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Q. What do you understand by global warming? Explain various reasons of global warming.
Global warming refers to the effect on the climate of human activities, in particular the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil and gas) and large-scale deforestationactivities that have grown enormously since the industrial revolution, and are currently leading to the release of about 7 billion tonnes of carbon as carbon dioxide into the atmosphere each year together with substantial quantities of methane, nitrous oxide and chlorouorocarbons (CFCs). These gases are known as greenhouse gases. PRINCIPLE OF GLOBAL WARMING: can be understood by considering the radiation energy from the sun that warms the Earths surface and the thermal radiation from the Earth and the atmosphere that is radiated out to space. Many of the likely characteristics of the resulting changes in climate such as : More frequent heat waves, Increases in rainfall, Increase in frequency and Intensity of many extreme climate events

The effect was rst recognized by the French scientist Jean-Baptiste Fourier in 1827. A British scientist, John Tyndall around 1860 measured the absorption of infrared radiation by carbon dioxide and water vapour and suggested that a cause of the ice ages might be a decrease in the greenhouse effect of carbon dioxide. The planet is warming, from North Pole to South Pole. Globally, the mercury is already up more than 1 degree Fahrenheit (0.8 degree Celsius), and even more in sensitive polar regions. The heat is not only melting glaciers and sea ice, its also shifting precipitation patterns and setting animals on the move.


Natural Release of methane gas from arctic tundra and wetlands. Earths cycle of climate change. This climate change usually lasts about 40,000 years.

Man made Burning fossil fuels. Concentration of Green House gases like CO2 ,methane,nitrous oxide in the atmosphere. Deforestation Population explosion

NATURAL CAUSES :Natural causes are causes created by nature. One natural cause is a release of methane gas from arctic tundra and wetlands. Methane is a greenhouse gas. A greenhouse gas is a gas that traps heat in the earth's atmosphere. Another natural cause is that the earth goes through a cycle of climate change. This climate change usually lasts about 40,000 years. MAN-MADE CAUSES : Pollution, burning fossil fuels, Since CO2 contributes to global warming, the increase in population makes the problem worse because we breathe out CO2. Also, the trees that convert our CO2 to oxygen are being demolished because we're using the land that we cut the trees down from as property for our homes and buildings.

MAJOR CAUSES OF GLOBAL WARMING The main reason behind global warming is the increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere due to green house effect. Green house effect leads to increase in the temperature of earth by trapping the sun's heat and light in the earth's atmosphere. In this phenomenon the heat and light of sun enters the atmosphere but cannot go out as they are trapped in earth's atmosphere by the green house gases and thus resulting in temperature rise. The green house gases like carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide plays the major role in green house effect and excessive emission of these gases through various means is a major cause of global warming. Another important reason for global warming is large amounts of carbon dioxide produced from burning of fossil fuels for the different purposes especially for power generation in various power plants. Due to burning of large amount of coal in power plant excessive amount of carbon dioxide is emitted in different forms in the atmosphere. In addition to that, countless number of vehicles running in the road today is one of the major source of emission of a large amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere leading to increase in the temperature of earth's atmosphere. Methane is another green house gas that results in global warming to a large extent. Methane can be easily obtained from rice paddies, bovine flatulence, bacteria in bogs and fossil fuel manufacture and hence easily available in abundance. Moreover, it is 20 times as effective as Carbon dioxide at entrapping heat in the atmosphere and is a leading cause of global warming. Similarly, another green house gas called nitrous oxide and chlorofluorocarbons or CFCs is also responsible for the global warming. Nitrous oxide has 300 times more capacity of trapping heat than carbon dioxide while chlorofluorocarbons have heat-trapping potential thousands of times greater than carbon dioxide. Another major cause of global warming is continuous cutting of a large number of trees across the world that is also referred as deforestation. It is projected that, 34 million acres of trees are cut and burned each ear resulting in 25% of all carbon dioxide release entering the atmosphere. Increasing population is another cause of global warming that cannot be neglected. As human being is known to exhale carbon dioxide means more population will lead to more emission of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere resulting in increase in the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and thus resulting in global warming.


Ice is melting worldwide, especially at the Earths poles. This includes mountain glaciers, ice sheets covering West Antarctica and Greenland, and Arctic sea ice. Decline of the Adlie penguins on Antarctica, where their numbers have fallen from 32,000 breeding pairs to 11,000 in 30 years. Sea level rise became faster over the last century. Some butterflies, foxes, and alpine plants have moved farther north or to higher, cooler areas. Precipitation (rain and snowfall) has increased across the globe, on average. Spruce bark beetles have boomed in Alaska thanks to 20 years of warm summers. The insects have chewed up 4 million acres of spruce trees.


Sea levels are expected to rise between 7 and 23 inches (18 and 59 centimeters) by the end of the century, and continued melting at the poles could add between 4 and 8 inches (10 to 20 centimeters). Hurricanes and other storms are likely to become stronger. Species that depend on one another may become out of sync. For example, plants could bloom earlier than their pollinating insects become active. Floods and droughts will become more common. Rainfall in Ethiopia, where droughts are already common, could decline by 10 percent over the next 50 years. Less fresh water will be available. If the Quelccaya ice cap in Peru continues to melt at its current rate, it will be gone by 2100, leaving thousands of people who rely on it for drinking water and electricity without a source of either. Some diseases will spread, such as malaria carried by mosquitoes. Ecosystems will changesome species will move farther north or become more successful; others wont be able to move and could become extinct. Wildlife research scientist Martyr Obbard has found that since the mid-1980s, with less ice on which to live and fish for food, polar bears have gotten considerably skinnier. Polar bear biologist Ian Stirling has found a similar pattern in Hudson Bay. He fears that if sea ice disappears, the polar bears will as well. Glaciers are melting, sea levels are rising, cloud forests are drying, and wildlife is scrambling to keep pace. Its becoming clear that humans have caused most of the past centurys warming by releasing heat-trapping gases as we power our modern lives.

Q. What is sustainable architecture and what is the role of an architect.?

Sustainable architecture is a general term that describes environmentally conscious design techniques in the field of architecture. Sustainable architecture is framed by the larger discussion of sustainability and the pressing economic and political issues of our world. Oxford Dictionary denes sustainability as : able to be maintained at a certain rate or level: sustainable fusion reactions. Ecology (esp. of development, exploitation, or agriculture) conserving an ecological balance by avoiding depletion of natural resources. Able to be upheld or defended: sustainable denitions of good educational practice In the broad context, sustainable architecture seeks to minimize the negative environmental impact of buildings by enhancing efficiency and moderation in the use of materials, energy, and development space. IDEA OF SUSTAINABILITY: To ensure that our actions and decisions today do not inhibit the opportunities of future generations. The term can be used to describe an energy and ecologically conscious approach to the design of the built environment.





The key to architectural sustainability is to work with, rather than against Nature; to be sensitive so that we do not damage the natural systems. Architectural sustainability mirrors the view that it is necessary to position human activities as a non-damaging part of the ongoing ecological landscape, with a belief that nature knows best.


ATMOSPHERE: of a building is the mood and feeling that it engenders.A sustainable building will take into account all of these factors because the health of a buildings users is intrinsically intertwined with the use of the building. LONGEVITY :of a building also plays an important role in its sustainability. Spaces that remain of use to their occupants for a long duration are more sustainable Designing buildings that will last and be of use for generations should be a major goal of any architect. ENERGY: Reducing the energy impact of a built space is one of the most important considerations to be taken when constructing spaces. Building energy use comes in two forms: embodied energy and operating energy. Embodied energy, the energy required to create, transport and install the materials that make up a building, surprisingly make up a large portion of a buildings energy costs (less if the building lasts longer).Operating energy is the energy a building uses everyday to heat and cool a space, run appliances and power any electronics within. INTERFACE:A building that interfaces well with its surroundings is one that is more useful and likely to be appreciated for longer. Also of importance is how the building affects the immediate environment, i.e. what plants and animals are being displaced, how much of the local topography will be changed, will weather systems be signicantly impacted by the new building (such as from storm water or wind)?

Any green building architect should identify places with intrinsic suitability for agriculture, forestry, recreation and urbanisation. Designing with nature at a building level is about recognizing sun paths, breezes, shade trees and rock formations that can be used to create something that people can inhabit comfortably, while recognizing that natural features such as trees, animal tracks, habitats and natural drainage systems must be protected. For example, if one is to choose a device with high shading coefficient in the summer and a low shading coefficient in the winter, a vine may be used in place of a mechanical system. The vine shades the building when it is needed, and the building provides a home for the vine. Thus, both are sustainable. 50 per cent reduction can be made by siting, fenestration, and orientation of buildings work with the local environment, so that buildings take advantage of passive heating and cooling and natural lighting. Approximately 15 percent of all energy in houses is used for domestic hot water. Using solar water heating is not a new technology. The payback on that sort of system is three to five years. By adding rainwater collection, reed beds for sewage and perhaps wind or solar power for electrical energy, the building can be independent of imported service and exported waste, keeping its environmental footprint within the footprint of the site. The final archetypal visual image is one of an isolated, self-sufficient building dominated by its surrounding landscape.

1. Conserve Energy 1. Cities: Reduce automobile use, Build compact cities, Public transit, pedestrian environment 2. Buildings : Insulation, orientation, passive and active solar energy. Day lighting. Shading, Sustainable sources of materials 2. Reduce Heat Island effect 1. Bring landscape into city for shade, air quality and delight. Plant trees for shade, green roofs, green corridors, reduce paving 3. Reduce Pollution 1. Recycle. Control sources for pollution, Regulate emissions, find alternatives to polluting substances. 4. Conserve Water 1. Return rainwater to ground (permeable paving). Native landscaping requires less irrigation. Reuse gray water. Treat sewage to high degree. 5. Conserve Wildlife 1. Protect wildlife habitat. Habitat corridors through city. Design habitats for native wildlife (parks for animals and people

Wildlife corridors bring native ecosystem into city. Tukwila, Washington,Wildlife Corridors,University of Washington

ENERGY-CONSCIOUS SITE PLANNING Such planning allows the designer to maximize the use of natural resources on the site. In temperate climates, open southern exposure will encourage passive solar heating; deciduous trees provide shade in summer and solar heat gain in winter. Evergreens planted on the north of a building will protect it from winter winds, improving its energy efficiency. Buildings can be located relative to water onsite to provide natural cooling in summer. PASSIVE HEATING AND COOLING Solar radiation incident on building surfaces is the most significant energy input to buildings. It provides heat, light, and ultraviolet radiation necessary for photosynthesis. Historically, architects have devised building forms that provide shading in summer and retain heat in winter. This basic requirement is often overlooked in modern building design. Passive solar architecture offers design schemes to control the flow of solar radiation using building structure, so that it may be utilized at a more desirable time of day.

Shading in summer, by plants or overhangs, prevents summer heat gain and the accompanying costs of air-conditioning.The wind, or the flow of air, provides two major benefits: cooling and hygienic effects. Prevailing winds have long been a major factor in urban design. For instance, proposals for Roman city layouts were primarily based on the direction of prevailing winds.

INSULATION High-performance windows and wall insulation prevent both heat gain and loss. Reducing such heat transfer reduces the buildings heating and cooling loads and thus its energy consumption. Reduced heating and cooling loads require smaller HVAC equipment, and the initial investment need for the equipment will be smaller. High-performance windows and wall insulation create more comfortable thermal environments. Due to the insulating properties of the materials, the surface temperatures of windows and walls will be higher in the winter and lower in the summer. The installation of smaller HVAC equipment reduces mechanical noise and increases sonic quality of the indoor space. ALTERNATE SOURCES OF ENERGY Solar, wind, water, and geothermal energy systems are all commercially available to reduce or eliminate the need for external energy sources. Electrical and heating requirements can be met by these systems, or combination of systems, in all climates. DAYLIGHTING Building and window design that utilizes natural light will lead to conserving electrical lighting energy, shaving peak electric loads, and reducing cooling energy consumptions. At the same time, day lighting increases the luminous quality of indoor environments, enhancing the psychological wellbeing and productivity of indoor occupants. ENERGY-EFFICIENT EQUIPMENT & APPLIANCES After construction costs, a buildings greatest expense is the cost of operation. Operation costs can even exceed construction costs over a buildings lifetime.Careful selection of high efficiency heating, cooling, and ventilation systems becomes critical. The initial price of this equipment may be higher than that of less efficient equipment, but this will be offset by future savings. Appliances, from refrigerators to computers, not only consume energy, they also give off heat as a result of the inefficient use of electricity. More efficient appliances reduce the costs of electricity and air-conditioning. CHOOSE MATERIALS WITH LOW EMBODIED ENERGY Building materials vary with respect to how much energy is needed to produce them. The embodied energy of a material attempts to measure the energy that goes into the entire life cycle of building material. For instance, aluminium has a very high embodied energy because of the large amount of electricity that must be used to manufacture it from mined bauxite ore; recycled aluminum requires far less energy to refabricate.

By choosing materials with low embodied energy, the overall environmental impact of a building is reduced. Using local materials over imported materials of the same type will save transportation energy.

Methods for water conservation may reduce input, output, or both. This is because, conventionally, the water that is supplied to a building and the water that leaves the building as sewage is all treated by municipal water treatment plants. Therefore, a reduction in use also produces a reduction in waste. REUSE WATER ONSITE Water consumed in buildings can be classified as two types: graywater and sewage. Graywater is produced by activities such as handwashing. While it is not of drinkingwater quality, it does not need to be treated as nearly as intensively as sewage. In fact, it can be recycled within a building, perhaps to irrigate ornamental plants or flush toilets. Well-planned plumbing systems facilitate such reuse. Rainwater falling on buildings has not been considered a useful resource. Buildings are typically designed to keep the rain from the occupants, and the idea of utilizing rain water falling on building surfaces has not been widely explored. Building envelopes, particularly roofs, can become rainwater collecting devices, in combination with cisterns to hold collected water. This water can be used for irrigation or toilet-flushing. REDUCE CONSUMPTION Water supply systems and fixtures can be selected to reduce consumption and waste. Low-flow faucets and small toilet tanks are now required by code in many areas of the country. Vacuum-assisted and biocomposting toilets further reduce water consumption. Biocomposting toilets, available on both residential and commercial scales, treat sewage on site, eliminating the need for energy-intensive municipal treatment. Indigenous landscaping using plants native to the local ecosystem will also reduce water consumption. These plants will have adapted to the local rainfall levels, eliminating the need for additional watering. Where watering is needed, the sprinkler heads should be carefully placed and adjusted to avoid watering the sidewalk and street.

ADAPT EXISTING BUILDINGS TO NEW USES One of the most straightforward and effective methods for material conservation is to make use of the resources that already exist in the form of buildings. Most buildings outlive the purpose for which they were designed. Many, if not all, of these buildings can be converted to new uses at a lower cost than brand-new construction. INCORPORATE RECLAIMED OR RECYCLED MATERIALS Buildings that have to be demolished should become the resources for new buildings. Many building materials, such as wood, steel, and glass, are easily recycled into new materials.Some, like brick or windows, can be used whole in the new structure. Furnishing, particularly office partition systems, are also easily moved from one location to another.


VILLAGE HOMES, DAVIS CALIFORNIA Energy conservation Water retention Pedestrian community Narrow Streets Pedestrian paths, Surface swales for water retention, Park corridors Passive solar heating

MULTIPURPOSE STREET use for pedestrian,bicycles,cars in Copenhagen

Ken Yeang,Menara Boustead Malaysia


Location of Core, Central vs. Flanking core on East and West

Shading Screens on North and South

Recessed Balconies

Raised Base

Green Walls

Wind Scoops

Cross ventilation

Solar shading

Solar collectors

Insulation on east and west humid climates

Mass on east and west arid climates


Double skin Design



USE MATERIALS THAT CAN BE RECYCLED During the process of designing the building and selecting the building materials, look for ways to use materials that can themselves be recycled. This preserves the energy embodied in their manufacture. SIZE BUILDINGS AND SYSTEMS PROPERLY A building that is oversized for its designed purpose, or has oversized systems, will excessively consume materials. When a building is too large or small for the number of people it must contain, its heating, cooling, and ventilation systems,typically sized by square footage, will be inadequate or inefficient. REUSE NON-CONVENTIONAL PRODUCTS AS BUILDING MATERIALS Building materials from unconventional sources, such as recycled tires, pop bottles, and agricultural waste, are readily available. These products reduce the need for new landfills and have a lower embodied energy that the conventional materials they are designed to replace. CONSUMER GOODS All consumer goods eventually lose their original usefulness. The useful life quantifies the time of conversion from the useful stage to the loss of original usefulness stage. For instance, a daily newspaper is useful only for one day, a phone book is useful for one year, and a dictionary might be useful for 10 years. The shorter the useful life of consumer goods, the greater the volume of useless goods will result. Consequently, more architectural considerations will be required for the recycling of short-life consumer goods.