Allah, God, and Yahiva is that there is no instrument in the laboratory to

communicate with and authenticate his presence, no empirical data confirming or denying his presence. Would a super human race be able to to do that it’s, hard to say at our present level of intelligence. We have started talking about the tear or rupture of the fabric of space and time. We started with controlling hydel, wind and steam powers and then harnessed electro-magnetism, solar energy, nuclear forces, conquering Hyper space seems to be the next, albeit when, we don’t know. Scholars like inayat ullah2 believe that one day man will have evolved to such a degree as to physically conquer, the whole universe and would Contact the Supreme intelligence seems far reaching, but are we progressing in that direction, who could have qussed ions ago that an asteroid or heavely body would strike the earth and produce a tilt enough to start the seasons later on, or an asteroid would hit the earth to finish 90 percent of the species and start the eventual evolution of man. Or another body would strike There are scholars like Professor Rafiq Akhtar who are of the opionion that this supreme intelligence only accepts the call or prayers of those who obey his Amr, commands. It is

simply compliance with the directives of the Shari‘ah and leading a righteous life that a believer may experience Kashf only by the grace of Allah
These exterrestial messages not of human origins also evolved from Torah, the Palsms to Bible and the Quran, devolping as the human kind evolved socially and scientifically in the last few thousand years. However each recipient generation of these messages fossiled around what it perceived to be the ultimate or absolute truth, until to everyone surprise came anther message and another messenger. So we have wars in the name of religion. Talking to a pastor at TBN network in Miami florida, I would not only be perplexed but also see the dilemma of God sending different prohets at intervals to confuse us if I may say, or not understand what God wants us to do, change instantly from being Moses followers to Jesus followers, to followers of Mohammad or as some even following others. thinking them as Minor Prophets like Ahmed, or Iranian or Ali jah when he said the Jews missed Jesus. How can we not claim that they both missed Mohammad? Then to our great surprise comes Quran with amazing insights into the world of NATURE statements which gives no room to abandon religion if I am not at the third level and accept being an atheist, mind this to all critics of Quran cannot get over these statements, but they have to be Natural scientists, even statements like creation in paris may put some off. As Carl Sagan put it in the Cosmos that the Ionian scientist would have worked wonders if the Greek society would have kept going with such libraries as that of Alexandria where scientists were trying to find the circumference of earth.………..which was pre Prophet Jesus (Peace be upon him) and Mohammad (Pbuh) and obviously the last book or message stresses on the the study of nature with 1/8th of the quran or about 600 verses. This is what Sagan mistakenly calls science as informed worship in his book scientific experiences ironically science or the study of nature is itself a form of worship as the quran says. In the study of the heavens and the earth and in altenation of night and day there are signs for men of understanding…..

Thy Lord hath decreed That ye worship none but Him, And that ye be kind To parents, Whether one Or both of them attain Old age in thy life, Say not to them a word Of contempt, nor repel them, But address them In term of honour. And, out of kindness, Lower to them the wing Of humility, and say: “My Lord! bestow on them Thy mercy even as they Cherished me in childhood. (Surah 17-23,24)

Seest thou not that Allah sends down rain From the sky? With it We then bring out produce Of various colours. And in the mountains Are tracts white and red, Of various shades of colour. And black intense in hue. And so amongst men And crawling creatures and cattle, Are they are various colours. Those truly fear Allah, Among His Servants, Who have knowledge.(35-27) Verily in the creation of the heavens and of the earth, and the succession of night and day and in the ships that speed through the sea, with what is usefull to man, and in the water that God sends down from the sky, giving life thereby to the earth after it had been lifeless ,and causing all manners of living creatures to multiply there on, and in the change of winds, and the clouds that run their appointed courses between sky and the Earth.(in all this)there are messages(ayat) indeed for people who use their reason. The Koran constantly stresses the need for intelligence in deciphering the “Signs” or “messages” of God. Muslims are not to abdicate their reason but to look at the World attentively and with curiosty, It was this attitude that later enabled Muslims to build a fine tradition of natural science, which has never been seen as a danger to religion as in Christianty.

Frosty white water ice clouds and swirling orange dust storms above a vivid rusty landscape reveal Mars as a dynamic planet in this sharpest view ever obtained by an Earth-based telescope. The Earth-orbiting Hubble telescope snapped this picture on June 26, when Mars was approximately 43 million miles (68 million km) from Earth -- its closest approach to our planet since 1988. Hubble can see details as small as 10 miles (16 km) across. Especially striking is the large amount of seasonal dust storm activity seen in this image. One large storm system is churning high above the northern polar cap [top of image], and a smaller dust storm cloud can be seen nearby. Another large duststorm is spilling out of the giant Hellas impact basin in the Southern Hemisphere [lower right].

“My mind is my own Church….Thomas Paine.

Let me stress that I'm not arguing here for the superiority of one approach to theology over another. My point is simply that Darwinism has radical implications for theology, and that in challenging Darwinism, intelligent design likewise has radical implications for theology. This is not to say that intelligent design is a theological enterprise, any more than Darwinism is a theological enterprise. Darwinism, conceived as a theory about how biological complexity has emerged in the history of life, is a scientific theory. Intelligent design, conceived as a theory about the inherent limitations of natural causes to generate biological complexity and the need for intelligence to overcome those limitations, is likewise a scientific theory.

“The inflationary era lasted from 10_37 second to 10-33 second after the big bang. During that relatively brief stretch of time, the fabric of space and time expanded faster than light, growing in a billionth of a trillionth of a trillionth of a second from one hundred billion billion times smaller than the size of proton to about 4 inches. Yes the observable universe once fit within a grape fruit. But what caused the cosmic inflation? Cosmologist has named the culprit a “Phase Transition.” That left behind a specific and observable signature in the cosmic background radiation.”

Do not turn away from the opinion according to which the world is new, except because of a demonstration. Now such a demonstration does not exist in nature. Further more the student of this treatise should not engage in criticism because of my using this rhetorical mode of speech in order to support the affirmation of the newness of the world. For Aristotle, the prince of the philosophers in his main writings has likewise used rhetorical speeches in support of his opinion that the world is eternal. In such cases it may truly be said: Shall not our perfect Torah be (worth as much) as their Frivolous talk. If he refers in support of his opinion to the ravings of the Sabians, how can we but refer in support of our opinion to the words of Moses and Abraham and to everything that follows there from? Moses Maimonides would have to wait 800 hundred years to get a demonstration in nature, to uphold his opinion that world is new and not eternal as Aristotle thought, with launch of the COBE and WMAP satellite missions..

Now, we can say” Well that’s just because the right words, were not available back, when the first Jewish or Christian or Islamic holy books were written” But clearly that’s not the problem, it is certainly possible in the beautiful metaphors in these books to describe something like the galaxy and the Universe, and itsn’t there. It is God of one small world a problem, I believe, that theologians have not adequately addressed. Quran and for that matter all the holy books, used the medium or language of the recipients to communicate, Phonics, hierilogics and eventually Hebrew for Moses(pbuh), latin for Jesus(pbuh) and. Arabic or specifically the {laguat ul quresh} language of the Qureshi tribe for Mohammad(Pbuh). In keeping with the traditions, customs, cultural constraints, mode of conduct and habits. Quran introduced or evolved and shaped new and previously unknown comcepts scattered like seeds in the soil, through out its chapters as verses or signs to be reflected upon. Thus grew the Daurl ulloms or center of learnings in Spain, Central Asia, producing the finest scholars and scientists whos inventions and discoveries in art, literature and Science were the fore runner of Reformation and Renaissance in the west. Quran itself unifies natural thelogy with examples drawn, from astrophysics,astrobiology, and most other sciences as signs of Allah with Amr (commands} on what befits the best human behaviour as distinct from its closely related DNA cousins in the animal world. Western scholars accuse Quran of plagiarism, as having been copied from biblical sources, well the answer to this is ,,,,,,,,,but no matter how we see it these messages have a sense of continuinty, a sense of purpose, but more like nature or the universe itself, showing chaos , random destruction, matters which are very hard to times. As inayatullah says in his book hadith ul quran that Allah has made parts of Quran, seem chaotic like nature itself, with one verse having no relation with the previous or the next. Like scientist working with data from nature, it’s imperative for scholars of Quran to see and construct the whole Puazzle to find meaning full answers.

Dr Sagan writes. Now we can say” Well that that just because the right words were not available back, when the first Jewish or Christian or Islamic holy books were written “But clearly that’s not the problem, it is certainly possible in the beautiful metaphors in the books to describe something like the galaxy and the Universe, and its not there. It is God of one small world, a problem I believe that these religions have not adequately addressed. Quran essentially uses the prevalent Semitic language Arabic or more precisely Laguat ul Quresh. The dialect used by Tribe of Quresh of the 7th century to download its messages, very strongly using the prevalent traditions ,customs cultural constraints, mode of conduct and habits, certainly overthrowing and unbalancing the modern day ,analytical and empirical scientist. Let me give just one example the word 7 is used by all the holy books to denote multiplicity or many as taking in terms of billions or trillions or Planck constant did not exist then. Moses Maimonides says in the Guide of the perplexed chapter 29. “As his words, as the light of seven days, the commentators have have said that means there by the multiplicitly of light, for the Hebrews denote multiplicity by the number seven.” Quran introduced evolved and shaped new and previously unkown scientific comcepts scatterd like seeds in the fertile soil, as its verses and chapters more like a great Puzzle unifying Natual theology or the study of nature with commands (Amr) ,on what best befits human conduct. As distinct from its closely related DNA cousin in the animal world. Essentially finding limits of Darwinism and inferring Fine Tuning and design at the molecular levels.

Let me quote one or two passages from Briffault’s Making of Humanity, ‘. . . it was under their successors at that Oxford school that Roger Bacon learned Arabic and Arabic science. Neither Roger Bacon nor his later namesake has any title to be credited with having introduced the experimental method. Roger Bacon was no more than one of the apostles of Muslim science and method to Christian Europe; and he never wearied of declaring that a knowledge of Arabic and Arabian science was for his contemporaries the only way to true knowledge. Discussions as to who was the originator of the experimental method . . . are part of the colossal misrepresentation of the origins of European civilization. The experimental method of the Arabs was by Bacon’s time widespread and eagerly cultivated throughout Europe’ (pp. 200-01). . . . ‘Science is the most momentous contribution of Arab civilization to the modern world, but its fruits were slow in ripening. Not until long after Moorish culture had sunk back into darkness did the giant to which it had given birth rise in his might. It was not science which brought Europe back to life. Other and manifold influences from the civilization of Islam communicated its first glow to European life’ (p. 202). ‘For although there is not a single aspect of European growth in which the decisive influence of Islamic culture is not traceable, nowhere is it so clear and momentous as in the genesis of that power which constitutes the paramount distinctive force of the modern world, and the supreme source of its victory - natural science and the scientific spirit’ (p. 190). ‘The debt of our science to that of the Arabs does not consist in startling discoveries or revolutionary theories; science owes a great deal more to Arab culture, it owes its existence. The ancient world was, as we saw, pre-scientific. The astronomy and mathematics of the Greek were a foreign importation never thoroughly acclimatized in Greek culture. The Greeks systematized, generalized, and theorized, but the patient ways of investigation, the accumulation of positive knowledge, the minute methods of science, detailed and prolonged observation, experimental inquiry, were altogether alien to the Greek temperament. Only in Hellenistic Alexandria was any approach to scientific work conducted in the ancient classical world. What we call science arose in Europe as a result of a new spirit of inquiry, of new methods of investigation, of the method of experiment, observation, measurement, of the development of mathematics in a form unknown to the Greeks. That spirit and those methods were introduced into the European world by the Arabs’ (p. 191). The first important point to note about the spirit of Muslim culture then is that, for purposes of knowledge, it fixes its gaze on the concrete, the finite. It is further clear that the birth of the method of observation and experiment in Islam was due not to a compromise with Greek thought but to a prolonged intellectual warfare with it. In fact, the influence of the Greeks who, as Briffault says, were interested chiefly in theory, not in fact, tended rather to obscure the Muslims’ vision of the Qur’«n, and for at least two centuries kept the practical Arab temperament from asserting itself and coming to its own. I want, therefore, definitely to eradicate the misunderstanding that Greek thought, in any way, determined the character of Muslim culture. Part of my argument you have seen; part you will see presently.

Assuredly the creation of the heavens and earth is greater

Than the creation of mankind, but most mankind know not.(57-) The heavens and earth on the universal and geological time scales took 13.7 billion years to produce observers or star stuff as the scientist like to call us, to send satellites carrying advanced instruments in space to construct our Origins. Looking back in time, what we infer from the recent discoveries in astrophysics, starting from the quantum fluctuation of the big bang to the present was a colossal task both in complexity and time scales. The above message distinctly mentions the word AKBAR in Arabic for greater, larger, immense in estimation , bigger,, major, senior, superior, older , the creation of heavens and earth then the creation of human beings....does this pertains to giving any clues that humans too evolved in billions of years too, for if it took some 8 or 9 billions years(we keep on changing these numbers as we get more precise insttuments and research to a few hundred millions to a few billions, as everything was happening in tandem) for the universe to form and produce earth, which also evolved from the solar nebula and cool down at least on the surface for us to occasionly forget we sit on molter rock hurtling through space aroung the sun at 18.5 miles per second and move with the solar system aroung the galactic core once every 225 million year. For the earth to cool down enough to start life, and humans to evolve took another 4 to 5 billions years, as stating that the work of creation of universe and earth was immense, pertaining to both the complexity of task and timescale as compared to human kind which considering than could not have been, lesser either. As the literal reading of six days of the Bible or Quran would suggest.

The lessons of EPR is that quantum systems are fundamentally non-local. In principle, all particles that have ever interacted belong to a single wave function---a global wave function containing a stupendous number of co-relations.

In this essay I have attempted to synthesis my life experience concerning the dangers of being getting trapped by the negative influences of the society, as regards being brain washed by certain values systems, termed as absolute truths, with resulting effect of being led to lead a certain way of life. As regards the benifets that may accrue to an individual or society as whole, at the cost of alienating a lot of population results in arguments for war. I am not very competent at this point, but trying my best to get answers, which would open a general debate or dialogue among, atheists, scholars of religions, secularists, nationlists, anarchist, scientists for that matter anyone willing to take this debate seriously and trying to live together in peace. There 2 schools of thought One , people who believe, God does not exist and its all delusional thinking ,imaaniting from our minds because out of fear, Einstein and Bertrand Russell, Karl Marx belong to this group and there are other who believe in power controlling all of us. Scientist like Newton, Townsend, and eastern scholars like Dr Iqbal, Dr Radrakrsihan or Dr Abdus Salam who belong to the later. There are equally compelling arguments on both sides of the aisle. The
CHAPTER II. OF MISSIONS AND REVELATIONS. EVERY national church or religion has established itself by pretending some special mission from God, communicated to certain individuals. The Jews have their Moses ; the Christians their Jesus Christ, their apostles and saints ; and the Turks their Mahomet ; as if the way to God was not open to every man alike. Each of those churches shows certain books, which they call revelation, or the Word of God. The Jews say that their Word of God was given by God to Moses face to face ; the Christians say, that their Word of God came by divine inspiration ; and the Turks say, that their Word of God (the Koran) was brought by an angel from heaven. Each of those churches accuses the other of unbelief ; and, for my own part, I disbelieve them all. As it is necessary to affix right ideas to words, I will, before I proceed further into the subject, offer some observations on the word revelation. Revelation when applied to religion, means something communicated immediately from God to man. No one will deny or dispute the power of the Almighty to make such a communication if he pleases. But admitting, for the sake of a case, that something has been revealed to a certain person, and not revealed to any other person, it is revelation to that person only. When he tells it to a second person, a second to a third, a third to a fourth, and so on, it ceases to be a revelation to all those persons. It is revelation to the first person only, and hearsay to every other, and, consequently, they are not obliged to believe it. Here lies the great problem, for men of reason and science , how to believe in the unseen. The Quran says ayah 17-36 And pursue not that

Of which thou hast No knowledge; for Every act of hearing, Or of seeing, Or of (feeling in) the heart Will be enquired into (On the day of Reckoning).

Knowledge is to be gained by using, the senses acquired by humans through natural selection. Anything not verifiable by these faculties or the modern day instruments an extension of these senses, in the realm of the unseen, does not constitute Knowledge. The Origin of the Universe and the Origin of life on earth is one of the greatest mysteries, we are trying to find an answer for, we were not there to witness these world shaking events, it, if this process took 13.7 billions years,as the state of art technoglies now claim, then . Scientist, Scholars of Religion, Philosphers who have continoulsy engaged in this debate, seem to be converging. Wheather it was Aristotle,on the eternal universe or Moses Maimonides on newness of the earth , or Kant elaborating on the nebular formation of our solar system t, or Newton and Einstein holding diverging views on the absoulutnes of space and time, or Darwin, Jay Gould on evolution and natural selection seem to advancing piecemeal , brick by brick to the time of the last 4 to 5 thousand years, when humans came of age.
If a revelation from heaven of which no person could feel the smallest doubt were to dispel the mists that now hang over metaphysical subjects, were to explain the nature and structure of mind, the affections and essences of all substances, the mode in which the Supreme Being operates in the works of the creation, and the whole plan and scheme of the Universe, such an accession of knowledge so obtained, instead of giving additional vigour and activity to the human mind, would in all probability tend to repress future exertion and to damp the soaring wings of intellect The mode is very important, some time due to human beings own decisions lead to complete confilcit with Sharia, under circumstances for the whole group, which some groups find easy other very hard. When we endeavour then to contemplate the system of the universe, when we think of the stars as the suns of other systems scattered throughout infinite space, when we reflect that we do not probably see a millionth part of those bright orbs that are beaming light and life to unnumbered worlds, when our minds, unable to grasp the immeasurable conception, sink, lost and confounded, in admiration at the mighty incomprehensible power of the Creator

Fine Tuning in the laws of nature Fine Tuning in the chemistry Fine Tuning in the Moon Michael Behe Edge of Evolution. This present life is only like water which we send down from the clouds.10.24

Gravity is roughly 1039 times weaker than electromagnetism. If gravity had been 1033 times weaker than electromagnetism, "stars would be a billion times less massive and would burn a million times faster."

The nuclear weak force is 1028 times the strength of gravity. Had the weak force been slightly weaker, all the hydrogen in the universe would have been turned to helium (making water impossible, for example). A stronger nuclear strong force (by as little as 2 percent) would have prevented the formation of protons--yielding a universe without atoms. Decreasing it by 5 percent would have given us a universe without stars. If the difference in mass between a proton and a neutron were not exactly as it is-roughly twice the mass of an electron--then all neutrons would have become protons or vice versa. Say good-bye to chemistry as we know it--and to life. The very nature of water--so vital to life--is something of a mystery (a point noticed by one of the forerunners of anthropic reasoning in the nineteenth century, Harvard biologist Lawrence Henderson). Unique amongst the molecules, water is lighter in its solid than liquid form: Ice floats. If it did not, the oceans would freeze from the bottom up and earth would now be covered with solid ice. This property in turn is traceable to the unique properties of the hydrogen atom. The synthesis of carbon--the vital core of all organic molecules--on a significant scale involves what scientists view as an astonishing coincidence in the ratio of the strong force to electromagnetism. This ratio makes it possible for carbon-12 to reach an excited state of exactly 7.65 MeV at the temperature typical of the centre of stars, which creates a resonance involving helium-4, beryllium-8, and carbon12--allowing the necessary binding to take place during a tiny window of opportunity 10-17 seconds long. Taken from God the Evidence by Patrick Glynn

The fact

They ask: “Why has no sign come down to him from his lord? Say: ‘Allah is well able to send down a sign.’

Miracles condemned by Mohammed. Gifford lecture 1892
Orthodox Mohammedans delight in relating the miracles wrought by Mohammed. But what does Mohammed say himself in the Korân? He expresses the strongest contempt of miracles, in the usual sense of that word, and he appeals to the true miracles, the great works of Allah in nature. And what are these great works of Allah,

these true miracles of nature? ‘The rising and setting of the sun,’ he says, ‘the rain that fructifies the earth, and the plants that grow, we know not how.’ You see, the very phenomena of nature in which the Vedic poets discovered the presence of divine agents are what Mohammed calls the great works of Allah. After that, Mohammed continues: ‘I cannot show you signs and miracles, except what you see every day and every night. Signs are with God1.’ Here you see the true religious view of the world, which perceives the Supernatural in all things natural, and does not bargain for special miracles before it will believe.

Natural Revelation of God.
It seems almost incredible that in our days such a lesson, confirmed as it is by the irrefragable evidence of historical documents, should be objected to as dangerous to the interests of religion, nay, should form the object of virulent attacks. For some reason or other, our opponents claim for their own theories the character of orthodoxy, while they try to prejudge the whole question by stigmatising our own argument as heterodox. Now I should like to ask our opponents, first of all, by what authority such metaphysical theories as that of innate ideas can possibly claim the name of orthodox, or where they can point to chapter and verse in support of what they call either a special or a universal primeval revelation, imparting to human beings the first concept and name of God? To a student of the religions of the world, in their immense variety and their constant divisions, the names of orthodox and heterodox, so freely used at all times and on all sides, have lost much both of their charm and their terror. What right have we to find fault with the manner in which the Divine revealed itself, first to the eyes, and then to the mind of man? Is the revelation in nature really so contemptible a thing that we can afford to despise it, or at the utmost treat it as good enough for the heathen world? Our eyes must have grown very dim, our mind very dull, if we can no longer perceive how the heavens declare the glory of God. We have now named and classified the whole of nature, and nothing seems able any longer to surprise, to terrify, to overwhelm us. But if the mind of man had to be roused for the first time, and to be lifted up to the conception of something beyond itself, what language could have been more powerful than that which spoke in mountains and torrents, in clouds and thunderstorms, in skies and dawns, in sun and moon, in day and night, in life and death? Is there no voice, no meaning, is there no revelation in all this? Was it possible to contemplate the movements of the heavenly bodies, the regular return of day and night, of spring and winter, of birth and death, without the deepest emotion? Of course, people may say now, We know all this, we can account for it all, and philosophy has taught us Nil admirari. If that is so, then it may be true indeed that the sluggish mind of man had to be stirred once more by a more than natural revelation. But in the early days of the world, the world was too full of wonders to require any other miracles. The whole world was a miracle and a revelation, there was no need for any special disclosure. At that time the heavens, the waters, the sun and moon, the stars of heaven, the showers and dew, the winds of God, fire and heat, winter and summer, ice and snow, nights and days, lightnings and clouds, the earth,

the mountains and hills, the green things upon the earth, the wells, and seas, and floods, —all blessed the Lord, praised Him, and magnified Him for ever. Can we imagine a more powerful revelation? Is it for us to say that for the children of men to join in praising and magnifying Him who revealed Himself in His own way in all the magnificence, the wisdom, and order of nature, is mere paganism, polytheism, pantheism, and abominable idolatry? I have heard many blasphemies, I have heard none greater than this. It may be said, however, that the road from nature leads only to nature's gods, to a belief in many, not in one supreme God. It certainly leads through that gate, but it does not stop there. If we return to the Veda, the oldest record of a polytheistic faith, and if we take up once more the thread where we left it, we shall be able to see how Agni, the god of fire, being at first but one by the side of many other gods, develops into something much higher. He does not remain one out of many gods. He becomes in the end a supreme god, the Supreme God, till his very name is thrown away, or is recognised as but one out of many names by which ancient seers in their helpless language called that which is, the One and All. You may remember the passage from the Veda which I quoted before: ‘That which is one, the seers call in many ways, they call it Agni, Yama, Mâtarisvan.

The Biography of

‫وقَاُواْ لوْلَ ن ّ َ عَلَيْ ِ آ َ ٌ ّن ّ ّه ُلْ ِ ّ ال َاد ٌ عََى َن‬ ‫َ ل َ ُزل ه ية م رب ِ ق إن ّ ق ِر ل أ‬ {37} َ ‫ُن ّ ٍ آ َةً ولَـ ِ ّ أكْث َ ُمْ َ يَعْل ُو‬ ‫ي َزل ي َ كن َ َره ل َم ن‬
[Yusufali 6:37] They say: "Why is not a sign sent down to him from his Lord?" Say: "Allah hath certainly power to send down a sign: but most of them understand not.

‫ِل أمم‬ ٌ َ ُ ّ ‫ومَا ِن َآ ّة ِي الرْضِ ولَ طَائ ٍ يَطِي ُ ِج َاحَيْهِ إ‬ ‫ِر ر ب َن‬ َ َ ‫َ م دبٍ ف‬ ْ‫أَمْ َاُ ُم ّا ف ّط َا ِي الكِ َا ِ ِن شيْءٍ ُ ّ إَى رَ ّ ِم‬ ‫ت ب م َ ثم ِل به‬ ‫ث لك م َر ْن ف‬ {38} َ ‫ُحشَ ُو‬ ‫يْ ر ن‬
[Yusufali 6:38] There is not an animal (that lives) on the earth, nor a being that flies on its wings, but (forms part of) communities like you. Nothing have we omitted from the Book, and they (all) shall be gathered to their Lord in the end. The Quran is not a book of Science, but a guidance in all affairs of men and women to rightly guide them and make their communities superior to the communites of animal and birds . When we read the ayah 17-23

Thy Lord hath decreed That ye worship none but Him, And that ye be kind To parents, Whether one Or both of them attain Old age in thy life, Say not to them a word Of contempt, nor repel them, But address them In term of honour. And, out of kindness, Lower to them the wing Of humility, and say: “My Lord! bestow on them Thy mercy even as they Cherished me in childhood. (Surah 17-23,24)

1. Drake Equation