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MAKALAH

BAHASA INGGRIS

ABOUT STORY ABOUT ROMAN


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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. ARNOLDI SIHOTANG TIFA DARNI SAMOSIR VEPRIANI NASUTION LUSRA WATI ZENDATO VICTOR BONDAR

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MAKALAH

BAHASA INGGRIS

ABOUT STORY ABOUT ROMAN


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OLEH:

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. NAOMI ANGELINA SIMATUPANG WELLY ROITO SIMARMATA DESI SIBAGARIANG YUNI SIHOTANG TIWI SIMANJUNTAK

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MAKALAH

BAHASA INGGRIS

ABOUT STORY ABOUT ROMAN


D I S U S U N

OLEH:

KELOMPOK 2
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. ROTUA PANJAITAN CONNY PANJAITAN JESRIA PURBA GONGGOM HUTAGAOL RIADI PASARIBU

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BAHASA INGGRIS

ABOUT STORY ABOUT ROMAN


D I S U S U N

OLEH:

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. The Dissolution of the Roman Republic (50 BC) ............................................................ 2. Roman Birth of the Empire (30 BC) ................................................................................ 3. Year of four emperors (69 AD) ........................................................................................ 4. Crisis In the 3rd century (253-284) ................................................................................. 5. The spread of Christianity in the Roman ......................................................................... 6. The division of the Roman Empire (395) ........................................................................ 6.1 Regional Distribution by Diocletian (305). ............................................................. 6.2 Tetrachy (Four Leader) (285-324) ........................................................................... 6.3 Theodosius I, Last Emperor (395) ........................................................................... 7. Battle of Adrianople ............ ...........................................................................................

1. The Dissolution Of The Roman Republic (50 Bc)


Julius Caesar owned power acquired while he was serving as a member of the triumvirate ( a governing board consisting of the triad , when it : Caesar , Crassus and Pompei ) as a military leader . It was then that he started a plan to seize vast areas in northern Europe dominated the Gauls with the support of her best friend , Pompei Julius Caesar is remembered as the most perfect Roman emperor ( although Rome was still a republic office of the emperor during his lifetime and has not established until he died ) . He ruled ( 106-48 BC ) . Since the defeat of Carthage , about a century before Caesar's birth , the Republic of Rome was filled with civil war , rebellion military power , corruption , and the dissatisfaction of the board of the Senate as the center of government . A chaotic political conditions in a powerful republic in the middle of the sea . With the establishment of the triumvirate , some problems can be handled , although Caesar realized that the republican system has been improperly maintained . In the hands of Julius Caesar the Roman nation began to realize his dream to strike northeast and northern Europe . He urged the Roman border to mainland UK ( Brittania ) so that more than half of the European continent under the control of the Roman Republic . However Caesar victory was considered a threat to the republic by some members of the Senate , even Pompei supporting the Senate against Caesar . The situation is forcing Caesar to commit coup and ignoring the law of the republic 's government . From the north , Caesar with his army attacked and captured the city of Rome from the hands of the Senate , defeating Pompei and chased her to Egypt ( where he got only one remains due to head Pompei committed murder conspiracy in Egypt , it is very regrettable by Caesar ) . Make it as a victory of Julius Caesar Roman ruler with absolute power . He continued to rule until killed by a group of people who still support the republic in 44 BC . Julius Caesar of Rome changed the course of history - and of course , the history of Europe . In Rome itself , he overthrew the republican government ( despite having to do a coup and fought with his comrades in arms , Pompeius magnus ) and created the office of the fact is that according to an emperor , who made an official office by his nephew Octavian ( 63 BC - 14 AD ) when he came to power after the death of his uncle . When the new Caesar began to reign , Rome was the main ruler in the Mediterranean . At the time of his death , Rome also became the first government in the European superpower - or perhaps all over the world ( with the exception of the Persians under Cyrus and Macedonia under Alexander ) .

2. Birth of the Roman Empire (30 BC)


After Julius Caesar died , he was succeeded by his nephew named Octavian . But not only a big office , big issues also helped inherited his uncle , besides getting a lot of resistance from his rivals , Octavian also must dismantle scandal caesarean murder committed by a syndicate led by Gaius Cassius conspiracy and Mark Yunius Brutus . Therefore , he agreed to lead a triumvirate ( a governing board consisting of the triad ) together Marcus Lepidus ( ? -13 BC ) and Marcus Antonius ( 83-30 BC ) .

But once again , this triumvirate of government is not quite successful , giving rise to many problems including Mark Antony's love story with the Egyptian queen Cleopatra in the future . Cleopatra itself was the last leader of the last dynasty of Egypt ( Ptolemy ) , a queen who in the past have also been scandalous romance with Caesar . We leave first Cleopatra , Julius Caesar after the killers were caught and destroyed , triumvirate agreed to share power geographically , with Octavian in Europe , Africa and Lepidus in Antony of Egypt . In Egypt , Mark Antony began his reign in the cosmopolitan city of Alexandria , that's where he met Cleopatra ( 69-30 BC ) which later he married ( although it is probable the two had met when Caesar was alive ) . Slowly but surely , friend of Julius Caesar 's arms start moving party. He sets his three sons as his successor , and often times he presented his wife with expensive objects , even a rumor arose that he will award the city of Rome ( which is controlled by Octavianus ) to Cleopatra , as a gift . When the rumor spread and heard by Octavian , he became furious and declared war against Anthony . Both sides face to face in the Battle of Actium in 31 BC In . In the battle , forces and urged Anthony successfully defeated ( Anthony and Cleopatra then end their lives by suicide in 30 BC ) . Octavian declared himself as a Roman emperor with new titles , including Imperator and Emperor Augustus ( Augustus Caesar ) . With this declaration , the Roman Empire , the peak of political domination that was built during the 7th century , the official stand . Precisely in 27 BC .

3. Year four emperors (69 AD)


After Emperor Nero committed suicide in AD 68, a civil war erupted in the Roman Empire (the first civil war since Antony's death in 30 BC), a period also known as the Year four Emperor (Year of the four emperors). Between June 68 to December 69, Roman Emperor changed up to 3 times in one year (Nero replaced Galba, Otho replaced Galba, Otho Vitellius replaced, replaced Vitellius Vespasian, first ruler of the Flavian dynasty). This civil war period itself is considered to be the beginning of a black record in the history of the Roman Empire, because he has incurred huge implications on the political and military stability of Rome at that time.

4. Crisis In the 3rd century (253-284)


After Augustus declared an end to the civil war in the 1st century BC, the Roman Empire experienced a period in which the expansion of the region , peace , and economic kemakmurah felt all over the Empire ( Pax Romana ) . But in the third century , the Empire faced with a crisis in which the nation attacks bars , civil war , and hyperinflation occurs at the same time and continuously , which almost caused the collapse of the Roman Empire . This mess sala only due to the absence of a clear system governing the succession ( succesion) since Augustus died without a successor appointed Empire ( normally , power will be transferred to the child emperor , but at that time Augustus had no children ) . This causes chaos at the turn of the empire in the 1st century and 2nd , but usually the turmoil did not last long .

In the 3rd century , the peak of the empire led at least 25 years of Emperor between 235-284 ( commonly called Emperor - Military ( Soldier - Emperor ) . Emperor Most of these 25 have been killed or been killed in the conflict this century 3 . Periods this is considered expired after Diocletian ruling .

5. The spread of Christianity in the Roman


Approximately three centuries after the death of Emperor Augustus ( died in 14 AD ) , in the form of imperial Rome has grown rapidly . With a vast territory and invincible military power , the Roman Empire became the largest empire in the known world at that time , a period commonly known as the Pax Romana , where ever materialized . Constantine the great , or also known as Constantine I At this time , Christianity began to grow and flourish in Rome . Unlike previous religions, which is passed from generation to generation as cultural characteristics of a nation, Christianity is actively convert those who do not believe . Christianity originated from the Middle East and spread to Greece and Egypt . The Christian missionaries , especially disciples of Jesus , Peter ( ? -67 AD ) , pioneer of the spread of Christianity , together Saul of Tarsus ( 5-67 AD ) , now known as Paul , preaching the new religion throughout the Empire and even as far as Rome . At first , the arrival of this new religion could be tolerated by the Romans . But on further development , the Romans began to worry about the spread of Christianity so quickly . They are worried about this religion will split the unity of the Romans . So began the massacre of the people who embraced Christianity . They were killed , persecuted or be fed lion in a circus ring . Nevertheless , underground movements remain active Christians proselytize , they make Rome as the center of their movement . Until one day , this situation changed when Constantine ( 280-337 AD ) , who embraced Christianity , in power . Under his leadership , which initially opposed the religion , began to be accepted and even developed . In fact , he had become a mediator in a serious dispute about the doctrine between western and eastern groups in the Church . He invited the bishops representing both groups to attend a Council of Nicea in 325 AD . There differences between them resolved . The Nicene Creed , the manuscript was made at the conference , establish Christian beliefs are fundamental to both groups agreed . Furthermore , Constantine took a number of steps to save Christians from destruction , either as a result of external or internal strife persecution . It also establishes Christianity as the state religion of the Roman Empire across government . That's because his services , the religion began to spread even become dominant in the rest of Europe ( because when it was , the Romans controlled almost the entire continent of Europe ) .

6. The division of the Roman Empire (395)


Single division of the Roman Empire into two (Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire) occurred about 395 years after the death of Thedosius I. Power sharing is done through a series of interconnected events .

6.1. Regional division by Diocletian (305)


When the Roman Emperor , Diocletian began experiencing serious difficulties in running the government over a vast area , these difficulties include: The area is too wide resulting in coordination with other regional centers are blocked, it took many months for an edict or law of the seat of government samapai to remote areas The area is too wide it also results in lower supervision and custody of another nation attacks such as the Goths , Visigoths , Vandals and the Franks . Diocletian saw that the Roman Empire would not survive if it is led by the government alone , so he divided the empire into two at around the eastern Italian regions ( see ) , and called its leader with the title of Augustus The Western Roman Empire by Diocletian as Augustus for the Western Region Eastern Roman Empire with Maximian , Diocletian 's best friend , as Augustus region East Region However, at the time of the Roman Empire remains a single Empire , splitting into the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire occurred during the leadership Theodisius I.

6.2. Tetrachy (Four Leader) (285-324)


After the Roman Empire divided into two regions . In each of the 293 young emperor Augustus chose called Caesar (distinguishing between Emperor ( Emperor ) with Caesar ) as a maid and as successor administrative affairs of the Empire if they die ; become Caesar Galerius and Constantius Chlorus under Dioclotian under Maximian . This constitution is called Tetrachy in the science of modern government . At first , the system is quite successful in preventing the destruction of the Roman Empire . The decrease in power was held peacefully . Every Caesar , from the west or east , replacing each Augustus Caesar and raised New ; raised his nephew Maximinus Galerius , and Constantius Flavius Valerius Severus raised as his Caesar . But the situation changed when Constantius Chlorus died on July 25, 306 . Constantius troops in Eboracum immediately raised area Constantine , son of Constantius , as Augustus . And in August the same year , also decided to appoint Galerius became Augustus Severus . When dissatisfaction is rampant , Roma faced with a revolution that menginkan Maxentius Maximian child , became Augustus ( eventually he became Augustus on October 28, 306 ) . Unlike the others , the appointment of Maxentius was supported by the Praetorian troops . This led Empire has 5 leaders : Four Augustus ( Galerius , Constantine , Severus and Maxentius ) and a Caesar ( Maximinus ) And in the year 307 , Maximian also proclaimed himself as Augustus , next door to his

son Maxentius ( so in total , there are 6 people in the Roman Empire Augustus , namely : Maximinus , Maximian , Maxitius , Galerius , Constantine and Severus ) . However this is not approved by Galerius and Severus , giving rise to a civil war in the Italian regions. Finally , Serverus killed at the hands of Maxentius on September 16, 307 . Both (Maximinus and Maxentius ) was trying to lure Constantine to cooperate with how to match with Fausta Constantine , son Maxentius Maximian well as older sibling . Things are complicated when Domitius Alexander , Vicarius ( sort of governor ) of the province of Africa self-proclaimed Augustus in 308 . Seeing this development , it was held , which was attended by Congress Carnuntum Diocletian , Maximian , and Galerius The Congress resulted in the decision include: Galerius became Augustus in the Eastern Roman Empire Maximinus became Caesar in the Eastern Roman Empire Maximian Fired Maxentius was not recognized , leadership is considered illegal Constantine gained recognition , but his position became Caesar scaled in the Western Roman Empire Licinius replace Maximian as Augustus in the Roman Empire Western Region But the problem persists . Maximinus demanded that his title as Augustus returned. Finally, he proclaimed himself back as Augustus on May 1, 310 . Followed by Maximian that memproklamairkan himself , for the third time , becoming Augustus. But he ( Maximian ) was killed by his own law , Constantine , in July 310 . At the end of the year 310 , the Roman Empire is still led by 4 official Augustus ( Galerius , Maximinus , Constantine and Licinius ) and an illegal Augustus (Maxentius) Galerius , the Roman coins . Galerius died in May 311 leaving Maximinus sole ruler of the Roman Empire as the Eastern Conference . At the same time , Maxentius declared war on Constantine , who had killed his father ( Maxentius Maximian is the biological father ) . But it backfired war for himself . He was killed in a battle against Constantine , Battle of the Milvian Bridge , on October 28, 312 . Due to the death of Maxentius , Augusti ( the plural of Augustus ) only trace 3 ; Maximinus , Constantine and Licinius . Licinius later married Constantia , sister of Constantine , to tie friendship with Constantine . In August 313 , Maximinus was killed in the area of Tarsus , Cilicia . Remaining Augusti ( Licius and Constantine ) finally agreed to split the two regions of the Roman Empire , as was done by Diocletian ; Constantine in the Western Roman Empire , and Lucius in the Eastern Roman Empire . This power sharing lasted for ten years . Until the year 324 , a battle between the two remaining Augusti happen . The war ended with the defeat of Lucius , making Constantine as sole ruler in the entire Roman Empire .

Then Constantine decided that almost destroyed the Empire , requiring new capital as the center of government . He decided to move the seat of government to the ancient city of Byzantium and changed its name to Nova Roma ( but later , the city was known as Constantinople , the city of Constantine ) . Constantineople continues to be a center of the glorious reign of Constantine until his death on May 22, 337 .

6.3. Theodosius I, Last Emperor (395)


In 392, Valentinian died in Vienne. I Theodosius succeeded him, ruling the entire Roman Empire. Theodosius had two sons (Arcadius and Honorius) and a daughter, Pulcheria, from his first wife, Aelia Flacilla. Daughter and his first wife later died in the year 385. From his second wife, Galla, he got a daughter, Galla Placidia, the mother of Valentinian III, a person who later became Emperor of the Western Roman Empire. After his death in 395, her power is divided to two Arcadius and Honorius; Arcadius became ruler of the Eastern Roman Empire, with its capital of Constantinople, and Honorius became ruler in the West, with its capital Milan. This division is considered as the end of the Roman Empire Single.

7. Battle of Adrianople (378)


Battle of Adrianople (August 9, 378) was a battle between a Roman army led by Emperor Valens and Germanic tribes (Germanic Tribes, mostly from the tribe of Visigoths and Ostrogoths) led by Fritigern. Battle of Adrianople occurred in the area and ended with a crushing defeat of the Roman Empire. This battle resulted in the death of the Emperor Valens.