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MANUFACTURING PROCESS Some of the technological options for converting iron ore to steel products is schematically shown below.

Hot metal and crude steel process are also inter linked among themselves as represented by arrows. IMPORTANCE OF STEEL Steel has had a major influence on our lives, the cars we drive, the buildings we work in, the homes in which we live and countless other facets in between. Steel is used in our electricity-power-line towers, natural-gas pipelines, machine tools, military weapons-the list is endless. Steel has also earned a place in our homes in protecting our families, making our lives convenient, its benefits are undoubtedly clear.Steel is by far the most important, multi-functional and most adaptable of materials. The development of mankind would have been impossible but for steel. The backbone of developed economies was laid on the strength and inherent uses ofsteel.The various uses of steel which in turn is a measure of adaptability of steel can be judged from the following characteristics of steel :Hot and cold formable- Weldable- Suitable machinability- Hard, tough and wear resistantCorrosion resistant- Heat resistant and resistance to deformation at high temperatures.Steelcompared to other materials of its type has low production costs. The energy required for extracting iron from ore is about 25 % of what is needed for extractingaluminum. Steel is environment friendly as it can be recycled. 5.6 % of element iron is present in earth's crust, representing a secure raw material base . Steel production is 20 times higher as compared to production of all non-ferrous metals put togetherThe steel industry has developed new technologies and has strived hard to make the world's strongest and most versatile material even better. There are altogether about 2000 grades of steel developed of which 1500 grades are high grade steels. There is still immense potential for developing new grades of steel with varying properties .The large number of grades gives steel the characteristic of a basic production material Steel has enjoyed an important position in our lives and will continue to do so in the years to come. However, the degree to which it maintains its dominant position will depend on if steel can exploit its potential by developing new higher grades and adaptable grades . This can be achieved by refining the structure and applying alloying techniques and thus furthering its utility value. We will have to find out ways to use steel and be ready to face a stiff competition from Aluminium in the future. Iron and steel in historyIt is believed that iron in pre-historic times may have been obtained from fragments of meteorites and it remained a rare metal for many centuries. Even after man learned how to extract iron from its ores, the product probably was so relatively soft and unpredictable, that bronze continued to be preferred for tools and weapons. Eventually iron replaced the non-ferrous metal for these purposes when man learned how to master the difficult arts of smelting, forging, hardening and tempering iron.Man's use of iron in antiquity is attested by references to the metal in fragmentary writing and inscriptions from the ancient civilizations of Babylon, Egypt, China, India, Greece and Rome. Archeological finds in Mesopotamia and Egypt are proof that iron, and later steel, have been in the service of mankind for almost 6000 years. In early times, iron was melted with the use of charcoal made from wood. Later coal was discovered as a great source of heat. Subsequently, it was converted into coke, which was found to be ideal for smelting of iron ore.Iron kept its dominant position for around 200 or more years after the Saugus works, the first successful iron works in America, was founded in 1646. With the advance of the Industrial Revolution, iron formed the rails for the newly invented railroad trains. It was also used to armour the sides of the fighting ships. About the mid-19th century, the age of steel began with the invention of the Bessemer process (1856), which allowed steel to be made in large quantities and at reasonable cost.Use of iron in ancient IndiaIndian history is also full of references to the

use of iron and steel. Some of the ancient monuments like the famous Iron pillar in New Delhi or the massive beams used in the Sun Temple atKonark bear ample testimony to the technological excellence of ancient Indian metallurgists.The use of iron in India goes back to the ancient era. Vedic literary sources such as the Rig Veda, the Atharva Veda, the Puranas and epics are filled with references to iron and to its uses in peace and war. According to one of the studies, iron has been produced in India for over 3000 years in primitive, small-scale facilities. Iron and steel in history It is believed that iron in pre-historic times may have been obtained from fragments of meteorites and it remained a rare metal for many centuries. Even after man learned how to extract iron from its ores, the product probably was so relatively soft and unpredictable, that bronze continued to be preferred for tools and weapons. Eventually iron replaced the non-ferrous metal for these purposes when man learned how to master the difficult arts of smelting, forging, hardening and tempering iron. Man's use of iron in antiquity is attested by references to the metal in fragmentary writing and inscriptions from the ancient civilizations of Babylon, Egypt, China, India, Greece and Rome. Archeological finds in Mesopotamia and Egypt are proof that iron, and later steel, have been in the service of mankind for almost 6000 years. In early times, iron was melted with the use of charcoal made from wood. Later coal was discovered as a great source of heat. Subsequently, it was converted into coke, which was found to be ideal for smelting of iron ore. Iron kept its dominant position for around 200 or more years after the Saugus works, the first successful iron works in America, was founded in 1646. With the advance of the Industrial Revolution, iron formed the rails for the newly invented railroad trains. It was also used to armour the sides of the fighting ships. About the mid-19th century, the age of steel began with the invention of the Bessemer process (1856), which allowed steel to be made in large quantities and at reasonable cost. Use of iron in ancient India Indian history is also full of references to the use of iron and steel. Some of the ancient monuments like the famous Iron pillar in New Delhi or the massive beams used in the Sun Temple at Konark bear ample testimony to the technological excellence of ancient Indian metallurgists. The use of iron in India goes back to the ancient era. Vedic literary sources such as the Rig Veda, the Atharva Veda, the Puranas and epics are filled with references to iron and to its uses in peace and war. According to one of the studies, iron has been produced in India for over 3000 years in primitive, small-scale facilities. Some milestones in iron and steel in Indian history 326 BC Porus presented Alexander 30 lbs of Indian iron Kautilya (Chanakya) showed knowledge of minerals, including iron ores, 300 BC and the art of extracting metals in 'Arthshastra'. A 16-meter Iron pillar erected at Dhar, ancient capital 320 AD of Malwa (near Indore). Iron pillar in memory of Chandragupta II erected near Delhi. This solid 330-380 AD shaft of wrought iron is about 8 meters in height and has dia. 0.32 to 0.46m. 13th century Massive iron beams used in the construction of the Sun temple, Konark 16th century Indian steel known as 'Wootz' of watery appearance used in the Middle

17th century

1870 1907 1953 1954

East and Europe Manufacture of cannons, firearms and swords and agricultural implements 1830 Suspension bridge built over the Beas at Saugor with iron from Tendulkhma (MP). JM Heath built iron smelter at Porto Nova, Madras Presidency Bengal Iron works established at Kulti Tata Iron & Steel Company formed Indian Government entered into agreement with Krupp Demag, Federal Republic of Germany to set up steel plant at Rourkela Hindustan Steel Limited formed to construct and manage three integrated steel plants at Rourkela, Durgapur and Bhilai

Annealing A heat or thermal treatment process by which a previously cold-rolled steel coil is made more suitable for forming and bending by heating to a designated temperature for a sufficient amount of time and then cooled. The bonds between the grains of the metal are stretched when a coil is cold rolled, leaving the steel brittle and breakable. Annealing "recrystallizes" the grain structure of steel by allowing for new bonds to be formed at the high temperature.There are two ways of annealing :Batch(Box). Three to four coils are stacked on top of each other, and a cover is placed on top. and :Continuous: The coil is uncoiled and run through a series of vertical loops within a heater: The temperature and cooling rates are controlled to obtain the desired mechanical properties for the steel. Alloy Steel A material containing Iron carbon (less than 2%), Silicon, Manganese plus Alloy elements like Chromium, Vanadium, Molybdenium, Tungsten, Nickel, Lead, Naboium, Copper etc. B Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) A pear shaped furnace in which hot metal is refined to decrease carbon, silicon etc (components) by blowing oxygen thereby melting steel in liquid form. Impurities go out in gaseous form & slag Bars Long steel products that are rolled from billets. They include rounds, flats, angles, squares, and channels that are used by fabricators to manufacture a wide variety of products such as furniture, stair railings, and farm equipment. B.F. Coke The sized coke, obtained from screening in the range of 25 mm to 80 mm, which is suitable for charging in the blast furnaces Billet A semi-finished steel form that is input material for manufacturing "long" products: bars, channels or other structural shapes. Billets are normally two to seven inches square, Black Plate Cold-reduced sheet steel, 12-32 inches wide, that serves as the substrate (raw material) to be coated in the tin mill. Blast Furnace Blast Furnace is a counter current vertical shaft furnace (refractory lined)which reduces iron oxides present in ores and sinter into liquid iron called hot metal by using coke as fuel and reducing agent. Raw materials are charged from the top. Fluxes (lime stone and dolomite) are added to remove the impurities which come out as slag. Preheated air is blown from the bottom through water cooled copper tuyers to facilitate the reactions in the furnaces and the burden charged from top descends causing the counter current

interaction. Hot metal and slag are periodically tapped from bottom and gases rising from the top are cleaned and used as fuel in the steel plant. Bloom A semi-finished steel form whose rectangular cross-section is more than eight inches. This steel shape is input material for producing I-beams, H-beams and sheet piling. Reduction of a bloom to a much smaller cross-section results in formation of Billets. COKE OVENS-SINTER-BF-BOF ROUTE The most common steel making technology is the Bf-Bof Route. Coke is used in Blast Furnace (BF) both as a reductant and as a source of thermal energy. It involves reduction of ore to liquid metal in the blast furnace and and refining in convertor to form steel. The various stages of the steel plant is described below. COKE MAKING - COAL CARBONISATION: Coking coals are the coals which when heated in the absence of air, first melt, go in the plastic state, swell and resolidify to produce a solid coherent mass called coke. When coking coal is heated in absence of air, a series of physical and chemical changes take place with the evolution of gases and vapours, and the solid residue left behind is called coke. Conventional cokemaking is done in a coke oven battery of ovens sandwiched between heating walls. They are carbonised at a temperature around 1000 o-1100o Cupto a certain degree of devolatization to produce metallurgical coke of desired mechanical and thermochemical properties. During carbonisation, coking coals undergo transformation into plastic state at around 350o-400o C swell and then resolidify at around 500o-550o C to give semi-coke and then coke. In coke ovens, after coal is charged inside the oven, plastic layers are formed adjacent to the heating walls, and with the progress of time, the plastic layers move towards the centre of ovenfrom either side and ultimately meet each other at the centre. During cokemaking, two opposite reactions take place, viz. condensation and pyrolysis. The quality and quantity of plastic layer is of extreme importance and it determines the inherent strength of coke matrix. For producing coke of good quality, coals should have certain degree of maturity (rank 1.1-1.3), good rheological properties (about 2001000 ddpm by Gieseler Plastometer), wide range of fluidity and lowinerts. The various modification in the coke making which have improved coke yield and reduced sp. Energy consumption are : Partial Briquetting of Coal Charge (PBCC): The technology involves charging about 30% coal blend in the form of briquettes. Briquettes are prepared using a binder (pitch/ pitch+tar) upto 2. to 3.0% of charge. Coke quality significantly improves as a result of increase in bulk density of charge. Stamp Charging of Coal : The technology basically involves formation of a stable coal cake with finely crushed coal (88-90% - 3mm) by mechanically stamping outside the oven and pushing the cake thus formed inside the oven for carbonisation. Coal moisture is maintained at 8-10% for the formation of cake. Due to stamping, bulk density of charge increases by 30-35% causing significant improvement in micum indices and CSR values of coke. Oven productivity increases by 10-12% & there is a possibility of using inferior coking coals to the extent of about 20%. Selective Crushing of Coals : In this technology, the aim is to improve homogeneity of reactive & inert components in coal by reducing the difference properties of coarse & fine size fractions. For petrographically heterogeneous coals like Indian coals, this technology is very helpful. Dry Coke Quenching : Dry quenching of coke is a major technology for the postcarbonisation treatment which has come up in a big way. Here the red-hot coke is cooled by inert gases, instead of conventional water quenching. It not only effectively utilises the

thermal energy of red-hot coke (80% of the sensible heat of coke can be recovered & made use of for production of steam) but also results in improvement of the coke quality (M10 index can be improved by 1 point). SINTERING Sintering is a technology for agglomeration of iron ore fines into useful Blast Furnace burden material. This technology was developed for the treatment of the waste fines in the early 20th cenmtury. Since then sinter has become the widely accepted and preferred Blast Furnace burden material. Presently more than 70% of hot metal in the world is produced through the sinter. In India, approximately 50% of hot metal is produced using sinter feed in Blast Furnaces. The major advantages of using sinter in BFs are : Use of iron ore fines, coke breeze, metallurgical wastes, lime, dolomite for hot metal production Better reducibility and other high temperature properties Increased BF productivity Improved quality of hot metal Reduction in coke rate in blast furnaces The raw materials used are as follows - Iron ore fines (-10 mm), coke breeze (-3 mm), Lime stone & dolomite fines (-3mm) and other metallurgical wastes. The proportioned raw materials are mixed and moistened in a mixing drum. The mix is loaded on sinter machine through a feeder onto a moving grate (pallet) and then the mix is rolled through segregation plate so that the coarse materials settle at the bottom and fines onto the top. The top surface of the mix is ignited through stationary burners at 1200 oC. As the pallet moves forward, the air is sucked through wind box situated under the grate. A high temperature combustion zone is created in the charge -bed due to combustion of solid fuel of the mix and regeneration of heat of incandescent sinter and outgoing gases. Due to forward movement of pallet , the sintering process travels vertically down. The different zones created on a sinter-bed are shown in the adjoining figure. Sinter is produced as a combined result of locally limited melting , grain boundary diffusion and recrystallisation of iron oxides. On the completion of sintering process, finished sinter cake is crushed and cooled. The cooled sinter is screened and + 6 mm fraction is despatched to blast furnace and -6 mm is recirculated as return sinter. BLAST FURNACE The Blast furnace iron making process basically consists of the conversion of iron oxide to iron in liquid form . This requires reductant for reduction of iron oxide and heat for the above reduction reaction to take place and for melting the products of smelting. The primary source to fulfill both these requirements is carbon (in the form of coke), which shares major portion of cost of hot metal production. The blast furnace is a vertical counter-current heat exchanger as well as a chemical reactor in which burden material charged from the top descend downward and the gasses generated at the tuyere level ascend upward. The inside profile of the furnace from top to bottom is termed furnace throat, shaft, belly , bosh and hearth. The throat is the top part of the furnace and includes the installation necessary for charging coke and burden materials and drawing off the top gasses . The top gas containing the flue dust is routed from the furnace top to the gas purifiers and

then to the consumption zones. The profile of the furnace widens in the shaft that follows. The widening of the furnace chamber from top to bottom is necessary to avoid hanging and scaffolding of the burden in the blast furnace when they expand during heating . The height of the shaft is about 3/5 of the total height of the furnace. The shaft is followed by the belly , in the bosh below this , the profile again narrows, as this is the part of the furnace where the stock column starts to melt and volume of the furnace can be reduced. The hearth is the lower cylindrical part of the furnace where the fluid slag and the hot metal accumulate. Arranged in the upper part of the hearth are water-cooled tuyeres made of copper. The hot air for combustion is injected through these into the blast furnace. Hot metal is tapped through the tap hole, which is opened by power driven drills into a train of ladles kept below the runner of the cast house. Slag comes along with the metal and is skimmed off with the help of skimmer plate towards slag runner and is collected in slag thimbles. The tap hole is tightly sealed with a mud gun after tapping process is complete. Raw material ( ore, sinter , coke ) are screened before being charged into the blast furnace through conveyors or skip. Air for combustion in the blast furnace is blown from turbo blowers which are preheated in hot blast stoves to temperatures around 1300oC , which is then blown through tuyers into theblast furnace. Each blast furnace is equipped with two or more stoves which operate alternatively. Preheating of air helps in reducing fuel consumption in the furnace. Reaction From top to bottom of the furnace the following process occurs : -Drying , preheating, ejection of hydrate water -Indirect reduction -Direct reduction -Melting In the top third of the shaft, gas delivers its heat so that the charging materials are preheated and dried . When a temperature of 400 o to 500oC is reached , the water which was fixed with the burden is ejected. Indirect reduction by carbon monoxide occurs below 1000oC . At temperatures above 1000 oC, iron oxide not yet reduced into iron is directly reduced. After melting, the reduction process is completed as hot metal flows through layers of coke. Hot metal produced in the blast furnace is sent to Basic oxygen Furnace for steel making or to Pig casting machines for pig iron casting in ladles. Pre-treatment of Hot metal Hot metal from blast furnaces is treated to remove undesired elements like sulphur , silicon or phosphorous before being transformed to steel. Desulphurising agents are applied to reduce sulphur content of the metal. BASIC OXYGEN FURNACE The basic oxygen process is the most common process for producing steel. The basic oxygen furnace ( LD convertor) is a pear shaped vessel lined inside with refractory bricks . The vessel lining consists of tar bonded dolomite /magnesia carbon bricks or other refractories. The vessel can be rotated 360 o on its axis .Oxygen is blown into the vessel with the help of water cooled lance. The 'heat' begins with the addition of scrap into the slightly tilted convertor, hot metal is then added after straightening the convertor, Oxygen is blown into the bath through the

lance .The necessary fluxes are added during blowing .Flux addition is done automatically and precisely through bunkers situated above the convereters. A sample is taken after blowing for 16-18 minutes and temperature is measured using a thermocouple.The steel is tapped by tilting the convertor to the tapping side and alloying elements are added via chutes while metal is being tapped The convertor is tilted to the charging side in order to remove the floating slag . Reaction During blowing operation, oxygen oxidises iron into iron oxide and carbon into carbon monoxide.The iron oxide immediately transfers the oxygen to the trampelements.The center of the reaction has temperatures of around 2000o-2500oC .The development of carbon monoxide during refining process promotes agitation within the molten bath. The reaction of the tramp elements with the oxygen and the iron oxide developed in the center of reaction leads to formation of reactive slag. As blowing continues, there is a continuous decrease of carbon,phosphorous, manganese and silicon within the melt.Phosphorous is removed by inducing early slag formation by adding powder lime with oxygen. The refining process is completed when the desired carbon content is attained. Various other blowing process in practice are : Oxygen bottom blowing process : In this process, pure oxygen is blown into the bath from below through a cooled nozzle. It results in a lower tap to tap time and greater output due to more intensive mixture Combined blowing process Combined blowing process consists of oxygen blowing from top and oxygen blowing from bottom or inert gas( nitrogen or Argon) bottom stirring. The advantages over the above processes are - acceleration of blowing cycle by 25 % - higher yield - less slag improved convertor lining life - increased accuracy in achieveing specificecomposition reduced splashing The steel produced in the basic oxygen furnace is sent to continuous casting or for ingot teeming. CONTINUOUS CASTING Continuous casting technique accounts for more than 60% of total liquid steel in the world. The main advantages of steel processing through CC route are higher yield, lower energy consumption, elimination of primary mills. THE PRODUCTION STAGES During continuous casting, the liquid steel passes from the pouring ladle, with the exclusion of air, via a tundish with an adjustable discharge device into the short, watercooled copper mould. The shape of the mould defines the shape of the steel. Before casting, the bottom of the mould is sealed with a so-called dummy bar. As soon as the bath reaches its intended steel level, the mould starts to oscillate vertically in order to prevent the strand adhering to its walls. The red-hot strand, solidified at the surface zones, is drawnfrom the mould, first with the aid of a dummy bar, and later by driving rolls. Because of its liquid core, the strand must be carefully sprayed and cooled down with water. Rolls on all sides must also support it until it has completely solidified. This prevents the still thin rim zone from disintegrating. CONTINUOUS CASTING Continuous casting technique accounts for more than 60% of total liquid steel in the world. The main advantages of steel processing through CC route are higher yield, lower energy consumption, elimination of primary mills. THE PRODUCTION STAGES During continuous casting, the liquid steel passes from the pouring ladle, with the exclusion of air, via atundish with an adjustable discharge device into the short, watercooled copper mould. The shape ofthe mould defines the shape of the steel. Before

casting, the bottom of the mould is sealed with a so-called dummy bar. As soon as the bath reaches its intended steel level, the mould starts to oscillate vertically in order to prevent the strand adhering to its walls. The red-hot strand, solidified at the surface zones, is drawnfrom the mould, first with the aid of a dummy bar, and later by driving rolls. Because of its liquid core, the strand must be carefully sprayed and cooled down with water. Rolls onall sides must also support it until it has completely solidified. This prevents the still thin rim zone from disintegrating.

Once it has completely solidified, the strand can be divided by mobile cutting torcheses favourable technological properties. High casting speeds are achievable nowadays; depending on dimensions and the number of strands that are simultaneously cast,speeds of about 0.6 to 3.5 m/min are possible for slabs. The primary features of continuous casting now-a-days are Sequence casting and composite casting with the aid of turrets, which take up two ladles,and swivelling devices for the wear-exposed tundishes. This allows dissimilar grades of steel to becast directly after each other. Some kind of protection for the pouring stream between the ladle and tundish as well as between the e tundish and the mould, with the aid of inert gases for improving the cleanness (preventing reoxidation). Oscillating moulds and fully automated addition of casting fluxes for improving the strand surface, as well as adjustable moulds for changing strand dimensions during casting. Mould level control. Constant casting temperature. Precise strand guidance and consistent strand cross-section by means of matching Intensive secondary colling of the strand with the aid of uniform and metered spraying.Electromagnetic stirring in the mould to improve surface quality (no surface shrinkage cavities or inclusions close to the e surface). Electromagnetic stirring of the partly solidified strand to obtain a globular non-directional - solidification microstructure with no segregation zones in the centre the straight and straightened strands in order to prevent surface tension and cracks, as well as internal cracks. DIRECT REDUCTION TECHNOLOGIES Direct reduction processes are of significance and can form an alternative to a conventional Blast furnace. Solid sponge iron ( direct reduced iron or DRI) isproducedby removing oxygen from the ore .The technique of Direct reduction varies accordingngto the type of reducing agents employed and the metallurgical vessel in which theyare reduced. The reducing agents used normally are : Gas reduction Solid reducing agents Gas reduction is more commonly used . Depending on the reduction vessel employed , there are: Shaft furnaces Rotary kiln furnace Fluidised bed and Retort process.Reducing gasses are carbon monoxide , hydrogen and their mixture which are generally found in natural gasses. Thedirectlyused

solid reducing agents are coals of any size, so that there is noneed for expensive coke. The continuousshaft furnace which uses reducing gasses is more common. Midrex, HYL III process are of this type. HYL I process is of f discontinous retort type. SL/RN and Krupp-Codir are of rotary kiln type .These processes use solid reducing agents and operate in continuous flow. Ores for direct reduction have to meetstringent specifications with high percentage of Fe and low content of tramp elements. Pellets are used mainly for this purpose. The output of all DRI processes is Sponge Iron Sponge iron isalso hotbriquetted to HBI .DRI combined with an EAF is considered as an efficient steel making technique. SMELTING REDUCTION TECHNOLOGIES Smelting reduction usually produces hot metal from ore in two steps. Ores are partly reduced in the first step and then final reduction and melting takes place in the second stage. Some of the most common process in use are described below : COREX The coal reduction process (COREX) , was developed by Voest-Alpine industries (VAI) and DVAI .This is a two-stage operation in which DRI from a shaft furnace like that used in the Midrex and HYL process is charged into a final smelter-gasifier. Reducing gas for the shaft furnace is produced by partial combustion of coal with oxygen in the fluidized bed of the smelter-r. The energy needed to complete the reduction of the DRI and produce the hot metal and slag is provided by the partial combustion. The liquid products are tapped re e tapped re tapped re tapped periodically and partially spent off gas from the shaft reducer is exported along with excess gas produced in the smelter-gasifier. The smelter-gasifier operates at 35 bars and comprises an upper fluidized bed zone at approximately 1500C (2730F) and a lower melting and liquid collection zone at approximately 1550C (2820F). Coal and limestone are injected into the freeboard above the fluidized bed zone where they are heated rapidly to 1000-1200C (1830-2190F). The volatile matter is driven off and shattered fixed carbon particles fall into the gasification zone where a gas with high oxygen content is injected through blast furnace-type tuyeres to burnthe carbon to carbon monoxide. The exothermic combustion provides the energy to complete the reduction of the hot DRI and to melt the slag and hot metal. The gas leaving the smelter-gasifier is cooled to 800-900C (1470-1650F) and cleaned in a hot cyclone to recycle entrained fines. A portion of the clean gas is then introduced into the shaft furnace as reducing gas containing more than 94% CO plus H2. The remaining gas is mixed with the cleanedoffgas from the shaft furnace and the mixture used as export fuel gas. COREX uses approximately one tonne of coal per tonne of hot metal, with approximately 45% of the total energy input used in export fuel gas. The hot metal produced has carbon and silicon contents similar to blast furnace hot metal however, the sulfur content is much higher because nearly all of the sulphur in the coal enters the slag and hot metal. In this connection, organic sulphur in the coal gasifies and is absorbed by the DRI and returned to thesmelter-gasifier as iron sulphide. DIOS The Direct Iron Smelting Reduction (DIOS) was developed by the Japan Iron and Steel Federation (JISF) , the Centre of Coal utilisation and a consortium of eight Japanese steelmakers. The DIOS system has three fluidised furnaces .Iron ore is preheated in the first of two fluidized bed reactors in series and pre-reduced to 15 -25% in the second reactor using cleaned offgas from the smelter. Dust removed from the smelter, off-gas and fines removed from the gases leaving the fluidized bed d reactors are injected back

into the smelter. In addition, a small amount of coal fines, of the order of 50 kg per tonne of hot metal production, is injected into the smelter offgas to cool the offgas and provide additional CO and H2 for pre-reduction. Most of the coal, 600-700 kg per tonne of hot metal, is gravity-fed into the smelter. Oxygen is injected into the smelter for combustion of primary coal and for post-combustion.The oxygen lance is designed to provide both high velocity oxygen for carbon oxidation (hard blow) and lower velocity oxygen for postcombustion in the freeboard (soft blow) simultaneously. The aim post-combustion is approximately 40%, and with pre-reduction to 20%, the coal consumption is roughly 700800 kg per tonne of hot metal depending on coal type. AUSMELT The Ausmelt process was developed by Ausmelt Ltd. Australia . Lump ore or ore fines are fed continuously into a converter along with lump coal and flux. Fine coal ,oxygen and air are injected through a top lnce to allow submerged combustion. The degree of oxidation and reduction is controlled by adjusting fuel to air and coal ratios as well as the proportion of fine coal injected down the lance. All reactions are completed in a single reactor. HISMELT The Hismelt process was developed by CRA ltd., Australia and Midrex Corporation, United States .Coal is injected through bottom tuyers into a molten bath. Carbon is rapidly dissolved and reacts with oxygen from incoming iron ore to from carbon monoxide and iron. This reaction is endothermic and therefore to keep the process going additional heat has to be supplied .This is achieved by reacting carbon monoxide released from the bath with oxygen from top injection of air. Reacted hot gasses exit the vessel and are used in a fluidised bed to pre- heat and pre-reduce incoming ore. ROMELT The ROMELT process was developed by Moscow institute of steel and alloys in Russia.A major feature is there is no pre-reduction process step. The smelter has a water-cooled roof and sidewalls in contact with slag and conventional refractories in contact with the metal. A mixture of air and oxygen is injected through two rows of tuyeres. Coal and ore are fed by gravity. The system, simple and robust. ROMELT consumes more energy than other smelting processes due to the lack of pre-reduction and d extensive water cooling. Plasmasmelt In plasma-based smelting reduction processes, the reactions take place in a coke-filled shaft furnace with tuyeres spaced symmetrically around the lower part of the furnace. The shaft is completely filled with coke.Plasma generators and equipment for injection of metal oxides mixed with slag forming material and possibly reductants are attached to the tuyeres. In front of each tuyere a cavity is formed inside the coke column where reduction and smelting take place. At regular intervals the produced slag and metal are tapped from the bottom of the shaft furnace. In the case of iron ore smelting the off-gas from the furnace, consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, can be used for pre reduction of the ore.In other applications of the process, such as reclaiming of alloying metals frombaghouse dust, the produced gas is utilised as a fuel gas.If the raw material contains metals with high vapour pressures, for example zinc and lead, these metals leave the furnace with the off-gas which is then passed through a condensor where the metals are recovered from the gas. OTHER STEEL MAKING PROCESSESES THE ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE The electric arc furnace as the name suggests is a furnace in which heat is generated with the aid of electric arc produced by graphite electrodes. The main components of the

electric arc furnace are the furnace shell with tapping device and work opening, the removable roof with the electrodes and a tilting device. The furnace shell is circular and with a refractory lining. The work opening and the tapping device are arranged opposite each other for tapping purposes, the complete furnace is tilted to an angle of about 42 degrees. Normally, the furnace is charged with its roof removed. When scrap is added, a charging bucket travels over the furnace, the bottom opens and the scrap is charged into the furnace within a few minutes. During the process, a control system advances the slow burning electrodes. High voltage is transformed into low voltage and high amperage. The most important parameter for the efficiency of an electric arc furnace is the "specific apparent power of the transformer" - in terms of 1 t of charge. Values range from 300 to 750 kVA/t (kilo-volt-ampere per tonne). In some cases, as much as 1,000kVA/t has been installed. THE MELTING PROCESS The electric arc furnace process generally follows the following pattern. Charging Melting Oxidizing Deoxidizing or refining

Besides scrap or sponge iron, the charge also includes the ores, fluxes (lime, flourspar), reducing agents (carbon) and alloying elements in the form of ferroalloys. These canbe added through the work opening before or during oxidizing. Process begins with the ignition of the electric arc. After melting, further scrap can beadded. An additional injection of oxygen or some other fuel-gas mixture can accelerate the melting phase. The maximum transferable electric power and the heat tability of the refractory lining determine the time needed for melting. The most upto-date furnaces with a hi specific apparent power (UHP furnaces) achieve melting periods of about 40 to 60 minutes and tap-to-tap times of about 1.5 hours. During the refining stage, iron oxides included in the slag react with the carbon of the bath. This gives rise to the gaseous carbon monoxide, which causes the heattoboil, and rinses impurities such as phosphorus, hydrogen, nitrogen and non-metallic compounds from the heat. These impurities escape as gases or are included in the slag. Sulphur cannot be completely eliminated. The advantages of steelmaking in the electric arc furnace are : All possible grades of steel can be melted Low capital outlay The melting process can be programmed and automated Good efficiency But it has some shortcomings as well. Because it uses scrap , the EAF route can only be used to produce steel grades with low purity requirements. Major new developments in steel making have taken place in EAF based steel making. Innovations such as DC arc technology, scrap preheating, post combustion, oxygen and carbon injection etc have led to a tremendous increase in productivity and a decrease in electric consumption. Or shears. Intensive cooling leads to a homogeneous solidification microstructure with.