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In the name of All°h, The Most Gracious, The Most Merciful

Topic of Discussion Topic of Discussion Topic of Discussion Topic of Discussion: :: : The Way to Keep Away from Doubtful The Way to Keep Away from Doubtful The Way to Keep Away from Doubtful The Way to Keep Away from Doubtful
Things and the Lower Desires Things and the Lower Desires Things and the Lower Desires Things and the Lower Desires (of the Soul) (of the Soul) (of the Soul) (of the Soul)
Øad¢th # Øad¢th # Øad¢th # Øad¢th #2 22 28 88 8 [ Discussion # [ Discussion # [ Discussion # [ Discussion #3 33 39 99 9 ] ]] ]
Lectures on Akhl°q given by His Eminence
Ayatull°h al-`U®m° al-Ø°jj ash-Shaykh N°•ir Mak°rim ash-Sh¢r°z¢ (may All°h protect him)

Translated by Saleem Bhimji – www.al-mubin.org – al-mubin@al-mubin.org
¿¸.¸.·· : ¸. ....·· ,... .·¸,.·· , ..,..··
Topic: The Way to Keep Away from Doubtful Things
and the Lower Desires (of the Soul)

Text of the Øad¢th:

· ..` . ' · ) ¸. ' . ·¯ ·`,· `· ( : ` ¸`.` ' ´ ·`. `¸ ' , `¸· ·· · `¸· .` - . : ´· ·.`` `¸· · ¸ ' ` ¸
' ·.`´` ; ' ·.`. ` · ·`¯ ; ' ·`- ·`,. · ` ' ·.` · . · , . · `.´ `.- ·.`` · ¸ ' ` ·.`- · ¸ , . ·
`.´ `..`· `. · . ·.`··· .` ·' · `.´ `.`· ·`. · ·'·' · . · ; ` `·` · `· . · ·`. ' , ¯ `¸· ·· ¸· `· .
' · ' `- `·. ·· .`. ,· . ' · ...· ' · `·`.· .`· ` `. . ¸ : · `¸ · ' · -` . ' ¸· `·` `- ' ·
TRANSLATION TRANSLATION TRANSLATION TRANSLATION: The Messenger of All°h (blessings of All°h be upon him and his family) has said, “Surely when
the Day of Judgment comes about, everyone will be grouped according to one of three deeds (and put into the
hell fire): It may be due to the doubtful things of the faith which they performed; or it may be due to the desires of
the lower self which had an effect or it may be due to the prejudice which had been acted upon
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. So then if any

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The word “..·” and the word “.,.·” comes from the root word “..·” in the meaning of tape or some
connector which joins things which are separated together and then later on, the words ‘Ta`a•ub’ and ‘`Asabiyyah’
were used for any sort of interaction or relation between people, however this word is usually used in the
meaning of excessiveness in relations and is not a good term or word to use.

In the Isl°mic narrations, ‘Ta`a•ub’ has been introduced as a despicable ethical trait and has been severely
discouraged to such a point that in a Øad¢th from the Noble Prophet of Isl°m (blessings of All°h be upon him and
his family), we are told that:

¯ `¸· · . ¸ ·· ·`- .·`- `¸· `¸· ·`,.· `··· . ' `· ·`. ' , · · ·· ' `· . ' - ·`, ·
“The person who has even the weight of a mustard-seed of nationalism in his heart, All°h will raise him up on the
Day of Judgement with the pre-Isl°mic desert `Arabs.”

In another Øad¢th, this time from Im°m Ja`far ibn Mu¶ammad as-Æ°diq (peace be upon him) we read that:
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confusions or doubts come to you in matters of your religion, then remove them through certainty (of faith) and if
your lower desires come upon you then stand up to them through asceticism and if anger takes over you, then
remove it through forgiveness. Surely the Caller will call out on the Day of Judgment that whoever has any
rights upon All°h should stand up and take them back from Him. So then none except those who forgave others
(in the world) will stand up – have you not heard the words of All°h, the Most High, “So then he who forgives
and makes correct the relations, so then his reward is with All°h.”
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Commentary of Øad¢th:

In this Øad¢th, the Noble Prophet (blessings of All°h be upon him and his family) has explained to us the way to
flee from the lower desires of the soul and doubtful things and has stated that the doubtful affairs are made clear
through possessing certainty of the heart. In addition, the lower desires of the soul can be cut off through
observing self-discipline. However as for the fire of discrimination – any form of discrimination that it may be –

·` ·- `· .`· .`.`·` ` .`. · `¸· ' . ` . `¸· ·``·
“The person who shows discrimination or is discriminated against, surely has severed true faith from himself.”

From the Isl°mic narrations, we can deduce that it was Ibl¢s who was the first creation to show discrimination. In
the Khußbah known as Al-Q°•i`iah (Khußbah number 192), Am¢r al-Mo’min¢n `Al¢ ibn Ab¢ L°lib (prayers be upon
him) has mentioned in detail and in complete clarity the issue of nationalism and discrimination of which we
quote just an excerpt:

' ´· .`.· · .`¸,` ·`.. ··¯ ¸· · ·`,· ¸· ~ ¸ · .·- . : ' . .` ~ , ¯¸
“As for Ibl¢s, so then he showed bigotry over ™dam due to his origin and challenged him in relation to his
creation and had said, “I am of fire and you are of the Earth.”

The Im°m (peace be upon him) then continues and states:

¯ .· . . ¸· `` ' `.´`'. · `¸´,· .·`,. · ´ · ' .- -· . · ' . ·· - · . ¸ ' . .`·
“So then if you are compelled to show discrimination, then let your discrimination be due to righteous etiquette,
characteristics and beautified (good) deeds.

In addition, in this Øad¢th we can clearly see that firmly standing for that which is the truth is something very
good, and not only is this act not considered as discrimination, rather, it is through this act that the soul of the
person is actually emptied from all the incorrect actions of the ignorant and filled with true faith. And thus, we
read in a Øad¢th from Im°m `Al¢ ibn al-Øusain (peace be upon him) that when this Im°m was asked about bigotry,
he replied:

' ·`,. · ' ¸ .`,· `.' . .`- . ' . . ' ¸`-` ··`.· ,- `¸· `,- ·`.· ¸-¯ . ¸· ¸`, ' ·`,. · ' `.-` .
' .`··`.· ¸`-` ¸· `¸´ ' ·`,.· ' ·` . ¸ · `··` .· ' . =
“That form of discrimination for which a person is considered as a sinner is when a person sees the worst of
people of his nation as being better than the best people of another nation. And discrimination is not that a
person loves those of his own nation, rather, discrimination is when he helps and assists his own people to
commit oppression.”
Tafs Tafs Tafs Tafs¢ ¢¢ ¢r rr r- -- -e ee e- -- -Namuna, Volume 15, Page 354 Namuna, Volume 15, Page 354 Namuna, Volume 15, Page 354 Namuna, Volume 15, Page 354
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Bi¶°r al-Anw°r, Volume 74, Page 180
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this must be cooled with the power of forgiveness and it is due to the deeds which have been mentioned in this
Øad¢th that people will enter into the Hell Fire.

However, there are a group of people who are protected when in the presence of sins and are not dragged
towards these sorts of deeds. For example, it is impossible to think that a true religious Scholar would – may
All°h protect us – drink alcohol or gamble, however, that young individual who has been placed in a polluted
environment in which these sins take place would very quickly be attracted to these things.

In addition, those who are knowledgeable of the religion would not be pulled very easily into doubtful issues
whereas this does not hold true for the “common people”. Sometimes, when the person would want to justify
something, he would search through the verses of the Qur˜°n and the a¶°d¢th and would try and find some
ambiguous issue and then would hold firm onto that – he would pre-judge something and would bring forth
proofs which are weaker than the a spider’s web.

However, we must first see what All°h (Glory and Greatness be to Him) and the Prophet (blessings of All°h be
upon him and his family) have said and must consider ourselves as students of the Qur˜°n – not teachers of the
Qur˜°n!

Thus, it is for this reason that the Prophet (blessings of All°h be upon him and his family) has said that the source
of people going to the hell fire are three things: following doubts, discrimination and following the lower desires
of the soul.

In continuation of the Øad¢th, the Prophet (blessings of All°h be upon him and his family) has mentioned, “On
the Day of Resurrection, a caller will proclaim that anyone who has any reward to claim from All°h (Glory and
Greatness be to Him) should stand up. At this point, only those people will stand up who – during the time of
anger – had chosen the path of forgiveness and pardoned his brother in religion.”

After this, the Prophet (blessings of All°h be upon him and his family) himself answers the question which was
posed that, “Why do these people have a right on All°h?” The Prophet (blessings of All°h be upon him and his
family) states that, “Have you not heard this verse of the Qur˜°n which states:

· `¸ · ' · - `. ' ¸· `·` `- ' ·
“So then he who forgives and makes correct the relations, so then his reward is with All°h.”

Therefore, we too must strive to establish love between the Muslims.

O’ All°h! You have ordered us to forgive one anther, however You are much more worthy of forgiveness than we
are – we have committed oppression upon our own souls – please forgive us!

…and all praise belongs to All°h (Glory and Greatness be to Him), only the mistakes are mine