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Requirements concerning POLAR CLASS

IACS Req. 2011

Contents, Page 1

CONTENTS

I1 I2 I3 Polar Class Descriptions and Application Structural Requirements for Polar Class Ships Machinery Requirements for Polar Class Ships Corr.1 Oct 2007 Rev.2 Nov 2010 Corr.1 Oct 2007

IACS Req. 2011

I1

I1

(August 2006) (Rev.1 Jan 2007) (Corr.1 Oct 2007)

**Polar Class Descriptions and Application
**

I1.1 Application

I1.1.1 The IACS Unified Requirements for Polar Ships apply to ships constructed of steel and intended for navigation in ice-infested polar waters, except ice breakers (see I1.1.3) *. I1.1.2 Ships that comply with the IACS Unified Requirements I2 and I3 can be considered for a Polar Class notation as listed in Table 1. The requirements of IACS Unified Requirements I2 and I3 are in addition to the open water requirements of each member society. If the hull and machinery are constructed such as to comply with the requirements of different polar classes, then both the hull and machinery are to be assigned the lower of these classes in the classification certificate. Compliance of the hull or machinery with the requirements of a higher polar class is also to be indicated in the classification certificate or an appendix thereto. I1.1.3 Ships that are also to receive an “Icebreaker” notation may have additional requirements and are to receive special consideration. “Icebreaker" refers to any ship having an operational profile that includes escort or ice management functions, having powering and dimensions that allow it to undertake aggressive operations in ice-covered waters, and having a class certificate endorsed with this notation. I1.2 Polar Classes

I1.2.1 The Polar Class (PC) notations and descriptions are given in Table 1. It is the responsibility of the Owner to select an appropriate Polar Class. The descriptions in Table 1 are intended to guide owners, designers and administrations in selecting an appropriate Polar Class to match the requirements for the ship with its intended voyage or service. I1.2.2 The Polar Class notation is used throughout the IACS Unified Requirements for Polar Ships to convey the differences between classes with respect to operational capability and strength.

* Note: 1. 2. This UR is to be uniformly applied by IACS Societies on ships contracted for construction on and after 1 March 2008. The “contracted for construction” date means the date on which the contract to build the vessel is signed between the prospective owner and the shipbuilder. For further details regarding the date of “contract for construction”, refer to IACS Procedural Requirement (PR) No. 29.

I1-1

IACS Req. 2006/Rev.1, 2007/Corr.1, 2007

3. The upper ice waterline (UIWL) is to be defined by the maximum draughts fore. amidships and aft.2 The lower ice waterline is to be determined with due regard to the vessel’s ice-going capability in the ballast loading conditions (e. amidships and aft.3 Upper and Lower Ice Waterlines I1. 2006/Rev.Polar Class Descriptions Polar Class PC 1 PC 2 PC 3 PC 4 PC 5 PC 6 PC 7 Ice Description (based on WMO Sea Ice Nomenclature) Year-round operation in all Polar waters Year-round operation in moderate multi-year ice conditions Year-round operation in second-year ice which may include multiyear ice inclusions. propeller submergence).3. Year-round operation in thick first-year ice which may include old ice inclusions Year-round operation in medium first-year ice which may include old ice inclusions Summer/autumn operation in medium first-year ice which may include old ice inclusions Summer/autumn operation in thin first-year ice which may include old ice inclusions I1 (cont) I1.I1 Table 1 .1. The lower ice waterline (LIWL) is to be defined by the minimum draughts fore.g. I1. 2007 .1 The upper and lower ice waterlines upon which the design of the vessel has been based is to be indicated in the classification certificate. End of Document I1-2 IACS Req.

2 Nov 2010) Structural Requirements for Polar Class Ships I2. 29. Figure 1 .1.1 These requirements are to be applied to polar class ships according to IACS UR I1. 2006/Rev.I2 I2 (August 2006) (Rev. For further details regarding the date of “contract for construction”. The “contracted for construction” date means the date on which the contract to build the vessel is signed between the prospective owner and the shipbuilder.2 Hull Areas I2. Rev.Hull Area Extents * Note: 1. Lower and Icebelt regions. there are four regions: Bow. refer to IACS Procedural Requirement (PR) No.2 of this UR is to be uniformly implemented by the IACS Societies on ships contracted for construction on or after 1 January 2012.1 The hull of all polar class ships is divided into areas reflecting the magnitude of the loads that are expected to act upon them. Bow Intermediate.1 Application * I2. I2. 2010 . The Bow Intermediate. Midbody and Stern.2. 2. This UR is to be uniformly applied by IACS Societies on ships contracted for construction on and after 1 March 2008. I2-1 IACS Req.1 Jan 2007) (Corr. 3. Midbody and Stern regions are further divided in the vertical direction into the Bottom. The extent of each Hull Area is illustrated in Figure 1.2.1 Oct 2007) (Rev. In the longitudinal direction.

3 Figure 1 notwithstanding. the ice load parameters (Pavg. the ice load parameters are functions of the actual bow shape. and within the Bow Intermediate Icebelt area of polar classes PC6 and PC7. (v) Design ice forces calculated according to I2.2 Glancing Impact Load Characteristics (i) The parameters defining the glancing impact load characteristics are reflected in the Class Factors listed in Table 1. I2.3. are to be considered in the design of these structures.6. it is required to calculate the following ice load characteristics for sub-regions of the bow area.2.3. (iv) In other ice-strengthened areas. total glancing impact force (Fi).45 L aft of the forward perpendicular (FP).2.6 If a ship is intended to operate astern in ice regions. 2006/Rev. b and w).3. the aft section of the ship is to be designed using the Bow and Bow Intermediate hull area requirements.2 The upper ice waterline (UIWL) and lower ice waterline (LIWL) are as defined in I1. AR = 3. line load (Qi) and pressure (Pi).5 The boundary between the bottom and lower regions is to be taken at the point where the shell is inclined 7° from horizontal. (vi) Ship structures that are not directly subjected to ice loads may still experience inertial loads of stowed cargo and equipment resulting from ship/ice interaction. I2.2. the aft boundary of the Bow region need not be more than 0. I2.3.2. shape coefficient (fai). I2. I2-2 IACS Req.1 General (i) For ships of all Polar Classes. bNonBow and wNonBow) are determined independently of the hull shape and based on a fixed load patch aspect ratio.2 are only valid for vessels with icebreaking forms.I2 I2 (cont) I2. To determine the ice load parameters (Pavg. at no time is the boundary between the Bow and Bow Intermediate regions to be forward of the intersection point of the line of the stem and the ship baseline. I2. These inertial loads.2. (ii) The design ice load is characterized by an average pressure (Pavg) uniformly distributed over a rectangular load patch of height (b) and width (w).4 Figure 1 notwithstanding. Design ice forces for any other bow forms are to be specially considered by the member society. based on accelerations determined by each member society. (iii) Within the Bow area of all polar classes. a glancing impact on the bow is the design scenario for determining the scantlings required to resist ice loads. 2010 . I2.3 Design Ice Loads I2.2.

pressure (P) and load patch aspect ratio (AR) are to be calculated with respect to the mid-length position of each sub-region (each maximum of F. (iii) The Bow area load characteristics are determined as follows: (a) Shape coefficient.I2 Table 1 .1 Bow Area (i) In the Bow area.01 1.50 2. The hull angles are defined in Figure 2. pressure (P) and load patch aspect ratio (AR) associated with the glancing impact load scenario are functions of the hull angles measured at the upper ice waterline (UIWL). line load (Q). is to be taken as I2-3 IACS Req.3.Definition of Hull Angles Note: β′ = normal frame angle at upper ice waterline [deg] α = upper ice waterline angle [deg] γ = buttock angle at upper ice waterline (angle of buttock line measured from horizontal) [deg] tan(β) = tan(α)/tan(γ) tan(β′) = tan(β)·cos(α) (ii) The waterline length of the bow region is generally to be divided into 4 sub-regions of equal length.69 9.Class Factors Crushing Flexural Failure Polar Failure Class Class Factor Class Factor (CFC) (CFF) PC1 PC2 PC3 PC4 PC5 PC6 PC7 17. Figure 2 .15 2.17 1.80 68.2. Q and P is to be used in the calculation of the ice load parameters Pavg. The influence of the hull angles is captured through calculation of a bow shape coefficient (fa).60 46.53 1.2.89 6.49 4.17 3.75 1.10 2. 2010 . the force (F).40 1.80 21. The force (F).46 5.48 9.42 1.31 1.00 5. line load (Q).46 4. fai.17 13.81 I2 (cont) I2. 2006/Rev.11 Displacement Longitudinal Class Factor Strength (CFDIS) Class Factor (CFL) 250 210 180 130 70 40 22 7.50 3. b and w).06 4.37 1.06 Load Patch Dimensions Class Factor (CFD) 2.

see Figure 2 D = ship displacement [kt].22 · CFD2 · ARi0. AR: ARi = 7. see Figure 2 β′ = normal frame angle [deg].35 [MN/m] where i = sub-region considered Fi = force of sub-region i [MN] CFD = Load Patch Dimensions Class Factor from Table 1 ARi = load patch aspect ratio of sub-region i (e) Pressure.1 .5 fai.46 · sin (β′i) ≥ 1.0.2 · CFF / ( sin (β′i) · CFC · D0.60 i = sub-region considered L = ship length as defined in UR S2.3) [Equation 1] [Equation 2] [Equation 3] [Equation 4] where fai. 2010 .61 · CFD / ARi0.64 [MN] where i = sub-region considered fai = shape coefficient of sub-region i CFC = Crushing Failure Class Factor from Table 1 D = ship displacement [kt].3 [MPa] where i = sub-region considered Fi = force of sub-region i [MN] CFD = load patch dimensions class factor from Table 1 ARi = load patch aspect ratio of sub-region i [Equation 8] [Equation 7] [Equation 6] [Equation 5] I2-4 IACS Req.097 .68 · (x/L .1 = (0.I2 I2 (cont) fai = minimum (fai.64) fai.2 . not to be taken less than 5 kt CFC = Crushing Failure Class Factor from Table 1 CFF = Flexural Failure Class Factor from Table 1 (b) Force.2. F: Fi = fai · CFC · D0.3 = 0. not to be taken less than 5 kt (c) Load patch aspect ratio. 2006/Rev.0. P: Pi = Fi0. but measured on the upper ice waterline (UIWL) [m] x = distance from the forward perpendicular (FP) to station under consideration [m] α = waterline angle [deg]. fai. Q: Qi = Fi 0.3 where i = sub-region considered β′i = normal frame angle of sub-region i [deg] (d) Line load.2 = 1.15)2) · αi / (β′i)0.1. fai.

defined as follows: wBow = FBow / QBow [m] bBow = QBow / PBow [m] [Equation 11] [Equation 12] [Equation 10] [Equation 9] where FBow = maximum force Fi in the Bow area from Equation 5 [MN] QBow = maximum line load Qi in the Bow area from Equation 7 [MN/m] PBow = maximum pressure Pi in the Bow area from Equation 8 [MPa] (ii) In hull areas other than those covered by I2. the force (FNonBow) and line load (QNonBow) used in the determination of the load patch dimensions (bNonBow.64 + 0. wNonBow) and design pressure (Pavg) are determined as follows: (a) Force. defined as follows: wNonBow = FNonBow / QNonBow [m] bNonBow = wNonBow / 3.CFDIS) if D > CFDIS D = ship displacement [kt].6 [m] where FNonBow = force determined using Equation 9 [MN] QNonBow = line load determined using Equation 10 [MN/m] [Equation 13] [Equation 14] I2-5 IACS Req. wNonBow. bBow.3. FNonBow: FNonBow = 0. wBow.10 · (D .3 Design Load Patch (i) In the Bow area.61 · CFD [MN/m] where FNonBow = force from Equation 9 [MN] CFD = Load Patch Dimensions Class Factor from Table 1 I2.36 · CFC · DF [MN] where CFC = Crushing Force Class Factor from Table 1 DF = ship displacement factor = D0. the design load patch has dimensions of width. and height.3.639 · FNonBow0. the design load patch has dimensions of width. and the Bow Intermediate Icebelt area for ships with class notation PC6 and PC7. QNonBow: QNonBow = 0.I2 I2. 2006/Rev.3.3 (i). bNonBow.64 if D ≤ CFDIS = CFDIS0.2.2 Hull Areas Other Than the Bow I2 (cont) (i) In the hull areas other than the bow. 2010 . and height. not to be taken less than 10 kt CFDIS = Displacement Class Factor from Table 1 (b) Line Load.2.

I2-6 IACS Req.6 .5 · w) With No Load Distributing Stringers PPFt = (1.5 · w PPFs = 2.s) ≥ 1.2. 2006/Rev.8 .3.8 . the largest hull area factor is to be used in the scantling determination of the member. smaller areas have higher local pressures.2 Load Carrying Stringers Side and Bottom Longitudinals Web Frames where: s = frame or longitudinal spacing [m] Sw = web frame spacing [m] w = ice load patch width [m] I2. if Sw ≥ 0. ships having propulsion arrangements with azimuthing thruster(s) or “podded” propellers shall have specially considered Stern Icebelt (Si) and Stern Lower (Sl) hull area factors. Accordingly.0 PPFs = 1. (ii) In the event that a structural member spans across the boundary of a hull area. Table 2 . In general.I2 I2.3.0 · Sw / w.s) ≥ 1.2 · s) ≥ 1. 2010 . the peak pressure factors listed in Table 2 are used to account for the pressure concentration on localized structural members.2 PPFp = (2. within a design load patch is determined as follows: Pavg = F / (b · w) [MPa] [Equation 15] I2 (cont) where F = FBow or FNonBow as appropriate for the hull area under consideration [MN] b = bBow or bNonBow as appropriate for the hull area under consideration [m] w = wBow or wNonBow as appropriate for the hull area under consideration [m] (ii) Areas of higher. (iii) Due to their increased manoeuvrability. if Sw < (0.5 PPFt = (1.s) ≥ 1.4 Pressure Within the Design Load Patch (i) The average pressure.2.5 Hull Area Factors (i) Associated with each hull area is an Area Factor that reflects the relative magnitude of the load expected in that area.Peak Pressure Factors Structural Member Plating Frames in Transverse Framing Systems Transversely-Framed Longitudinally-Framed With Load Distributing Stringers Peak Pressure Factor (PPFi) PPFp = (1. concentrated pressure exist within the load patch.2 .1. The Area Factor (AF) for each hull area is listed in Table 3.0 . Pavg.

70 0.2 [mm] ts = corrosion and abrasion allowance according to I2.00 1.30 0.55 0.50 0. tnet.3.40 0.50 0.70 0. ** Indicates that strengthening for ice loads is not necessary.55 0.25 0.35 0.4.30 0.35 0.25 ** ** 0. including all bottom plating. I2-7 IACS Req.35 0. depends on the orientation of the framing.30 PC6 1. the net thickness is given by: tnet = 500 · s · ((AF · PPFp · Pavg) / σy)0.00 1.5 · (2 · b / s – (b / s)2)0.80 0. 2006/Rev.25 ** 0.25 ** PC7 1.5 / (1 + s / (2 · b)) [mm] [Equation 17a] In the case of longitudinally-framed plating (Ω ≤ 20 deg). when b ≥ s.40 0.45 0.90 0.45 0.5 / (1 + s / (2 · l)) [mm] [Equation 17c] In the case of obliquely-framed plating (70 deg > Ω > 20 deg).11 [mm] I2.60 0.55 0.40 0.4.65 0.15 Stern (S) PC1 1.4 Shell Plate Requirements I2.1 The required minimum shell plate thickness.85 0.55 0.50 0. I2.65 0.50 0. i.50 0.35 0.00 1.25 0.30 0.80 0. plating in hull areas BIb. Mb and Sb.60 0.25 0. where Ω = smallest angle between the chord of the waterline and the line of the first level framing as illustrated in Figure 3 [deg].1 (iii).55 0.e.I2 I2 (cont) Table 3 .40 0.85 0.00 0. 2010 . the net thickness is given by: tnet = 500 · s · ((AF · PPFp · Pavg) / σy)0.25 ** Note to Table 3: * See I2. is given by: t = tnet + ts [mm] [Equation 16] where tnet = plate thickness required to resist ice loads according to I2.75 0.30 0. when b < s.2.65 0.Hull Area Factors (AF) Hull Area Bow (B) Bow Intermediate (BI) Midbody (M) All Icebelt Lower Bottom Icebelt Lower Bottom Icebelt Lower Bottom Area B BIi BIl BIb Mi Ml Mb Si Sl Sb Polar Class PC3 PC4 PC5 1.25 ** 0.00* 0.30 0.4. the net thickness is given by: tnet = 500 · s · ((AF · PPFp · Pavg) / σy)0.70 0.5 / (1 + s / (2 · l)) [mm] [Equation 17b] In the case of longitudinally-framed plating (Ω ≤ 20 deg). In the case of transversely-framed plating (Ω ≥ 70 deg).45 0.00* 0.00 1.30 0.2 The thickness of shell plating required to resist the design ice load. t.00 0. linear interpolation is to be used.45 0.00 0.35 PC2 1.45 0.65 0.

i. are to be in accordance with the requirements of each member society.2.5. I2. When a load-distributing stringer is fitted. loadcarrying stringers and web frames in the areas of the hull exposed to ice pressure.5 The design span of a framing member is to be determined on the basis of its moulded length.5. the arrangement and scantlings of these are to be in accordance with the requirements of each member society.3 The strength of a framing member is dependent upon the fixity that is provided at its supports.5. the design span may be reduced in accordance with the usual I2-8 IACS Req. 2006/Rev.2 The term “framing member” refers to transverse and longitudinal local frames.5.I2 s = transverse frame spacing in transversely-framed ships or longitudinal frame spacing in longitudinally-framed ships [m] AF = Hull Area Factor from Table 3 PPFp = Peak Pressure Factor from Table 2 Pavg = average patch pressure according to Equation 15 [MPa] σy = minimum upper yield stress of the material [N/mm2] b = height of design load patch [m]. as well as the details for securing the ends of framing members at supporting sections.e. 2010 .5. where b ≤ ( l – s/4) in the case of Equation 17a l = distance between frame supports.3. I2. Fixity is to be ensured at the support of any framing which terminates within an ice-strengthened area. Figure 3 .Shell Framing Angle Ω I2 (cont) I2.1 Framing members of Polar class ships are to be designed to withstand the ice loads defined in I2. Where load-distributing stringers have been fitted. If brackets are fitted.5. Fixity can be assumed where framing members are either continuous through the support or attached to a supporting section with a connection bracket.General I2. see Figure 1.4 The details of framing member intersection with other framing members. including plated structures.5.5 Framing . In other cases. equal to the frame span as given in I2. but not reduced for any fitted end brackets [m]. the length l need not be taken larger than the distance from the stringer to the most distant frame support. I2. I2. simple support is to be assumed unless the connection can be demonstrated to provide significant rotational restraint.

The shear area of a framing member may include that material contained over the full depth of the member. web area including portion of flange. Figure 4 .e. see Figure 4 bw = distance from mid thickness plane of local frame web to the centre of the flange area [mm]. i. see Figure 4 twn = net web thickness [mm] = tw .7 The actual net effective shear area. Brackets are to be configured to ensure stability in the elastic and post-yield response regions.4. ϕw = smallest angle between shell plate and stiffener web.5.5. Apn = net cross-sectional area of the local frame [cm2] tpn = fitted net shell plate thickness [mm] (shall comply with tnet as required by I2. tc. twn. the actual net effective plastic section modulus. and ϕw are as given in I2. Zp. Aw.2.5.2. I2. 2010 .6 When calculating the section modulus and shear area of a framing member. if fitted.. flange (if fitted) and attached shell plating are to be used. but excluding attached shell plating. I2.I2 practice of each member society. see Figure 4. see Figure 4 tc = corrosion deduction [mm] to be subtracted from the web and flange thickness (as specified by each member society.5. of a framing member is given by: Aw = h ⋅ t wn ⋅ sin ϕ w / 100 [cm2] I2 (cont) [Equation 18] h = height of stiffener [mm].11.3).7 and s as given in I2.2) hw = height of local frame web [mm].4. net thicknesses of the web. see Figure 4 I2-9 IACS Req.tc tw = as built web thickness [mm]. but not less than ts as required by I2. 2006/Rev. measured at the midspan of the stiffener. is given by: h 2 ⋅ t ⋅ sin ϕ w 3 [Equation 19] Z p = A pn ⋅ t pn / 20 + w wn + A fn ⋅(h fc ⋅ sin ϕ w − bw ⋅ cos ϕ w )/ 10 [cm ] 2000 h.8 When the cross-sectional area of the attached plate flange exceeds the crosssectional area of the local frame. The angle ϕw may be taken as 90 degrees provided the smallest angle is not less than 75 degrees.Stiffener geometry I2. see Figure 4 Afn = net cross-sectional area of local frame flange [cm2] hfc = height of local frame measured to centre of the flange area [mm].

275 + 1.7) [Equation 23] I2-10 IACS Req. hull areas BIb. Pavg. LL.e. linear interpolation is to be used.2 Y = 1 .6.a12) 0. a and σy are as given in I2. where: At = 1002 · 0. PPFt.8. as defined in I2.577 · σy) [cm2] [Equation 22] where LL = length of loaded portion of span = lesser of a and b [m] a = frame span as defined in I2.2.3 The actual net effective plastic section modulus of the plate/stiffener combination.5. Aw.2). is to comply with the following condition: Aw ≥ At.1 The local frames in transversely-framed side structures and in bottom structures (i.5 [m] b = height of design ice load patch according to Equation 12 or 14 [m] s = transverse frame spacing [m] AF = Hull Area Factor from Table 3 PPFt = Peak Pressure Factor from Table 2 Pavg = average pressure within load patch according to Equation 15 [MPa] σy = minimum upper yield stress of the material [N/mm2] I2. Zp.5 · LL · s · (AF · PPFt · Pavg) / (0.6.4. The A1 parameter in Equation 23 reflects the two conditions: Zpt = 1003 · LL · Y · s· (AF · PPFt · Pavg)· a · A1 / (4·σy) [cm3] where AF.2 The actual net effective shear area of the frame. Zp.44 · kz0. 2006/Rev. is given by: 2 ⎛ (hw − z na )2 + z na ⎞ ⋅t wn ⋅ sin ϕ w ⎜ ⎟ = t pn ⋅ s ⋅(z na + t pn / 2 ) ⋅ sinϕ w + ⎜ 2000 ⎟ [cm3] ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ + A fn ⋅((h fc − z na )⋅ sin ϕ w − bw ⋅ cos ϕ w )/ 10 ⎠ ( ) Zp [Equation 21] I2. the plastic neutral axis is located a distance zna above the attached shell plate.9 In the case of oblique framing arrangement (70 deg > Ω > 20 deg.5. as defined in I2.6. s. where Ω is defined as given in I2.5 . b. I2.1]) A1B = (1 – 1 / (2 · a1 · Y)) / (0. is to comply with the following condition: Zp ≥ Zpt. I2.6. given by: z na = I2 (cont) ( 100⋅ A fn + hw ⋅t wn − 1000 ⋅t pn ⋅ s )/ (2 ⋅ t wn ) [mm] [Equation 20] and the net effective plastic section modulus. 2010 .5.6 Framing .Transversely-Framed Side Structures and Bottom Structures I2.I2 When the cross-sectional area of the local frame exceeds the cross-sectional area of the attached plate flange. The plastic strength is defined by the magnitude of midspan load that causes the development of a plastic collapse mechanism.7.5.0. Mb and Sb) are to be dimensioned such that the combined effects of shear and bending do not exceed the plastic strength of the member. and b) the ice load acting near a support.5 · (LL / a) A1 = maximum of A1A = 1 / (1 + j / 2 + kw · j / 2 · [(1 . where Zpt is to be the greater calculated on the basis of two load conditions: a) ice load acting at the midspan of the transverse frame.

7) [cm2] kw = 1 / (1 + 2 · Afn / Aw) with Afn as given in I2.8 kz = zp / Zp in general = 0. 2010 . if b’ ≥ 2 a = longitudinal design span as given in I2.5.5. see Figure 4 tpn = the fitted net shell plate thickness [mm] (not to be less than tnet as given in I2.9. if b’ < 2 = s [m].0.2.5.577 · σy) [cm2] [Equation 24] where AF = Hull Area Factor from Table 3 PPFs = Peak Pressure Factor from Table 2 Pavg = average pressure within load patch according to Equation 15 [MPa] b1 = ko · b2 [m] ko = 1 .I2 j = 1 for framing with one simple support outside the ice-strengthened areas = 2 for framing without any simple supports a1 = At / Aw At = minimum shear area of transverse frame as given in I2.1 Side longitudinals are to be dimensioned such that the combined effects of shear and bending do not exceed the plastic strength of the member.7. The plastic strength is defined by the magnitude of midspan load that causes the development of a plastic collapse mechanism.7) tf = as-built flange thickness [mm]. Aw.4) beff = effective width of shell plate flange [mm] = 500 · s Zp = net effective plastic section modulus of transverse frame (calculated according to I2. Zp.6.5 [m] σy = minimum upper yield stress of the material [N/mm2] I2.2 The actual net effective shear area of the frame.3 / b’ b’ = b / s b = height of design ice load patch from Equation 12 or 14 [m] s = spacing of longitudinal frames [m] b2 = b · (1 .5.7.5. where: AL = 1002 · (AF · PPFs · Pavg) · 0.8. as defined in I2. I2 (cont) I2.Side Longitudinals (Longitudinally-Framed Ships) I2.0 when the frame is arranged with end bracket zp = sum of individual plastic section moduli of flange and shell plate as fitted [cm3] = (bf · tfn2 / 4 + beff · tpn2 / 4) / 1000 bf = flange breadth [mm].2 [cm2] Aw = effective net shear area of transverse frame (calculated according to I2. see Figure 4 tfn = net flange thickness [mm] = tf – tc (tc as given in I2.25 · b’) [m].5.7.5. I2. as defined in I2.4 The scantlings of the frame are to meet the structural stability requirements of I2.7 Framing .7. is to comply with the following condition: Zp ≥ ZpL.6. is to comply with the following condition: Aw ≥ AL.5 · b1 · a / (0.3 The actual net effective plastic section modulus of the plate/stiffener combination.0. where: ZpL = 1003 · (AF · PPFs · Pavg) · b1 · a2 · A4 / ( 8 · σy) [cm3] [Equation 25] I2-11 IACS Req. 2006/Rev.8) [cm3] I2.

7. I2.5 hw / twn ≤ 805 / (σy)0. The load patch is to be applied at locations where the capacity of these members under the combined effects of bending and shear is minimised.Web Frame and Load-Carrying Stringers I2. Where these members form part of a structural grillage system.g.(c1 / c2 ) 2 ) [mm] [Equation 26] where c1 = hw .2 A4 = 1 / (2 + kwl · [(1 .I2 I2 (cont) where AF.4 The scantlings of the longitudinals are to meet the structural stability requirements of I2.8 Framing .9.5 where hw = web height twn = net web thickness σy = minimum upper yield stress of the material [N/mm2] I2.9.2 [cm2] Aw = net effective shear area of longitudinal (calculated according to I2.c1 σ y /(5. b1.1 To prevent local buckling in the web. the appropriate peak pressure factor (PPF) from Table 2 is to be used.63 × 10 −3.3.9.8 · h [mm] hw = web height of stringer / web frame [mm] (see Figure 5) h = height of framing member penetrating the member under consideration (0 if no such framing member) [mm] (see Figure 5) I2-12 IACS Req.Pavg.Structural Stability I2.8. The minimum net web thickness for these framing members is given by: t wn = 2.8. I2.3 The scantlings of web frames and load-carrying stringers are to meet the structural stability requirements of I2.1]) a4 = AL / Aw AL = minimum shear area for longitudinal as given in I2.1 Web frames and load-carrying stringers are to be designed to withstand the ice load patch as defined in I2. tee and angle sections: hw / twn ≤ 282 / (σy)0. PPFs . appropriate methods of analysis are to be used.0.7. The scantlings of the web stiffeners are to ensure the structural stability of the framing member.2 Web frames and load-carrying stringers are to be dimensioned such that the combined effects of shear and bending do not exceed the limit state(s) defined by each member society.5 . I2.1 (e. load carrying stringers or deep web frames) are required to have their webs effectively stiffened.2.2 Framing members for which it is not practicable to meet the requirements of I2. 2006/Rev. a and σy are as given in I2. 2010 .5. I2.9 Framing . Where the structural configuration is such that members do not form part of a grillage system. the ratio of web height (hw) to net web thickness (twn) of any framing member is not to exceed: For flat bar sections: For bulb.7) [cm2] kwl = 1 / (1 + 2 · Afn / Aw) with Afn as given in I2.5.8.7.34 + 4. Special attention is to be paid to the shear capacity in way of lightening holes and cut-outs in way of intersecting members.a42)0.9.8 I2.9.

or (ii) 2.11 Corrosion/Abrasion Additions and Steel Renewal I2-13 IACS Req. the following are to be satisfied: (i) The flange width. the following is to be satisfied: twn ≥ 0. shall meet the following requirement: bout / tfn ≤ 155 / (σy)0.3.9.Parameter Definition for Web Stiffening I2 (cont) I2. 2010 .5 where tfn = net thickness of flange [mm] σy = minimum upper yield stress of the material [N/mm2] I2. bout [mm].1 Plated structures are those stiffened plate elements in contact with the hull and subject to ice loads. (ii) The flange outstand. twn. shall not be less than five times the net thickness of the web.2 The thickness of the plating and the scantlings of attached stiffeners are to be such that the degree of end fixity necessary for the shell framing is ensured. These requirements are applicable to an inboard extent which is the lesser of: (i) web height of adjacent parallel web frame or stringer.10.10 Plated Structures I2. bf [mm]. 2006/Rev.5 times the depth of framing that intersects the plated structure I2.2.I2 c2 = spacing between supporting structure oriented perpendicular to the member under consideration [mm] (see Figure 5) σy = minimum upper yield stress of the material [N/mm2] Figure 5 . I2.5 where σy = minimum upper yield stress of the shell plate in way of the framing member [N/mm2] twn = net thickness of the web [mm] tpn = net thickness of the shell plate in way of the framing member [mm] I2.10. I2.3 In addition.9.35 · tpn · (σy / 235)0.10.4 To prevent local flange buckling of welded profiles.3 The stability of the plated structure is to adequately withstand the ice loads defined in I2.

rudder. I2.4 Steel renewal for ice strengthened structures is required when the gauged thickness is less than tnet + 0.11.0 4.0 3.3 Polar ships are to have a minimum corrosion/abrasion addition of ts = 1.12.11.0 PC1 PC3 7. ice skeg. structural members outside 0.1 Effective protection against corrosion and ice-induced abrasion is recommended for all external surfaces of the shell plating for all Polar ships. BIi) All weather and sea exposed SECONDARY and PRIMARY. ice knife and other appendages subject to ice impact loads All inboard framing members attached to the weather and sea-exposed plating.2. I2. shaft brackets.4L amidships Plating materials for stem and stern frames. as defined in Table 1 of UR S6. Bottom 3.Corrosion/Abrasion Additions for Shell Plating ts [mm] With Effective Protection Without Effective Protection PC1 PC3 Bow. propeller nozzle. to be used in determining the shell plate thickness for each Polar Class are listed in Table 4.11.5 I2 (cont) Hull Area I2.0 PC6 & PC7 2. Midbody & Stern Icebelt Midbody & Stern Lower.0 2.5 2. 2006/Rev.I2 I2.0 5. including plated members adjacent to the shell.1.0 PC6 & PC7 4. including any contiguous inboard member within 600 mm of the plating Weather-exposed plating and attached framing in cargo holds of ships which by nature of their trade have their cargo hold hatches open during cold weather operations All weather and sea exposed SPECIAL. rudder horn.2 The values of corrosion/abrasion additions.0 PC4 & PC5 5. 2010 .1 Plating materials for hull structures are to be not less than those given in Tables 6 and 7 based on the as-built thickness of the material.0 2.0 4. as defined in Table 1 of UR S6. I2. Bow Intermediate Icebelt Bow Intermediate Lower.0 PC4 & PC5 2. ts.2L from FP Material Class II I II I I II I2-14 IACS Req. the Polar ice class notation assigned to the ship and the Material Class of structural members according to I2.5 2. Table 4 .0 mm applied to all internal structures within the ice-strengthened hull areas.Material Classes for Structural Members of Polar Ships Structural Members Shell plating within the bow and bow intermediate icebelt hull areas (B. as well as stiffener webs and flanges.0 2. Table 5 .12.5 2.0 2. structural members within 0.5 mm.11.1.12 Materials I2.2.0 3.

1 are applicable to polar ships regardless of the ship’s length. regardless of Polar Class.12.12. DH are allowed for a single strake of side shell plating not more than 1. I2. Figure 6 .3 m below the lower waterline. 2) Grades D. situated above a level of 0. as shown in Figure 6. I2-15 IACS Req. Where the material classes in Table 5 and those in Table 1 of UR S6. as well as their outboard framing members. I2.8 m wide from 0.12. Table 6 . the higher material class is to be applied.12.3 m below the lowest ice waterline. This applies to all inboard framing members as well as to other contiguous inboard members (e.1 differ.3 Steel grades for all plating and attached framing of hull structures and appendages situated below the level of 0.g. are to be not less than given in Table 6.Steel Grade Requirements for Submerged and Weather Exposed Shell Plating I2 (cont) Steel Grades According to I2.4 Steel Grades According to I2.12.2.3 I2.3 m below the lowest ice waterline. t [mm] t ≤ 10 10 < t ≤ 15 15 < t ≤ 20 20 < t ≤ 25 25 < t ≤ 30 30 < t ≤ 35 35 < t ≤ 40 40 < t ≤ 45 45 < t ≤ 50 Material Class I PC1-5 PC6&7 MS HT MS HT B AH B AH B D D D D D E E AH DH DH DH DH DH EH EH B B B B B D D D AH AH AH AH AH DH DH DH Material Class II Material Class III PC1-5 PC6&7 PC1-3 PC4&5 PC6&7 MS HT MS HT MS HT MS HT MS HT B AH B AH E EH E EH B AH D D D E E E E E DH DH DH EH2 EH EH EH EH B B B D D D D D AH AH AH DH DH DH DH DH E E E E E F F F EH EH EH EH EH FH FH FH E E E E E E E F EH EH EH EH EH EH EH FH D D D E E E E E DH DH DH EH EH EH EH EH Notes to Table 6: 1) Includes weather-exposed plating of hull structures and appendages. decks) within 600 mm of the exposed plating. are to be obtained from Table 6 of UR S6 based on the Material Class for Structural Members in Table 5 above. 2010 .5 Steel grades for all inboard framing members attached to weather exposed plating are to be not less than given in Table 7.4 Steel grades for all weather exposed plating of hull structures and appendages situated above the level of 0.2 Material classes specified in Table 1 of UR S6.Steel Grades for Weather Exposed Plating Thickness. material classes for weather and sea exposed structural members and for members attached to the weather and sea exposed plating are given in Table 5.12.3 m below the lower ice waterline. bulkheads. 2006/Rev. In addition.I2 I2. as shown in Figure 6.

9 Kh = 0.2 Design Vertical Ice Force at the Bow I2.13.2(γstem) · (D · Kh)0. FIB.I2 I2 (cont) Table 7 .2.1 Application I2.2 = 1. sufficient local buckling strength is also to be verified. The combined stresses are to be compared against permissible bending and shear stresses at different locations along the ship’s length.PC5 MS B D D E HT AH DH DH EH MS B B D D PC6 & PC7 HT AH AH DH DH I2.1 = 0.1 The design vertical ice force at the bow.9 · tan(γstem)-0.0 for a simple wedge bow form = 0.1.2. 2010 .12.13.01 · Awp [MN/m] CFL = Longitudinal Strength Class Factor from Table 1 eb = bow shape exponent which best describes the waterplane (see Figures 7 and 8) = 1.6 for a spoon bow form = 0 for a landing craft bow form An approximate eb determined by a simple fit is acceptable γstem = stem angle to be measured between the horizontal axis and the stem tangent at the upper ice waterline [deg] (buttock angle as per Figure 2 measured on the centreline) αstem = waterline angle measured in way of the stem at the upper ice waterline (UIWL) [deg] (see Figure 7) C = 1 / (2 · (LB / B)eb) I2-16 IACS Req.Steel Grades for Inboard Framing Members Attached to Weather Exposed Plating Thickness t.4 to 0. eb =1 and the above simplifies to Kf = (tan(αstem) / tan2(γstem))0. 2006/Rev.2) [MN] where FIB. I2. I2.9·(1 + eb) b) for the case of wedge bow form (αstem < 80 deg).20 · CFF [MN] [Equation 27] [Equation 28] [Equation 29] KI = indentation parameter = Kf / Kh a) for the case of a blunt bow form Kf = (2 · C · B1-eb / (1 + eb))0.1 Ice loads need only be combined with still water loads. FIB. is to be taken as FIB = minimum (FIB.15 · sin0.1.534 · KI0. In addition. mm t ≤ 20 20 < t ≤ 35 35 < t ≤ 45 45 < t ≤ 50 PC1 .13.6 Castings are to have specified properties consistent with the expected service temperature for the cast component.5 · CFL [MN] FIB.13 Longitudinal Strength I2.13.

2010 . along the hull girder is to be taken as: FI = Cf · FIB [MN] where Cf = longitudinal distribution factor to be taken as follows: (a) Positive shear force Cf = 0.5 between 0.0 between 0.0 at the aft end of L Cf = -0.13.3 Design Vertical Shear Force I2.0 between the aft end of L and 0.6L from aft Cf = 1.6L from aft Cf = 0.2.I2 B = ship moulded breadth [m] LB = bow length used in the equation y = B / 2 · (x/LB)eb [m] (see Figures 7 and 8) D = ship displacement [kt]. Figure 7 . FI.0 between 0. not to be taken less than 10 kt Awp = ship waterplane area [m2] CFF = Flexural Failure Class Factor from Table 1 Where applicable. 2006/Rev. draught dependent quantities are to be determined at the waterline corresponding to the loading condition under consideration.13.1 The design vertical ice shear force.3.8 L from aft and the forward end of L [Equation 30] I2-17 IACS Req.9 L from aft and the forward end of L (b) Negative shear force Cf = 0.Illustration of eb Effect on the Bow Shape for B = 20 and LB =16 I2.2 L and 0.Bow Shape Definition I2 (cont) Figure 8 .

1 The design vertical ice bending moment.2 by substituting the design vertical ice shear force for the design vertical wave shear force. along the hull girder is to be taken as: MI = 0.5 σc for plating and for web plating of stiffeners σc / 1.1 for stiffeners τc where σa = applied vertical bending stress [N/mm2] τa = applied vertical shear stress [N/mm2] σy = minimum upper yield stress of the material [N/mm2] σu = ultimate tensile strength of material [N/mm2] σc = critical buckling stress in compression.13. 2010 . according to UR S11.13.5L and 0.13.13. MI.5 [N/mm2] I2-18 IACS Req.4 Design Vertical Ice Bending Moment I2. draught dependent quantities are to be determined at the waterline corresponding to the loading condition under consideration.I2 I2 (cont) Intermediate values are to be determined by linear interpolation I2.13. Table 8 .2 The applied vertical bending stress. The ship still water bending moment is to be taken as the maximum sagging moment. I2.2. by substituting the design vertical ice bending moment for the design vertical wave bending moment. I2. σa.7 η · σy η · σy / (3) 0.2(γstem) · FIB [MNm] [Equation 31] where L = ship length as defined in UR S2.41 (σu + σy) / (3)0.13. 2006/Rev.3 at 0. I2.2 The applied vertical shear stress.7 η · 0.5.3.0 at the aft end of L Cm = 1.1.1 · Cm · L · sin-0.13.1 FIB = design vertical ice force at the bow [MN] Cm = longitudinal distribution factor for design vertical ice bending moment to be taken as follows: Cm = 0.5.5 Longitudinal Strength Criteria I2. The design stress is not to exceed the permissible stress. is to be determined along the hull girder in a similar manner as in UR S11.5 Permissible Stress when σy / σu > 0.4.4.7L from aft Cm = 0.0 between 0.4.1. τa. but measured on the upper ice waterline [UIWL] [m] γ stem is as given in I2.4.0 at the forward end of L Intermediate values are to be determined by linear interpolation Where applicable.2.1 The strength criteria provided in Table 8 are to be satisfied. is to be determined along the hull girder in a similar manner as in UR S11.41 (σu + σy) η · 0.Longitudinal Strength Criteria Failure Mode Tension Shear Buckling Applied Stress σa τa σa τa Permissible Stress when σy / σu ≤ 0.5.95L from aft Cm = 0.

15 Appendages I2.1 For the purpose of transferring ice-induced loads to supporting structure (bending moments and shear forces).1 The stem and stern frame are to be designed according to the requirements of each member society.I2 τc = critical buckling stress in shear.16 Local Details I2.5 [N/mm2] η = 0. Where necessary.18.2 Where direct calculation is used to check the strength of structural systems.16.2 Continuity of strength is to be ensured at all structural connections. I2.16. I2. End of Document I2-19 IACS Req. the load patch specified in I2. I2.1 Direct calculations are not to be utilised as an alternative to the analytical procedures prescribed in this unified requirement. local design details are to comply with the requirements of each member society.2 Load definition and response criteria are to be determined by each member society.17.15.1 All welding within ice-strengthened areas is to be of the double continuous type. I2. I2.2 The loads carried by a member in way of cut-outs are not to cause instability.2. I2. 2010 .14 Stem and Stern Frames I2.8 I2 (cont) I2.17. the structure is to be stiffened. according to UR S11.1 All appendages are to be designed to withstand forces appropriate for the location of their attachment to the hull structure or their position within a hull area.3 is to be applied. I2. the stem and stern requirements of the Finnish-Swedish Ice Class Rules may need to be additionally considered.14. For PC6/PC7 vessels requiring 1AS/1A equivalency. 2006/Rev.17 Direct Calculations I2.18. I2.15.18 Welding I2.

2. emergency and essential auxiliaries are to include operational limitations. 2006/Rev. subject to damage by freezing.2. I3. alarm.2. control.2 Detailed drawings of the main propulsion machinery. constructed and maintained to comply with the requirements of “periodically unmanned machinery spaces” with respect to fire safety.I3 I3 (August 2006) (Rev.1.2.3 Single screw vessels classed PC1 to PC5 inclusive shall have means provided to ensure sufficient vessel operation in the case of propeller damage including CP-mechanism. steering. I3. ice and snow and evidence of their capability to operate in intended environmental conditions.1 Application * The contents of this Chapter apply to main propulsion. I3.2 Systems. Any automation plant (i. I3. The “contracted for construction” date means the date on which the contract to build the vessel is signed between the prospective owner and the shipbuilder. For further details regarding the date of “contract for construction”.e. 29.1 Drawings and particulars to be submitted I3. I3-1 IACS Req.2. I3. * Note: 1.1. safety and indication systems) for essential systems installed is to be maintained to the same standard.1. 2007 .2 I3.2.1 Oct 2007) Machinery Requirements for Polar Class Ships I3. shall be drainable.1. emergency and auxiliary systems are located and protected to prevent problems from freezing.1 Details of the environmental conditions and the required ice class for the machinery. steering gear. emergency and essential auxiliary systems essential for the safety of the ship and the survivability of the crew.2.2. I3. refer to IACS Procedural Requirement (PR) No.1 Machinery and supporting auxiliary systems shall be designed.2. Description of the main propulsion. 2. if different from ship’s ice class.3 Description detailing how main. 2007/Corr.2.2. Information on essential main propulsion load control functions. I3. This UR is to be uniformly applied by IACS Societies on ships contracted for construction on and after 1 March 2008.1 Jan 2007) (Corr.4 Calculations and documentation indicating compliance with the requirements of this chapter.2.1.2 System Design 13.1.

These loads do not cover off-design operational conditions.1 Materials exposed to sea water Materials exposed to sea water.4. The given loads are expected. Charpy V impact test shall be carried out for other than bronze and austenitic steel materials.I3 I3 (cont) I3. An average impact energy value of 20 J taken from three tests is to be obtained at minus 10 ºC. The different loads given here are to be applied separately.1.3.2 Materials exposed to sea water temperature Materials exposed to sea water temperature shall be of steel or other approved ductile material. propeller hub and blade bolts shall have an elongation not less than 15% on a test piece the length of which is five times the diameter. such as propeller blades. I3. single occurrence. An average impact energy value of 20 J taken from three Charpy V tests is to be obtained at minus 10 ºC. I3-2 IACS Req.3.3 Materials I3. for example when a stopped propeller is dragged through ice. Ff is a force bending a propeller blade forwards when a propeller interacts with an ice block while rotating ahead. Ice loads on bow propellers and pulling type propellers shall receive special consideration. 2006/Rev.4 Ice Interaction Load I3.1 Propeller Ice Interaction These Rules cover open and ducted type propellers situated at the stern of a vessel having controllable pitch or fixed pitch blades. ice loads due to ice impacts on the body of azimuthing thrusters are not covered by I3.4 are total loads (unless otherwise stated) during ice interaction and are to be applied separately (unless otherwise stated) and are intended for component strength calculations only.3 Material exposed to low air temperature Materials of essential components exposed to low air temperature shall be of steel or other approved ductile material. I3. 2007 . The loads given in section I3. Test pieces taken from the propeller castings shall be representative of the thickest section of the blade. maximum values for the whole ships service life for normal operational conditions. However. These Rules apply also for azimuthing (geared and podded) thrusters considering loads due to propeller ice interaction.3. I3. Fb is a force bending a propeller blade backwards when the propeller mills an ice block while rotating ahead. An average impact energy value of 20 J taken from three Charpy V tests is to be obtained at 10 ºC below the lowest design temperature.

Fb = '27 Sice [nD ] when D ! Dlimit.5 3.4.3 [ H ice ]1. 2006/Rev.I3 I3.4 n is the nominal rotational speed (at MCR free running condition) for CP-propeller and 85% of the nominal rotational speed (at MCR free running condition) for a FP-propeller (regardless driving engine type). 0.15 1. 2007 . Fb = '23 S ice [nD ] $ % Z ! " where Dlimit = 0.1 Maximum Backward Blade Force.1 1.5 2.4.15 1 1 I3 (cont) Ice thickness for machinery strength design Ice strength index for blade ice force Sqice Ice strength index for blade ice torque I3. b) Load case 2: a load equal to 50% of the Fb is to be applied on the propeller tip area outside of 0.0 1.7 0.5 S ice [-] 1. Fb is to be applied as a uniform pressure distribution to an area on the back (suction) side of the blade for the following load cases: a) Load case 1: from 0.15 1. Fb when D < Dlimit.1 1.2 chord length.75 1.4 [D ] kN [Equation 2] I3-3 IACS Req. Ice Class PC1 PC2 PC3 PC4 PC5 PC6 PC7 Hice Sice Hice [m] 4.3 [D]2 kN [Equation 1] & EAR # 0.15 1.3 Design Ice Loads for Open Propeller I3.2 Ice Class Factors The Table below lists the design ice thickness and ice strength index to be used for estimation of the propeller ice loads.1 1.0 2.7 & EAR # $ Z ! % " 0.0 3.15 1.1 1 1 S qice [-] 1.2 1.6R to the tip and from the blade leading edge to a value of 0.85 *( Hice)1.4.3.1.9R.

25 · F · c0. 4 and 5 in Table 1 of Appendix. c) Load case 5: for reversible propellers a load equal to 60% Ff is to be applied from 0. Ff I3 (cont) when D < Dlimit Ff = 250 $ when D ! Dlimit & EAR # [D]2 ! % Z " kN [Equation 3] . 2 and 5 in Table 1 of Appendix.3.1 & I3.4. See load cases 3.4.9R.6R to the tip and from the blade trailing edge to a value of 0. Qsmax & # $ 2 ! ! H ice = $ $1' d ! $ ! D" % [Equation 5] Spindle torque Qsmax around the spindle axis of the blade fitting shall be calculated both for the load cases described in I3.4. b) Load case 4: a load equal to 50% of the Ff is to be applied on the propeller tip area outside of 0.2 for Fb Ff. I3.2 chord length. 2007 .2 chord length. See load cases 1. Default Value: Qsmax = 0. If these spindle torque values are less than the default value given below.2 Maximum Forward Blade Force.6R to the tip and from the blade trailing edge to a value of 0. I3. the default minimum value shall be used.I3 c) Load case 5: for reversible propellers a load equal to 60% of the Fb is to be applied from 0. 2006/Rev. ) * 1 ' ' H ice & EAR # [D ] Ff = 500 * $ *1.1.3 Maximum Blade Spindle Torque.d ' % Z ! " * ' D( + where Dlimit kN [Equation 4] d = propeller hub diameter [m] D = propeller diameter [m] EAR = expanded blade area ratio Z = number of propeller blades Ff is to be applied as a uniform pressure distribution to an area on the face (pressure) side of the blade for the following loads cases: a) Load case 3: from 0.4.6R to the tip and from the blade leading edge to a value of 0.3.3.2 chord length.7 [kNm] [Equation 6] I3-4 IACS Req.3.

6 ! (nD)0.5 Maximum Propeller Ice Thrust applied to the shaft kN kN [Equation 9] [Equation 10] Tf = 1. at bollard condition.81 Hice Sqice = Ice strength index for blade ice torque P0.I3 where c0.9 where Dlimit = 1.1 · Ff Tb = 1.7 is to be taken as 0.7 D2 [Equation 11] I3-5 IACS Req. I3. 2006/Rev.7 = propeller pitch at 0. propeller pitch.3 [nD] 0.1.7 / D)0.7 R [m] t0.7 / D)0.3. For CP propellers. [rps].17 ! D3 When D ! Dlimit Qmax = 202 ! (1 – d / D) ! Sqice ! Hice1.4.4.7 radius n is the rotational propeller speed.1 · Fb I3. free running condition.5 S ice $ & EAR # % Z ! " 0.7 / D)0.6 ! (nD)0. P0.7"P0.7R radius [m] F is either Fb or Ff which ever has the greater absolute value.1 Maximum Backward Blade Force. If not known. 2007 .4.16 ! (t0.7 / D)0.7n .85 nn kNm [Equation 8] kNm [Equation 7] Where nn is the nominal rotational speed at MCR. P0.4 Maximum Propeller Ice Torque applied to the propeller I3 (cont) When D < Dlimit Qmax = 105 ! (1 – d / D) ! Sqice ! (P0. where P0.7 = length of the blade chord at 0.7n is propeller pitch at MCR free running condition.4 Design Ice Loads for Ducted Propeller I3.17 ! D1.1 ! (P0.16 ! (t0. If not known.4.3.4.7 shall correspond to MCR in bollard condition.7 = max thickness at 0. Fb when D < Dlimit Fb = ' 9. n is to be taken as follows: Propeller type CP propellers FP propellers driven by turbine or electric motor FP propellers driven by diesel engine n nn nn 0. I3.

I3 when D ! Dlimit Fb = ' 66 S ice I3 (cont) & EAR # $ % Z ! " 0. I3.6R to the tip and from the blade leading edge to a value of 0. b) Load case 5: A load equal to 60% Ff is to be applied from 0.4.4 [Equation 12] where Dlimit = 4 Hice n shall be taken as in I3.3 [nD]0.4.1. 1 .6 [H ice ] 1. I3. 2007 .1 Fb is to be applied as a uniform pressure distribution to an area on the back side for the following load cases (see Table 2 of Appendix): a) Load case 1: On the back of the blade from 0.4.3.2 chord length. I3-6 IACS Req.6R to the tip and from the blade leading edge to a value of 0.2 Maximum Forward Blade Force. Ff when D " Dlimit Ff = 250 ! % ' EAR $ 2 !D & Z " # [kN] [Equation 13] When D > Dlimit Ff = 500 ! . 2006/Rev.7 D 0. b) Load case 5: For reversible rotation propellers a load equal to 60% of Fb is applied on the blade face from 0.6R to the tip and from the blade leading edge to a value of 0.2 chord length.2 chord length.Z * %1 ( " & D# 2 d$ ' %1 ( " & D# ! H ice [m] [kN] [Equation 14] where Dlimit = [Equation 15] Ff is to be applied as a uniform pressure distribution to an area on the face (pressure) side for the following load case (see Table 2 Appendix): a) Load case 3: On the blade face from 0.6R to the tip and from the blade trailing edge to a value of 0.3 Maximum Propeller Ice Torque applied to the propeller Qmax is the maximum torque on a propeller due to ice-propeller interaction.5 chord length. EAR + !D! ! H ice ) d$ ' .4.4.

17 ! S q ice .7 [kNm] [Equation 18] Where c0.4 Maximum Blade Spindle Torque for CP-mechanism Design.1.5 Maximum Propeller Ice Thrust (applied to the shaft at the location of the propeller) [Equation 19] [Equation 20] Tf = 1.4.I3 0.7 " & D# & D # 't $ ! % 0.7 is to be taken as 0.4.85 nn CP propellers FP propellers driven by turbine or electric motor FP propellers driven by diesel engine Where nn is the nominal rotational speed at MCR.16 0. propeller pitch. P0. I3.25 · F · c0.7 the length of the blade section at 0.1 [kNm] [Equation 17] when D > Dlimit where Dlimit = 1. Qsmax Spindle torque Qsmax around the spindle axis of the blade fitting shall be calculated for the load case described in 3.1. If not known.4.D 1. where P0.5 Reserved I3-7 IACS Req. For CP propellers. Default Value: Qsmax = 0.D 3 [kNm] [Equation 16] when D " Dlimit Qmax ' d $ 'P $ = 141 ! %1 ( " ! % 0.1 · Fb I3. 2007 . the default value shall be used.9 ! H ice 1.7R radius and F is either Fb or Ff which ever has the greater absolute value.1 · Ff Tb = 1. 2006/Rev.16 't $ ! % 0.7"P0.7 " & D# & D # 0. free running condition.4.6 ! (nD ) 0.7 shall correspond to MCR in bollard condition.4. P0.7 " &D# 0. I3.6 I3 (cont) Qmax ' d $ 'P $ = 74 ! %1 ( " ! % 0.7n .7n is propeller pitch at MCR free running condition. n is to be taken as follows: n nn nn 0.7 " &D# ! (nD ) 0.17 ! S q ice . If these spindle torque values are less than the default value given below.8 ! H ice [m] n is the rotational propeller speed [rps] at bollard condition. If not known.4.

.6.4. Qe = actual maximum engine torque at considered speed Design torque along propeller shaft line The design torque (Qr) of the shaft component shall be determined by means of torsional vibration analysis of the propulsion line.I3 I3. actual engine torque Qe and mass elastic system.! i when " = ! i .5 take into account the dynamic magnification due to axial vibration. The factors 2.. 2007 Maximum Shaft Thrust Backwards: Tr = 1. Calculations have to be carried out for all excitation cases given above and the response has to be applied on top of the mean hydrodynamic torque in bollard condition at considered propeller rotational speed. [Equation 22] Milling torque sequence duration is not valid for pulling bow propellers. Maximum Shaft Thrust Forwards: Tr = Tn + 2.0 0.5 #i 45 90 135 45 The total ice torque is obtained by summing the torque of single blades taking into account the phase shift 360deg.360 [Equation 21] Q(! ) = 0 where Cq and #i parameters are given in table below. which are subject to special consideration.6 Design Loads on Propulsion Line I3. The number of propeller revolutions during a milling sequence shall be obtained with the formula: N Q = 2 ! H ice The number of impacts is Z ! N Q .1 Torque I3 (cont) The propeller ice torque excitation for shaft line dynamic analysis shall be described by a sequence of blade impacts which are of half sine shape and occur at the blade.2 x Tf [kN] [kN] [Equation 24] [Equation 25] IACS Req.5 0.75 1.2 Maximum Response Thrust Maximum thrust along the propeller shaft line is to be calculated with the formulae below.4...4. Torque excitation Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Case 4 Propeller-ice interaction Single ice block Single ice block Single ice block Two ice blocks with 45 degree phase in rotation angle Cq 0.5 x Tb I3-8 . The response torque at any shaft component shall be analysed considering excitation torque Q(_) at the propeller. Alternatively the propeller thrust magnification factor may be calculated by dynamic analysis.. 2006/Rev. See Figure 1 in Appendix.6.1./Z. The torque due to a single blade ice impact as a function of the propeller rotation angle is then Q(" ) = C q * Qmax * sin ( "( 180 / ! i )) when " = 0. I3.2 and 1.

I3.5.5 Design I3. t and r are respectively the actual chord length.1 Design Principle The strength of the propulsion line shall be designed a) for maximum loads in I3.3 ! c ! t 2 ! # ref 0. b) such that the plastic bending of a propeller blade shall not cause damages in other propulsion line components. and typically will be at the termination of the fillet into the blade profile. The blade failure load is: Fex = 0.8R in the weakest direction of the blade and at a spindle arm of 2/3 of the distance of axis of blade rotation of leading and trailing edge which ever is the greatest.3 Blade Failure Load for both Open and Nozzle Propeller The force is acting at 0. c. I3. Tn is not known. thickness and radius of the cylindrical root section of the blade at the weakest section outside root fillet. Tn is to be taken as follows: Propeller type CP propellers (open) CP propellers (ducted) FP propellers driven by turbine or electric motor FP propellers driven by diesel engine (open) FP propellers driven by diesel engine (ducted) Tn 1. 2006/Rev.6.1.6 " ! 0.4.8 ! D " 2 ! r 103 [kN] [Equation 26] where ! ref = 0.2 Azimuthing Main Propulsors In addition to the above requirements special consideration shall be given to the loading cases which are extraordinary for propulsion units when compared with conventional I3-9 IACS Req.75 T T = nominal propeller thrust at MCR at free running open water conditions I3. 2007 .5.85 T 0. c) with sufficient fatigue strength.2 + 0.25 T 1.1 T T 0.4.I3 I3 (cont) Tn = propeller bollard thrust [kN] Tf = maximum forward propeller ice thrust [kN] If hydrodynamic bollard thrust.2 are representative values for the blade material.4 " ! u Where $u and $0.

5 for leading edges = 5 for tip S Sice = according to Section I3.1.15 I3. The stresses shall be calculated with recognised and well documented FE-analysis or other acceptable alternative method.2 are representative values for the blade material. The stresses on the blade shall not exceed the allowable stresses _all for the blade material given below. I3. however not to be taken greater than 45 mm.5. Azimuth thrusters shall also be designed for estimated loads due to thruster body / ice interaction as per I2.2 I3-10 IACS Req. defined as: _ref = 0.2 Blade Edge Thickness [Equation 27] [Equation 28] The blade edge thicknesses ted and tip thickness ttip are to be greater than tedge given by the following formula: tedge ! x S S ice x 3 pice ! ref [Equation 29] = distance from the blade edge measured along the cylindrical sections from the edge and shall be 2.7 · $u or _ref = 0.4 · $u whichever is less Where $u and $0.4. The steering mechanism. which causes the maximum load on the studied component.975R section length and is to be measured perpendicularly to the edge.3. In the tip area (above 0. however not to be taken greater than 45 mm.6 · $0.5. Also loads due to thrusters operating in an oblique angle to the flow must be considered. Estimation of the loading cases must reflect the operational realities of the ship and the thrusters.5. The plastic bending of a blade shall be considered in the propeller blade position.I3 propellers. the fitting of the unit and the body of the thruster shall be designed to withstand the loss of a blade without damage.5% of chord length.975R radius) x shall be taken as 2. for example. 2007 . Calculated blade stress for maximum ice load shall comply with the following: _calc < _all = _ref / S S = 1.2 + 0.1 Maximum Blade Stresses I3 (cont) Blade stresses are to be calculated using the backward and forward loads given in section 4. the loads caused by impacts of ice blocks on the propeller hub of a pulling propeller must be considered. = safety factor = 2.5 _ref = reference stress.4. In this respect.5% of 0. 2006/Rev.3 & 4.5 for trailing edges = 3.3.3 Blade Design I3.

6.5.5.6. I3.975R radius. Accelerations are to be considered acting independently.5. The source of stored energy shall be protected to preclude critical depletion by the automatic starting system.1 The requirement for edge thickness has to be applied for leading edge and in case of reversible rotation open propellers also for trailing edge. I3. A second source of energy shall be provided for an additional three starts within 30 min.6 Prime Movers I3.6.6.6 Machinery fastening loading accelerations I3.1 Essential equipment and main propulsion machinery supports shall be suitable for the accelerations as indicated in as follows.3.1 tan(& +') ] + I3.975 radius has to be interpolated between edge and tip thickness value and smoothly distributed. I3.1.4.5.I3 pice = ice pressure = 16 Mpa for leading edge and tip thickness _ref = according 5. al Maximum longitudinal impact acceleration at any point along the hull girder = (FIB/%) { [ 1.5 Reserved I3. 2006/Rev.5.2 Provisions shall be made for heating arrangements to ensure ready starting of the cold emergency power units at an ambient temperature applicable to the Polar class of the ship.2 Longitudinal Impact Accelerations.2 I3.6. Tip thickness refers to the maximum measured thickness in the tip area above 0. I3. I3.5.2 above.5.3. unless a second independent means of starting is provided.5 (FIB/%) FX [m/s2] [Equation 32] I3-11 IACS Req. The edge thickness in the area between position of maximum tip thickness and edge thickness at 0. av Combined vertical impact acceleration at any point along the hull girder = 2.6.5.3 [7 Reserved I3 (cont) H ]} L [m/s2] [Equation 31] Vertical acceleration.3 Emergency power units shall be equipped with starting devices with a stored energy capability of at least three consecutive starts at the design temperature in I3..3 to I3.6. 2007 . unless manual starting can be demonstrated to be effective.1 The Main engine is to be capable of being started and running the propeller with the CP in full pitch.

I3.7 Auxiliary Systems I3. including sea chests inlets.8.2.1 I3.1 Machinery shall be protected from the harmful effects of ingestion or accumulation of ice or snow. I3-12 IACS Req.3 Vent pipes.3 at AP for vessels conducting ice breaking astern Intermediate values to be interpolated linearly. intake and discharge pipes and associated systems shall be designed to prevent blockage due to freezing or ice and snow accumulation. I3.1. 2006/Rev. 2007 . defined in UR I2.] displacement length between perpendiculars [m] distance in meters from the waterline to the point being considered [m] FIB = vertical impact force.6.5 at AP = 1.] bow stem angle at waterline [deg. where ' & % L H = = = = = maximum friction angle between steel and ice.25 at midships = 0.2. at Combined transverse impact acceleration at any point along hull girder = 3 Fi FX ! [m/s2] [Equation 33] FX = 1. I3. shall be designed for the environmental conditions applicable to the ice class.4. I3.5 at AP for vessels conducting ice breaking astern Intermediate values to be interpolated linearly.3.8 Sea Inlets and cooling water systems I3. defined in UR I2.2 at midships = 0. Where continuous operation is necessary. to tanks containing liquids.5 at FP = 0.7.7.1 Cooling water systems for machinery that are essential for the propulsion and safety of the vessel.I3 I3 (cont) FX = 1.3 at FP = 0.4 at AP = 1. means should be provided to purge the system of accumulated ice or snow. normally taken as 10° [deg.2 Means should be provided to prevent damage due to freezing.1 Fi = total force normal to shell plating in the bow area due to oblique ice impact.13. Transverse impact acceleration.7.

12. Gratings of the ice boxes are to be provided with a means of clearing.7 Efficient means are to be provided to re-circulate cooling seawater to the ice box.12 Alternative Design I3 (cont) I3.I3 I3.8. I3.2 At least two sea chests are to be arranged as ice boxes for class PC1 to PC5 inclusive where. Manholes are to be located above the deepest load line.10 Ventilation System I3. I3.8 Detachable gratings or manholes are to be provided for ice boxes.1 The air intakes for machinery and accommodation ventilation are to be located on both sides of the ship. I3. I3.2 Accommodation and ventilation air intakes shall be provided with means of heating.8.1.5 Ice boxes and sea bays are to have vent pipes and are to have shut off valves connected direct to the shell. ice boxes.8. Total sectional area of the circulating pipes is not to be less than the area of the cooling water discharge pipe. The calculated volume for each of the ice boxes shall be at least 1m3 for every 750 kW of the total installed power.3 The temperature of inlet air provided to machinery from the air intakes shall be suitable for the safe operation of the machinery. I3.10. I3. I3. The diameter of holes and width of slot in shell plating is to be not less than 20 mm. The net area through these openings is to be not less than 5 times the area of the inlet pipe. The valve shall be a full bore type.9 Ballast tanks I3.6 Means are to be provided to prevent freezing of sea bays. 2007 .10.8.8. I3.11 Reserved I3. Clearing pipes are to be provided with screw-down type non return valves. For PC6 and PC7 there shall be at least one ice box located preferably near centre line. I3. Access is to be provided to the ice box from above. I3.9. ship side valves and fittings above the load waterline.8.3 Ice boxes are to be designed for an effective separation of ice and venting of air. I3-13 IACS Req. or holes or slots in shell plates.1 As an alternative – a comprehensive design study may be submitted and may be requested to be validated by an agreed test programme.8.1 Efficient means are to be provided to prevent freezing in fore and after peak tanks and wing tanks located above the water line and where otherwise found necessary.8. I3. 2006/Rev.9 Openings in ship sides for ice boxes are to be fitted with gratings. I3.10.4 Sea inlet valves are to be secured directly to the ice boxes.

Load case 5 60 % of Ff or Fb which one is greater Uniform pressure applied on propeller face (pressure side) to an area from 0.1.6R to the tip and from the trailing edge to 0.I3 I3 (cont) Table 1 Force Load case 1 Fb APPENDIX Load cases for open propeller Loaded area Uniform pressure applied on the back of the blade(suction side) to an area from 0. Load case 3 Ff Uniform pressure applied on the blade face (pressure side) to an area from 0.2 times the chord length.2 times the chord length.9R radius. e I3-14 IACS Req. Right handed propeller blade seen from back Load case 2 50 % of Fb Uniform pressure applied on the back of the blade (suction side) on the propeller tip area outside of 0. Load case 4 50 % of Ff Uniform pressure applied on propeller face (pressure side) on the propeller tip area outside of 0.6R to the tip and from the leading edge to 0. 2007 .6R to the tip and from the leading edge to 0.9R radius.2 times the chord length. 2006/Rev.

Load case 5 60 % of Ff or Fb which one is greater Uniform pressure applied on propeller face (pressure side) to an area from 0.1.2 times the chord length.I3 I3 (cont) Table 2 Load cases for ducted propeller Force Load case 1 Fb Loaded area Uniform pressure applied on the back of the blade (suction side) to an area from 0.6R to the tip and from the leading edge to 0. Right handed propeller blade seen from back Load case 3 Ff Uniform pressure applied on the blade face (pressure side) to an area from 0.2 times the chord length. I3-15 IACS Req.6R to the tip and from the trailing edge to 0. 2007 . 2006/Rev.5 times the chord length.6R to the tip and from the leading edge to 0.

2006/Rev.I3 I3 (cont) Figure 1 The shape of the propeller ice torque excitation for 45.2 0 0 90 180 270 360 450 Angle of rotation [deg] 540 630 720 End of Document I3-16 IACS Req. 1.8 Q/Qmax [] Ice block 2 Ice block 1 Q/Qmax [] 0.2 1 0.6 0.2 1 0.4 0.1.6 0.2 1 0.8 Q/Qmax [] 1.2 1 0.8 0.8 Q/Qmax [] 0.4 0.4 0. 2007 .2 0 0 90 180 270 360 450 Angle of rotation [deg] 540 630 720 1. 135 degrees single blade impact sequences and 45 degrees double blade impact sequence(two ice pieces) on a four bladed propeller.2 0 0 90 180 270 360 450 Angle of rotation [deg] 540 630 720 0.2 0 0 90 180 270 360 450 Angle of rotation [deg] 540 630 720 1.6 0.4 0.6 0. 90.

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