In the name of All°h, The Most Gracious, The Most Merciful

Topic of Discussion Topic of Discussion Topic of Discussion Topic of Discussion: The : The : The : The Signs of a Muslim Signs of a Muslim Signs of a Muslim Signs of a Muslim
Øad¢th # Øad¢th # Øad¢th # Øad¢th #2 22 23 33 3 [ Discussion # [ Discussion # [ Discussion # [ Discussion #3 33 33 33 3 ] ]] ]
Lectures on Akhl°q given by His Eminence
Ayatull°h al-`U®m° al-Ø°jj ash-Shaykh N°•ir Mak°rim ash-Sh¢r°z¢ (may All°h protect him)

Translated by Saleem Bhimji – www.al-mubin.org – al-mubin@al-mubin.org
Topic: The Signs of a Muslim

Text of the Øad¢th:

· ..` . ' · ) ¸. ' . ·¯ ·,· `· ( · .. ¸ ·=`- : ' .' ' ´ .`¸ . ' . `· ¸· `.´` ' `` .` ¸`-
' ´ `¸ · `¸· · . . ·- · . ' ·.` ' ¸`- ¸· ' `·.`- . - `· . `·` . .`· · ¸· '·` ' `` - ¸`-
· . · ¸' - ´· · ' `¸' . - `¸· `·` ' , `. `-`· …
TRANSLATION TRANSLATION TRANSLATION TRANSLATION: The Messenger of All°h (blessings of All°h be upon him and his family) said in his speech: “O’
People! Surely a servant will not be counted as one of the Muslims until other people are protected from his hand
and his tongue; and he will never reach to the stage of a true believer until his brother (in faith) is safe from his
evil and his annoyance, and his neighbor is protected and safe from his harshness and anger; and he will never
reach to the stage of being of the All°h-Conscious (one with Taqw¡) until he keeps away from those erroneous
actions which cause him to spiritually pollute himself. Surely the person who fears that he will remain asleep,
moves at night...”
Commentary of Øad¢th:

In reality, in this Øad¢th the three words: Muslim, Mo˜min and Muttaq¢ have been explained, and for each of these
words, there is a special level and limit set which one must pass through.

The Prophet (blessings of All°h be upon him and his family) has stated that, “A person cannot be considered as a
Muslim until other people are safe from his hand and tongue and if this is not the case, then such a person is not a
Muslim. In addition a person is not considered as a Mo˜min until his Muslim brother and his neighbours are safe
from him annoying and aggravating them.”

The Prophet (blessings of All°h be upon him and his family) has used two forms of the words “.” and “¸·'” in
this Øad¢th since the reality of Isl°m is complete submission (.,) and also making sure that others are safe or
protected from the person (·) and both of these concepts are contained within the understanding of the word
Isl°m. Thus, a person must be safe from both the physical (hand) of another Muslim and his tongue.

The Mo˜min or true believer is the person whose friends and neighbours are safe from his hands, while the
Muttaq¢ or one who possess consciousness of All°h (Glory and Greatness be to Him) is the one who refrains from
all doubtful things. If a person pollutes his soul with the doubtful acts, then surely he is not a true Muttaq¢.

Bi¶°r al-Anw°r, Volume 74, Page 177
Any person whose tongue acts like that of a snake or scorpion and is busy hurting others through his speech,
involved in backbiting, levelling false accusations against others, making fun of other people and humiliating
them, destroying their character, cursing them, etc… and injures other people, is not considered as a Muslim!

There are many people who are tricked and misled by Sha¢ß°n (Satan) and thus, when they are involved in a
serious conversation, they protect their tongue (from speaking bad things). However when they are busy joking
with others, then they perform these things (which were just listed above) which they would not do while
engaged in a serious discussion. For example, while a person is busy joking with others, he may humiliate or
make fun of his Muslim brother and would keep busy in bugging and teasing him and then he would say, that “I
was only joking with you and I did not mean what I said.”
Sometimes, such joking is even much worse than speaking the truth since when a person is speaking the truth, he
is limited and maintains restrictions and boundaries in what he is saying. However when he begins to joke
around, then he transgresses these limits and boundaries.
If we carefully look through history, we see that court jesters and clowns used to speak truthful things to those in
their presence, however they covered such speech in jokes and amusements. The function of these court jesters
was not just to keep the King busy, rather, one of the philosophies of these clowns and jesters was that whenever
those who were around the King were not able to tell something very important to the King directly, they would
pass the information on to the clown or jester and he would convey this information to the King in a way of
joking and amusement and thus, the jokes and playing of the jester was actually more serious than the truth!

The true believer is one who is very respected in Isl°m and we are not permitted to even joke with a true believer
– in this meaning of this as was just mentioned – and it is not permitted to destroy his character or personality.
May we seek refuge with All°h (Glory and Greatness be to Him) if one of us – under the pretence of making a
joke – destroys the character of another believer!
Of the sins which result in tearing of the curtains (between a person and All°h) are: Rejecting and changing the
talk that one is hearing when it is vain, futile, joking discussions which only make others laugh. In order to better
understand this issue, pay attention to the following a¶°d¢th:

· ..` . ' · ) . . ·¯ ·,· = ¸ :( . ' . `:-` . ,· ·´ `.´, ¸`-` `- `·` ; . ..`. ' ¸· ·` ' ´· .
The Messenger of All°h (blessings of All°h be upon him and his family) has said, “Surely a person sometimes
speaks something at which those present in the gathering begin to laugh and thus he becomes further away (from
All°h) than the Pleiades (a star constellation.)”
· ..` . ' · ) . ·¯ ·,· = ¸. :( ··¯ ' `.· .- . ' ·`-. .
The Messenger of All°h (blessings of All°h be upon him and his family) has said, “Making many jokes results in
one’s honour being removed.”
`¸· ¸ `-` · ) ·· ·,· ( · . : . ` . .·,· ·` ; . ` `-` ,· `- . :`,· ' .
It has been narrated that Ab¢ Mu¶ammad – Im°m Øasan ibn `Al¢ al-`Askar¢ (peace be upon him) has said, “Do not
disagree with others or else your respect will be removed and do not make too many jokes, so that you are not
treated with immodesty.”
Øakam ibn Ab¢l `™• (the father of Marw°n who later on attained the Khil°fat) was one of the strongest enemies
of the Messenger of All°h (blessings of All°h be upon him and his family) who annoyed the Prophet (blessings of
All°h be upon him and his family) quite alot. Of some of the ways that he bugged the Prophet (blessings of All°h
be upon him and his family) was that whenever the Messenger of All°h (blessings of All°h be upon him and his
family) would walk through the streets of Makkah, he would follow the Prophet (blessings of All°h be upon him
At this point, we look at the topic of refraining from doubtful things.

In the Science of Jurisprudence (`Ilm£l Fiqh), actions which are Makr£h (reprehensible) fall into the category of
being permissible to perform and it has been mentioned that in all areas where there is a doubt – whether the act
is obligatory or forbidden – the principal is that it is permissible. However at the same time, they are many
instances in which those same doubtful things act as the bridge towards the forbidden acts. It is for this reason
that a person must not make his way to the ultimate level of the permissible acts. Why? This is said because the
final level of the permissible acts is the edge where the forbidden acts begin and there is a possibility that at any
moment, the person could trip and fall into the forbidden deeds.

In the commentary of Nahjul Bal°gha if Ibn Ab¢ al-Øad¢d it is written that:

' . ¸- . ' · - · `·`·
“Be advised that the protected limits of All°h (which we must not transgress) are those things which He has made
There is an area which a person is prohibited from entering into and if he does move close to it, we see that
sometimes through transgressing the boundaries, he would be overcome by the evil whisperings such that he
would proceed to move forward (towards the ¶ar°m acts) due to the excuse that:

·.´`· ¸ ¯ - ` ; · ¸ ¯ ..`= - `
“All doubtful acts are permissible, and all acts which are acts which one is uncertain about are (also) permissible.”

Thus, such a person would then begin to perform those actions which it is possible, would cause him to enter into
sin and would be classified as forbidden (¶ar°m) acts. All of these acts are permissible to perform, however at the
same time, we must not approach to the boundaries of the forbidden acts since this boundary is one full of

Of course we are not saying that we must refrain from all Makr£h (reprehensible) acts, however there is a
difference here and in certain instances, we must be extremely careful. If a person wishes to stay away from the
danger boundary, then he must also distance himself from the uncertain and doubtful acts.

The final sentence in his Øad¢th is that if a person succeeds in destroying the mystique behind sins and no longer
feels frightened at performing forbidden acts, then he will easily contaminate his pure essence. When some
people who sin speak to others about their life and the actions that they had performed in the past, they say, “The

and his family) and make fun of him and would try to imitate the way and manner of which the Prophet
(blessings of All°h be upon him and his family) would walk and it is through this, that the enemies of Isl°m
laughed and taunted (the Prophet).

Finally one day, the Messenger of All°h (blessings of All°h be upon him and his family) turned around and
seeing that this enemy was busy in imitating him in his actions, the Prophet (blessings of All°h be upon him and
his family) told this man:

¯ `¸¯ :
“Stay as you are.”

From that point on until the day that he died, his body was constantly trembling and thus, he died in state of
intense quivering. (Punishment of Sins, Page 10)
Volume 4, Page 232
very first time that I performed such and such sin, I felt my entire body tremble. However after continuously
performing that sin, it became common place and second nature for me.”

Thus in summary, that which protects a person is him being frightened of performing a sin, however when
committing sins becomes common place, then he resorts to trying to justify his sinning and he would try to make
every uncertain and doubtful act something permissible.
…and all praise belongs to All°h (Glory and Greatness be to Him), only the mistakes are mine

As for the punishment and effects of performing sins, some of the Scholars of Akhl°q have mentioned many
punishments and effects that performing sins has on a person of which, we suffice which just mentioning three

1. The effect on the soul of the person. 1. The effect on the soul of the person. 1. The effect on the soul of the person. 1. The effect on the soul of the person. The sin has an effect on the heart and soul of the person who commits a
sin and if the sin had no other effect than to cover the heart with spiritual darkness, then this itself would be
enough to keep away from sins.

When an oppressor raises his hand to hit the oppressed person, the first detriment is that the oppressor’s heart is

In the Isl°mic narrations it has been mentioned that for every sin that a person performs, a black dot is placed on
his heart and through the repetition of sins, these black dots become more and more until the time that they take
over his entire heart, and as the Noble Qur˜°n has stated:

... ' - `.~ · ,=- `·`· ...
“…and who are surrounded by their evil deeds and sins….” (S£rah al-Baqarah (2), Verse 81)

By this we mean that when a person’s entire presence is polluted with sin, then it is very hard for him to return
back to the straight path. At the time when the black dots on the heart are few and the rest of the heart is still
bright (with the Divine Light), one must work hard to remove those few black specks, however when the sins
become many, then even those few bright spots are covered over.

2. Effects of Sinning in One’s Life: 2. Effects of Sinning in One’s Life: 2. Effects of Sinning in One’s Life: 2. Effects of Sinning in One’s Life: The person is – by nature – societal and one of the most important merits that a
person possesses is his interdependence upon others within his life. Thus, if people were to lie to one another,
then everyone would lose confidence and trust in one another such that no one else would ever be able to have
trust in each other and everyone would be careful to make sure that others do not try to fool them. It is because
of this that lying and performing sins, slowly transform a societal life of people into a life of individualism and
the spirit of help and assistance to others is removed from the society.

3. Th 3. Th 3. Th 3. The Effects of Sinning in the Next World: e Effects of Sinning in the Next World: e Effects of Sinning in the Next World: e Effects of Sinning in the Next World: We must fully accept that sins are never destroyed and they are
always with the person. For example, the lie that was told many years ago – even in the next world – will follow
the person step by step and be with him continuously just as the Noble Qur˜°n tell us that:

`=` ·`. ' · .` `.·` · `·
“On that day shall humanity see all that their hands had sent forth.”
And thus on that day, all of the actions of the person will be physically manifested in front of him.