Key Facts full title. The Dumb Waiter author. Harold Pinter type of work. Drama genre.
Drama/comedy language. English time and place written. 1960 in London, England date of first production. January 1960 publisher. Grove Press narrator. o narrator! drama climax. "he clima# occurs $hen %en &ulls his gun on Gus protagonist. %oth men share the role o' &rotagonist, although the audience may em&athi(e $ith Gus &rimarily antagonist. )ilson and, eventually, %en setting (time). *odern day setting (place). "he +asement o' a ca', falling action. Gus and %en stare at each other in silence tense. Play! &resent tense foreshadowing. "here are a 'e$ clues that %en $ill +etray Gus, such as his sli&-u& $hen giving directions to Gus! the messages 'rom the dum+ $aiter sho$ that the ca', is not de'unct, as %en says it is tone. .iolent, comic themes. "he /ilence and .iolence o' Language! 0n#iety 1ver /ocial 2lass motifs. 3e&etition symbols."he dum+ $aiter
Context Harold Pinter is one o' the most acclaimed contem&orary %ritish &lay$rights, noted &articularly 'or his early +ody o' $or45 He $as +orn in the $or4ing-class neigh+orhood o' East London6s Hac4ney 7an ironic name 'or such an original $riter8 in 1990, the son o' a Je$ish tailor5 He evacuated to 2orn$all, England, at the out+rea4 o' )orld )ar :: in 1999, and returned to London $hen he $as 1;5 He +egan acting in &lays at his grammar school, and later received a grant to study at London6s &restigious 3oyal 0cademy o' Dramatic 0rts5 He le't the school a'ter t$o years, and s&ent most o' the 19<0s $riting his &u+lished &oetry 7under the name Harold Pinter8 and acting in small theater &roductions 7o'ten under the &seudonym David %aron85 :n 19<=, he $rote his 'irst &lay in 'our days, The Room, a sign o' the &roli'ic out&ut to come5 His 'irst &roduced &lay>The Birthday Partycame a year later5 "he rece&tion $as un'avora+le>it closed $ithin a $ee4>+ut Pinter6s ne#t 'ull-length &lay, The Caretaker 719608, $on more accolades5 The Dumb Waiter, also staged in 1960, hel&ed cement Pinter6s status as a ma?or theatrical 'igure5 He 're@uently directed, and sometimes acted in, his gro$ing +ody o' $or4 in the 1960s and 19=0s, $hile disseminating his $or4 into radio, television, and 'ilm5 0'ter 19=A6s Betrayal, Pinter did not $rite another 'ull-length &lay until 199;, +ut he continued $riting shorter &lays and ada&ting the $or4 o' others 'or the stage and screen5 0 conscientious o+?ector o' $ar $hen he $as eighteen 7'or $hich he $as 'ined +y the
and $ishes that there $ere a $indo$5 He laments that his li'e revolves around slee&ing all day in an un'amiliar. rhythmic lines rely heavily on su+te#t and hint at dar4er meanings5 Just as im&ortant. ho$ever. Fit $on6t +e a long ?o+5F %en re&orts on an article a+out a child $ho 4ills a cat5 Gus as4s i' %en has noticed ho$ long it ta4es 'or the toilet tan4 to 'ill5 Gus com&lains he didn6t slee& $ell on the +ed. F$ho it6ll +e tonight5F He says he $ants to as4 %en something. +etrayal. and sits on %en6s +ed. and Gus returns5 %en re&orts to Gus a ne$s&a&er article a+out a truc4 running over an elderly man5 %en orders Gus to ma4e tea5 Gus ho&es. o'ten 'ocus on ?ealousy. having lit the 4ettle.3oyal 0cademy8. then sto&s and ta4es a 'lattened match+o# out o' one shoe.F since that is $hat is +eing lit. +ut it is his dialogue>and the lac4 o' dialogue>'or $hich he is 4no$n5 Pinter6s language. Pinter $as motivated to +e more &olitical>+oth in his $or4s and in his &u+lic li'e5 He $as &articularly distressed +y the dictatorial cou& that overthre$ 2hilean President /alvador 0llende in 19=95 He has since +ecome an outs&o4en advocate o' human rights. as he al$ays runs out5 %en tells him to light the 4ettle instead5 "hey de+ate the &hrase Flight the 4ettle5F Gus 'eels one should say the Fgas.F a &hrase his mother used5 %en denies this and challenges Gus to remem+er the last time he sa$ his mother5 0'ter 'urther arguments a+out the &hrase. and $onders. has +een descri+ed as &oetic5 His com&ressed. and then leaving at night5 %en tells him they are 'ortunate to +e em&loyed5 Gus as4s i' %en ever gets 'ed u&. and %en commands Gus to o&en the door and see i' anyone is outside5 )ith a revolver 'or &rotection. +ut %en says that there is no time and that they have to get +ac45 Gus s&ea4s a+out a %irmingham game they once sa$ together. G1D E11LHF Gus ac@uiesces and tries to see i' the matches $ill light5 "hey don6t light on the 'lattened +o#. and has categori(ed s&eech as that $hich attem&ts to cover the na4edness o' silence5 His most o+vious 'or+ear is :rish &lay$right /amuel %ec4ett. $hich annoys him5 %en as4s Gus $hy he +arrages him $ith so many @uestions. in $hich %en reminds Gus that he has seniority. are the silences in his &lays5 Pinter has s&o4en much on the su+?ect. %en cho4es Gus and screams F"HE BE""LE. or F&ut on the 4ettle. and se#ual &olitics. +ut they $or4 on his 'oot5 %en says. Pinter6s are ominous and violent5 "he true natures and motivations o' his characters emerge in their silences5 Des&ite Pinter6s relative decrease in creative out&ut. then &er'orming a ?o+. $ho too4 silences to a ne$ level. and a 'lattened cigarette carton out o' the other5 He &uts +oth items in his &oc4et and leaves 'or the +athroom5 "here6s a sound o' the toilet chain +eing &ulled $ithout it 'lushing. and in C001 ?oined "he :nternational 2ommittee to De'end /lo+odan *ilosevic. $hich +lend comedy and drama. Gus 'inds no one5 Gus says the matches $ill come in handy. as they $ill go to $or4 very soon5 Gus as4s %en $hy he sto&&ed the car that morning in the middle o' the road5 %en says they $ere early5 %en tells Gus they are in the city o' %irmingham5 Gus $ants to $atch the %irmingham soccer team tomorro$ 7/aturday8. and has critici(ed the Gul' )ar +om+ings and other military actions5 His actions are not $ithout controversy or contradiction>he attac4ed the 0"1 intervention in Bosovo in 1999. and other &lay$rights o' the "heatre o' the 0+surd 7a Erench dramatic movement in the 19<0s8. usually lo$er-class vernacular. &rison-li4e room5 His $or4s. +ut $hereas %ec4ett6s silences hint at alienation. dar4 room. academic attention on Pinter remains as heavy as ever5 "he Harold Pinter /ociety $as 'ounded in 19915 :t &u+lishes The Pinter Review and organi(es con'erences5 Plot O er iew :n a +asement $ith a 4itchen and +eds %en reads a ne$s&a&er $hile Gus ties his shoelaces5 Gus $al4s to the 4itchen door. +oredom. +ut %en denies it5 0n envelo&e slides under the door5 either one 4no$s $hat is in the envelo&e5 %en orders Gus to &ic4 it u& and o&en it5 He does. +ut they soon 'all silent5 "he toilet 'inally 'lushes5 %en commands him to ma4e tea. and the slo$ a&&roach to death. and tells him to do his ?o+ and shut u&5 0'ter Gus re&eatedly as4s $ho it6s going to +e tonight and a moment o' silence. FPut on the +loody 4ettle. and em&ties out t$elve matches5 "hey are con'used. %en orders him to ma4e tea5 0'ter he leaves.F then reali(es he has used Gus6s &hrase5 He then stares at Gus until he leaves5 Gus comes +ac4. the 'ormer /er+ian &resident arrested +y the Dnited ations 'or crimes against humanity5 Pinter6s &lays generally ta4e &lace in a single. %en chec4s his revolver under his &illo$ 'or ammunition5
+ut can do nothing to get out o' it5 His recurring tri&s to the +athroom underscore his im&risonment to routine. $here the toilet again does not 'lush. and reads out an order 'or 'ood5 "he dum+ $aiter ascends5 %en e#&lains that the u&stairs used to +e a ca'. +ut the dum+ $aiter ascends +e'ore they can &ut the &late on it5 "he +o# descends again $ith another order. +ut then they notice an intercom tu+e5 Gus yells into the tu+e that there is no 'ood5 %en gives Gus the instructions 'or the ?o+5 "hey must corner the target $ith guns $hen he or she enters the room5 Gus e#cuses himsel' to the +athroom. and %en6s +etrayal should +e as much o' a shoc4 to us as it is to Gus5 Gus is some$hat child-li4e. the +asement $as the 4itchen. $e don6t 4no$ $hat e#actly is ha&&ening u&stairs 'rom the +asement. as the dum+ $aiter goes u& and comes do$n again5 Gus leaves to get a drin4 o' $ater. es&ecially in contrast $ith %en.. +ut they have only a little 'ood5 "hey &ut everything on a &late. and that these &laces change o$nershi& @uic4ly5 "he dum+ $aiter descends again. the dull routine o' li'e. his 'eelings o' an#iety a+out the ?o+ and )ilson5 0nother order comes do$n the &assage 'or more 'ood $ith $hich they are un'amiliar5 "he &ac4et o' tea they sent u& has also returned5 %en decides they should $rite a note telling them they can6t 'ill the orders. they 'ight again. recogni(es something $rong $ith the class structure5 He sees crac4s in the 'aJade o' )ilson>he is una'raid to yell and &eer u& the serving hatch to $here the god-li4e 'igure re&oses >+ut still 'eels uneasy in his &resence.Gus returns and says that the gas has gone out and the meter needs to +e re'illed $ith coins5 %en says they6ll have to $ait 'or )ilson5 Gus says that )ilson doesn6t al$ays come>he sometimes sends only a message5 Gus argues that since no one ever hears anything. $ithout %en6s ans$ering. and the nature o' the elusive em&loyer )ilson5 He is concerned $ith the conse@uences o' his ?o+5 He is haunted +y the image o' their messy murder o' their last victim. $hich accounts 'or his a$areness o' his static li'e5 :' one $ere to read The Dumb Waiter as an allegory o' ca&italist slavery. then Gus is the em&loyee $ho. a girl. Gus +elieves that )ilson o$ns the ca'. vulnera+ly stri&&ed o' some o' his clothes and his gun5 He loo4s u& at %en. as most underlings do $ith their &o$er'ul +osses5 He also &laces accounta+ility on )ilson as the controller o' the means o' &roduction! although %en tells him other$ise. $e are not 'amiliar $ith the ?o+ they are going to &er'orm. slightly slo$er ?unior &artner-in-crime to %en5 )e are in the same &osition as GusI li4e Gus. and @uestions5 He is generally su+missive to %en6s orders> everything 'rom ma4ing tea to investigating outside the door>though he stands u& 'or $hat he +elieves in. and should there'ore &ay 'or the gas meter 7he is also mi''ed that
. +ut %en &ushes him a$ay5 %en decides they should send something u&. com&laints a+out their environment. as F:t isn6t done5F Gus then discusses. )ilson must o$n all the &laces they go to! %en says )ilson rents them5 Gus also 'inds it hard to tal4 to )ilson. and is an#ious a+out this ne#t ?o+5 He is 'ed u& $ith the dull routine o' li'e. as $ith the FLight the 4ettleF argument5 Gus is more sensitive than %en to issues o' traditional human concern5 He o'ten touches u&on dee&er issues %en does not $ish to contem&late>a+out death. this time 'or Fhigh classF e#otic 'ood5 "hey &ut the &late on and Gus calls u& the +rand names o' the 'ood5 %en tells him not to shout. and then they retreat into silence. and Gus $ants to 4no$ $hy they have to &lay these Fgames5F %en hits him t$ice on the shoulder5 0nother order comes. and the s&ea4ing tu+e $histle +lo$s5 %en listens through the tu+e and con'irms that it is time to do their ?o+5 He hangs u& and calls 'or Gus5 He levels his gun at the door and Gus stum+les in. +ecause li'e o''ers him so little. &estering %en $ith numerous re@uests. %en reading his ne$s&a&er. and Gus &ulls out another order 'or 'ood5 Gus loo4s u& the hatch. the $ell-meaning. he has no ho++ies. $ho never goes to the +athroom5 Dnli4e %en. and they stare at each other through a long silence5 !nalysis of "a#or Characters $us "he audience is meant to sym&athi(e $ith Gus. and says he6s +een thin4ing a+out the Flast oneF>a girl5 He remem+ers the ?o+ $as a Fmess5F He $onders $ho Fclears u&F a'ter they leave5 %en reminds him that there are many Fde&artmentsF in their Forgani(ationF that ta4e care o' other matters5 "hey are interru&ted +y a sound 'rom the $all5 "hey investigate and 'ind a +o# on a dum+ $aiter 7a small elevator used 'or conveying 'ood and dishes +et$een stories o' a +uilding85 Gus &ulls a &iece o' &a&er out. and returns5 He as4s %en $ho is u&stairs5 "hey argue.
o' course. +ut it is less than that e#hi+ited +y %en5 )hen they send their $or4ing-class 'ood u& the dum+ $aiter. he tells Gus 7$ho yells u& the hatch8 to o+serve decorum. &resides85 )hen they run o' 'ood in the +asement. Gus calls out the +rand names as i' announcing a 'ancy dinner menu5 *any &roductions o' The Dumb Waiter $ill give the actor &laying Gus a 2oc4ney accent to em&hasi(e his lo$er-class standing. es&ecially his shame over his lo$er class5 He 'eigns understanding the names o' the orders 'or e#otic dishes sent do$n via the dum+ $aiter 7$here u&stairs. so $e 4no$ that )ilson may also +e &aranoid 7a reasona+le e#&ectation 'or the head o' a crime syndicate85
. G1D E11LHF %en6s language denotes other &arts o' his &ersonality. that he en?oys soccer. &hysically and socially. they resem+le the various cou&les in /amuel %ec4ett6s Waiting for Godot. $ants tea $hile they are hungry and thirsty85 Gus6s class-consciousness includes some shame a+out his &overty. ma4ing him as much a mani&ulated mute carrier o' actions as Gus is to %en>a human Fdum+ $aiter5F His +etrayal o' Gus at )ilson6s +ehest is an unsettling reminder o' $hat $or4ers $ill do to gain the acce&tance o' their su&eriors5 &ilson )ilson never a&&ears in the &lay. or i' he ever gets +ored $ith li'e. and %en is a &rime e#am&le5 He com&ensates 'or his na4ed silences $ith a constant aura o' violence and intimidation5 0nd ?ust as he 're@uently chec4s his gun to maintain his &otential 'or violence. &resuma+ly. $ho also com&lement each other $ith su+missive and dominant traits5 %en +roods and reads his ne$s&a&er. and his silences are as much a 'eature o' his character as his dialogue5 )hether Gus is as4ing him a+out the ?o+. %oth are o''stage characters $ho e#ercise a &o$er'ul. +ut he is directly or indirectly +ehind the messages 'rom the dum+ $aiter and s&ea4ing tu+e5 His o+vious theatrical corollary is Godot in %ec4ett6s Waiting for Godot. someone o' higher standing.)ilson. his silence does not seem li4e one o' shoc45 3ather. %en is a slave to the organi(ation 7one $ith several Fde&artmentsF8. it raises the &ossi+ility o' )ilson6s having a sadistic &ersonality>a malevolent god5 ot only is he going to e#ecute Gus. he has turned into a dum+ $aiter>mani&ulated +y others to carry out their directions. and is some$hat un'amiliar $ith the richer s&ort o' cric4et5 %y the end o' &lay. is that he does not $ant to reveal the &ur&ose o' the ?o+I to e#ecute Gus5 "he other reason is that %en6s chilling silences are laced $ith a de'ensive violence5 Harold Pinter has de'ined s&eech as a strategy designed to cover the na4edness o' silence. or the &erson u&stairs. +ut little else is 4no$n a+out his +ac4ground5 )e learn that he has not seen his mother in a long time.F the marriage o' violent s&eech and violent action seems a&&ro&riate $hen %en cho4es Gus $hile screaming F"HE BE""LE. +ut he does not have the same classconsciousness as Gus! his &artner is more a$are o' their un'ortunate lot in li'e. 'or un4no$n reasons. Gus +ecomes some$hat resigned to his li'e enslaved to routine5 He acce&ts %en6s instructions to 4ill +y mechanically re&eating them5 )hen he reali(es that %en is +etraying him. )ilson. his o'ten-venomous s&eech 'urther o+scures his na4ed vulnera+ility5 :n the argument over the &hrase FLight the 4ettle. god-li4e in'luence over the on-stage characters5 )hen Gus suggests that )ilson is &laying FgamesF $ith the men 7the orders 'or 'ood8. $hile %en considers themselves F'ortunateF and diverts himsel' $ith ho++ies5 He also acce&ts $hatever )ilson tells him to do. %en re'uses to enter into a meaning'ul discussion5 Part o' the reason. una+le to s&ea4 'or himsel'5 %en %en is the more dominant o' the t$o criminals5 0s such. then strains to ma4e a 'ormal a&ology5 He is also immensely &leased $hen the &erson u&stairs uses %en6s &hrase FLight the 4ettle5F Li4e Gus. +ut he $ill &ut him through an agoni(ing 'inal day5 Gus also mentions that )ilson &ut them through tests several years ago to &rove themselves.
as he is more concerned $ith his standing5 He re&eatedly admonishes Gus 'or his Fslac4F a&&earance and ha+its. and %en &retends to 4no$ ho$ to ma4e them only to a &oint5 )hen they decide to send u& their cache o' 'ood. the looming &resence o' )ilson is the most dominating silence in the &lay5 0ssuming )ilson is the one sending the men messages through the dum+ $aiter and the s&ea4ing tu+e 7and Gus does say at one &oint that sometimes )ilson only sends messages8. s4i&&ing &ast them to more trivial matters.'ighting and $hat cor&orate $or4ers $ill do to &lease their su&eriors5
. they +oth avoid discussing $ith any &ro'undity the ne$s&a&er articles a+out death. and much o' this shame is tied to language5 "he 'ood orders 'rom the dum+ $aiter are 'or increasingly e#otic 'oods $ith un'amiliar names. one gets the 'eeling that his $ords are intert$ined $ith the act o' &hysical violence5 :n a sense.tiered organi(ation5 He &er'orms an o''-stage role similar to that o' Godot in %ec4ett6s Waiting for Godot. 'or )ilson seems to +e every$here through his multi. the antici&ation o' something deathly>the &lay ends as %en trains his gun on Gus in silence5 Gus6s @uestions and lamentations are also de'lected. an allegory o' in. and his de'erence is attri+uted less to 'eelings o' res&ect than to an overriding in'eriority com&le#! )ilson is their leader 'or a reason. as he demonstrates $ith his 'ormal a&ology5 %en is 'ar more reverent o' )ilson than the in@uiring Gus. $hen %en screams F"HE BE""LE. G1D E11LHF and cho4es Gus. and these aims are o'ten evident in the dialogue o' Gus and %en5 %en6s most &rominent res&onse to Gus6s constant @uestions a+out the nature o' their ?o+s is silence5 Lur4ing underneath this silence is al$ays the threat o' violence. +ut only hears him through a secondary mouth&iece as the men read or re&eat his orders5 His mysteriousness is one o' the more sinister com&onents o' the &lay. uses the same de+ated &hrase>FLight the 4ettleF>as he does. and he must o+ey him at all costs. urging him to ma4e himsel' more &resenta+le. +ut %en also seems more resigned to his lo$ly criminal li'e! he considers them 'ortunate 'or having ?o+s5 His &ro'ound shame over his class emerges in interactions $ith those u&stairs via the dum+ $aiter. and he $arns Gus to o+serve decorum $hen tal4ing to the u&stairs. The Dumb Waiter can +e read as an anti-cor&orate u&date o' %ec4ett6s Waiting for Godot. even Gus 'eels he has to im&ress those u&stairs +y announcing the +rand names o' their &edestrian 'oodstu''s5 %en also ha&&ily re&orts that the man u&stairs. es&ecially $hen the to&ic is something seemingly trivial5 "he men6s argument over the &hrase FLight the 4ettleF is 'illed $ith %en6s +ar+s that intimidate and shame Gus5 *oreover. delayed. and most &roductions o' the &lay em&hasi(e their social status $ith a&&ro&riate dialects and accents5 /ome &roductions may even o&t to give %en a slightly higher-ran4ing accent. or interru&ted5 %en 're@uently changes the conversation and never re&lies $ith any emotional de&th to Gus6s more &ro+ing @uestions5 :n the same $ay.'hemes( "otifs( and )ymbols 'hemes 'he )ilence and *iolence of +anguage Pinter6s $or4 is heavily in'luenced +y /amuel %ec4ett. &resuma+ly o' higher social standing. even i' it means +etraying his 'riend5 :n this light. +ut $hereas Godot sym+oli(es a neutral god-li4e 'igure 'or $hom the characters $ait. such as the mal'unctioning toilet5 %en sometimes delays his res&onse until they are interru&ted>+y the sound o' an inanimate o+?ect. )ilson is a malevolent god $hom the characters $ait 'or in violent silence5 !nxiety O er )ocial Class Gus and %en are +oth lo$er-class criminals. such as the toilet 7$hich 'lushes on a delay8 and the dum+ $aiter5 "he language itsel' is also tinged $ith violence. $ho used silence-'illed &auses 'or a revolutionary theatrical e''ect5 Pinter has s&o4en o' s&eech as a stratagem designed to cover the na4edness o' silence. then the audience never gets a chance to hear him.
%en orders him to ma4e tea5 Gus admires the dish$are5 He as4s %en 'or a cigarette. slee&ing all day. is mani&ulated +y )ilson in the same $ay that the dum+ $aiter is controlled +y its system o' &ulleys5 Part One. 'or e#am&le."otifs . a serving hatch. has $ood$or4 and model +oats. +ut it doesn6t $or45 )hen he returns. not sharers o' it5 *oreover. and Gus &uts the carton in his &oc4et +e'ore he leaves 'or the +athroom5 "here6s a sound o' the toilet chain +eing &ulled $ithout it 'lushing. +ut is interru&ted +y %en $ho re&orts on an article a+out a child 4illing a cat5 Gus then as4s i' %en has noticed ho$ long it ta4es 'or the toilet tan4 to 'ill5 %en suggests that it is a Fde'icient +allcoc45F Gus com&lains that he didn6t slee& $ell on the +ed and then sees a &icture on the $all o' cric4et &layers entitled F"he Eirst Eleven5F either he nor %en 4no$s that the F'irst elevenF re'ers to a school6s to& cric4et &layers5 He $ishes 'or a $indo$ in the room and laments that his li'e revolves around entering a dar4 room he6s never seen +e'ore. %en e#&resses outrage at an article in the ne$s&a&er $hile Gus sym&athi(es5 /imilar re&etitions mar4 the action throughout the &lay5 Early on. +ut they soon 'all silent5 "he toilet 'inally 'lushes. %en reads a ne$s&a&er on his +ed $hile Gus ties his shoelaces on his +ed5 Gus 'inishes and $al4s to the 4itchen door. and another &assage to the right5 :n silence.ntil 'he /n elope )ummary "he setting is a +asement $ith t$o +eds. @uestions that touch u&on dar4er issues %en does not $ish to reveal5 %en6s mechanical instructions to Gus on ho$ to e#ecute their murder are re&eated +y Gus $ith similar detachment. and $hen %en echoes through the s&ea4ing tu+e his o$n mission to 4ill Gus. doing a ?o+. one-sided communication +et$een Gus and %en5 :' messages are to +e sent via the dum+ $aiter. then only one &erson at a time can send them.%eginning . as they $ill +e Fon the ?o+F very soon5 0s Gus ta4es out a tea +ag and
. es&ecially. and ho&es. $hich then ran over him5 Gus agrees that it is a+omina+le5 Gus again tries to 'lush the toilet. $hich re&orts on an elderly man $ho tried to cross a +usy street +y cra$ling under a truc4. is $here Pinter6s use o' re&etition &oints to violence and the nearness o' death5 Gus almost al$ays has to re&eat and re&hrase his im&ortant @uestions to %en. Gus +emoans the dull slee&-and-$or4 routine o' his li'e. and one cannot simultaneously s&ea4 and listen through the dum+ $aiter6s s&ea4ing tu+e5 2orres&ondingly. he ta4es out a 'lattened cigarette carton5 "hey e#change another loo4. a 4itchen and +athroom to the le't. then sto&s and sha4es his 'oot5 %en $atches as Gus ta4es a 'lattened match+o# out o' his shoe5 0'ter he and %en e#change a glance. and various re&etitive actions>'rom Gus6s tendency to run out matches to his recurring tri&s to the +athroom>emerge as the +asis o' this cyclical 'atigue5 Language. %en re'uses to s&ea4 $ith him5 "his disconnection is the essence o' their relationshi&5 "hey do not s&ea4 with. and never stays idle5 Gus as4s i' %en ever gets 'ed u&. and then leaving at night5 %en tells him that they are 'ortunate to +e em&loyed only once a $ee4 and tells Gus his &ro+lem is a lac4 o' interests5 %en. then linguistic echoes and re&etitive actions suggest violence as $ell5 )ymbols 'he dumb waiter "he dum+ $aiter serves as a sym+ol 'or the +ro4en. it li4e$ise echoes the &revious interaction $ith Gus5 Pinter has com&ared echoes to silence. $hich Gus comments on +e'ore 'urther critici(ing the +asement5 %en commands him to ma4e tea. and Gus returns5 %en angrily relates to Gus a ne$s&a&er article.epetition 0t the &lay6s start and end. +ut to each other5 "hey are li4e the dum+ $aiter>mute carriers o' in'ormation. %en. Gus &uts it in his &oc4et5 Erom his other shoe. Gus and %en never have a 'ully o&en dialogue>minimi(ed even more +y %en6s 4no$ledge o' his im&ending +etrayal o' Gus>and $henever Gus tries to +ring u& something emotional. ho$ever. and i' one vie$s the silences in his &lays as indications o' violence. Fit $on6t +e a long ?o+5F He remem+ers he $anted to as4 %en something.
G1D E11LHF Gus ac@uiesces and tries to see i' the matches light! they don6t on the 'lattened +o#. the second-+iggest city in Great %ritain5 Gus $ants to $atch the %irmingham soccer team tomorro$ 7/aturday8. and is &art o' the cyclical nature o' li'e that +ores Gus.ladimir and Estragon85 Gus6s di''iculty in &utting on his shoe corres&onds to a similar &ro+lem $ith a +oot in %ec4ett6s &lay5 :n +oth &lays.e#amines it. an e#change that $ill re&eat throughout the &lay5 "he dialogue in +et$een is o'ten %en6s attem&t to delay ans$ering Gus6s @uestion> here. one dominant. at least 'rom the audience6s &ers&ective5 "he single location is a sta&le o' Pinter6s other &lays. moreover. and that s&eech is an attem&t to cover this na4edness5 Gus 4ee&s $anting to as4 %en something +ut is interru&ted. %en cho4es Gus and screams F"HE BE""LE. +ut %en says that there is no time and that they have to get +ac4. even though they used to stay over a'ter a ?o+5 Gus s&ea4s a+out a %irmingham game they once sa$ together. Gus investigates +ut 'inds no one5 Gus says the matches $ill come in handy. the sound o' an inanimate o+?ect>the toilet>?olts them +ac4 into discussion5 "he toilet serves as a +ase 'or Gus throughout the &lay5 :t re&resents re&etition. +ut they $or4 on his
. in $hich %en reminds Gus that he6s the senior &artner. telling him not to $aste them and to light the 4ettle instead5 "hey de+ate the &hrase Flight the 4ettleF! Gus 'eels one should say the Fgas. +ut %en re'utes the details that Gus remem+ers5 0n envelo&e slides under the door5 !nalysis "he in'luence o' :rish &lay$right /amuel %ec4ett on Harold Pinter is a&&arent in this &lay. and challenges Gus to remem+er the last time he sa$ his mother 7he can6t remem+er85 0'ter 'urther arguments a+out the &hrase. he as4s Gus $hy he sto&&ed the car that morning in the middle o' the road5 %en says that they $ere early5 Gus as4s i' they $ere too early to move in. violent touch5 Pinter has said that silence is a 'orm o' na4edness. are @uic4ly a+orted in 'avor o' more mundane concerns5 "he men do not +rea4 the silence themselves usually5 3ather. $hich e#&lains $hy the sheets seemed dirty to him5 Gus has 'orgotten $hat to$n they are in and %en tells him that they are in %irmingham5 Gus says that it is an industrial city. and %en commands Gus to o&en the door and see i' anyone6s outside5 )ith a revolver 'rom under his &illo$ 'or &rotection. as he al$ays runs out5 %en re&rimands him 'or &ro+ing his ear $ith a match. and numerous similarities and allusions to %ec4ett6s Waiting for Godot cro& u& in this section5 0s $ith Godot. serious matters o' mortality. or F&ut on the 4ettle.F since that is $hat is +eing lit. ho$ever. the toilet $or4s on a delay>the 'lush is &receded +y a long &ause> solidi'ying the notion that re&etition e''ects little change5 Just as Gus trans'ers the 'lattened match+o# and carton 7+oth de'ective o+?ects8 'rom his shoes to his &oc4et>one rece&tacle to another>the rece&tacle o' the de'ective toilet trans'ers human $aste to the rece&tacle o' the se$ers5 "he $aste. there are t$o characters.F a &hrase his mother used5 %en $ill have none o' this. a trivial matter a+out the toilet5 %en also uses silence to de'lect the &otential 'or more intimate &ro+ing 'rom Gus5 ot only are %en6s delays and interru&tions a 'orm o' silence. one su+missive. the characters have +een stranded in one &lace $ith an unclear &ur&ose. as $ell5 Pinter6s use o' re&etition and silence also har4ens +ac4 to %ec4ett6s $or45 %ec4ett6s &rimary use o' these is to suggest the ideas o' alienation and the a&&roach o' death. does not disa&&ear! it $ill return in some 'orm. $ho share the amount o' letters and sylla+les in their names 7although Pinter6s Gus and %en are sim&ler names>and sim&ler characters>than %ec4ett6s . the dull re&etition o' $or4 and slee&5 "he characters6 com&lete se&aration 'rom the u&&er class is also introduced and $ill +e e#&lored in 'urther de&th later5 "heir un'amiliarity $ith the s&orting terms o' &osh cric4et and their a''ection 'or the more $or4ing-class game o' soccer immediately de'ines their social standing5 Part 'wo. and the 'utility o' re&etition5 Li4e the cho&&y dialogue. and em&ties out t$elve matches5 "hey are con'used. +ut even they are interru&ted>%en6s re&orts o' the death o' the elderly man and the cat.From the /n elope to %en0s $un )ummary either %en nor Gus 4no$s $hat is in the envelo&e5 %en orders Gus to &ic4 it u& and o&en it5 He does. +ut Pinter 'ashions them $ith a more sinister.
and $e can vie$ Gus6s running out o' matches as a sym+ol o' ho$ li'e continually +urns do$n and then re'uels5 %en6s scolding Gus over not $asting the matches is almost &ointless5 /ooner or later. and says that he6s +een thin4ing a+out the Flast oneF>a girl5 )hen %en reads his ne$s&a&er instead o' ans$ering him. and %en is the senior &artner5 "he de+ate also &roduces the men6s 'irst &hysical con'rontation a'ter much ver+al +uild-u&5 :t is no accident that %en screams and cho4es Gus at the same time5 Pinter is 4no$n 'or the innate violence in his characters6 language. $hen %en unconsciously uses the same language as Gus5 *oreover. such as those o' Kuentin "arantino.F then reali(es he6s used Gus6s &hrase. and that these &laces change o$nershi& @uic4ly5 Gus loudly $onders $ho has
. his comical use o' Gus6s &hrase a'ter dis&laying intense hostility to it im&lies that re&etition o' language can dull its e''ect. $hich annoys him5 %en as4s Gus $hy he +arrages him $ith so many @uestions. as $omen don6t Fhold together li4e men5F He $onders $ho cleans u& 'or them a'ter they leave5 %en reminds him that other de&artments ta4e care o' those matters5 0 clattering sound 'rom the $all +et$een their +eds interru&ts them5 )ith guns in hand. +ut revealing. %en orders him to ma4e tea5 0'ter he leaves.. small tal45 "he argument over Flight the 4ettleF is seemingly trivial +ut divulges 4ey in'ormation a+out the menI Gus no longer sees his mother. 'ilms that ?u#ta&ose. the &hysical violence5 "he violence is o''set +y the comic e''ect. the +asement $as the 4itchen. F$ho it6ll +e tonight5F He says he $ants to as4 %en something. and %en6s re&etitive @ueries try to cover this na4ed. as it6s his &lace. and even &uts him in danger $hen he tells him to o&en the door5 :t is +ecoming clear that they are hit-men>the F$hoF in F$ho it6ll +e tonightF re'ers to their victim>and Pinter contrasts the violence o' their ?o+s $ith their common&lace language and concerns5 :n $ays. o'ten to comic e''ect. and tells him to do his ?o+ and shut u&5 0'ter Gus re&eatedly as4s $ho it6s going to +e tonight and a moment o' silence. usually in restaurants or hotels85 Gus &ulls a &iece o' &a&er out. and sits on %en6s +ed. ans$ering $ith silence and then ordering Gus to ma4e tea5 "he other theme +ehind re&etitiveness in the &lay is ho$ it dulls li'e into a cyclical routine. +ut their su&&ly $ill +e re&lenished5 Part 'hree. arguing that since no one ever com&lains or hears anything. saying )ilson has only rented it5 Gus is insistent.F he recalls. $hich occurs a'ter the con'rontation. the violence o' the criminal6s ?o+ $ith his +anal. they investigate and 'ind a +o# on a dum+ $aiter 7a small elevator controlled +y &ulleys that delivers 'ood or other goods +et$een 'loors. and %en6s dialogue is a &art o'. and t$ice that Fno oneF and FnothingF $ere outside5 "hese last t$o statements +oth e#&ress an a+sence>+oth o' 4no$ledge and o' the &hysical &resence>that constitute a ty&e o' silence. )ilson must o$n all the &laces they go to5 He also 'inds it hard to tal4 to )ilson. and nearly cau e . as the meter needs to +e re'illed $ith coins5 %en says they6ll have to $ait 'or )ilson5 Gus says that )ilson doesn6t al$ays come>that he sometimes sends only a message>and com&lains a+out not having a cu& o' tea F+e'ore5F He +elieves that.!fter %en Checks his $un )ummary Gus returns and says that the gas has gone out. violence that lur4s +eneath the cli&&ed structure o' the language. and %en tells him to read it5 :t lists an order 'or 'ood5 "he dum+ $aiter ascends5 %en e#&lains that the u&stairs used to +e a ca'. 'ear'ul mystery $ith e#traneous s&eech5 He later de'lects Gus6s @uestion re'erring to $ho they $ill victimi(e. having &ut on the 4ettle. %en chec4s his revolver under his &illo$ 'or ammunition5 !nalysis %en6s dominance and Gus6s su+mission intensi'y in this section5 %en continually +osses Gus around. he and Gus get into an argument5 Gus continues tal4ing a+out the girl5 "he ?o+ $as a Fmess.'oot5 %en says. and loo4s at Gus until his &artner leaves5 Gus comes +ac4. they $ill +e $asted. )ilson should &ay 'or the meter5 %en denies this. and $onders. FPut on the +loody 4ettle. The Dumb Waiter is a &recursor to a ma?or conceit o' modern gangster 'ilms. and that it can mechanically 'lo$ +et$een &eo&le as an unconscious transaction5 Pinter rein'orces the mechanical 'eeling $ith his use o' re&etition5 Gus t$ice says that he doesn6t 4no$ $hat the envelo&e is.
yet $ho e#ercises great &o$er over them5 :n The Dumb Waiter. +ut they have only a little 'ood5 Gus 4ee&s revealing more 'ood. +ut he $onders $ho has the tas4 o' cleaning u& the remains5 "he characters6 an#iety over their lo$er-class status hangs over the 'ood se@uence5 :t +egins $ith their ina+ility to &ay 'or the meter. as Gus suggests. a mysterious character $ho dominates the duo even $hen he6s not around>or &erha&s es&ecially $hen he6s not around5 %en is more reverent o' )ilson. are t$ice +ro4en +y the sounds o' the descending dum+ $aiter5 0s o' no$. this time 'or Fhigh classF e#otic 'ood such as F1rmitha *acarounada5F %en &retends to 4no$ ho$ to ma4e the dish5 "hey &ut the &late on the dum+ $aiter and Gus yells u& the hatch. +ut %en &ushes him a$ay5 %en decides that they should send something u&. +ut the dum+ $aiter ascends +e'ore they can &ut the &late on it5 "hey decide to $ait until the dum+ $aiter returns5 Gus $onders ho$ it could +e a ca'. ho$ever>a ca4e. $hich %en su&&orts5 Gus then discusses.moved in5 "he dum+ $aiter descends again. in $hich it +ecomes clearer that %en is &erha&s not telling Gus the com&lete truth a+out their o&eration>they are certainly in the 4itchen o' a $or4ing ca'. so to s&ea4>and not %en. a+ru&t sentences &e&&ered $ith idiomatic utterances li4e FBa$HF *any &roductions o' The Dumb Waiter em&hasi(e %en6s and Gus6s di''erent relationshi&s to class +y giving %en an accent o' a slightly +etter-o'' Englishman. as Gus6s continuing @uestions a+out the nature o' their ?o+ and the ca'. $ho seems 'ear'ul o' angering the gods and $ho is an#ious to &lease them5 He is noticea+ly em+arrassed $hen the tea is returned5 Gus also seems to hold a greater sensitivity to his ?o+5 He is not only distur+ed a+out their murder o' the girl. such as F1rmitha *acarounada5F %en noticea+ly tries to cover u& his lo$er-class status +y &retending that he 4no$s ho$ to ma4e the dish5 "he characters6 dialect is also distinctly lo$er class.. $hile Gus o'ten s&ea4s in a lo$er-class 2oc4ney accent5 0merican audiences may not +e a+le to distinguish +et$een the &articular accents so readily5 :nterru&tions and a++reviations continue to &lay a signi'icant role in this section. $ithout %en6s ans$ering.)peaking 'ube until /nd %en decides that they should $rite a note telling the &eo&le u&stairs that they can6t 'ill the orders and. his 'eelings o' an#iety a+out the ?o+ and )ilson5 0nother order comes do$n the &assage 'or more 'ood $ith $hich they are un'amiliar5 *uch to %en6s chagrin. and something is odd a+out their interaction $ith the &erson or &eo&le u&stairs5 :n Godot. not merely a +asement. &erha&s +ecause. $hich inhi+its their a+ility to ma4e their o$n 'ood. names that &ale in com&arison to the e#otic names o' the ordered dishes. F"he larder6s +areHF %en ta4es the tu+e 'rom him and more 'ormally states that they are out o' 'ood5 He listens into the tu+e and re&orts to Gus that the 'ood they sent u& $as stale or $ent +ad. and a +ag o' chi&s5 "hey &ut everything on a &late. he in'orms Gus
. announcing the +rand names o' the 'ood5 %en tells him that he shouldn6t shout5 %en $arns Gus not to lose sight o' their ?o+ and tells him to get ready and &olish his gun5 Gus $onders a+out the &ossi+ility o' another near+y 4itchen. and a&ologi(es through the tu+e5 )hen he hangs u&. the &ac4et o' tea they sent u& has also returned. i' the gas stove is so ine''icient5 "he +o# descends again $ith another order. and then $ith the orders 'or increasingly 'ancy 'ood $ith $hich they are not 'amiliar5 *uch o' this class tension is +ound u& in language5 Gus tries to dress u& their o$n standard 'ood +y announcing the +rand names associated $ith the items. he 'inds a s&ea4ing tu+e 7an intercom-li4e device 'or communicating u&stairs85 Gus $histles into the tu+e. $hile Gus is $ary o' their relationshi& to the mysterious 'igure5 :t is there'ore not sur&rising that Gus is the one $ho loo4s u& and $ants to shout u& the hatch> investigating the god u&stairs. %en and Gus are at the +ec4 and call o' )ilson. the t$o men $ait around 'or a man named Godot $ho never arrives. $hile loo4ing 'or a &encil. to alert the &eo&le. it isn6t teatime5 !nalysis "he in'luence o' %ec4ett6s Waiting for Godot dee&ens in this section. %en and Gus6s communication $ith the u&stairs via the dum+ $aiter has +een +ased on $ritten notes $ith a++reviated sentences at that5 "his limited communication $ill assume a more sym+olic 'orm in the ne#t section5 Part Four. or at least to +re$ their o$n tea5 "heir an#iety am&li'ies $hen they 'eel they need to send more 'ood +ac4 u& the hatch. and Gus &ulls out another order 'or 'ood5 Gus loo4s u& the hatch. and says.
es&ecially. a closely monitored transaction o' in'ormation that ta4es &ains not to give too much a$ay5 %etrayal is a constant theme in Pinter6s $or4>he has a &lay titled Betrayal>and here $e must ta4e %en6s $ord that the ?o+ is a+out to commence. $ith its accom&anying s&ea4ing tu+e. %en states. and $ants to 4no$ $hy he6s &laying these games5 %en hits him t$ice on the shoulder5 Gus $ants to 4no$ $hy they6re +eing toyed $ith since they &assed their tests years ago and &roved themselves5 0nother order comes. not with one another5 Eittingly. $hich Gus re&eats. and they stare at each other through a long silence5 !nalysis "he dum+ $aiter. +ut to not ans$er a 4noc4 on the door5 He must shut the door +ehind the man $ho comes in $ithout e#&osing himsel' 7Gus8. instructions that Gus re&eats out loud5 %en instructs Gus to stand +ehind a door. stands on its o$n as a +etrayal. +ut %en then includes that Gus should have ta4en his gun out $hen he closed the door5 *oreover. and as4s $hy they $ere sent matches i' the man u&stairs 4ne$ there $as no gas5 He re&eats the @uestion and then as4s %en i' he 4no$s $ho is u&stairs5 "hey argue. ?ust as the dum+ $aiter restricts language 7either in the 'orm o' a note or the s&ea4ing tu+e8 to one &erson at a time! its very name indicates muteness5 "hey do not converse in true dialogue $ith one other5 3ather. and returns5 He &aces a+out. mechanical @uality o' language is the ultimate murderer here5 "he characters6 re&etition o' their ne$s&a&er routine>an act that surely occurs every day>is &art o' the slo$ a&&roach to death that Gus s&o4e o' at the start o' the &lay $hen he +emoaned his dull. $ants tea 'rom them5 %en. +ut $e do not 4no$ i' it $ill +e carried out the $ay he originally indicated or $hether he $ill end u& actually shooting Gus5 %ut the re&etitive. Gus reminds %en that so 'ar he hasn6t ta4en hi o$n gun out. it travels to and registers $ith the other. FEunny : never noticed it +e'ore5F He and %en have had a +loc4 in their communication $ith each other that is highlighted +y his re'erence to the tu+e used 'or communication5 "his lac4 o' communication heightens the sense that %en has +een $ithholding in'ormation 'rom Gus and &erha&s even +etraying his &artner5 )henever Gus strays too close to the truth>a truth %en seems to +e more a$are o'>%en $ithholds and alters crucial in'ormation 7such as his lie a+out the ca'. cyclical li'e5 %en6s instructions. almost as i' he $ere retracting the evidence on a dum+ $aiter and ad?usting it 'or the return tri&5 His language throughout the &lay. $hile the man u&stairs. )ilson and his FgamesF>%en de'lects the @uestion or descends into silence5 "hey communicate as i' $ith a dum+ $aiter! one says something. accom&anied +y a $histle 'rom the s&ea4ing tu+e5 Gus reads the order and yells into the tu+e that they have nothing le't5 %en &ushes Gus a$ay and sla&s him. they s&ea4 to each other. similarly drain the li'e out o' an act that itsel' see4s to end li'e5 Gus6s toneless echo is actually a 'orm o' silence that see4s to avoid having to &er'orm the horri'ying act5
.that the &erson on the other end used the &hrase FLight the 4ettleF $hen he as4ed 'or a cu& o' tea5 "hey then reali(e that they can6t light the 4ettle. concurs5 Gus leaves to get a drin4 o' $ater. and Gus reminds %en that he told him $ho o$ned the &lace. @uietly and $ith 'atigue. the man>or girl>$ill loo4 at them in silence5 Gus e#cuses himsel' to the +athroom. Gus ironically says. then. and shi'ts his ?ac4et to o+scure his gun5 He levels his gun at the door and Gus stum+les in. loo4ing trou+led. stri&&ed o' some o' his clothes and his gun5 He loo4s u& at %en. gives Gus the instructions 'or the ?o+. ordering him to sto&5 "hey retreat into silence>%en reading his ne$s&a&er>as the dum+ $aiter goes u& and comes do$n again5 %en e#&resses outraged ama(ement at a ne$s article. and Gus. 'or there is no gas5 Gus is u&set +ecause he is thirsty and hungry. $ho &ro+a+ly has 'ood. $here the toilet again does not 'lush. in increasingly lo$er tones. and then a re&ly is made 7i' at all85 :t is im&ossi+le 'or +oth men to s&ea4 their minds at once. +ecomes an agent 'or murder as the &lay ends. allo$ing the man to see and a&&roach %en5 )hen %en ta4es out his gun they $ill have cornered the man5 0t this &oint.6s changing o$nershi&8. and the s&ea4ing tu+e $histle +lo$s5 %en listens through the tu+e and re&eats out loud the order that the man has arrived and they $ill +e commencing their ?o+ shortly5 He hangs u& and calls 'or Gus. +ut the device is also a meta&hor 'or the ty&e o' communication that has already s&lit a&art %en and Gus5 )henever Gus +roaches an im&ortant to&ic>here. $hen he 'inds the s&ea4ing tu+e.
LL %en says this in Part three during the dum+ $aiter se@uence. 'eels he has to &rove some$hat his so&histication 'or the u&stairs &eo&le. $hen the men receive several orders 'or increasingly 'ancy 'ood 'rom u&stairs5 0shamed o' his o$n &overty and his lac4 o' re'inement. and most &roductions o' the &lay augment the characters6 $or4ingclass dialect $ith a&&ro&riate accents. %en &retends he 4no$s ho$ to ma4e the 'oreign dish to save 'ace in 'ront o' Gus. you come into a room you6ve never seen +e'ore. or at least through one o' his henchmen5 2lose FMyou come into a &lace $hen it6s still dar4. and he al$ays needs to re&lenish his d$indling su&&ly o' matches5 %en. similar to the $ay silence 'unctions in the $or4 in terms o' the a+sence o' language5 )ilson is a mystery to +oth o' them. on the other hand.1mportant 2uotations /xplained FHe might not come5 He might ?ust send a message5 He doesn6t al$ays come5F E#&lanation 'or Kuotation 1 LL Gus says this in Part three in re'erence to )ilson. he diverts himsel' $ith ho++ies. FLight the 4ettle. &articularly. 'eels uncom'orta+le around him5 "he 'act that )ilson sometimes sends messages indicates that the later messages through the dum+ $aiter and the s&ea4ing tu+e may +e 'rom him. $hich he urges Gus to ta4e u&. $hich a %ritish audience $ould identi'y as lo$er class5
. and Gus. challenging him to remem+er $hen he last sa$ his mother and calling attention to his o$n seniority5 "he act o' cho4ing &hysically cuts o'' Gus6s a+ility to s&ea4. as his voice gro$s in &o$er and Gus6s diminishes5 %en may also har+or some resentment a+out Gus6s lo$er.class &hrase. $hich only re@uires them to $or4 once a $ee4 7though they have to +e ready at all times85 He em+races routine and li4es nothing +etter than to read the ne$s&a&er and sco'' at the same outrageous stories each day 7an action that o&ens and closes the &lay85 "o +rea4 u& his routine. li'e is a dead-end o' routine5 He recogni(es that he and %en $ill never esca&e 'rom their lo$er-class roles. you do your ?o+. too. thin4s they are F'ortunateF to have their ?o+s. you slee& all day. announcing the +rand names o' the $or4ing-class 'ood they send u&5 :n +oth cases. 'or $hom %en says they must $ait5 )ilson is similar to the god-li4e Godot in /amuel %ec4ett6s Waiting for Godot.F ?ust as he does5 2lose FDo you 4no$ $hat it ta4es to ma4e an 1rmitha *acaroundaNF E#&lanation 'or Kuotation . +ut these are only tem&orary methods to distract himsel' 'rom his static &osition in li'e5 2lose F"HE BE""LE. even though he later concedes ignorance 'or even the sim&le &re&aration o' +ean s&routs5 Gus. and then you go a$ay in the night again5F E#&lanation 'or Kuotation C LL Gus laments the +oring re&etition o' li'e in Part 15 Eor him. such as 2oc4ney. ma4ing %en dou+ly &o$er'ul. language is tied to class. G1D E11LHF E#&lanation 'or Kuotation 9 LL %en screams this as he cho4es Gus in Part C5 :t is the culmination o' their de+ate over the &hrase FLight the 4ettle5F *ore im&ortant than the actual de+ate is the $ay %en6s language gradually +ecomes more menacing as he insults and intimidates Gus. $ho also 4ee&s t$o characters in sus&ense as they $ait 'or his arrival5 )ilson6s &o$er is greatly derived 'rom his very a+sence. and &erha&s his hostility s&rings 'orth 'rom this5 %en later e#&resses delight $hen the more so&histicated man u&stairs uses the &hrase. yet he cannot hel& +ut +e a creature o' ha+it>he constantly goes to the +athroom.
$hich ends $ith their cornering the target $ith their guns. and the echo is much li4e silence.2lose F%E I :' there6s a 4noc4 on the door you don6t ans$er it5 GD/I :' there6s a 4noc4 on the door : don6t ans$er it5F E#&lanation 'or Kuotation < LL "his e#change occurs near the end o' the &lay. +ut it is a clue that %en. is designed to co*er silences? (A) &oises (B) $peech (C) Actions (D) -choes
.scar !ilde (D) $amuel Beckett !hat. other than through the dumb waiter? (A) By yelling (B) Through the speaking tube (C) By running upstairs (D) ia telephone !ho is the men"s boss? (A) #ohnson (B) $palding (C) !ilson (D) Dennis the %enace !hat town are the men in? (A) Birmingham (B) &ottingham (C) 'ondon (D) (stanbul Harold )inter is hea*ily in+luenced by which (rish playwright? (A) $ean . %en also has a la&se $hen he 'orgets to tell Gus to have his gun ready5 Gus reminds him o' this and he corrects himsel'. according to )inter. or )ilson. rein'orcing Gus6s status as a human Fdum+ $aiter.F mani&ulated and $ithout any voice o' his o$n5 :n the directions. and the e''ect is that the ghastly deed o' murder +ecomes drained o' human emotion and sym&athy5 Gus is merely an echo. +e it a male or 'emale victim5 Pinter directs the actors &laying %en and Gus to deliver their lines $ith a mechanical detachment. intends the instructions to mislead Gus5 2ui3
How does Ben communicate with the person upstairs. in Part 'our5 %en states a series o' instructions to Gus 7$ho re&eats each line8 as to ho$ they $ill carry out their ?o+."Casey (B) #ames #oyce (C) .
us (C) !ilson (D) All o+ the abo*e !hat does .us say he always runs out o+? (A) /nderwear (B) 0ood (C) %atches (D) !ater !hat pre*ents Ben and .!hich o+ the characters has not seen his mother in a long time? (A) Ben (B) .us like to watch? (A) Cricket (B) 0ootball (American soccer) (C) $occer (British +ootball) (D) 0oot (-nglish sock)
.rmitha %acarounda (B) Bean sprouts (C) )heasant under glass (D) %acaroni and cheese !hat sport does .us +rom making tea? (A) They ha*e no tea packets (B) They ha*e no water (C) They decide it"s 1too British1 (D) They don"t ha*e money +or the gas meter !hat is 1The 0irst -le*en1? (A) A British con*enience store (B) A school"s top cricket players (C) The *olume control +or hea*y2metal bands (D) Ben"s +a*orite book !hat dish does Ben pretend to know how to make? (A) .