Spatialization: A Strategy for Reading Narrative Author(s): Susan Stanford Friedman Source: Narrative, Vol. 1, No. 1 (Jan., 1993), pp.

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D. "Word. suggest that we can read grid. second. adapt spatial tropes narrative by interpreting the text's horizontal and vertical narrative movements and intersections. Modernity. Brooks defines narrative as "the play of desire in time" (xiii) and identifies two sites for this play: first. Penelope's Web: Gender. on narrative's essential relation to time.. oppositions. at of of is the Virginia Woolf Professor of English and Women's Studies at Madison the University of Wisconsin and the 1992 President of the Society for the Study is also the author of Psyche Reborn: Narrative Friedman Professor Literature. and desires" resistances. as the play of desire in space as well as time. Such interactions are events. Dialogue. Like Paul Ricoeur in "Narrative Time. The Emergence Susan H. I will argue. (xiv). the special form in which the "intrinsic by which he means interconnectedness of temporal and spatial relationships" is expressed in litera ture (Dialogic Imagination of 84). Invoking Einstein's theory relativity. by considering discussion narrative. This content downloaded from 200. compulsions." Brooks insists upon the temporal dimen sion of narrative. conflations. and. wherein desire to order compels the plot's unfolding. that take place at moment text in a kind of interdependent in the every interplay of surface and depth. she advocates of axes in an intertextual word and the vertical horizontal "spatialization" along I will to In this her essay. D. I adapt M. Bakhtin's concept of the chronotope. I want to extend Brooks's of narrative" by reintroducing the issue of space into a "dynamics of narrative. and articles on narrative Friedman theory. which are included in her collection Desire in Language. I define narrative most simply as the representation of movement within the coordinates of space and time. the text itself. of these narrative desires involves seeing "the text itself as a system of Analysis internal energies and tensions. Such moments Stanford may appear as juxtapositions.133.65 on Tue. Bakhtin argues for the "inseparability of space and time" (84) and resorts repeatedly to I also want to develop Julia spatial tropes in his analysis of various chronotopes. Here. adaptations of Bakhtin's and Novel" both of (1966) and "The Bounded Text" (1966-1967). the space between text and reader. Kristeva's spatial tropes in two early essays.Susan Stanford Friedman Spatialization: A Strategy for Reading Narrative In Reading for the Plot.224. 16 Jul 2013 09:41:14 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . in introducing a reading practice based in the her concept of intertextuality. wherein the reader's desire for plot impels the reading (37-61). M.2 Here. andH.'s Fiction. in other words.

" by which she means with its writer. What vertical axes. avant of si text as diach for textual activity.65 on Tue. readers. text. function as coordinates a critique of the static analysis of structuralism and a call for the identification identifies this process as funda of textual process. . . Kristeva of word. corpus and the text as an absorption of a reply to another text" (Desire 69). Kristeva's earliest essays pose rony. intersection. She coins the term "ideolo the text and its precursor geme" to identify the point of intersection between This content downloaded from 200. spatialization?with axes. who is either a character to whom the speech is directed or. Rather. and context (Desire 69). insistence on spatialization. and story. Consequently. She graphs these intersections by identifying as the writing or coordinates" the mensions and exterior addressee. in his influential essay.Spatialization :A Strategy for Reading Narrative 13 or mirrorings of narrative convergences. 16 Jul 2013 09:41:14 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . join to form a fluid "story" of a dynamic by the reader. text as a dynamic "productivity. trajectory. constitutes the spatialization multaneity a verbal surface or place in which both space and time. coordinates. loop. any text is the absorption and transformation of another" the text's "three di (Desire 66). texts. subject. In her early work. for the visualization of the text-in-process. or contexts." writer and reader. horizontal. These moments in turn text ever in process. linearity.224. text and context (Desire 65). vertical. This in relation with other writings. ever "narrated" OF THEWORD KRISTEVA'S SPATIALIZATION its attendant graphic tropes of coordi For Kristeva. the text as a writing vertical axis emphasizes In a text's dialogic interaction operates along both horizontal other words. and intertextual?at the level mentally dialogic "considers writing as a reading of the anterior literary she explains. for Kristeva." an "operation" (Desire 36-37). and so forth?allows the dimension. social and historical context as a necessary dimension she should never be merely a "linguistic" process focused on an isolated suggests. and from text to contexts. [A]ny text is constructed mosaic of quotations. but rather a dialogue of emerges from a text is not "a point (a fixed meaning). the reader. What axis is a line drawn from writing she calls the horizontal subject across to the addressee. of the text in question. surface. Invoking Bakhtin. does not mean the erasure of time by space. as it does for Joseph Frank. more generally. she advocates a reading of what she calls the "translinguis the text's dialogue along horizontal and vertical axes tic. sentence. synchrony and who. Reading. from writing subject to addressee. Kristeva's which embeds is part of her Bakhtinian project to (re)insert the her critique of pure formalism. as a least one other word (text) can be read." she continues. of a text. This horizontal axis represents the text as a trans action between writer and reader. The vertical axis is a line starting with the text and moving down to the exterior texts.133. "Spatial Form inModern Literature. Spatialization nates. . "is an intersection of word (texts) where at "Each word (text). Bakhtin." argues that in modern literature created an illusory effect garde narrative techniques and unity.

one (hori Both axes represent a movement through space and time?the The of characters within their fictional world. these axes feed off each and readers. . involves an interpretation of the continuous interplay between the horizontal and vertical narrative coordinates. the interpreting complexities fully spatialized reading of a given narrative text. We can graph Bakhtin's and vertical narrative axes. he concludes. we sense the chrono tope of the represented world as well as the chronotope of the readers and .65 on Tue. as listeners or readers). giving for the dialogic ideologeme means reading the text "within (the text Reading of) society and history" (Desire 37). [B]efore us are two events: the event that is creators of the work. and text. reader.133. the zontal) referring to the movement other (vertical) referring to the "motions" of the writer and the reader in relation to each other and to the text's intertexts. two chronotopes topes of the writer. This SPATIALIZINGNARRATIVE of the word has potential applications for narra Kristeva's spatialization tive. text's] texts. "narrated" by the reader. This content downloaded from 200. I separate them only other symbiotically. writers neither exists by itself as a fixed entity. trajectory. . Bakhtin's notion of the novel's double chronotope is of a modern in the segmentation literary work. . these events take place in different times . 16 Jul 2013 09:41:14 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The space and writer and reader occupy as they inscribe and interpret what Kristeva calls the constituted through the "signifying practice" of the text and "subject-in-process" its dialogues with literary.224. the vertical movement exists fluidly as a writing inscribed by the writer and reconstituted by the reader more or less consciously and to a greater and lesser degree depending on the specific As different functions of narrative. As an interpretive strategy (not as a narrative typology). social. I will alter her model of a text's vertical and horizontal axes at the same time as I maintain her insistence on historical and intertextual resonances. for the insight that such a spatialization for for strategic purposes. and historical intertexts. and in different places. provides of A overdetermined narrative.14 Susan Stanford Friedman is "materialized" "along the entire length of its [the ideologeme it its historical and social coordinates" (Desire 36). narrated in the work and the event of narration itself (we ourselves partici pate in the latter.(255) is made up of the interacting chrono totality of the work. . Where the horizontal movement exists in finite form within the bounded world of the text. I propose two kinds of are reconstructed intersections narrative axes whose by the reader in the inter active process useful: Even of reading. is a "story" based on a of The "plot" intersection. The horizontal narrative axis in along horizontal of the characters through the coordinates of textual volves the linear movement vertical narrative axis involves the space and time the time. as narrative.

reinforce and undermine each other. as we across it. move The vertical axis of narrative involves reading "down into" the text.4 As with any text. Reading the horizontal narrative axis. The palimpsest?a tablet that has been written on many times.Spatialization :A Strategy for Reading Narrative 15 reading of the different forms that intersection takes through time. that "happens" according to the ordering principles of the plot and narrative point of view. plot the movements of their characters through the cities of Dublin and London on a single day in June." But in bringing the horizontal narrative to life. the vertical narrative has many superimposed like surfaces. Setting. from the omniscient unreliable. Dalloway. The vertical does not exist at the level of sequential plot. we ask. the forms of the horizontal narrative differ particularly in their handling of chro the "well-made" to the nology. dependent on the horizontal narrative as the function that resonances adds multiple to the characters' movement through space and time. layered and overwritten the human psyche. action. In simplest ing the sequence is the story about? What happens? Where? Why? What terms. Let me specify in more detail what Imean by horizontal and vertical nar rative coordinates. As readers. and narrative point of view?from to the multiple. whether internal or external. that is. reading the horizontal narrative involves interpret inscribed in the linearity of sentence and story.3 The horizontal narrative follows and is constrained by the in sequence of the sentence that moves horizontally linearity of language?the is of the plot from "be alphabetic scripts repeated in the horizontal movement the categories of start and finish are customarily ginning" to "end. the written impression remains but in the wax beneath the clean plastic slate ("A Note"). picaresque or "plotless" plot." however in part by historically understood. to become what Peter Rabinowitz and James Phelan variously call the "narrative audience" that participates in "the mimetic illusion" (Phelan 5). with prior layers as an apt metaphor for the vertical dimension of imperfectly erased?serves narrative. This content downloaded from 200. for example. what Ross Chambers refers to as the of force" the narrative (4-5). who does it "mean"? Ulysses and Mrs." and closure are its familiar components?the focus of much tradi progression. the horizontal narrative is reconstituted in the process of reading. we focus on the exterior and interior actions and thoughts of Clarissa and Septimus. Determined specific narrative conventions. how the horizontal and vertical narratives converge and separate. from the epistolary to the embedded and complexly narratives. but rather resides within. and (as Molly well as a host^of others).224. echo and oppose. Bloom. tional narratology. we may imaginatively inhabit their space and time. teleology. character. the reader (like the writer) nonetheless remains in a different space and time from that of the characters. Its attendant meanings are consequently dependent on what Brooks calls the reader's "performance" of the text (37). The horizontal narrative is the sequence of events. But for all forms.133. hidden.65 on Tue. Stephen. 16 Jul 2013 09:41:14 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . embedded. Freud's image of the psyche as the "mystic writing-pad" serves equally well?for with this mechanism. or framed first-person narrator. Instead of the single textual surface of the horizontal narrative. and what Phelan identifies as "nar "performative rative dynamics. initiating "problem.

More we that intertextual reference be may recognize highlighted or muted. in having its protagonist or marginally?within one or texts exist?however centrally.5 three distinct strands of the vertical narrative can be interwoven. ambivalently. usefully separated for purposes of analysis: the literary. interpreting. within which the specific text is read?for its uses and rescriptions. in the mind of the characters?in the space and time of the horizontal narrative. space-time. the because it has no narrator of its own. its repetitions and play. more literary traditions or cultures. these dialogues exist They are the layered surfaces beneath and within the horizontal narrative. with what has been written before. In Mrs. feminist. Whether consciously produced by the as "the mosaic of quotations" that traverse the text. Afro-Americanist. sister.16 Susan Stanford Friedman The point of these tropes is not to suggest a simple equation of the horizontal and the vertical narrative with the unconscious. When consciously intended by the writer.65 on Tue. generally. these intertextual resonances establish an indirect com between writer and reader. Septimus as Shakespearean figure within the anguished postwar landscape. narrative with consciousness Rather. not only dialogues with such epistolary inscriptions of rape as Richardson's Their Eyes Were but also signifies on the oral frame of Hurston's Clarissa.224. in which Janie narrates the events of the story to her friend God. within the grid of the as a story of development that progresses Bildungsroman conventionally veer to and engagement. it is the reader who "narrates" the story of for example. all literary riage plot. The writer's a its invo chronotope. More broadly. Horizontal an have narratives. Henry Louis to identify a culturally specific form of the term "signifyin(g)" Gates proposes a mode tied to the African-American oral and written traditions intertextuality. and of speakers and writers self-reflexively intentionally playing off the dis course of others in the tradition. writer. and the psychic. they suggest that every horizontal narrative has an embedded vertical dimension that is more or less visible and that must be traced by the reader not yet named as such. We cations and revocations. or unconsciously tropes of spatialization. The epistolary mode of Alice Walker's The to writes letters first to in which God and then Celie her Color Purple. The literary aspect of the vertical narrative exists first of all in relation to and reader's awareness of genre conventions exists as a genre. Although and Marxist narrative theory. The Voyage Out. Woolf 's first novel. but they are not narrated by it and may seem tangential to it. the historical.133. Both the literary and historical aspects of the vertical narrative involve narrative's dialogues with other texts. in reading the horizontal that Kristeva the various forms of intertextuality introduces in her other words. and on the story of incest in Toni Morrison's The Bluest Eye. as sacrificial lamb and Christ fool. consequently. for example. This content downloaded from 200. Dalloway. Watching Phoebe. Although vertical narrative has been the focus of much recent post-structuralist. read. with the characters and events of the munication Such resonances do not usually exist horizontal narrative as points of mediation. as scapegoat. only suddenly away from the mar through courtship die at the end. a vertical dimension that narrated accomplishes indirectly dialogic engagement In The Signifying Monkey. 16 Jul 2013 09:41:14 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .

subvert. DuPlessis' the part that "story" plays in both ideological and oppositional acknowledges discourses. of Margaret Garner's attempt to kill her children when faced with their and her own return to slavery in 1856. with the dominant and marginalized cultural scripts of the social order. The historical aspect of the vertical narrative represents a similar mosaic of one that refers to the larger social order of the writer. Such a mosaic may involve reference to a specific historical event that as Morrison's the text reconstructs?such retelling in Beloved.224. Or. with key depar tures. and otherwise engage forth?stories. with a that interact psychodynamically. and aporias can be read vertically to gain some sort of access to the textual unconscious. In Beloved. (Interpretation of Dreams guised expression at work the textual sites often that deconstruction in unravels to sub enigmatic vert underlying binaries. These political resonances that traverse the text might include inter locking narratives of race. textual gaps. in which the desire to express and the need to repress the result of a negotiation that takes the form of disguised speech. sexuality. But com present. more broadly. like a dream.Spatialization :A Strategy for Reading Narrative 17 or revisionist. 1-19). As Shoshana Felman does in her reading of James's The Turn of the Screw. then. inferiority the psychic aspect of the vertical narrative involves recognizing Reading that a text can be read as a linguistic entity structured like a psyche. but his call for the critic to read the text for signs of its repressed political scripts is useful. that reproduce. and so in other words. knots. reading this aspect of the vertical narrative allows for an analysis of the text in dialogue with "its historical and social coordinates. dream-work?the mechanisms non-rational condensation. can force a compromise be read as a site of repression and insistent return. and quotations. reader. western and bestiality. conscious and an unconscious Freud's concept in the process of splitting suggests that nothing is of the psyche as perpetually ever lost. the vertically embedded cultural scripts or textual uncon scious include many "stories" of race and gender relations: for example. patterns of slave resistance. this historical mosaic calls "cultural scripts" layered into the may involve what Rachel Blau DuPlessis term horizontal narrative (Writing beyond the Ending ix-xi.65 on Tue. text. and secondary revision?is useful for decoding dis are These mechanisms 311-546). Freud's grammar for the of displacement. ethnicity." by which struggle present in trace form on the surface of the text (20). His assertion that narratives of class struggle subsume all other stories is dangerously bounded. the text is. class. modes of representability. but only forgotten. the master's theories of black and African right to violate slave women.133. white women's liminal race privilege and gendered alterity. Whether these political position between and historical narratives are buried in the text or openly scripted. This content downloaded from 200. The text. collaborative intentionally or unintentionally mon to all intertextual resonances is a story of dialogue narrated by the reader that takes place outside the spatial and temporal coordinates through which the characters of the horizontal narrative move. such narratives constitute what he calls the "political uncon the "buried and repressed" narrative of class he means scious. religion." as Kristeva advocates (Desire 36). 16 Jul 2013 09:41:14 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . gender.6 Analogically speaking. silences. For Fredric Jameson.

I am adapting Freud's This content downloaded from 200. Paint It To-Day and Asphodel. Language. H. while the succeeding will be more confident and distinct" (369). short. Instead of the the "final" dimension vertical privileging psychic text as the "definitive" one.224. earlier versions of a text can be read vertically as the textual unconscious of the horizontal gal Cycle"?a the teens?forms Live [A represses the stories of lesbian desire and illicit motherhood Madrigal]) both of that are fully narrated in the earlier texts. mic dimension of language that exists prior to and outside a system of signifi back to the pre-oedipal cation?harkens period of the child's desire for the maternal instrumental aspect of meaning-centered. Revolution in Poetic Language. as a kind of repetition compulsion can in which the earliest ver be read story sions are the most disguised. He suggests that the mechanisms dreams the relation among the dreams and that "the first of these homologous one to occur is often the more distorted one and timid. body."9 part larger composite A relational text?the that can be interpreted is useful (Interpretation part of a larger dream-text of of the dream-work govern Dreams 369. guises certain forbidden elements involves "text" the "story" of condensa the reconstructing composite Reading and secondary revision from one version to another. we can read the various versions of a text as an in which each text forms a distinct.8 differences governed by the Law of the Father ("Signification of the and for the the and differ semiotic Reading interplay symbolic?newly one that in text?is form the constituted vertical narrative every reading ently can take.18 Susan Stanford Friedman is doing in her integration of This is also. with each repetition the repressed content that needs to be remembered. I would suggest. reading strategy based on the compositional history of the of the writer?offers another mechanism for chronotope reading the of narrative.65 on Tue. 563).133.1 Kristeva inverts Lacan 's axiom that the uncon scious is structured like a language to suggest that the text is structured like a she argues. text.'s "Madri narrative in the published novels about her life during of three autobiographical triptych a composite text in which the last one she wrote (Bid Me to bringing the writer closer to Here. psychoanalysis. Tracking the various versions of the series of drafts preceding a published or self-conscious same story can reveal a process of conscious self-censorship of the horizontal narrative revision textual represses or further dis whereby that remain as part of the vertical narrative. The symbolic?that language that exists after the child grasps the principle of signification?reverts back to the oedipal period when (according to Lacan) the child's realization of of language based on a system of allows for the acquisition sexual difference of the Phallus"). Freud's grammar can be adapted to read what gets repressed on the one hand and worked through on the other in a text. what Kristeva Bakhtinian Lacanian and Barthesian in semiotics dialogics. yet interrelated overdetermined palimpsest a Freud's concept of dreams in a series as being of "text. The semiotic?that oral and rhyth modalities. displacement. 16 Jul 2013 09:41:14 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . to be "drafts" for Bid Me to Live. always engages in a dialectical psyche.10 which she ultimately considered a writer's repeated return to the scene of writing a particular Conversely. For example. In tion. interplay of two the semiotic and the symbolic. D.

analogy analytic and nov in is in which elistic transference narratives. give us access to the psychic dimension together as a composite notion narratives about narrative. play between two different chronotopes?the and the synthetic realm of the author and reader." Earlier or later versions of the horizontal narrative. Other interpre tative strategies have gained access to a text's literary and historical resonances resort to spatial tropes. For Phelan. it is the play between a theory that and the synthetic that accounts for narrative progression. the 115). active. can. like spatialization of narrative axes. when read of the text. text and context. James Phelan's and synthetic dimensions the mimetic of character as the distinction between it represents yet another. (including "A Portrait of the Artist. writer and reader. and situational nature of narrative processes. For him. go beyond these other methods by facilitating Spatialization some new readings of narrative that might not otherwise exist. D(a)edalus.65 on Tue.Spatialization: A Strategy for Reading Narrative 19 scene in which the analysand repeats the of analysis as a transference material in a process of "working and dreams symptoms produced by repressed to conscious recollection of what has been for leads that ultimately through" This between gotten ("Further Recommendations"). 16 Jul 2013 09:41:14 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . however. vertical autobiographical Joyce's Stephen for example. in other words. such as Ross Chambers.11 NARRATIVE? WHY SPATIALIZE narrative in spatial terms? In contrast What do we learn by conceptualizing to typological approaches. of course. The notion of a in the horizontal vertical axis embedded suggests the way in which historical. psychic or to the text associatively. and Ulysses) constitute a composite "text" in which the death of Joyce's mother and the son's remorse remain unnarratable until the final text in the series?present only in trace forms that can be inter preted with Freud's grammar for the dream-work. without have developed ways of reading what he calls "not the actual historicity of texts. within "thick description" contractual appeal and adaptation of Clifford Geertz's rep resents a different route to reaching some of the same objectives. randomly. more than resonances attached intertextualities and constitute literary. Instead." Stephen Hero. but situation" (10). that the text operates on an inter assumes.133. inter spatialization emphasizes it also provides a fluid. Spatiali relational approach that connects zation is not. His analysis of a text's them of historical the markers. A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. they initiate stories themselves?dialogic narratives "told" by the reader in collusion with a writer This content downloaded from 200. the only way to produce such readings. suggestively. cogent autobiographical especially "I now" and the written "I about then" perform the split subject of the writing the different roles of analyst and analysand in a kind of "writing cure. Other critics.224. mimetic world of the characters. the mimetic reader experiences aspect of the character as authorial construction the reader's awareness suppresses as part of a communication this construction while the synthetic foregrounds between mimetic author and reader (1-27. the psychodynamic. can.

writings: . originally presented 2. and the contemporary or earlier cultural context" the addressee (De sire 65). and psychic to become narrated in the reading process. But in general. that suggests interpretive strategy spatialization regards a . is the contribution made by Kristeva's graph of the writer/reader the concept of interactive zontal axis) and text/context (vertical axis). This Virginia the theoretical section of a much essay presents longer essay that includes a reading of s The Voyage Out. Moreover. among dialogue meaning). spatializing narrative the various forms of narrative gives us a systematic way of approaching text and of the with its writer In and world. A "full" reading of narrative axes is not possible in a bounded text because. Woolf It was on Narrative at the International in Nice. .224. of Woolf out of the drawing room and into the world of letters. 16 Jul 2013 09:41:14 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . horizontal and vertical narrative axes allows for a relational reading of the two that produces a "story" not present in either axis by itself.20 Susan Stanford Friedman who or unconsciously. June 1991. I would (hori argue. as the text's dialogism is unbounded. the Bildung that ends in death. is the story of the intersections between the horizontal and vertical coordinates. For example. The vertical narrative. as an initial declaration from the dominant literary and historical narratives of the early of independence in this case between the horizontal and twentieth century. as in Alice Doesn't Time" and de Lauretis in "Women's do Kristeva (143). discourages a notion of the text as a multiplicitous and encourages and dy interpretations. reconstructed by the reader. Brooks's critique This content downloaded from 200. Conference France. one that led rebellion. (re)connecting dialogism an Kristeva's words. . forthcoming in Kathy Mezei's Feminist Narratology. ENDNOTES 1. The confrontation a vertical narratives constitutes "story" of its own that is present in neither nar rative axis by itself. See also Winnett's of model. Such spatialized readings also allow us as readers to construct a "story" of the fluidly interactive relationship between the surface and palimpsestic into account all depths of a given text?taking resonances the historical. I am not suggesting binary for time as space. .133. that are embedded within the literary. is the story of 's successful "voyage out" of the marriage plot. . inscribes them in the text consciously This. the horizontal narrative of The Voyage Out is the story of failure. namic site of repression and return.65 on Tue. The rich est insights produced by a spatialized reading strategy may well reside in the way it potentially produces interpretations of the textual and political un conscious of a given text or series of texts. a masculine/feminine For my purposes here. intersection a point text as "a dynamic textual rather than of surfaces a as several fixed that of the (a writer. . But a reading strategy based in the identification of horizontal and vertical nar "definitive" and bounded ratives axes fosters relational readings. horizontal narrative and waiting Ideally such a story is made up of a sequence of relational readings that at every point in the horizontal narrative examines its vertical component. like the dream in Freud's psychoanalysis.

dimensions. Barthes's "Introduction See for example discussion and Brooks's Phelan. Chatman. proposed to his work on the rhetorics of character in relation and audience" remains progression. M. 8. Austin: and Michael Holquist. See my "(Self)-Censorship in Joyce: The Return of Joyce's Modernity" in this collection The essays of reading the vertical nar of the Repressed. 1981. and New York: Vintage. (13-106) and "From One Identity to an Other" (Desire especially Revolution 124-47). Translated by James Strachey. New In Image?Mu 1977. Freud.224. Riffaterre. text. Joseph of Chicago Allen. York: Columbia Leo. Gates. made and de Lauretis. Ross.'s Madrigal the different versions of the Dedalus narratives Cycle. DuPlessis.Spatialization :A Strategy for Reading Narrative 21 3. n. with both early and late texts serving as the textual unconscious and the Making series. Chatman. and Jameson. Culler. of Minnesota 1984. as early as Josef Breuer's 6. of course. Counter-Tradition: Love and the Form of Fiction. historical. Rabinowitz distinction. Tradition 1987. 5. of Fiction. for the others in the ways. D. provide examples and psychic rative axis in its literary. Seymour. Univ. for example. of Narratives" York: Hill Translated by Caryl Roland. WORKS CITED M. principle written Studies on Hysteria (1895). nell Univ. the "authorial structed?nature which Phelan audience" (which the narrative) extensively the story as "real") and (which accepts "aware of the synthetic"?that is. of Texas Press. (Reading See their distinctions of develops between the "narrative covertly to the Structural of spatialization of Narratives". Josef and Sigmund Breuer. New York: Basic Books. See Revolution according conscious. Chambers. to an Other" "From One Identity and (Desire 124-47) For other formulations of the textual un (Desire231-70). Bersani. "Textual the Power Minneapo Narrative Structure in Fiction and Film. Press. Chicago: Univ. This is. 16 Jul 2013 09:41:14 AM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . to Bellini" also Freud's "Repression. con the original (Phelan 5). sic?Text. Bakhtin." 7. The Dialogic Imagination. For a different itive" 10. the Plot: Design and Intention Seduction inNarrative. 369-76. Press. Jonathan. and Freud's jointly especially "Motherhood a founding of psychoanalysis. Boone. and Wang. Story and Discourse: 1978. Brooks. Analysis in Russian Formalism and French 4. Press. Ithaca: Cor Self-Consciousness and the Textual Unconsciousness. 1984. Chambers." Style 18 (1984): This content downloaded from 200. See see Culler. structuralism 16). "Introduction translated Edited Univ. New and Desire (1966). Peter. 9. See (13-106).133. Genette. Story and Situation: Narrative lis: Univ. Felman.65 on Tue. by Stephen Analysis 79-124." can be read both 11. by Michael Holquist. to the Structural Heath. Emerson Barthes. Like H. inWomen's for the "defin A Critique fully of Modern I have made in "Return of the Repressed Narratives. See.d. Press. Kristeva. A Future for Astyanax: Bersani. Brooks. attempt to move see Jerome McGann's this argument more textual criticism beyond the teleological search Textual Criticism. 1984. Reading for Studies on Hysteria (1895). Character in Literature.

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