You are on page 1of 1

Seasonal Furrow Irrigation Modelling with HYDRUS2

Thomas Whling*, Niels Schtze, Gerd H. Schmitz Institute of Hydrology and Meteorology, Dresden University of Technology, Germany
*Email: Thomas.Woehling@mailbox.tu-dresden.de

Coupling Surface Flow and HYDRUS2


j

The seasonal furrow irrigation model (FIM) comprises process-based simultaneous modelling of the 1D surface flow, the quasi-3D soil water transport, and the crop growth. The surface flow sub-model FAPS utilizes an analytical solution of the Zero-Inertia open-channel flow equations for modelling the non-uniform flow during both the advance and the early storage phase of an irrigation event (Schmitz et al., 1992). Process adequate simplifications are applied for the late storage phase, the depletion and the recession phase (Whling, 2005). The numerical code HYDRUS2 (Simnek et al., 1996) portrays both the two-dimensional infiltration from arbitrary shaped furrows and the soil water transport in a series of vertical planes along the furrow (Fig. 1). FAPS and HYDRUS2 are iteratively coupled by the infiltration rate and the flow depth. The set of non-linear partial differential equations of the coupled furrow irrigation advance model is solved by a space discretisation in combination with the Newton iteration method. This solution proved to be numerically stable, highly convergent and efficient as regards computational time (Whling et al., 2005). Model simulations of test data from laboratory runs and field experiments showed an excellent agreement in predicted and observed advance times. (Whling, 2005).

Figure 1: FIM flow domain

Coupling Hydrus2 and Crop Modelling


For modelling the soil water transport during the whole growing period, HYDRUS2 and the crop growth sub-model LAI-SIM are coupled by a water-stress index. LAI-SIM includes modules for predicting daily leaf-area index, potential transpiration / evaporation, and root growth (Whling, 2005). The HYDRUS2 boundary conditions (during times of redistribution) are: atmospheric boundary type at the soil surface: soil evaporation and precipitation (Fig. 2a) lateral no-flux boundaries seepage face type at the lower boundary internal sink type within the rooting zone: root water uptake by the crop (Fig. 2b) The root depth during the growing season is described by an linear root growth model (Whling, 2005) and the root activity is assumed to increase with depth as proposed by Novak (1987) (Fig. 2c).

a) Evaporation / Precipitation Flux type boundary (12) lat n1


Soil depth, z [m]

b) Root water uptake Internal sink type boundary

c) Root activity

n3

n12

linear

Novak
( 1 9 87

atmospheric boundary length, lsurf boundary nodes, ni Furrow spacing, fs Furrow width, y [m]

R
Max. root depth, zrmax Internal nodes Total flow domain R Root domain Root activity distribution b (Novak) b (linear)

Furrow width, y [m]

0 0.5 1.0 1.5 Root activity [-]

Figure 2: Common boundaries between HYDRUS2 and the crop module LAI-SIM

Model Test
FIM is validated on data from furrow irrigation experiments of growing corn on loamy soil at the 130m long experimental plot at CEMAGREF Montpellier, France (Mailhol, 2001). Fig. 3 shows the simulated soil moisture distribution at an upstream location at various times of the growing season. The soil water storage, a) Before irrigation b) Before irrigation c) After irrigation d) Near harvest 280 L1 (44 das) L2 (90 das) L3 (91 das) (133 das) 0 Ssoil, is de-termined by 0.2 270 260 integration of the soil 0.4 250 0.6 moisture in the root 240 0.8 zone. Simulated and 1.0 230 220 observed soil water stor- 1.2 210 1.4 age are in good agree- 1.6 200 observed (ridge) observed (mean) ment (Fig. 4). The simula- 1.8 190 simulated (x=32.5m) 2.0 180 0.4 0.8 0 0.4 0.8 0 0.4 0.8 0 0.4 0.8 0 ted corn yield of 12.8 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Subsurface flow domain width, y [m] Days after sowing t/ha matches perfectly Figure 3: Simulated soil moisture distribution Figure 4: Observed and simulated wawith the harvest of at an upstream location at 44, 90, 91 and 133 ter storage in the root zone during the 12.7 t/ha corn. Montpellier growing season days after sowing (das)
j

Conclusions
A seasonal furrow irrigation model was developed by iteratively coupling a 1D surface flow model with a series of HYDRUS2 model parameterisations along a single furrow. HYDRUS2 is further successfully linked to a crop model. FIM shows a clear superiority over volume balance models (VBM). HYDRUS2 simulates correctly the soil water transport during a growing season of corn at Montpellier (France) and provides detailed information about the quasi 3D water distribution in the soil. FIM estimates irrigation performance criteria, such as irrigation efficiency and distribution uniformity, more precisely than VBM. It can be applied for improving furrow irrigation design and management, for irrigation planning, for cost-benefit analysis, and for estimation of sustainability of furrow irrigation systems.
References:
Mailhol, J. C. (2001). Contribution a lamelioration des pratiques dirrigation a la raie par une modelisation simplidiee a lechelle de la parcelle et de la saison (in French. PhD Thesis. Novak, V. (1987). Estimation of soil water extraction patterns by roots. Agric. Water Mgt. Schmitz, G. H. and Seus, G. J. (1992). Mathematical zero-inertia modeling of surface irrigation: advance in furrows. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 118(1):1-18. Simnek, J., Sejna, M., and van Genuchten, M. T. (1996). Hydrus-2d. simulating water flow and solute transport in two-dimensional variably saturated media. Version 1.0. User manual, IGWMC-TPS 53 International Ground Water Modeling Center, Colorado School of Mines. IGWMC-TPS 53. Whling, Th., Singh, R., & Schmitz, G.H. (2004). Physically based modeling of interacting sur-face-subsurface flow during furrow irrigation. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage, 130(5), 296-303. Whling, Th. (2005). Physically based modeling of furrow irrigation systems during a growing sea-son. PhD Thesis, Faculty of Forest, Geo und Hydro Science, Dresden University of Technology. ISBN 3-86005-481-3. Whling, Th., Frhner, A., Schmitz, G.H. and Liedl, R. (2005). Efficient solution of interacting 1D surface - 2D subsurface flow during furrow irrigation advance. Submitted to the Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering.

0.17

0.13

0.14

0.18

0.23

Soil depth, z [m]

0.15 0.16 0.18 0.19

0.19

0.15

0.14

0.230.220.24

0.21

0.2

0.22

0.2

0.15

0.15 0.18

0.17

0.23

0.21

0.14

0.24 0.25 0.26

0.22

0.14

0.15 0.17

0.16

0.14

0.13

0.16

0.25

0.24

0.27

0.23

0.19 0.22

0.25

0.15 0.18 0.2 0.22 0.24

0.24

0.28

0.26 0.27

0.25 0.26

0.24

0.25

0.27

0.26

0.29 0.3 Volumetric water content [m3/m3]

0.28

0.28

0.27

0.3

0.29

0.29

0.28

Soil water storage, Ssoil (0-1.2m) [mm]

0.07 0.09 0.12

0.08

0.13

0.16

Acknowledgements:

We thank the German Research Foundation for the financial support for this research.