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DIVERSITY MANAGEMENT: THE COMMON THREAD BINDING COMPLIANCE, ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE, AND BEST PRACTICES by Nicole Hasson Barrett

LILBURN HOEHN, PhD, Faculty Mentor and Chair MARSHA COVINGTON, PhD, Committee Member ROBERT BIGELOW, JD, Committee Member

William A. Reed, PhD, Dean, School of Business and Technology

A Dissertation Presented in Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of Philosophy

Capella University March 2012

UMI Number: 3503073

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Nicole Hasson Barrett, 2012

Abstract The problem addressed in this study was the lack of a strategic framework for a human resource or diversity professional to effectively manage diversity based on various perceptions. The purpose of this quantitative study was to explore diversity management perceptions of African American human resource (HR) professionals across organizations in the United States. The hypotheses for this study were as follows: (a) There is a statistical difference between African American HR professionals perceptions of the work climate that support diversity and their organizational type as measured by a diversity climate instrument; (b) There is a statistical difference between African American HR professionals perceptions of the work climate that support diversity and their gender as measured by a diversity climate instrument; and (c) There is a statistical relationship between African American HR professionals perceptions of the work climate that support diversity and their Human Resource Certification Institute HR certification as measured by a diversity climate instrument. The target population for this study was African American HR professionals. A simple random sampling technique was used for the active members of the National Association of African American Human Resource for the sample population. The results found that African American HR professionals voiced discontent when compared to a nonminority group in regard to getting additional staff assistance or additional compensation increases above the average merit rate. The African American HR professionals responded that they were treated the same as nonminority employees when requesting time off, but the data revealed women may view that they are working harder and are as qualified as men but inequalities exist regarding compensation, upward mobility, and acknowledgement. The data revealed that

attitudes toward the employment qualifications of racioethnic minorities and equality of department support of women were about the same when compared to nonminorities. The findings also provided a glimpse of the need for further analysis of the necessary requirements that HR professionals must possess in order to remain competitive in the work environment. An implication from the data was the necessity to further investigate organizational policies correlated to diversity management.

Dedication
This dissertation is dedicated to my first family: Richard Sr., Beverly, April and Richard Johnson and Anthony S. Hasson who developed my initial intellectual foundation; and all of my extended families who provided positive reinforcement and support to propel me to complete whatever I start. Absolutely, my husband, Reuben who without fail always saw the light at the end of the tunnel.

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Acknowledgments With humility I thank God for everything. This dissertation would not be complete if I did not acknowledge those who believed the unimaginable and those who prepared me with the survival skills to weather the storms of life.

My deepest gratitude is given to Dr. Lilburn Hoehn dissertation mentor and chair, for his direction, guidance, and support. The recommendations and suggestions he provided during every milestone were vital to the completion of this process.

I also wish to thank Dr. Marsha Covington and Robert Bieglow, J.D. for being a part of the committee. Their insight was truly appreciated because it enriched the crafting of the final dissertation.

An additional thank you to my husband and friend, Dr. Reuben E. Barrett, DC, JD. You always give me the advice, guidance and support I need. You always bring out the best in me. I am thankful for the support from my dissertation editor Marjorie Metts, family, friends and sorors, especially Dr. Margaret A. Evans who I could always count on for precise direction in this doctoral journey.

Finally, I humbly thank the NAAAHR organization for volunteering to be a part of this study. Their contribution to the study not only adds to the diversity management discourse but further highlights the need for diversity management across organizations should be researched and evaluated. v

Table of Contents Acknowledgments List of Tables List of Figures CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION Introduction to the Problem Background of the Study Statement of the Problem Purpose of the Study Rationale Research Questions Hypotheses Significance of the Study Definition of Terms Assumptions Limitations Nature of the Study Organization of the Remainder of the Study CHAPTER 2. LITERATURE REVIEW Historical Perceptions of Diversity Management Compliance Organizational Culture Best Practices vi v ix xi 1 1 3 9 10 11 13 14 15 17 19 20 21 23 25 26 34 37 41

Gender Affirmative Action Performance Outcomes Societal Context Diversity Perceptions Social Identity Summary CHAPTER 3. METHODOLOGY Research Design Sample Sample Population Hypotheses Instrumentation/Measures Data Collection Data Analysis Validity and Reliability Ethical Considerations Informed Consent CHAPTER 4. RESULTS Pilot Study Results Data Collection Demographics Data Analysis vii

43 44 47 49 50 56 58 60 60 62 64 65 67 69 70 72 74 75 77 77 78 80 81

Summary CHAPTER 5. DISCUSSION, IMPLICATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS Discussion Implications Limitations Recommendations for Future Research Summary REFERENCES

99 100 100 105 107 107 109 111

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List of Tables Table 1. Questionnaire Statement/Null Hypothesis/Variable Table 2. Statistical Analysis for Hypotheses Table 3. Pilot Study Cronbachs Alpha Results Table 4. Demographic Information Table 5. Survey Statements 16 Used to Test Null Hypothesis 1 Table 6. Cross-Tabulation of Value Efforts to Promote and Organizational Type Table 7. Mann-Whitney U Test Statistics for Null Hypothesis 1 Statements 16 Table 8. Test Statistics for Null Hypothesis 1 Statements 16 Table 9. Survey Statements 1113 Used to Test Null Hypothesis 1 Table 10. Cross-Tabulation of Equality of Department Support of Racioethnic Minorities and Organizational Type Table 11. Mann-Whitney U Test Statistics for Null Hypothesis 1 Statements 1113 Table 12. Test Statistics for Null Hypothesis 1 Statements 1113 Table 13. Survey Statements 9-10 Used to Test Null Hypothesis 2 67 72 78 81 83 84 85 87 88 89 90 90 91

Table 14. Cross-Tabulation of Attitudes Toward Womens Qualifications and Gender 92 Table 15. Mann Whitney U Test Statistics Hypothesis 2 Statements 9-10 Table 16. Test Statistics for Null Hypothesis 2 Statements 9-10 Table 17. Survey Statements 7-8 Used to Test Null Hypothesis 3 Table 18. Cross-Tabulation of Attitudes Toward Qualifications of Racioethnic Minorities and HRCI Table 19. Kruskal-Wallis Test Statistics for Null Hypothesis 3 Statements 7-8 Table 20. Test Statistics for Null Hypothesis 3 Statements 7-8 Table 21. Survey Statements 1416 Used to Test Null Hypothesis 3 ix 92 93 94 95 96 96 97

Table 22. Cross-Tabulation of Department Support of Women and HRCI Table 23. Kruskal-Wallis Test Statistics for Null Hypothesis 3 Statements 1416 Table 24. Test Statistics for Null Hypothesis 3 Statements 1416

98 98 99

List of Figures Figure 1. Conceptual framework. Figure 2. Strategic conceptual framework. 22 110

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CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION Introduction to the Problem Visualize an area in the work environment where people congregate. This area is a snapshot of the work environments human capital. If you adjust the lens of perception to the National Mall during the inauguration of Barack Hussein Obama, the first African American president of the United States, one will see characteristics of the American workforce. The characteristics are both salient and non-salient. The crowd mirrors demographic compositions of a labor force exemplifying diversity in gender, age, race, religion, national origin, disability, and language, level of education, sexual orientation, class, experiences and perceptions. According to Dr. John Sullivan (2008) of Workforce Management, the mere fact that the United States has an African American president will heighten the attention of diversity and inclusion discourse in the country. African American human resource professionals observe the diversity climate in their organizations through their own personal view master. The perceptions of the diversity climate impel their reality of the implementation of diversity management initiatives. According to Bhadury, Mighty, and Damar (2000), it is the diversity climate that determines the impact of diversity rather than diversity itself. To obtain an understanding of diversity management it has been analyzed through various perceptions (Buttner, Lowe, & Billings-Harris, 2009; Ely & Thomas, 2001, Pitts, 2009). The literature review identifies people of color were often selected to test diversity-related 1

hypotheses (Pitts, 2009). People of color were synonymous to canaries advancing into an unexplored area to provide additional feedback on the condition (Buttner et al., 2009). The relevance of diversity in the work environment has created a multibillion dollar industry (Hansen, 2003). Diversity in the workforce is projected to continue based on the demographics of racial and ethnic minorities and older workers. According to U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (2009a) data, the historical trend of racial and ethnic diversity, older workers remaining in the workforce, and immigration will continue until the year 2018. U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (2009a) projections for the years 20082018 provide employment growth in the area of employment services. According to projections from the U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (2010), African Americans will from 41.1 million people in 2008 to 65.7 million people in 2050 and the nation will be 54% minority in 2050. The dilemma that human resource professionals face is that monetary capital is expended for diversity initiatives, but an absolute understanding of diversity management has not materialized. In order to manage the growing diversity of the workforce, organizations need to implement systems and practices so potential advantages are maximized and potential disadvantages are minimized (Cox, 1994). This study was an exploration to determine if a relationship exists between perceptions of the work climate that support diversity and human resource professionals organization, gender, and certification when assessing an organizations diversity climate. The diversity climate encompasses the scope to which the input of diversity is valued and the eradication of discrimination and bias occurs (Buttner et al., 2009). Human resource professionals can add value to an organization when they engender a cultural mix in an 2

organizations human capital, but they have to be proactive and manage diversity (Orlando, 2000). The problems associated with diversity management, according to Jackson and Joshi (2004), are going to take many years of diversity research in order to obtain a superior knowledge of how diversity outcomes are created. Background of the Study According to U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics projections to 2050, the labor force will continue to become more diverse and the total population will be comprised of 50% ethnic minorities (Seyman, 2006). The labor force has identified that African Americans will achieve a participation rate of 63.3% in 2020 and 59.1% in 2050. Other ethnicities who will experience a decline in their participation rate are Asian Americans and Hispanics. Asian American and Hispanic participation rates comparatively are 65.7 in 2020 and 59.9 in 2050; and 68.7 in 2020 and 63.2 in 2050, The labor force projections from 2020 to 2050 in the percentage of men and women are 70.0% in 2020 and 66.3% in 2050 for men; and 59.4% in 2020 and 55.1% in 2050 for women. The participation rate of men versus women has always shown men outnumbering women in the workforce (Toossi, 2006). Diversity Management Overview Diversity management has been defined as a human resource strategy to effectively manage a diverse workforce (Cox & Blake, 1991; Groschl & Doherty, 1999; Morrison, Oladunjoye, & Rose, 2008; Seyman, 2006). The advantages of diversity management of women, individuals from a variety of cultural backgrounds and ethnic minorities is to create a competitive advantage, attract best talent and reduce absenteeism and turnover in organizations (Cox & Blake, 1991; McMahon, 2010; Ogbonna & Harris, 3

2006; Oliver, 2005). Even though turnover in organizations is inevitable, Jackson and Joshi (2004) posited that turnover may be the cloud with the silver lining to bring in new team members with fresh ideas and perceptions. A work environment contrary to a homogenous one, demands forward thinking of new perceptions to manage a diverse workforce. A gap of perceptions exists on behalf of human resource professionals assessment of diversity climates in the work environment. There is a need for human resource professionals to acquire a superior level of understanding in the study of diversity management in order to remain competitive and augment their understanding of diverse work teams. According to Toossi (2009) , the three major demographic trends of the 21st century in regards to the labor force are slowing growth, aging, and increasing diversity (p. 30) and are expected to continue. The identification of diversity perceptions of human resource professionals may contribute to the goal to attract and retain diverse employees. Human resource professionals who are cognizant of the diversity of the workforce will also have to understand an evolving work environment is often thwarted by societal conditions. Examples of societal conditions include but are not limited to changes or new employment legislation, economic downturn that causes massive layoffs and hiring freezes, and increases in minority populations. Diversity management perceptions create an opportunity for human resource professionals to assess the diversity climate of the work environment. Diversity Management in the Work Environment Diversity management literature produced a plethora of mutually positive and negative conclusions to diverse work group outcomes (Ely & Thomas, 2001; Jackson, Joshi, & Erhardt, 2003, Seyman, 2006). The duplicitous nature of diversity work group 4

outcomes increase the opportunity for creativity, but also increase dissatisfaction with group members who do not identify with a diverse group (Jehn & Bezrukova, 2004). Prejudice, discrimination, inequity, bigotry, racism and bias are attributes to describe when people do not identify with one another. The implication of diversity in the work environment is people are going to be dissimilar in their backgrounds, language, and perceptions and cultural. When the organization manages cultural differences they are signaling they value diversity (Cox & Blake, 1991). Evaluation of the seminal literature of diversity management, presented a work environment that acknowledged and constantly referenced the role antidiscrimination legislation served in its development. Antidiscrimination legislation provided fundamental rights to protect employees against discrimination. Protection was sought in Title VII law, U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission representation, American with Disabilities Act (ADA), and affirmative action (McMillan-Capehart, 2003). The positive consequence of affirmative action programs created diversity of women and minorities in the workplace. The other side of the spectrum revealed research on hiring decisions based on affirmative action that were intended to promote creativity that resulted in allegations by two minority groups as unfair labor practices. These two groups were identified as Hispanic and African American (McMillan-Capehart, Grubb, & Herdman, 2009). Many people experience demographic changes in diversity in their daily transactions in government offices, financial institutions, restaurants and while shopping and talking with customer service personnel and coworkers. Organizations not reluctant to recognize this human resource management opportunity have strategically 5

incorporated diversity and inclusion positions in organizational structures. The paradigm shift beyond compliance, adherence to legislation and employment laws illustrate the growth of a systematic approach to diversity management. Diversity management subsidized with human capital in charge of organizational diversity initiatives is a business trend that values diversity and denotes leadership support. In order for diversity to render positive results, organizations must establish a collaborative partnership between HR professionals and senior management defining their motive for diversity objectives (Kreitz, 2008), The diversity management focus in human resource management is analogous to the evolution of the responsibilities of the human resource professional. As diversity management evolved, so did human resource management, which is currently known as strategic human resource management. It is the responsibility of human resource executives and executive management to advance an organizational agenda that promotes diversity (Richard, 2000). Human resource professionals, who are engaged with putting forth the strategic agenda of the human resources profession, must continue to stay abreast on current employment legislation and best practices, and obtain certifications from the Society of Human Resource Managements Human Resource Certification Institute (HRCI; Pilenzo, 2009). Diversity Management Integral to Strategic Human Resource Management The impetus to focus on diversity management from a human resource professional standpoint developed from the literature review and research which was insufficient in correlating the impact human resource practices had on racial and gender diversity (McMillan-Capehart & Simerly, 2008). Evaluating necessary skill sets, McEvoy 6

et al. (2005) and Grossman (2007) argued that cultural management is definitely a competency for high-performing human resource professionals. There has been an influx in diversity positions holding titles such as senior vice president and global chief diversity officer, diversity recruiting executive, director of diversity engagement and inclusion and vice president of cultural competence and diversity system, to validate organizations attempts to invest and commit to diversity management. However, according to a study by Kalev, Kelly, and Dobbin (2006), diversity committees and staff are effective but only 11% of establishments are utilizing them. The argument to accept diversity management practices based purely on positive review is futile. Jehn and Bezrukova (2004) suggested that to simply assert diversity is either good or bad for business is not the argument for a business case for diversity. Ogbonna and Harris (2006) speculated the business case as one of two rationales for workforce diversity. The other rationale was equality in their study to explore relationships in an ethnically diverse workforce. Diversity management that has a central focal point on antidiscrimination employment practices is still valid, but other diversity perceptions must continue to materialize. Diversity perceptions identified in the qualitative research findings of Ely and Thomas (2001) propagate the initial attempt to identify diversity perceptions from an employee perception. Ely and Thomas (2001) classified the perceptions as integration and learning, access and legitimacy, and discrimination and fairness. These dissimilar diversity perceptions emerged to make possible explanations of the mixed reviews of work group outcomes and cultural diversity. Ely and Thomas discovered that these diversity perceptions shaped the identity of members in the work environment. These 7

perceptions were formulated from employee observation and how employees managed and handled apprehension to a diverse work environment. Contrary to Ely and Thomas (2001), this researcher used human resource professionals as the unit of analysis. The decision to use this cohort was based on McMillan-Capehart and Simerlys (2008) empirical study of race and gender diversity that detoured from previous research by looking through innovative lens of observation. Further, I explored relationships between organizational type, gender, and human resource professional certification and human resource professionals diversity perceptions. The Human Resource Certification Institute (HRCI) was founded in 1975 as a national certification program for human resource professionals to award certification to human resource professionals who mastered the human resources body of knowledge (Sunoo & Laabs, 1999). The application of gender and race in research is imperative to understand human connections (Herring, 2009). In order for an organization to effectively manage diversity, perceptions must be identified to determine the appropriate strategy to converge on the benefits of diversity or mitigate the negative. In a societal context, diversity management is very complex and is influenced by many social conditions, including legislative and economic conditions. The study is currently relevant based on todays economic decline and will continue to be relevant as long as societal conditions influence who will be a participant in the workforce. McWilliams and Patel (2009) argued that to incorporate diversity management strategies during economic downturn is prudent in order to minimize risk exposure during company restructuring. The complexity of diversity in the 21st century was succinctly articulated when Kreitz (2008) stated, Twenty-first century organizations are living with and being challenged 8

by diversity of three levelsan increasing diverse workforce, a multicultural customer base, and a growing challenge for market share from international competitors (p. 106). Statement of the Problem Diversity management is ubiquitous. According to the developers of the Workplace Diversity Survey, an instrument used to measure training effectiveness, scholarly research on diversity management is segmented in two main bodies of work. These two areas mainly pay attention to trying to understand diversity and its relationship to organizational behavior and performance and generalized prescriptions for effectively managing diversity (De Meuse, Hostager, & ONeill, 2007). Scholars and practitioners have not meticulously addressed other areas outside those two main bodies of work. Jackson and Joshis (2004) research on team diversity and team performance speculate the concept of social context moderate the outcome of demographic diversity. According to Richards (2000) study of the banking industry, societal conditions influenced racial diversity as a positive factor when the banking industry was in a growth phase but were a negative factor during downsizing. Researchers are grappling with the fluid nature of the complexities of diversity management (Jehn, Northcraft, & Neale, 1999). In the 2007 Society for Human Resources Management (SHRM, 2008) diversity management study of human resource professionals, 71% reported effective diversity management was extremely important. The study reported that 71% of its human resource professionals stated that organizations lack an official definition for diversity (Anand & Winters, 2008). Comparing the two studies highlights the acceptance of the diversity management paradigm even though its definition is ambiguous (Anand & Winters, 2008). Albeit the ambiguity of an organizational definition for diversity, diversity management has become 9

an important human resource management strategy in todays global economy as business struggle to maintain their competitive advantage (Cox & Blake, 1991). The gap of knowledge in diversity management literature points to a lack of a clear and consistent paradigm for managing diversity (Anand & Winters, 2008; Carrell & Mann, 2006). The problem to be addressed in this study is the lack of a strategic framework for a human resource or diversity professional to effectively manage diversity based on various perceptions. Previous diversity management research calculated diversity in regard to demographic terms such as gender, race, and education (McMahon, 2010). The diversity perceptions for this study were measured in terms of their statistical relationship to organizational type, gender, and human resource professional certification. Purpose of the Study The intent is to explore diversity management perceptions of African American human resource professionals across organizations in the United States. The need for the research emerged from review and synthesis of the diversity management literature which uncovered a gap in knowledge of the significance of diversity perceptions from the perceptions of a human resource professional. The human resource professional with the support of upper management is the first line of defense in implementing diversity management initiatives (Seyman, 2006). The value of the study is the documentation of quantifiable results of diversity perceptions to assess the diversity climate of an organization. The transgression of a strategic diversity management process in an organization may or may not be detrimental to its success. The direction of the study was to explore the relationship between the independent variables across nonprofit and profit organizations, gender and human resource professionals certification, and the dependent 10

variable of diversity perceptions. Survey design provides numerical descriptions of trends, attitudes, and opinions in the study of a sample population (Creswell, 2009). The importance and value of surveying the work environment and employing a diversity climate survey provides a foundation to explore future diversity management strategies. According to Cooper and Schindler (2003), surveys provide a versatile platform to study a particular subject matter. Human resource professionals subscribe to the initiative that diversity management within an organization must occur. Managers are concerned with how to manage diversity (McMillan-Capehart, 2003). The assessment of the diversity climate of the organizations will serve as the nexus to evaluate diversity perceptions of human resource professionals. The information is then evaluated to formulate a strategic framework for human resource professionals to manage and leverage diversity management in the work environment. Researchers have suggested that diversity climate, diversity perceptions and diversity management matters to people of color (Buttner et al., 2009; Pitts, 2009). An explanation of why this is the case, just as with the business case for diversity management, is going to take years of research. This defends the use of African Americans as the unit of analysis for the research to gain insight from an African American perception of the diversity climates in organizations. Rationale The rationale for the study is to evaluate diversity perceptions and acquire knowledge to shift the paradigm from merely accepting diversity management as either a positive or negative outcome on workgroups but to document quantifiable relationships between independent or dependent variables. Previous studies took into consideration 11

work group outcomes and team performance, but were limited in analyzing diversity perceptions. At the present time the dialogue on the merits of diversity management in organizations present assorted results. Ely and Thomas (2001) argued that diversity perceptions shape the identity of members in the work environment. If perceptions shape the identity of the workforce, then human resource professionals must be cognizant of various perceptions in order to manage diversity. According to Foldy (2004), broader diversity literature is advanced with diversity perceptions because it helps us understand diverse groups and why some are more effective than others. The responsibilities of human resource professionals have increased as human resource professionals pursue a strategic role within organizational structures. The strategic role of human resource and diversity professionals is to understand the workforce. According to Ely and Thomas, the diversity perceptions are the cognitive point of reference for individuals to understand and react to cultural differences in a group setting. This study is building on the research of Ely and Thomas. In order to begin understanding how to manage a diverse work force an understanding of the relationship of diversity perceptions across nonprofit and profit organizations, gender and human resource professionals certification is necessary. The adapted instrument used for the study was developed to measure organizational support of diversity from nonmanagerial employees including racioethnic minorities (Kossek & Zonia, 1993). The analysis of the data from Kossek and Zonia showed a decrease in African American participants in comparison to European American men and women. The participation numbers reflect 40 racioethnic minority women versus 318 European American women and 83 racioethnic minority men versus 281 European American men (Kossek & Zonia, 1993). 12

The study is needed now based on limited research data from the perspectives of African Americans and the data accumulated from the U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (2009b) that state that human resources occupations require strong interpersonal skills and those who are college graduates and have earned certification should have the best job and advancement opportunities and expect a faster than average growth. The U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (2011) stated that during the period of 2008 through 2018, womens participation in the labor force will increase by 9%. Also, the U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (2010) contended that increasing diversity in the labor force is a trend that will continue through 2018. And even though there has been an increase in the diversity of human capital there are still many occupations underrepresented by minority groups. The study is needed now because of the gap in knowledge from a human resource professionals perspective that identify support of diversity by analyzing the work climate of the organization. A diagnosis of the support for diversity was done in the research of Kossek and Zonia (1993) but it did not involve solely human resource professionals examining the work climate and was limited in African American participation. Research Questions According to Maas (1999), diversity is either categorized as an attribute or a behavior. The behavior is attitude, perceptions, and actions (p. 97). The human resource management dilemma is how do the perceptions of human resource professionals influence diversity initiatives based on the diversity climate of the work environment? The primary question of the study is: Is diversity supported when evaluating the diversity climate based on perceptions across nonprofit and profit 13

organizations, gender, and human resource professional HRCI certification? Compliance, organizational culture, and best practices are the categories of the diversity perceptions. Specific research questions include 1. What is the difference between African American HR professionals perception of the work climate that are supportive of diversity and their organizational type as measured by a diversity climate instrument? Nonprofit or profit organization is the nominal independent variable and perceptions of the work climate that support diversity are the dependent variables. 2. What is the difference between African American HR professionals perception of the work climate that are supportive of diversity and their gender as measured by a diversity climate instrument? Gender is the nominal independent variable and perceptions of the work climate that support diversity are the dependent variables. 3. What is the relationship between African American HR professionals perception of the work climate that support diversity and their HRCI certification as measured by a diversity climate instrument? HRCI certification is the ordinal independent variable and perceptions of the work climate that support diversity are the dependent variables. Hypotheses Alternative Hypothesis 1 (H1A): There is a difference between African American HR professionals perception of the work climate that support diversity and their organizational type as measured by a diversity climate instrument. Null Hypothesis 1 (H10): There is no difference between African American HR professionals perception of the work climate that support diversity and their organizational type as measured by a diversity climate instrument. Nonprofit or profit organization is the nominal independent variable and perceptions of the work climate that support diversity are the dependent variables.

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Alternative Hypothesis 2 (H2A): There is a difference between African American HR professionals perception of the work climate that support diversity and their gender as measured by a diversity climate instrument. Null Hypothesis 2 (H20): There is no difference between African American HR professionals perception of the work climate that support diversity and their gender as measured by a diversity climate instrument. Gender is the nominal independent variable and perceptions of the work climate that support diversity are the dependent variables.

Alternative Hypothesis 3 (H3A): There is a relationship between African American HR professionals perception of the work climate that support diversity and their HRCI certification as measured by a diversity climate instrument? Null Hypothesis 3 (H30): There is no relationship between African American HR professionals perception of the work climate that support diversity and their level HRCI certification as measured by a diversity climate instrument. HRCI certification is the ordinal independent variable and perceptions of the work climate that support diversity are the dependent variables. Significance of the Study

According to Pless and Maak (2004), organizations are struggling with the challenge to manage diversity even though leaders of the organizations recognize the importance of having a diverse workforce. The intent is to explore diversity management perceptions among African American human resource professionals in across nonprofit and profit organizations in the United States. Kochan et al. (2003) stated that in order for human resource professionals to acquire an accurate account of the consequences of a diversity agenda they must institute an enhanced way to track and evaluate the impact of their diversity management strategies. This study may provide a conceptual framework to explore the diversity climate across a nonprofit or profit organization, by gender and human resource professionals certification. The significance of the study is the 15

documentation, which was analyzed from the completed diversity climate survey from a human resource professionals point of view. The data analyzed are the perceptions of the work climate that support diversity. Before one can say one is implementing diversity strategies, one must continuously audit whether the organization is fulfilling its responsibility to both their employees and constituents. According to Jackson and Joshi (2004) and Joshi and Roh (2009), the study of diversity requires consideration of the collective context for a complete understanding of diversity dynamics. Richard (2000) discovered in his study that during the growth stage of an organization, racial diversity increased productivity and the relationship intensified as strategic growth increased. Racial diversity also had a positive outcome in business profits in a study of value-in-diversity perceptions and concurred this happens during an organizations growth cycle (Herring, 2009). This study will add to the body of knowledge of contextual diversity management from a human resource professionals perception. The assessment of the diversity climate by African American human resource professionals is warranted because Cox, Lobel, and McLeod (1991) have already predicted that racial diversity enhances creative problem solving and leads to positive outcomes for workgroups. Richard, McMillan, Chadwick, and Dwyers (2003) study of the influence of racial diversity on a firms performance states that the full potential of racial diversity will not be realized unless it is positioned in its appropriate context. According to Ramlall (2006), acquiring a thorough knowledge of historical data and the current environment creates a competitive advantage for human resource professionals. When human resource professionals possess this asset, it enables them to plan and predict for the organization. I delved into exploring the diversity climate of 16

organizations. The diversity climate survey measured human resource professionals perceptions about value efforts to promote diversity, attitudes toward qualifications of racioethnic minorities, attitudes toward womens qualifications, equality of department support of racioethnic minorities, and equality of department support of women (Kossek & Zonia, 1993). After completing the survey, the human resource professionals were then able to construct strategies for diversity management. The study produced data for human resource professionals to evaluate the diversity climate of their own organizations. U.S. organizations in the 21st century are competing to attract, manage,and retain a diverse pool of high-performing professional workers and this has become a significant staffing issue, according to Ployhart (2006). According to McCuiston, Wooldridge, and Pierce (2004), there are five guidelines that managers, leaders, and followers must be cognizant of in order for diversity to be recognized as a value-added component to the work environment. Two of the five guidelines include becoming a supporter for inclusion and maximizing interaction with individuals in the organization who are diverse (McCuiston et al., 2004). Definition of Terms Best practice. Practices that yield quantitative or qualitative results, replicable, portable, and transferable to other organizations with modifications and are innovative (Reichenburg, 2001). Compliance. Employment laws used to address legal remedy in disparate employment situations (Anand & Winters, 2008). Diversity. The term diversity is based on the research of Dreachslin (2007) as the racial, ethnicity, gender identities, and sexual orientation; generation; social class; 17

physical ability; family; religion; and political, professional, and personal affiliations. Additional factors include age, educational level, experiences, culture, language, lifestyle, and income. Diversity climate. According to Knouse (2009), diversity climate reflects the diversity values of the organization. This includes factors of fairness, equity and inclusion. The employees use these factors to determine if there is a fit with their own personal values. Diversity management. The policies and practices of recruitment, retention, integration and career development of individuals from minority identity groups, organizational discriminatory policies and practices, with a systematic commitment by the organization (Barbosa & Cabral-Cardoso, 2007). Diversity management falls into the following four categories: (a) recruitment efforts, (b) individual development efforts, (c) organizational development efforts, and (d) external outreach efforts (Hoobler, Basadur, & Lemmon, 2007) Diversity perspectives. The written and unwritten policies organizations use as an unstated assumption on how to manage subordinates or the way a group structures its work (Ely & Thomas, 2001). Diversity perspectives are the group members normative beliefs and expectations about cultural diversity and its role in their work group. The characteristics of diversity perspectives include the rationale that guides peoples efforts to create and respond to cultural diversity in a work group; normative beliefs about the value of cultural identity at work; expectations about the kind of impact, if any, cultural differences can and should have on the group and its work; and beliefs about what constitutes progress toward the ideal multicultural work group" (Ely & Thomas, 2001). 18

Ethnicity. According to McMillan-Capehart (2003), ethnicity is belonging to a religious, racial, national or cultural group, a subgroup of the larger group. Minorities. According to McMillan-Capehart (2003), minorities are groups of race and ethnicity that represents a smaller percentage of the overall population. Organizational culture. According to Chuang, Church, and Zikics (2004) and Barbosa and Cabral-Cardosos (2007) research, organizational culture is shared values, beliefs, practices, norms and assumptions held by organizational members for specific situations and the appropriate behavior. The term includes both written and unwritten tenets organizations use to manage their employees. Assumptions In relation to this study, the following fundamental assumptions are made: 1. Human resource professionals are responsible for planning, predicting and forecasting policies and practices of a diverse workforce. 2. The participants in the study responded to the survey based on their experience in the work environment and answer demographic questions truthfully. 3. The diversity climate survey instrument utilized for this study produced quantifiable data of the scope of the relationship between perceptions of the work climate that support diversity and human resource professionals organizational type, gender, and HRCI certification. 4. Human resource professionals are knowledgeable about the organizations employee policies and procedures, including but not limited to employee personnel manuals, written, verbal, and online communications. 5. Diversity perceptions are subject to change based upon changes in the organizational culture, best practices and compliance issues of the organization. 6. The fundamental assumption was that diversity management in an organization is seen through lens of the human resource professional. 19

7. The theory of social identity asserts that there is a perception of oneness in belonging to some form of human aggregate. Limitations In relation to this study the following fundamental limitations are made: Limitations of the study limit the ability to draw casual inferences. A limitation inherent to this study is in the external validity. The results collected may not be generalized to other human resource professionals. According to Creswell (2009), when the selection of participants is slim, the researcher cannot generalize to individuals who do not have the same characteristics of the participants (p. 165). This restricts the researcher from making assertions about other racial groups. The study used a random sampling method comprised primarily of African Americans; this limits representation from other racial groups. Another limitation is internal validity due to the use of a nonexperimental design. The nonexperimental design used a survey method to collect data from only African American human resource professionals. A threat to internal validity inherent to this study, according to Robson (2002), is the selection of participants from a particular ethnic or socioeconomic background (p. 160). Creswell (2009) concurred that there is a threat to internal validity is when selection of participants is based on certain characteristics. The corrective action for this internal threat was the use of random sampling so everyone in the sampling frame had an equal opportunity to participate. Another limitation is participants were limited to completing the survey via the Internet. Self-reported data had to be relied on. The accuracy of the descriptive demographic information cannot be verified. The diversity perceptions are based on the existing research of Kossek and Zonia (1993). 20

Nature of the Study Social identity theory provides the theoretical framework for this study. Quantitative researchers observe universal laws and look for one theory that explains everything (Burian, Rogerson, & Maffei, 2010). According to Chuang et al. (2004), social identity historically has provided the conceptual foundation for demographic research. Social identity theory proposes people align themselves with others on the premise that their attributes match each other (Krumm & Corning, 2008; Walumbwa, Lawler, Aviolio, Wang, & Shi, 2005). Tajfel and Turners (1979) social identity theory explains the positive partiality people express toward people they consider as members of their in-group and negative outcome against members who are not in the in-group. Social identity maintains that group members are a bounded unit according to their in-group status (Ashforth & Mael, 1989; Joshi, Liao, & Jackson, 2006; Krumm & Corning, 2008; Lembke & Wilson, 1998; Richard et al., 2003). Ely and Thomas (2001) argued that diversity perspectives shape the identity of members in the work environment. The social identity construct is linked to how individuals perform in a group and how they view themselves in comparison to others. In this study, social identity provides the theoretical framework because, according to Tajfel and Turner (1986), an individuals identity is derived from their membership in groups comprised from various social categories. If diversity perceptions shape the identity of the workforce then social identity is linked to how human resource professionals manage diversity. I seek to gain knowledge from a human resource professionals perceptions of the diversity climate in the organization. Researchers have argued that a significant organizational element for people of color in the workforce is the diversity climate 21

(Buttner et al., 2009; Pitts, 2009). The constructs of social identity theory support this study because of the predictability of how people will exhibit a bias based on in-group and out-group membership (Joshi et al., 2006). Social identity theory implies that people classify themselves and others based on distinctiveness they have in common or share.

Work Climate that

16 diversity
statements

supports
diversity

Variables
Organizational type, gender, HRCI Certification

Social Identity

Theory
Human resource professionals who classify themselves and others based on distinctiveness they have in common or share.

Figure 1. Conceptual framework.

The conceptual framework was developed based on the management dilemma which states, How do the perceptions of human resource professionals influence diversity initiatives based on the diversity climate of the work environment? According to Kuhn (1996), what a man sees depends both upon what he looks at and also upon what his previous visual-conceptual experience has taught him to see (p. 113). This statement is 22

poignant in understanding diversity management from the perspective of an African American human resource professional. The interaction of theory, variables, and research manifested in the analysis of data collected from the diversity climate survey (Figure 1). The participants in the study were human resource professionals who classify themselves and others based on distinctiveness they have in common or share. This is the application of social theory. The independent variables are nonprofit or profit organization, gender, and HRCI certification. The dependent variables are the 16 diversity-related statements integrated in the diversity climate survey. The dependent variables are used to measure efforts to promote diversity, attitudes toward qualifications of racioethnic minorities, attitudes toward qualifications of women, equality of department support of racioethnic minorities and equality of department support of women (Kossek & Zonia, 1993). The three null hypotheses assert there is not a difference in diversity perceptions of human resource professionals by organizational type, gender, and HRCI certification. Examples would be to see if there are differences between human resource professionals across nonprofit organizations and human resource professionals in profit organizations as it relates to diversity statements or the differences between men in profit organizations and women in profit organizations as it relates to diversity statements or if there is a difference between African Americans in nonprofit organizations and African Americans in profit organizations as it relates to diversity statements. Organization of the Remainder of the Study Chapter 2 contains a literature review commencing with a historical perceptions of diversity management followed by subsections including compliance, organizational culture and best practices, gender, affirmative action, performance outcomes, societal 23

context, diversity perceptions, and social identity. The chapter concludes with an assessment of empirical and theoretical literature and its relevance to this study on diversity management. Chapter 3 is an outline of the research methodology for the study. Chapter 3 discusses in sequence the research participants, data collection instrumentation and procedures for data collection. Chapter 4 presents the data collected summarized and outcome analysis. Chapter 5 presents conclusions and recommendations for future research.

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CHAPTER 2. LITERATURE REVIEW I chose a different approach to assess diversity management in an organization. Based on the literature review the discourse did not articulate observations of the work environment or diversity climate expressed from the perceptions of a human resource professional in either nonprofit or profit organizations. The goal is to measure human resource professionals perceptions of the diversity climate in their organizations to further develop diversity management research and literature. This chapter is a review of empirical, practice, and theoretical literature and presents its relevance to the study of perceptions of diversity management in organizations. The focal point of this research is to assess the diversity climate of organizations based on diversity perceptions of human resource professionals. The intent is to explore diversity management perceptions among African American human resource professionals in across nonprofit and profit organizations in the United States. Additional literature applicable to the creation and implementation of diversity management is reviewed. The chapter commences with historical perceptions of diversity management and continues with a discourse of relevant factors identified in the diversity management literature. These factors are assembled in the diversity climate survey in the areas of diversity climate, diversity issues, diversity ideals, and societal issues. The literature review continues with dialogue on social identity theory, which is the theoretical framework for this research. Social identity theory supports the idea that 25

diversity perceptions shape the identity of members in the work environment. Social identity theory gives us a blank image to begin filling in how people view themselves and how they relate to others. The chapter concludes with a summary of diversity management research which focuses on gender, affirmative action, performance outcomes, societal context, diversity perceptions, and social identity. Historical Perceptions of Diversity Management Based on extant literature of diversity management three themes emerged: compliance, organizational culture, and best practices. These themes are predisposed by society and prevailing societal conditions. During the 1960s, organizations were forced to deal with cultural diversity as result of the Civil Rights movement and the advancement of the Civil Rights Act and U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission of 1964 (McMillan-Capehart, 2003). Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act made it illegal for organizations to execute employment practices that were discriminatory. The legislation authorized employers to provide identical opportunities to people with like qualifications and accomplishments (Herring, 2009). In the 1960s and 1970s, a diverse workforce was the end result of legislative mandates. Employers adhered to these mandates to thwart potential employee discrimination claims. Diversity training spawned as a result of legislation which made it illegal for employers to discriminate based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin in hiring, terminations, and other conditions of employment (Anand & Winters, 2008). The creation of the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission provided for many a refuge to seek remedy against employer discriminatory practices. 26

Forward-thinking Kaleel Jamison, founder of Kaleel Jamison Consulting Group, in the late 1970s, stated in his discourse in order to be effective, diversity management must recognize the relevance of organizational culture in its diversity efforts (Anand & Winters, 2008). During the 1970s, racial and gender demographics of the workforce experienced an increase in women and minorities. The increase in women and minorities modified the traditional organizational culture. Recognizing the new composition of the workforce is imperative because researchers argued race and gender as the foundation in accepting human connections (Herring, 2009). In the early 1980s, government intervention waned and company diversity agendas shifted away from diversity training for all employees influenced by affirmative action and equal opportunity and shifted to only managerial positions (Anand & Winters, 2008). In the late 1980s, the Hudson Institute, which produced Workforce 2000, stated the increase of women and minorities in the workforce would have a relatively small impact in relationship to the overall number of people in the workforce (Anand & Winters, 2008). However, the unintended consequence of this report is it attributed to putting forth workforce diversity, which is currently a billion-dollar diversity industry (Hansen, 2003). During the 1990s and up to the present, diversity management has become an important reality in todays work environment because of minority and women demographics, globalization, downsizing, and economic and social conditions. The late 1980s to the late 1990s illustrated a clear paradigm shift in diversity management moving beyond a compliance paradigm to a philosophical paradigm of sensitivity and awareness of the difference in others (Anand & Winters, 2008). According to Anand and Winters 27

(2008), it was not until 1999 that diversity education was considered an integral component of a strategic business process that should be integrated into the core strategy of an organization (Anand & Winters, 2008). The rationale to initiate diversity management programs in organizations has been coupled to an automated response of a changing diverse work environment. This statement is supported by the limited data linking organizational performance and diversity management programs (Pitts, Hicklin, Hawes, & Melton, 2010). The responsibilities of human resource professionals have increased as they pursue an active role in the implementation of diversity management programs (Orlando, 2000). The argument organizations use to sustain diversity management programs, according to Pitts et al. (2010), falls into one of three categories: (a) because they have to, (b) because they can, or (c) because everyone else is. The first factor is categorized as a reaction to environmental uncertainty, the second factor is environmental favorability and the third is institutional isomorphism. All of the factors are grounded in theoretical context. No matter what the motivating force is driving diversity management programs, diversity in the work force is undeniably going to continue due to the projection that the working population is going to become more than 50% minority in 2039 and will continue to increase to 55% minority by 2050 (U.S. Census Bureau, 2008). At the present time, cultural management has also been observed from a global perspective in a study performed in Australia. According to Leveson, Joiner, and Bakalis (2009), Australia has the distinction of being recognized as having a large amount of cultural diversity in the workforce. Leveson et al. defended the complexity of cultural diversity management and examined employees perceptions of managements 28

commitment to diversity management. The study utilized a questionnaire survey for a target population of a multinational financial institution which had 2,000 employees. For purposes of the study, the questionnaire was distributed to a convenience sample of 300 employees who worked at a large Australian financial institution. The researchers noted random sampling was prohibitive due to cost and time. The data collected by the researchers of this study measured affective commitment with an instrument designed by Natalie Allen and John Meyer, and perceived organizational support (POS) was measured by an instrument developed by Robert Eisenberger. The regression results showed a positive relation between POS and affirmative commitment (beta = 0.73, p < 0.001; Leveson et al., 2009). The study is coherent in its articulation of the management of cultural diversity in Australia through a policy known as productive diversity (Leveson et al., 2009). The researchers ascertained that cultural management is prejudiced by government policy to promote linguistic and cultural skill sets, and to acquire familiarity of overseas markets; and by the business acumen of individuals raised overseas. The study supported cultural diversity management practices must be received by employees as a genuine precursor of caring before it is accepted and employees should participate in formulating and or executing diversity management policies. According to Soldans (2009) Australian study of public sector employees, there were concurring conclusions of the statistical significance between perceptions of fairness, treatment, and inclusion and the employees perceived management receptivity to diversity management ([perceived management receptivity to diversity management] PMRDM) in the work environment (Soldan, 2009, p. 1). The quantitative study was conducted in one of the largest Australian government organizations. The study explored 29

the relationship between an employees gender, ethnicity, age, and organizational tenure and their PMRDM. The study utilized a questionnaire developed by sampling items from other instruments that were proven reliable and valid. The instruments included the Workforce Diversity Questionnaire by Linda Larkey; the Diversity Perceptions Scale by MichAl Mor Barak, David Cherin, and Sherry Berkman; and the scale developed by Soni to measure PMRDM. Of particular interest were the factors of diversity management, which explore an understanding of diversity management, employees openness to diversity management, and PMRDM. Before the actual study took place, the instrument was pilot tested and based on the feedback, the instrument was edited for language adjustments and an item was deleted. The instrument was then ready to be activated as an online survey. The survey used a 7-point Likert scale with ranges from 1, strongly disagree, to 7, strongly agree. One thousand seven hundred and fifty employees were invited to participate and 391 responded to the survey, which yielded a 22% response rate. The analysis of the data was performed with comparison of means tests (t tests) and analysis of variance (ANOVA). No statistical significant difference was found between men and women, ethnicity, and age in regards to PMRDM. Between men and women, the data revealed (t = .74, p = .460), minorities and majorities, (t = 1.54, p = .123) The ANOVA tests found that there was a statistical difference which emerged among groups with different organizational tenure and their PMRDM. The data revealed with respect to the difference among groups with different organizational tenure and their PMRDM (F = 2.996, p < 0.05). The results of the study emphasize the importance for management to continuously reinforce diversity management polices and procedure. Reinforcement of an organizations diversity initiative can be accomplished in the implementation of current 30

human resource policies, procedures and practices to ensure fairness and equity to all employees; communications between employees and management that is open; and everyone treats each other with veneration and is open-minded to the different backgrounds, customs, traditions and cultures of others (Soldan, 2009). Both scholarly and popular literature ponders the business case for diversity in the work environment. The references incorporated in this section were selected from pinnacle journals in the fields of human resource management, diversity management, communication, organizational behavior, organization development and labor law to defend the substance of diversity management discourse. In order to move forward diversity management in organizations, a proactive versus a reactive position is very critical (McMahon, 2010). There is a call to action for scholars and practitioners to unearth evidence to support the argument for the business case defense for diversity management. The business case arguments support how diversity increases the talent pool, strengthens U.S. organizations, attracts and retains employees and create a competitive advantage. Diversity in the work environment has been linked to both positive and negative outcomes (Cox & Blake, 1991; Herring, 2009). According to Richards (2000) examination of racial diversity, business strategy, and organizational performance, societal conditions influence racial diversity. The impetus to promote diversity management programs and policies based on organizational performance may fail short in empirical data but it has created a multibillion human resource practitioners must be able to adapt diversity goals regardless of societal conditions because they are fluid. Assessing the relevance of societal conditions and an outcome of social identity,

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which is competition in the work teams (Korte, 2007), the human resource professional must be proactive in keeping abreast on the organizational diversity climate. The seminal research of Cox and Blake (1991) asserts that cultural diversity management is good for organizations in order to create a competitive advantage. Cox and Blake establish the foundation for the discourse of the advantages of diversity management. According to Cox and Blake, diversity management impacts the performance of a business. Diversity management and business performance plus cost, attraction of human resources, marketing success, creativity, innovation, problem-solving quality, and organizational flexibility create an origami octagon. The octagon helps organizations conceptualize the benefits of managing cultural differences. If the factors were placed in a pinwheel, a considerable look at each fold will allow an organization to investigate problems singularly. This would be extremely helpful in determining the diversity needs of an organization, availability of resources and whether or not a diversity climate audit or survey is warranted. An organizational culture that is harmonious encourages the implementation of diversity programs and policies (Pitts et al., 2010). The factors supporting cultural diversity management in the research of Cox and Blake (1991) are germane to heterogeneous organizations. According to the U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (2010), during 2008 through 2018, employment growth will occur in two major occupational groups. The two foremost industries will be professional and business services and secondly, healthcare and social assistance. Collectively the factors sustain the argument for the business case of diversity management in either a profit or nonprofit organization. Research findings have confirmed diversity matters (Pitts, 2009). The synthesis of Cox and Blakes factors and 32

the societal factors of the study are both quantifiable. Supportive paradigms include organizational flexibility in assessing the diversity climate of the organization, application of the cost factor through statistical analysis of turnover cost or absenteeism, and marketing and the statistical analysis of the products sold as a result of hiring employees who represent the organizations customer base. The marketing factor has a foundation in social identity theory and expands to group identity. According to Cox and Blake, when group diversity is designed, it leads to a variety of perceptions, and people from different genders and races bring to the table different experiences shaped by group identities. The human resource professional is the one responsible for managing the various perceptions of its employees. The diversity climate of the organization dictates the success or failure of diversity management initiatives whether the organization is for profit or nonprofit. The constant variable is the employees whose demographic compositions create the mosaic of the work environment. The seminal literature of Cox (1991) suggests that diverse perceptions produce synergy and that is beneficial to any organization. Taking into account the theoretical framework of social identity, it is known that employees want to maximize their own self-esteem and, in doing so, judge the compositions or categories they belong to as good (Pitts & Jarry, 2007). The diversity management research of Pitts et al. (2010) argues that diversity management is implemented on the basis of three categories. These categories are linked to the categories of the study of organizational culture, compliance and best practices. If organizations are implementing diversity management practices because they have to, because they can or because everyone else is, then they are following what they perceive as a best practice. All of the Pitts et al. categories are related to the environment; 33

therefore, they can be placed in a societal context. . The societal context of diversity management was put forth in the discourse of McWilliams and Patel (2009), who stated the prudence of diversity management strategies during economic downturn. The relevance of looking at the diversity climate of the organization is due to the restructuring that often occurs after layoffs and downsizing. The extant literature review uncovered categories and themes but did not provide quantitative data on the research question, Is diversity supported when evaluating the diversity climate based on perceptions across nonprofit and profit organizations, gender, and human resource professional Human Resource Certification Institute (HRCI) certification? This central question uncovers a layer in the onion-like complexity of understanding diversity management in an organization. Compliance When an employer advertises support of equal opportunity and affirmative action for underrepresented individuals, this exemplifies tolerance for legislative compliance and different cultural backgrounds (Groschl & Doherty, 1999). One of the problems related to the study of diversity is the lack of an organizational, clear, and consistent definition for diversity (Anand & Winters, 2008). Some organizations define diversity as regularly monitoring compliance as a social justice component of human resource management responsibilities (Kreitz, 2008). The compliance perceptions is not about engaging in strategies of diversity or inclusion because it was the right thing to do, but doing something because it had to be done due to legislative directives. When affirmative action programs were first introduced there was an exclusion of majority group members, especially European American men. Diversity and inclusion programs seek to leverage 34

the contributions of all individuals even though they are different (McMillian-Capehart et al., 2009). According to Kelly and Dobbin (1998), managers are able to advance diversity initiatives because the discourse focuses on business goals. Those goals include the ability to obtain diverse customer-base perspectives, and that diversity might increase productivity. The intent of affirmative action is to make certain equal employment opportunities are available for underutilized minorities, women, and persons with disabilities, veterans of the Vietnam period and special disabled veterans. Information obtained from the University of California, Berkeley, Human Resources (n.d.) states that federal contractors are required to execute affirmative action plans to guarantee employment opportunities for those groups. The requirement established for federal contractors represent the federal governments commitment to address previous societal discrimination in employment activities. Affirmative action plans and policies are also used to attract and retain employees in the previously mentioned categories. The distinction between affirmative action and equal opportunity employment is affirmative action is program-oriented based on detailed results, whereas equal opportunity forbids employment discrimination and outlines what one can and cannot do in human resources activities. Equal employment opportunity (EEO) and affirmative action are concepts to address legal remedy in disparate employment situations involving disadvantaged individuals and are legally driven (Groschl & Doherty, 1999). Originating in the United States, the intent of EEO policies guaranteed individuals equal opportunities in the workplace and opportunity to file discriminatory complaints (Barbosa & Cabral-Cardoso, 35

2007). Employment decisions that are discriminatory based on an employees gender, race, or ethnicity or policies and procedures that treat employees differently place them at a disadvantage and systematic discrimination occurs (Barbosa & Cabral-Cardoso, 2007; McMillian-Capehart et al., 2009). EEO and affirmative action are inherently political and affect human resource management in delivering policy and procedure. The Supreme Court delivered a poignant opinion in the Ricci v. DeStefano case, which questioned whether there was conflict in Title VIIs disparate impact standards and equal protection (Primus, 2010). A lawsuit against New Haven, CT, was filed by 19 firefighters. Seventeen of the firefighters were European American and two were Hispanic; they had taken tests for managerial promotions but were discarded because none of the African American firefighters scored high enough to be considered for managerial positions. The city stated it feared an adverse impact lawsuit by the African American firefighters who are members of a protected class. The bearing of the case is it unearthed the complexities of the concepts of disparate impact and equal protection. According to Justice Scalia, The war between disparate impact and equal protection will be waged sooner or later and it behooves us to begin thinking about howand on what termsto make peace between them (Primus, 2010, p. 1387). The issue human resource professionals must realize is that diversity management is complex (Jehn et al., 1999; Kelly & Dobbin, 1998) just as the courts grasp the complexity of interpreting equal employment laws; human resource professionals must confront the complexities of diversity management as well. In a societal context, the tenor set by the executive and legislative branch of the U.S. government has the potential to create a ripple effect from Supreme Court judge 36

selection to new employment laws. The discussion on equal opportunity and affirmative action has received mixed reviews. Opponents of equal opportunity and affirmative action argue that belonging to a social group should not outweigh qualifications. Systematic discrimination has not been totally eradicated in the work environment and measures to mitigate this wrong are still needed. The compliance perceptions of diversity merely tolerate diversity (Groschl & Doherty, 1999). Organizations that embrace an organizational culture based on inclusion and diversity must establish a strategic framework for diversity management. Carrell and Mann (2006) stated that companies default to compliance as a strategy for diversity. More than half of current diversity practices are related to compliance to EEO/affirmative action. The first conventional assessment of diversity management in organizations looked at recruitment, outreach and affirmative action/EEO processes (Pitts, 2009). However, effective diversity management requires more than compliance; it also requires support from upper management and leadership to create an organizational culture receptive to diversity initiatives (Pitts, 2009; Pollitt, 2005). The initial goal of affirmative action programs was to increase the representation of underrepresented groups (McMillan-Capehart et al., 2009). The end result supplements the creation of a diverse workforce. Organizational Culture Chuang et al. (2004) speculated that organizational culture influences how diverse groups function. Ely and Thomas (2001) put forward the diversity perceptions of learning and integration based on an organizational culture supporting diversity as an opportunity to produce positive outcomes. Jehn and Bezrukova (2004) stated that managers need to 37

focus on organizational culture in order to render positive diversity results. Understanding organizational culture is important because it can be an asset or a liability. It is an asset when it sustains decision making and control and a liability when it obstructs operational efficiency and strategy (Whitfield & Landeros, 2006). Organizational culture dictates the appropriate behavior a permanent employee will exhibit when a new minority female employee is hired in a finance department. The discourse yielding benefits of diversity in work groups and teams has received mixed reviews. Ely and Thomas (2001) and Cox and Blakes (1991) scholarly research argued the business case for diversity management. These proponents suggested that a diversified workforce can help create an organizational culture where decision making processes are improved, increased flexibility, innovation and learning flourish and market competiveness exists (Barbosa & Cabral-Cardoso, 2007). However, the disadvantages of diversity in the work environment from the opposition conclude it creates employee turnover, communication barriers and low employee morale (Barbosa & Cabral-Cardoso, 2007). Due to contrasting attitudes and views, an objective analysis of the organizational culture is paramount in critiquing the business case for diversity. The increases in cultural diversity within organizations necessitate managers having an understanding of how to manage people in order to reach the common goals of the organization (Seyman, 2006). A solution to effective diversity management is discovering commonalities employees share, along with differences to modify the organizational culture and improve performance results (McMahon, 2010). The organizational culture that manages diversity values diversity.

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In Whitfield and Landeross study (2006) of supply chain management behaviors, customer relationship behaviors were influenced by cultural context or style of the organization. The significance of the study is it documented how organizational culture dictated the course the company would take in regards to spending levels with diverse suppliers. The Whitfield and Landeros study also affirmed the access and legitimacy diversity perceptions also identified in the research of Ely and Thomas (2001). The access and legitimacy perceptions permitted business transactions to occur when both the supplier and the constituency recognize the importance of cultural diversity. Another benefit of a diverse workforce in working with a diverse client base is it helps organizations to develop skills to understand their clients needs and improve relations with them (Wright & Noe, 1996). Edmondson, Gupte, Draman, and Oliver (2009) evaluated the importance of a communication strategy to improve an organizations diversity climate. Language is very important when communicating to employees or constituents. This includes all formats of communication. Organizations must be watchful of the words chosen when stating they sustain the principles of diversity in the work environment. According to Edmondson et al., communication should reflect with consistency the beliefs and perceptions of all the stakeholders. The study revealed the use of the term minority was found to be offensive and created sentiments of anxiety and awkwardness for employees. This eye-opener reinforces the magnitude simple words may have on employees. Communication is both written and verbal and the intent of the message should be clear and precise and not offensive. Organizations are cautioned in using words which were previously acceptable or never even considered odious. 39

A comparison of the two studies of Edmondson et al. (2009) and Whitfield and Landeros (2006) put forward the importance of organizational culture when assessing diversity programs. The Edmondson et al. study examined a sample group of six companies from a list of organizations included in a DiversityInc list. The demographics of the population reflected key areas of diversity management that included recruitment; retention; human capital; CEO commitment; corporate communications; supplier diversity; and top companies for African Americans, Hispanic women, executive women, Asian Americans, gay men, lesbians, and people with disabilities. This study was descriptive and data was collected from web content analysis. The study concluded with the elimination of the word minority, organization communications would enhance the diversity climate and precisely reflect the organizations commitment to diversity. The Whitfield and Landeros (2006) quantitative studys sample group was a U.S. firm that specialized in manufacturing heavy equipment. The population was buying units. Data was collected using an instrument known as the Organizational Culture Diversity Inventory (OCDI) to measure 12 cultural styles of the organizational culture. Propositions were developed which were formatted similar to a hypothesis but did not include a null hypothesis. An example of a proposition is, Buying units with approval culture styles will have moderate levels of spending with diverse suppliers (Whitfield & Landeros, 2006, p. 22). A statistical confirmatory factor analysis was used to explore the relationship of cultural styles and to see if any patterns existed. The researchers conclusion stated the study confirmed a constructive organizational culture was necessary to have elevated spending levels with diverse suppliers. In order for an organization to be successful in this diversity initiative, it is necessary to identify ways to capitalize on the 40

contributions of all stakeholders both internal and external and permit a supplier base that is diverse to have a say (Whitfield & Landeros, 2006). The instruments indentified in the literature review of diversity management included the Reaction-to-Diversity Inventory (R-T-D), Workplace Diversity Survey (WDS), and OCDI. All three instruments were used to obtain quantifiable data. The instrument for this research also used SPSS statistical software to analyze the data collected, measure diversity perceptions, and explore the possibility of existing relationships between the diversity perceptions and the human resource professionals organization, gender, and HRCI certification. Recommendations for future research suggest the development and use of multiple instruments to investigate and measure the many facets of diversity management (Pitts, 2009). Best Practices Best practices are derived from studies and lists of best practices according to companies who had been identified as best employers. According to literature reviewed and the case study of Joo and McLean (2006), the acceptance of these best practices rely on the assumptions that the best practices identified on best practice list are better than those not included in the list. According to studies of best employer practices for major corporations for best diversity employers, ranking was calculated based on responses to surveys. The 40 best companies, according to a 2007 Black Enterprise study by Alleyne, were based on supplier diversity, senior management, board of directors and employee base. The term best practice is conceptualized as practices that yield quantitative or qualitative results, replicable, portable, and transferable to other organizations with modifications and are innovative (Reichenburg, 2001). Best practices create the tangibles 41

and intangibles human resource professionals use to promote communication of policies, changes and updates (Crumpacker & Crumpacker, 2007). Best practice list for diversity management saturate human resource management literature. Organizations adopt best practices from others and create their own by relying on diverse teams to carry out significant tasks, monitor the dynamics and long-term outcomes, and learn from their experiences so they can replicate them (Jackson, 1996). Sponsors of best practice lists include the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (n.d.), DiversityInc (2011), and the Society for Human Resources Management (n.d.). To some researchers, these best practices are merely guesses as to what works to promote and manage diversity in organizations (Kalev et al., 2006). Best practices are not tailored for every organization made but were created as a result of Hoobler et al.s (2007) commissioned study of diversity management grounded in (a) general philosophy, (b ) training, (c) development, (d) accountability, and (e) feedback. Hoobler et al. supported diversity in organizations and are strong proponents of diversity management and its impact on societal change. Two key differentiators recognized in the literature review of Joo and McLeans (2006) study of best employers were organizational culture and diversity initiatives. The diversity management literature did not provide sufficient quantifiable data to illustrate a relationship between human resources professionals organizational type, gender, and HRCI certification and diversity management perceptions. What was apparent was the isolation of dependent variables in the human resource professionals application of diversity management perceptions. What emerged was the need for

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recommendations to create leverage in managing diversity based on diversity perceptions of human resource professionals. Gender The research question asserted by Morrison et al.s (2008) study was whether gender played a significant role in the perceptions of diversity issues addressed in organizations. The cohort used for this study was senior management because their views and perceptions direct or set the standard for others to follow. According to Morrison et al., if senior management perceives a diverse workforce contributes to the organizations bottom line, diversity issues will be addressed and carried out in daily operations (Morrison et al., 2008). A supplementary characteristic of the study looked at parity for women and how they were viewed as potential contributors to the enhancement of workforce diversity in private sector organizations (Morrison et al., 2008). The significance and necessity of diversity management was supported with demographic data cited from a Workforce 2000 report. The researchers stated that the Workforce 2000 document reported a total U.S. workforce comprised of 47% women. Comparing the percentage of women in the total U.S. workforce to the percentage of women who are eligible to work based on the working age of the entire U.S. population, the percentage represents 60% of the eligible working-age women in the U.S. population (Morrison et al., 2008). A survey instrument administered to 500 senior management leaders in private sector organizations found that gender did not play a significant role in how diversity issues were addressed (Morrison et al., 2008). The statistical measure performed was ANOVA. Gender as the independent variable and perceptions of diversity were the dependent variable (Morrison et al., 2008). The researchers concluded that both women 43

and men are sensitive to diversity issues but are failing in the long term, women are more adept at bringing about organizational change, a commonality between men and women exists in resolving workplace diversity issues, and although gender may not have a direct influence on addressing diversity issues, it is of importance because it is a growing indirect factor. One of the recommendations for future study was to assess the strength diversity perceptions has on men and how the possibility of new perceptions could emerge (Morrison et al., 2008). This recommendation had a direct influence on the direction of the study. The operative word is perceptions, and to be explored are the diversity perceptions of human resource professionals using a diversity climate survey as the instrument to obtain this information. A limitation of existing research is it lacked quantitative data to illustrate if there were any statistical relationships between diversity perceptions and gender variables, organizational types and HRCI-certified human resource professionals Affirmative Action Kelly and Dobbins (1998) longitudinal study assessed the efficacy of affirmative action and diversity policies of a random sample of establishments from an EEO-1 database. The EEO-1 database included the workforce years of 19712002 and data on employment practices. The researchers emphasized the abundant amount of information available for diagnosing workplace inequities, but the lack of a diagnosis for a cure. The objective of this study was to provide significant information to organizations to educate them to allocate resources for change is far more effective than targeting managerial bias or focusing on whether disadvantaged groups suffer isolation. The findings of the study support empirical literature on the billion-dollar diversity industry where there is a lack of 44

quantifiable data of the effectiveness of diversity management, but making the change to institute diversity management is the right thing to do. A laboratory experiment of 125 male and female students was used to study the perception of fairness in hiring decisions when it is justified by affirmative action tenets (McMillian-Capehart & Richard, 2005). The students imagined they were competing for a job and were selected as a part of a recruitment plan. Students either received affirmative action justification or no justification for the hiring decision (McMillianCapehart & Richard, 2005). Previous research seeking justification for the use of affirmative action hiring practices state the use of race and gender produce negative reactions from both human resource professionals and newly hired employees (McMillian-Capehart & Richard, 2005). However, affirmative action studies reveal perceptions of fairness and attitudes of affirmative action plans are closely related in terms of procedures but not policy. This relationship requires further empirical testing (McMillian-Capehart & Richard, 2005). Grounded in organizational justice theory, encompassing procedural and distributive justice, the first hypothesis of the laboratory study stated women and racial minorities in the selection process perceive the process fairer when it is void of justification compared to when affirmative action is used as justification (McMillianCapehart & Richard, 2005). The objective of the first hypothesis is to compare procedural non-justification to inadequate justification when affirmative action is used in the selection process. McMillian-Capehart and Richard (2005) recognized the gap in knowledge of research focusing on procedural justice and argued affirmative action plans influence employee perceptions of fairness in hiring outcomes. In the second hypothesis, 45

McMillian-Capehart and Richard used the concept of fairness to argue women and racial minorities believe their individual outcomes should mirror inputs and perceive the selection process is fair without affirmative action justification than with it. This hypothesis echoes the sentiments of Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas, who publicly articulated his opposition to affirmative action programs or racial preference. The final hypothesis formed the basis for analyzing the perception of fairness based on gender taking a look at men in comparison to women; it perceived the selection process fair when no justification is used rather than when affirmative action justification is used (McMillian-Capehart & Richard, 2005). The results of the study made outstanding contribution to perceptions of men and women in the perception of selection decisions with and without the inclusion of affirmative action justification. The study concluded the use of affirmative action justification produced unfavorable response (McMillian-Capehart & Richard, 2005). Further research is needed to examine other forms of justification other than affirmative action. Affirmative action programs should be used with caution. A paradigm shift from affirmative action could be a diversity program which may receive a fairer and favorable perception in the selection process. Affirmative action programs were established to deal with societal conditions at the time of their creation. The study affirmed employees did not want preferential treatment. Little is known on the effectiveness of moral credentials which would question a persons moral character if they display discriminatory behavior (Krumm & Corning, 2008). Manifested prejudice and discriminatory practices in a societal context are overt as a result of regulatory and governmental intervention. On the other side of the diversity and inclusion discourse is the strain between minority and majority groups in determining 46

what defines discrimination and whether or not it has occurred. Communication is very important in order to avoid possible misunderstandings. In a diverse work environment, an African American, Hispanic, or Indian employee could be offended by the comment You are a brownnoser from fellow European American employees when, in fact, the fellow European American employees only wanted to express their perception of the interaction between management and the minority employee and did not see anything wrong with their comment. The example reinforces the need to evaluate the work environment through a diversity climate audit and work on communication. The study of Leveson et al. (2009) reinforces the need to rethink what is considered to be straightforward relationships between cultural diversity management perceptions and organizational/individual outcomes. Human resource professionals and upper management must think about creating strategic frameworks to address the complexity of diversity management. Performance Outcomes Pitts and Jarry (2007) argued in their article the importance of diversity management in the public sector and the void in research of the influence diversity had on performance outcomes. Pitts and Jarry stated that diversity studies confirmed the conflicting impact organizational diversity had on work outcomes, performance, producing ideas and solutions, conflict resolution, production, and service (Pitts & Jarry, 2007). The authors discussed previous research grounded in theories of social identification, social categorization, and similarity and attraction. The basic tenets of the theories were used to predict positive or negative outcomes or relationships (Pitts & Jarry, 2007). Pitts and Jarry suggested that diversity in organizations makes it difficult for 47

people to work together, but it is important to know how diversity affects the workplace relationships and outcomes. Pitts and Jarry collected data from public schools in Texas over a 6-year period that included 1996 to 2001 to analyze a public sector entity and the relationship between ethnicity and organizational performance (Pitts & Jarry, 2007). The results of their study suggested teachers are likely to form in- and out-groups and are influenced by each of these groups accordingly (Pitts & Jarry, 2007). Pitts and Jarrys study was one of the first quantitative studies to measure and link diversity to organizational performance. The study concluded that communication and collaboration tribulations that were process-oriented problems overshadowed any potential diversity viewpoints from being explored. Performance outcomes and their relationship to diversity management were hypothesized by Choi and Rainey (2010), who argued that high levels of diversity will decrease organizational performance but high levels of diversity management will increase organizational performance. Previous research has concluded a work environment that is diverse sometimes augments internal conflict and strife (Ely & Thomas, 2001; Jackson et al., 2003; Seyman, 2006). The results of the research of Choi and Rainey support high levels of racial diversity in federal agencies adversely affected organizational performance. The federal agencies that effectively managed diversity experienced an increase in perceived organizational performance. Diversity management is the common thread binding the concepts of organizational culture, compliance and best practices. Diversity management creates a bridge to a better understanding when a range of perceptions are analyzed (Buttner et al., 2009; Ely & Thomas, 2001; Pitts, 2009).

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Societal Context McWilliams and Patel (2009) observed diversity management through the lens of an economic downturn. The assumption is made that diversity adds value to the work environment. The American workforce in 2008 lost 1.2 million jobs and positions are continuously being eliminated (McWilliams & Patel, 2009). They posited the need to implement diversity management when the economy is in a downturn is imperative. Analyzing the social context of an economic downturn, McWilliams and Patel argued that discrimination claims must be minimized and retention efforts of top talent must be implemented (McWilliams & Patel, 2009). The authors presented five steps to accomplish a restructuring plan through diversity management when thwarted with a failing economy. Four of the five steps focus on the importance of risk management. The first step is to take proactive action to minimize risk by managing organizational restructuring (McWilliams & Patel, 2009). The step in three simple words is establish a plan (McWilliams & Patel, 2009, p. 1). During this step, the organization will identify the needs of the business, design a restructuring plan, evaluate the plan, and obtain senior-level support (McWilliams & Patel, 2009). The second step is to identify and evaluate risk factors (McWilliams & Patel, 2009). During a reduction in force it is critical to pay careful attention to what groups are affected by a restructuring (McWilliams & Patel, 2009). This is the step where the employers seek to inoculate themselves from discrimination claims during restructuring. The courts look specifically at the process the business uses to make reduction in force determination s (McWilliams & Patel, 2009). In the case of grouping employees areas

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such as business units, job responsibilities, and duties should be taken into consideration (McWilliams & Patel, 2009). The third step is mitigating risk by assessing employees who will be affected from a reduction in force (McWilliams & Patel, 2009). This is accomplished by reviewing performance evaluations, interpersonal skills, length of service and future organizational needs (McWilliams & Patel, 2009). A best practice for performance management is to make sure the employee appraisal process has been validated to ensure fairness and EEO (McWilliams & Patel, 2009). The fourth step necessitates that the employer implement and monitor written policies as part of their restructuring and risk management process (McWilliams & Patel, 2009). The courts take this into consideration when considering discrimination claims. The fifth and final step involves effective communication to the workforce of the restructuring process. Employees will have valid concerns and management must articulate the rigor of the process and fairness has been established (McWilliams & Patel, 2009). Diversity Perceptions To obtain an understanding of diversity management it has been analyzed through various perceptions (Buttner et al., 2009; Ely & Thomas, 2001; Pitts, 2009). The three perceptions indentified for the purpose of this study are compliance, organizational culture and best practices. According to Pitts (2009), a best practice for recruiting and retaining employees of color would come from organizations strengthening their management practices and not just focusing on recruitment. People of color are the canaries advancing into the diversity cave to signal if diversity management strategies 50

were effective or ineffective (Buttner et al., 2009). Building on Cox and Blakes (1991) argument that diversity in the work environment cultivates diverse perceptions was sustained in the qualitative research of Ely and Thomas (2001). The populations of the research were three culturally diverse organizations. Data was collected from interviews which were recorded and then transcribed. The interviews were followed with a survey. Ely and Thomas classified three categories of diversity perceptions: integration and learning, access and legitimacy, and discrimination and fairness. These perceptions direct how work teams created and responded to diversity in the work environment. These diversity perceptions are rooted in social theory and used to explain how work teams internalize cultural diversity, outline their identity and perform their work. Diversity perceptions employ a holistic approach to understand how organizations and people learn to work together as an inclusive unit. Recommendations from their research influenced me to broaden the understanding of how diversity perceptions affect the way employers manage diversity (Ely & Thomas, 2001). The limitation of the existing research was the lack of quantifiable data from human resource professional perceptions of diversity management in organizations. This gap of knowledge led to the need to explore diversity management perceptions among African American human resource professionals across nonprofit and profit organizations in the United States. According to Buttner et al. (2009), the diversity climate is significant for African Americans in reaching an understanding of how the work environment operates. This research has taken Ely and Thomass (2001) three categories of diversity perceptions into consideration and categorized them in the social context of compliance, organizational culture and best practices. Ely and Thomass discrimination and fairness 51

perceptions are tantamount to compliance, access and legitimacy to best practices and integration and learning to organization culture. The adaption of the diversity perceptions created the need to broaden the theoretical framework of social theory to include the assumptions of social identity theory. Joo and McLean (2006) speculated that social identity deals with the associations among engaged employees, human resources reputation and financial performance. According to the research of Pitts and Jarry (2007), social identification theory assumes individuals desire to maximize their self-esteem and make judgments about others who are not part of their group. Social identity theory predicts that people classify themselves and others based on what they have in common. A human resource professional in managing diversity based on the assumptions of social identity is going to make the decisions they make because of who they believe they are which determines their identity (Korte, 2007). Diversity climate has been defined as organizational members attitudes and perceptions toward people from cultural groups other than their own (Kossek & Zonia, 1993). Leaders in organizations must explore the concepts of social identity differences when attitudes and perceptions are manifested in the practices and behaviors of individuals in the organization. The identification of social identity theory presented the opportunity to understand how a variety of demographic characteristics can influence behaviors and outcomes of either the minority or majority group (Joshi et al., 2006). The creation of climate requires the attention of practices and procedures (Edmondson et al., 2009). The diversity climate of an organization dictates that there must be some form of constant analysis, review, audit or assessment to remain focused on the organizations bottom line. An encouraging diversity climate creates work teams that are not 52

homogenous and assigns competent women and minorities to executive positions (Prieto, Phipps, & Osiri, 2009). I utilized a diversity climate survey instrument to measure the significance of diversity perceptions of African American human resource professionals according to organization type, gender, and HRCI certification among African American human resource professionals. The exploration of the relationship between diversity perceptions and the human resource professionals organization type, gender, and HRCI certification institutes a foundation to begin assessing how the people responsible for recruitment, training, professional development and employment issues observe the diversity climate of the work environment. The strength of applying a social identity theory in exploring diversity management is it harmonizes with the analysis of diversity perceptions. The diversity perceptions is the guiding light which illuminates for people to discern what type of progress is being made toward an ideal multicultural workgroup (Ely & Thomas, 2001) and the social identity proposes identities are maintained within this group by comparing members (Ashforth & Mael, 1989). In addition to how people view themselves and others, Korte (2007) argued that social identity plays a very influential role in what influences learning in organizations. A case in point to argue the strength of applying social identity theory and diversity perceptions are measurable results of data produced from a diversity climate survey. An example of linking a diversity perceptions statement and social identity theory is obtained from the statistical measurement of the diversity statement. An example of this is using the following diversity perception statement from Section 1 of the diversity climate instrument: Increasing minority representation among employees is an important way to achieve multiracial 53

understanding and cooperation. The statement addresses the acuity of the oneness of the workgroup. Extrapolation of the three diversity perceptions from the seminal research of Ely and Thomas (2001) combined with themes from the literature review of diversity management in organizations support the categorization of the diversity perceptions for the study into three categories: compliance, organizational culture, and best practices. The exploration of diversity management research did not distinguish a relationship between diversity perceptions from a contextual point of compliance, organizational culture and best practices and diversity attributes of race, gender and type of organization. The team diversity aspects abundantly measured in studies from 1992 to 2008 included race, gender, tenure, age, experience, education, and ethnicity (Joshi & Roh, 2009) but in the context of organizational type, such as nonprofit or profit, organizational consideration was meager. When Joshi et al. (2006) researched gender and ethnicity of work teams, it was determined that women and people of color performed better when they were not isolated from people who had those same attributes. An easy-to-administer survey instrument is the Reaction-to-Diversity Inventory (R-T-D), which is also not time-consuming for participants and is of assistance to human resource professionals to evaluate diversity efforts. The purpose of the instrument is to compute scores of words chosen to summarize an individuals orientation to workplace diversity (De Meuse & Hostager, 2001). The categories for the positive and negative words incorporate emotional reactions, judgments, behavioral reactions, personal consequences, and organizational outcomes. The instrument was found to be reliable and valid, but recommendations for future research state the need to expand the current 54

population to include universities, professional engineering and production facilities and an examination of how corporate cultures make available affirmative perceptions of diversity and also used to measure the relationship between organizational change and diversity perceptions and attitudes in organizations (De Meuse & Hostager, 2001). The literature review affirms that the views of diversity in the workplace are complex. Realizing the void of an instrument to measure and assess diversity views, De Meuse and Hostager (2001) developed an instrument to disclose statistical significant differences. The instrument is identified as the R-T-D and represents positive and negative elements of diversity reactions. The diversity reactions are rated according to perceptual breadth, personal depth, and perceptual balance, and are emotional and behavioral judgments, personal consequences, and organizational outcomes. The instrument was used in their study to appraise the complexity of diversity perceptions and promote the development of additional measures to be used in conjunction with the R-TD. A supplementary objective was to provide a measure for workplace diversity scholars (De Meuse & Hostager, 2001). The statistical significance of the results of the study was analyzed using the multivariate analysis of variance package in SPSS. The results confirmed the necessity to further advance the complexity of perceptions associated with diversity in the workplace. I also used SPSS statistical software to analyze statistical significance and an equivalent survey instrument for data analysis. Another quantitative instrument is the Workplace Diversity Survey (WDS), which has diversity statements measured by a 5-point Likert scale. The results collected from the WDS when used in conjunction with the R-T-D establish criterion-related validity for the R-T-D. A significant correlation was found between the two instruments and it was 55

concluded that both instruments were measuring the same construct. The instrument for this study is comparable to the WDS. The WDS has been used to measure the efficiency of training programs (De Meuse et al., 2007). Both instruments are measuring diversity perceptions and use a Likert-scale measuring scheme. Both instruments provide measurable data to determine if any statistical relationships exist. Social Identity Social identity theory revealed key insight to understanding the behavior and decisions for relating to groups or teams. The transition of an individual from focusing on their individual identity to seeing themselves as a member of the group is important when managing diverse work teams (Korte, 2007). Demographic salient characteristics, such as gender, race, and ethnicity, are essential characteristics in revealing differences on how employees perceive an organizations diversity management efforts (Chow & Crawford, 2004; Jackson & Joshi, 2004). The implication of these characteristics is suppressed when a positive social identity thrives in the organizational culture (Chuang et al., 2004). Empirical research derived knowledge from social identity theory and protracts the authority social identity has on group or team behavior (Korte, 2007). The process of creating a social identity is based on categories of religion, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic conditions, and organizational ties. The nuances of the theory of social identification predicted high levels of diversity would create work processes of heightened mistrust, miscommunication and lack of cooperation when individuals who were not considered part of the in-group were present (Pitts & Jarry,2007). Pitts and Jarry (2007) indicated that social identification theory suggested a negative impact on work processes will occur when there is organizational diversity. However, Joshi et al. (2006) 56

posited that social identity theory provides a basis for understanding how workplaces are influenced by the demographic composition of the behaviors and outcomes of members of a numerical minority or majority. These contrasting views provide the human resource professional a foundation to analyze diversity management objectives in organizations. The cognizance of social identity does not provide a cure for the ills associated with an increasing diversified workforce, but does create an opportunity to develop risk management strategies. The challenge to understand the dogma of social identity theory was to accept the assumption that social identification occurs when individuals seek to maximize their own self-esteem and this is done by comparing themselves to others and establishing categories of membership (Pitts & Jarry, 2007). An alternative theory discussed by researchers Pitts and Jarry (2007) is the information and decision-making theory. The information and decision-making theory is the only theory utilized to support a positive relationship between diversity and work group performance (Pitts & Jarry, 2007). It is not appropriate for the study because work group performance is not considered for analysis. Comparing the information and decision-making theory to social identity theory, the authors stated that the information and decision-making theory is not strong and caution should be used when considering its use in diversity management research (Pitts & Jarry, 2007). The findings of these researchers suggest the social categorization theory has the potential to offer more to the discourse of diversity; however, social identity theory goes a step further by appending to the social context discourse.

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Summary The literature review reflected on topics that add value to understanding the complexities of diversity management. The sections included historical perceptions of diversity management, compliance, organizational culture, best practices, gender, affirmative action, performance outcomes, societal context, diversity perceptions, and theoretical framework. Organizations tout numerous strategies in the pursuit of the distinction for recognition of best practices for the diversity climate. Diversity research distinctive for its holistic approach to diversity management was identified in the works of (Kalev et al., 2006), who stated that effective strategies for diversity management consist of diversity training and evaluations, networking, and mentoring. Kreitz (2008) stated that in order for diversity management to remain effective, human resource professionals and organizational leaders must update best practices to ensure that they align with current research findings. Hoobler et al. (2007), who stated the significance of diversity management and its impact on communal change; Edmondson et al. (2009), who put forth the perceptions that in addition to embracing diversity you must also deliver a message of dedication and value; and Knouse (2009), who argued that an important component of the diversity climate is an organizations diversity reputation. Due to the competitive nature for the top-notch employees, companies are vying for the recognition to be a preferred employer. One of the strategies identified to accomplish this goal, is to benchmark human resource practices with leading companies or organizations (Joo & McLean, 2006). An organization that wishes to be renowned for its commitment to diversity and inclusion will participate in studies, surveys, or roundtables to promote their brand. Internally, an organization can assess it diversity 58

climate with the use of instruments designed specifically to explore employees perceptions of organizational diversity initiatives.

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CHAPTER 3. METHODOLOGY The intent was to explore diversity management perceptions among African American human resource professionals across nonprofit and profit organizations in the United States. Permission to utilize the membership database of an African American human resource professional organization was granted. The type of data analysis for quantitative research involves the application of descriptive, correlation and inferential statistics (Burian et al., 2010). Nonparametric statistical tests were applied during data analysis. The independent variables are organizational type, gender, and Human Resource Certification Institute (HRCI) certification. The dependent variables were the 16 diversity statements. Following data analysis, a strategic framework for human resource professionals to manage and leverage diversity in the work environment was developed. Research Design This nonexperimental quantitative study utilized a diversity climate survey to investigate African American human resource professionals perceptions of diversity management in their organization. This study was based on the post-positivists philosophy because it adheres to the assumption that research seeks to have the researcher move forward the concept of a relationship among variables and construct them in terms of questions and hypotheses (Creswell, 2009). According to Creswell (2009), the post-positivist lens is based on careful observation and measurement of the 60

objective reality that exists out there in the world (p. 7). It has been argued that when measuring an organizations diversity climate, an organization may deploy diversityspecific surveys to assess how employees view the diversity climate (Hoobler et al., 2007). Diversity management is the phenomena human resource professionals address in a diverse work environment. The philosophic assumptions associated with the chosen methodology encompass epistemological, ontological and axiological assumptions. The analysis begins with the nature of understanding what is embedded in the epistemological assumption. The epistemological assumption includes the way knowledge can be attained (Bahari, 2010). The post-positivist looks for understanding of a whole concept, studies parts, and look for consistencies and relationships. According to Bahar (2010), there is acceptance of social realities with an unbiased reality apart from the belief of individuals. The social world exists externally where there are relationships between things and events and peoples knowledge of them (p. 30). The ontological assumption of the postpositivist is that reality can be measured by utilizing a scientific method of research. According to Bahar (2010), the post-positivist view is the social world is a hard, concrete, real thing, out there, which affects everyone in one way or another (p. 30). The axiological assumption acknowledges that values can distort our view of reality and therefore are excluded from the research process. According to Creswell (2009), the key assumptions post-positivists hold are researchers do not prove a hypothesis, they indicate a failure to reject it; researchers collect data from instruments based on measures completed by participants; being objective is an essential aspect of competent inquiry (p. 7).

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The quantitative method was appropriate for use in this study because the goal was to describe, explain and predict diversity perceptions of human resource professionals in the work environment. Review of statistical literature state the use of quantitative methodology in data analysis present the opportunity to perform computer analysis where statistics and mathematical techniques are used during the data analysis process, analysis is constant and there is a clear division between facts and opinions (Cooper & Schindler, 2003). The strength of survey research is the capacity to use a large sample size and reduce data collected to numerical codes for analysis. Weaknesses of survey research are that the researcher can miss the opportunity to ask one-on-one questions with respondents regarding their response to the diversity statements, and the researcher does not have the opportunity to directly observe the work environment. Sample Sampling Frame The target population for this study was African American human resource professionals. The intent was to find African American human resource professionals who work for either nonprofit or profit organizations, are either male or female, and possess a certification from HRCI. In order to identity members of this homogenous cohort, a member of my professional network suggested contacting the National Association of African Americans in Human Resources (NAAAHR). Contact was made with the national president of the organization and permission was granted to utilize the membership database for this study. According to the NAAAHR (n.d.), they are a notfor-profit organization that exists to provide a national forum where Black and African American human resources practitioners and those who are aligned with their goals can 62

share, gain information, and provide leadership on issues affecting their individual careers and the global workforce. By doing this, NAAAHR endeavors to increase the presence and leadership ability in minority talent at all levels, across all industries, both nationally and globally by facilitating conferences, symposiums, seminars, regional events, career fairs, and building strategic alliances. The demographic information was retrieved from the NAAAHR membership directory. The membership directory illustrated members work in both profit and nonprofit organizations. The members have work titles that include vice president of diversity & inclusion, diversity/equal opportunity employment (EEO) specialist, director of diversity, corporate director of global diversity, human resources coordinator, vice president of human resources, human resources manager, human resources generalist, senior director of human resources, human resource specialist and director of affirmative action/equal employment. The members are located in the following states: Alabama, Arkansas, Arizona, California, Colorado, Connecticut, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Massachusetts, Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Mississippi, North Carolina, New Jersey, Nevada, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Texas, Virginia, Washington, and Wisconsin. According to the NAAAHR (n.d.), their goals are

To establish a national network and forum for Black, African American, and emerging minority human resources practitioners To conduct, monitor and disseminate research and analysis on major workforce issues To influence the platforms of national and international organizations which influence career opportunities and work life 63

To establish a mechanism to monitor legislation and other factors that affect human resources practitioners and to develop strategies that effectively represent membership interests To provide conferences, seminars, systematic studies and publications which inform and advance the professional development of human resources practitioners aligned with NAAAHR goals To serve as a resource to individuals interested in entering the human resources profession

According to the NAAAHR association director, the NAAAHR membership database includes 6,000 contacts. Sample Population The sampling frame consisted of 700 human resource professionals who represent a subset of the NAAAHR membership database. These are the financial members of the NAAAHR. The recruitment letter with the link to the informed consent and survey was sent to all 700 members. Sampling Method The sampling method used a simple random sampling. The 700 human resource professionals of the sampling frame had an equal chance to participate in the study. According to the association director of NAAAHR, there are 700 human resource professionals who are financially active and have met their financial dues obligation. The NAAAHR association director had been authorized by the NAAAHR president to send out the e-mail of the recruitment letter to potential participants that contains the hyperlink to a questionnaire on my behalf. The sample size required to obtain a 95% confidence interval of the 700 sampling frame of NAAAHR financial members is 248. The sample size was calculated based on a 64

95% confidence level and +/- 5% margin of error utilizing a survey system calculator. The estimation was there would be a 40% response rate of the 248 financial members. The survey system calculator calculated 620 recruitment letter e-mails had to be sent. The simple random sampling of the 620 potential participants occurred with the flip of a coin. The database of the 700 members is numbered 1 through 700. Prior to sending the recruitment e-mail, the association director flipped a coin. If the coin was heads, he started at number 75 of the database going forward, eliminating numbers 1 through 74 with 75 through 700 remaining. If the coin was tails, he started at number 625 of the database going backward, eliminating numbers 626 through 700 with 1 through 625 remaining. This completed the simple random sample technique. The sample presented the opportunity to include research from people of color, which was lacking in the literature research. This group, by 2025, will comprise 35% of the population (U.S. Census Bureau, 2002). Permission to utilize NAAAHR members to participate in this study was granted by the national president of the organization, Mr. Carl C. Jefferson. Mr. Jefferson instructed the association director to provide me with permission granted documentation on organization letterhead. Hypotheses Alternative Hypothesis 1 (H1A): There is a difference between African American HR professionals perception of the work climate that support diversity and their organizational type as measured by a diversity climate instrument.

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Null Hypothesis 1 (H10): There is no difference between African American HR professionals perception of the work climate that support diversity and their organizational type as measured by a diversity climate instrument. Nonprofit or profit organization is the nominal independent variable and perceptions of the work climate that support diversity are the dependent variables.

Alternative Hypothesis 2 (H2A): There is a difference between African American HR professionals perception of the work climate that support diversity and their gender as measured by a diversity climate instrument. Null Hypothesis 2 (H20): There is no difference between African American HR professionals perception of the work climate that support diversity and their gender as measured by a diversity climate instrument. Gender is the nominal independent variable and perceptions of the work climate that support diversity are the dependent variables.

Alternative Hypothesis 3 (H3A): There is a relationship between African American HR professionals perception of the work climate that support diversity and their HRCI certification as measured by a diversity climate instrument? Null Hypothesis 3 (H30): There is no relationship between African American HR professionals perception of the work climate that support diversity and their level HRCI certification as measured by a diversity climate instrument. HRCI certification is the ordinal independent variable and perceptions of the work climate that support diversity are the dependent variables.

The questionnaire used for the study contains 16 diversity statements that the human resource professionals used to rate aspects of the work climate that support diversity. Three null hypotheses were created and aligned with the subscales of the instrument to measure which are value efforts to promote diversity, attitudes toward qualifications of racethnic minorities, attitudes toward qualifications of women, equality of department support of racioethnic minorities and equality of department support of women (Kossek & Zonia, 1993, pp. 80-81). See Table 1 for the relationships between 66

the questionnaire statements, null hypotheses and variables and levels of measurement for dependent and independent variables.

Table 1. Questionnaire Statement/Null Hypothesis/Variable


Questionnaire statement/dependent variable 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 (value efforts to promote diversity); 11, 12, 13 (equality of department support of racioethnic minorities) Ordinal data Null hypothesis H10: There is no difference between African American HR professionals perception of the work climate that support diversity and their organizational type as measured by a diversity climate instrument. H20: There is no difference between African American HR professionals perception of the work climate that support diversity and their gender as measured by a diversity climate instrument. H30: There is no relationship between African American HR professionals perception of the work climate that support diversity and their HRCI certification as measured by a diversity climate instrument. Independent variable Organizational type (profit, nonprofit) Nominal data

9, 10 (attitudes toward womens qualifications) Ordinal data

Gender (male/female) Nominal data

Statements 7, 8 (attitudes toward qualifications of racioethnic minorities); 14, 15, 16 (equality of department support of women) Ordinal data

HRCI certification (SPHR, SPHRCalifornia, PHR) Ordinal data

Instrumentation/Measures The design of the survey consisted of two sections. Section 1 consisted of 16 diversity statements to measure human resource professionals perceptions of the diversity climate in their organization. Section 2 contained demographic data about organization type, gender, and HRCI certification. Permission was granted to adapt the organizational diversity climate survey designed by Dr. Ellen Ernst Kossek and Susan Zonia (1993) to measure the aspects of the 67

work climate that are supportive to diversity for this study. The questionnaire used a 3and 5-point Likert scale to measure perceptions of the diversity climate from African American human resource professionals. I believe that measuring diversity statements is significant to understanding diversity management in organizations. The survey instrument was adapted with permission to measure the diversity climate of organizations. The instrument was developed by Kossek and Zonia (1993) and was designed to measure organizational support for diversity. The instrument utilizes a 3- to 5-point Likert scale rating of 1 (less chance) to 3 (better chance); 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree); and 1 (much lower) and 5 (much higher). The questionnaire instrument measured if there is a relationship in diversity statements across nonprofit and profit organizations, gender, and HRCI certification. Permission to utilize the questionnaire instrument was granted by the developer, Dr. Ellen Kossek. The subscales of the diversity climate instrument created by Kossek and Zonia (1993) measure the diversity climate based on value efforts to diversity, attitudes toward qualifications of racioethnic minorities, attitudes toward womens qualifications, equality of department support of racioethnic minorities, and equality of department support of women. Minor adaptions were confirmed as good edits by Dr. Kossek creator of the original instrument. Minor adaptations to the original instrument for this study include 1. The use of the words minority employees instead of minority faculty. This includes Diversity Statements 1 through 5. 2. The use of the words excellent place of employment instead of excellent institution. This includes Diversity Statements 1 through 3. 3. The use of the words employment programs instead of academic programs. This includes Diversity Statement 6. 68

4. The use of the words in my place of employment instead of in my school. This includes Diversity Statements 7 and 8. 5. The use of the word work productivity instead of research productivity. This includes Diversity Statement 9. 6. The use of the words in my place of employment instead of in my school/department. 7. The inclusion of three demographic categories of organizational type, gender, and HRCI certification. Pilot Study The original survey instrument was found to be reliable after exploratory factor analysis was performed by researchers Kossek and Zonia (1993). Internal consistency was established in the Cronbachs alpha of the subscales. If an instrument is modified or adapted a pilot study is requested. The exact same subscales were used in the study. The pilot study used 30 human resource professionals taken from the 700 sampling frame of human resource professionals to test the reliability of the adapted instrument. The format of the pilot study mirroredhe full study. The process started with an e-mail request to NAAAHR to submit the recruitment letter to 30 human resource professionals from the 700 sampling frame for a pilot study. The participants had 2 weeks to complete the study. When the pilot study was complete, the data was analyzed using Cronbachs alpha in SPSS. Data Collection The data gathering took place through an Internet website known as Zoomerang. There was a 2-week period during which potential participants had an opportunity to participate in the survey. The e-mail sent to participants directly from the NAAAHR included the recruitment letter requesting their participation in an online survey and the 69

hyperlink to Zoomerang. After reading the recruitment letter, the participants had the opportunity to either click on the hyperlink and proceed to the survey or exit the e-mail therefore rejecting participation in the online survey. For those who decided to participate in the online survey, they proceeded by clicking on the hyperlink taking them directly to Zoomerang. The first page of the study was the informed consent. After reading the informed consent, the participants had the opportunity to confirm once again they met the established criteria which states they are an African American human resource professional and has current experience in a diverse work environment. The survey was designed for completion in no more than 15 minutes. Once participants completed the survey, they clicked the Submit button. Once the Submit button was selected, the participants could not reenter the survey. Based on the response rate of the participants after the 1st week, a second request of the original e-mail was sent stating if they had not responded to please do so at that time. Data Analysis The study contains three null hypotheses. The null hypotheses state there is not a difference in diversity perceptions of human resource professionals across nonprofit or profit organizations gender and HRCI certification. Data analysis was completed using SPSS. The descriptive statistics made it possible to present the data collected from the online survey instrument in a manageable format. This is important when there are large amounts of data to analyze. The first step of the data analysis process was to generate descriptive data to describe the demographic information for the nonprofit and profit organizations, gender, and human resource professionals certification. The three null hypotheses state there is 70

not a difference in diversity perceptions of human resource professionals by organization type, gender and human resource professionals certification. The statistical tests used to analyze the ordinal data collected from the responses to the diversity statements are the Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test (Table 2). The Mann-Whitney U test is used when there is not an assumption for distribution, scale of measurement is ordinal and there is a random sample from a population. The test analyzed if there were differences between human resource professionals in nonprofit organizations and human resource professionals in profit organizations as it relates to diversity statements or the differences between men and women as it relates to diversity statements. The KruskalWallis test analyzed if there are differences between human resource professionals who poses the ordinal independent variables of the HRCI certification variable (SPHR, SPHRCalifornia, PHR) and attitudes toward the qualifications of racioethnic minorities. The assumptions were met to perform the Kruskal-Wallis test because the level of measurement was ordinal, the sample size per group was at least five, and the true population values [were] continuous (Kemp & Kemp, 2004, p. 311). The response system for the data collected from diversity climate instrument included a 1- to 3-point and 1- to 5-point Likert scale. The Likert scale had a 3- to 5-point rating system in order to manage the ordinal data from the Likert scale for statistical testing. According to the summation of Jaccard and Wan (1996), for many statistical tests, rather severe departures (from intervalness) do not seem to affect type I and type II errors dramatically (p. 4).

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Table 2. Statistical Analysis for Hypotheses


Research question 1. What is the difference between African American HR professionals perception of the work climate that are supportive of diversity and their organizational type as measured by a diversity climate instrument? 2. What is the difference between African American HR professionals; perception of the work climate that are supportive of diversity and their gender as measured by a diversity climate instrument? 3. What is the difference between African American HR professionals perception of the work climate that are supportive of diversity and their HRCI certification as measured by a diversity climate instrument? Null hypothesis H10: There is no difference between African American HR professionals perception of the work climate that support diversity and their organizational type as measured by a diversity climate instrument. Statistical procedure Mann-Whitney U test

H20: There is no difference between African American HR professionals perception of the work climate that support diversity and their gender as measured by a diversity climate instrument.

Mann-Whitney U test

H30: There is no difference between African American HR professionals perception of the work climate that support diversity and their HRCI certification as measured by a diversity climate instrument.

Kruskal-Willis test

Validity and Reliability Validity The survey instrument by Kossek and Zonia (1993) used for this study was proven both valid and reliable. The survey instrument was designed to measure the construct of aspects of the work climate that are supportive of diversity. The psychometric properties of the instrument was a study population of faculty members who had academic staff status and at least 1 year of seniority and were either a European American woman, racioethnic minority, or selected from a random sample of European American men. They survey was mailed to all of their office addresses (Kossek & Zonia, 1993). The questionnaire had a twofold purpose of first being designed to examine what 72

is the current organizational climate regarding diversity and pluralism and secondly to examine how successful had the administration been in fostering a climate that placed a high value on diversity (Kossek & Zonia, 1993). Construct validity was established by conducting factor analysis on 20 diversity statements related to diversity. A scree plot was done and after inspection there were four distinct factors that emerged. The factors had eigen values that were between 1.5 and 5.9, this explained for a 66% variance (Kossek & Zonia, 1993). According to Kossek and Zonia, the item included for conceptual reasons was the factor related to departmental support which was then divided into two factors. One factor was for support of women and the other was support for racioethnic minorities. The end result were five subscales that proved from a multivariate analysis of variance to be significantly associated to racioethnicity and gender with the exception of attitudes toward qualifications of racioethnic minorities (Kossek & Zonia, 1993). Reliability The survey instrument was found to be reliable after exploratory factor analysis was performed by researchers Kossek and Zonia (1993). Internal consistency was established in the Cronbachs alpha of the subscales. The five subscales of the diversity statements and the corresponding alpha coefficients were .77 for value efforts to promote diversity, .71 for attitudes toward qualifications of racioethnic minorities, .72 for attitudes toward qualifications of women, .74 for equality of department support of racioethnic minorities, and .90 for equality of department support of women. All five subscales are used in this study.

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Ethical Considerations The potential benefits for the participants are the intrinsic value gained from being part of a necessary study to provide representation of African American human resource professionals perceptions of a diversity climate. Another benefit is being a part of a study that brings to their attention what is measurable when analyzing where there is support for diversity in their organization. A potential risk for the participant could be a paradigm shift in their perception of their organization being supportive of diversity. Prior to participation, they could be living in a non-cognizant bubble where everything is OK, everyone is equal, and all is well. I am protecting the privacy of the participants with the selection of unspecified names in the survey design. I am not collecting any data that can be associated directly to any individual participant to preserve and protect the right to privacy. IP addresses are not captured anywhere to link participants to data collected guaranteeing anonymity. The survey was completed using Zoomerang. Zoomerang (MarketTools, Inc., n.d.) security provides a user ID and password to set up the online survey. It was my responsibility to safeguard the password and user ID to restrict unauthorized use or compromise the data received. Zoomerang (MarketTools, Inc., n.d.) uses the most advanced technology for Internet security commercially available, including Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) technology, which protects user information and encrypts data. The informed consent form identified me as the researcher, and stated the purpose of the study and that permission to contact individuals was granted by the president of the NAAAHR, Mr. Carl C. Jefferson. The consent form also included my contact information and stated that 74

participation is voluntary and confidentiality of data collected. There was no interaction with participants, making this a minimal risk study for participants. Data was collected and analyzed in SPSS. The statistical data will be stored for approximately 7 years on a flash drive. The benefit of the study is it explores diversity management perceptions among human resource professionals across nonprofit and profit organizations in the United States to propose a strategic framework for a human resource or diversity professional to effectively manage diversity and improve the diversity culture based on various perceptions. Informed Consent The informed consent is very important to inform participants what the study entails and their right to voluntarily participate. According to Creswell (2009), key elements of an informed consent include 1. Identification of the researcher 2. Identification of the sponsoring institution 3. Identification of the purpose of the research 4. Identification of the benefits for participating 5. Notification of foreseeable risks 6. Confidentiality of participant guarantee 7. Contact information in the event that questions arise 8. A statement explaining that participation is voluntary and the participant can withdraw at any time The participants were informed of the purpose of the study; given the identification of the researcher; furnished with endorsement from the provider of their e75

mail addresses; and informed that participation was voluntary, confidentiality would be maintained, and that the study did not involve any psychological or physical treatment. Whereas participation was the goal for the study, participation in the survey was strictly voluntary and non-completion did not incur any consequence. When conducting an online survey, the informed consent is an important component to meet ethical guidelines (Cooper & Schindler, 2003). Participants were informed that if they accepted the conditions outlined in the informed consent form, they could then proceed to complete the survey by clicking on the survey link.

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CHAPTER 4. RESULTS The intent of the study was to explore diversity management perceptions of African American human resource professionals across organizations in the United States. In this study, the variables and null hypotheses in Table 2 were explored regarding the perceptions of African American human resource professionals across organizations in the United States. A quantitative methodology was used to discover the differences of the independent variables across nonprofit and profit organizations, gender, and human resource professionals certification and the dependent variable of diversity perceptions. The quantitative methodology allowed me to collect and analyze statistics with the use of the Diversity Climate Survey administered via the Internet. The site used secure technology that protected the users information and encrypted data. The three null hypotheses of the study asserted that there is not a difference in diversity perceptions of human resource professionals by organizational type, gender, and Human Resource Certification Institute (HRCI) certification. The three null hypotheses are reiterated in this chapter, and descriptive data and statistical analysis presented. Demographic data of the variables is presented graphically. This chapter also includes the reliability findings of the survey instrument obtained from the pilot study. Pilot Study Results A pilot study was completed to test the reliability of the survey instrument. Six people participated in the pilot study from the 30 recruitment e-mails that were sent. 77

The instrument was found reliable based on the Cronbachs alpha results (Table 3). According to Norusis (2008), the acceptable level of reliability for an instrument is .70. The low numbers in three of the subscales may be attributed to the small pilot study sample size. Adaptations made to the original instrument in Items 18 were proven reliable.

Table 3. Pilot Study Cronbachs Alpha Results


Subscale Value efforts to promote diversity Attitudes toward qualifications of racioethnic minorities Attitudes toward womens qualifications Equality of departmental support of racioethnic minorities Equality of department support of women Statement number(s) 1 6 7-8 9-10 1113 1416 Cronbachs alpha .926 .727 .375 414 .469

Data Collection The data were collected from financially active members of the National Association of African Americans in Human Resources (NAAAHR). The NAAAHR is a national nonprofit organization that exists to provide a national forum where Black and African American human resources practitioners and those who are aligned with their goals can share, gain information, and provide leadership on issues affecting their individual careers and the global workforce. By doing this, NAAAHR endeavors to increase the presence and leadership ability in minority talent at all levels and across all industries, both nationally and globally, by facilitating conferences, symposiums, seminars, regional events, career fairs, and building strategic alliances. The data78

gathering process took place through an Internet survey website. There was a 4-week period during which potential participants had the opportunity to participate in the Diversity Climate Survey. The NAAAHR database at the time when the study was launched consisted of 700 financially active members. The sample size required to obtain a 95% confidence interval of the 700 sampling frame of NAAAHR financial members was 248. The sample size was calculated based on a 95% confidence level and 5% margin of error utilizing a survey system calculator. The estimation was there would be a 40% response rate of the 248 financial members. The survey system calculator calculated that 620 recruitment letter e-mails would have to be sent. A simple random sampling of the 700 potential participants occurred with the flip of a coin. To facilitate the pilot and full study, the following instructions were given to and performed by NAAAHR Association Director, Ivan Crossling: 1. Flip a coin. 2. If the coin lands on heads, start at the 75th e-mail address. 3. If the coin lands on tails, eliminate the 626th through 700th e-mail addresses. 4. From that group, send the first 30 people the e-mail for the pilot study survey. 5. Send the remaining people the e-mail for the full study survey. An e-mail was sent to the random sample, which consisted of 596 participants for the full study and 30 participants for the pilot study directly, totaling 626 participants. The e-mail from the NAAAHR included the recruitment letter and informed consent requesting their participation in an online survey and the hyperlink to Zoomerang. After reading the recruitment letter and informed consent, the members confirmed they met the criteria that stated they were an African American human resource professional and had 79

current experience in a diverse work environment. They then had the opportunity to either click on the hyperlink and proceed to the survey or exit the e-mail, therefore rejecting participation in the online survey. Those who decided to participate in the online survey were given another opportunity to confirm once again that they met the established criteria. The survey was designed for completion in no more than 15 minutes. Once participants completed the survey, they clicked the Submit button. Once the Submit button was selected, the participant could not reenter the survey. The initial e-mail went out on September 1, 2011. Due to a low response rate after the 1st week that resulted in only 16 responses, a second request of the original e-mail was sent on September 8, 2011. After the 2nd week and still a low response rate, a final a third e-mail was sent on September 13, 2011. The survey was closed on September 26, 2011. Once the survey was closed, the raw data was downloaded from the online survey site for data analysis. Demographics Of the 596 potential participants, 127 met the criteria and participated, creating a 21% response rate. The survey data yielded 42 human resource professionals employed in the nonprofit industry (33%), 81 employed in the profit industry (64%), and four indicating that they were employed at None of the above (3%). One hundred and five participants were female (84%) and 20 were male (16%). Twenty-seven participants had professional human resource (PHR) certifications (21%), 29 had senior professional human resources (SPHR) certifications (23%), and 71 (56%) did not possess any human resource certifications from the HRCI. The combined totals for certified human resource professionals totaled 44%. Those who were not HRCI-certified (56%) outweighed the HRCI-certified members. Table 4 presents the participants demographic data. 80

Table 4. Demographic Information


Frequency Organizational type Nonprofit Profit None of the above Subtotal Missing Total Female Male Subtotal Missing Total PHR SPHR None of the above Subtotal Missing Total 42 81 4 127 9 136 105 20 125 11 136 27 29 71 127 9 136 Percent 30.9% 59.6% 2.9% 93.4% 6.6% 100.0% 77.2% 14.7% 91.9% 8.1% 100.0% 19.9% 21.3% 52.2% 93.4% 6.6% 100.0% Valid percent 33.1% 63.8% 3.1% 100.0% Cumulative percent 33.1% 96.9% 100.0%

Gender

84.0% 16.0% 100.0%

84.0% 100.0%

HRCI certification

21.3% 22.8% 55.9% 100.0%

21.3% 44.1% 100.0%

Data Analysis The first step of the data analysis process was to generate descriptive data for the responses related to the diversity statements. The data collected from the diversity climate survey was used to analyze the three null hypotheses that stated there is not a difference in African American human resource professionals perception of the work climate that support diversity by organization type, gender, and human resource professional certification. The statistical tests used to analyze the ordinal data collected from the responses to the diversity statements are the Mann-Whitney U test and KruskalWallis test. The Mann-Whitney U test is used when there is not an assumption for distribution, scale of measurement is ordinal, and there is a random sample from a population. The test analyzed if there were differences between human resource 81

professionals in nonprofit organizations and human resource professionals in profit organizations as it relates to diversity statements or differences between men and women as it relates to diversity statements. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to analyze if there was a relationship between human resource professionals who have HRCI certification (SPHR, PHR, SPHR-California, PHR-California) and attitudes toward the qualifications of racioethnic minorities. The identical five subscales of the original diversity climate instrument were used. The five subscales of the diversity statements were attitudes toward qualifications of racioethnic minorities, attitudes toward qualifications of women, equality of department support of racioethnic minorities, and equality of department support of women. Hypothesis Results for Null Hypothesis 1 Statements 16. The null hypothesis for Statements 16 was, There is no statistical difference between African American human resource professionals perception of the work climate that support diversity and their organizational type as measured by a diversity climate instrument. Responses to these statements from human resource professionals were different between nonprofit and profit organizations. The statements used to test the hypothesis are in Table 5. Statements 16 of the diversity climate instrument were related to efforts to promote diversity. The statements were analyzed according to nonprofit and profit organizational type. The descriptive data for those statements were ranked as Strongly agree, Agree, Neither agree nor disagree, Disagree, and Strongly disagree. None of the participants strongly disagreed with any of the statements. Only two disagreed with the diversity statements in both statements regarding recruiting and retaining women and 82

handicapped employees. Table 6 presents the cross-tabulation of the responses based on the human resource professionals organizational type to Statements 16.

Table 5. Survey Statements 16 Used to Test Null Hypothesis 1


1. If Organization X is to remain an excellent place of employment, it must recruit and retain minority employees. 2. If Organization X is to remain an excellent place of employment, it must recruit and retain more female employees. 3. If Organization X is to remain an excellent place of employment, it must recruit and retain more handicapped employees. 4. Increasing gender diversity among employees is important in promoting greater understanding and cooperation between men and women. 5. Increasing minority representation among employees is an important way to achieve multiracial understanding and cooperation. 6. The organization should continue to work towards ensuring that employment programs are fully accessible to the handicapped.

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Table 6. Cross-Tabulation of Value Efforts to Promote and Organizational Type


Number of responses by organizational type Statement 1: If Organization X is to remain an excellent place of employment, it must recruit and retain minority employees. 2: If Organization X is to remain an excellent place of employment, it must recruit and retain more female employees. 3: If Organization X is to remain an excellent place of employment, it must recruit and retain more handicapped employees. 4: Increasing gender diversity among employees is important in promoting greater understanding and cooperation between men and women. 5: Increasing minority representation among employees is an important way to achieve multiracial understanding and cooperation. 6: The organization should continue to work towards ensuring that employment programs are fully accessible to the handicapped. Response Strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Total Strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Total Strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Total Strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Total Strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Disagree Total Strongly agree Agree Neither agree nor disagree Total Nonprofit 28 14 0 0 42 15 15 9 2 41 11 17 12 2 42 18 20 3 1 42 25 15 2 0 42 25 16 1 42 Profit 54 21 4 1 80 43 26 8 3 80 25 34 17 5 81 41 33 4 2 80 51 24 2 4 81 48 31 2 81 None of the above 3 1 0 0 4 2 2 0 0 4 2 2 0 0 4 1 2 1 0 4 0 2 2 0 4 3 1 0 4 Total no. of responses 85 36 4 1 126 60 43 17 5 125 38 53 39 7 127 60 55 8 3 126 76 41 6 4 127 76 48 3 127

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The Mann-Whitney U statistical test was used to discover if there was a difference in the medians of efforts to promote diversity across organizational types (Table 7). The Mann-Whitney U test is used when there is not an assumption for distribution, scale of measurement is ordinal, and there is a random sample from a population. It seems that human resource professionals perception of their organizations value efforts to promote diversity varied across nonprofit and profit organizations.

Table 7. Mann-Whitney U Test Statistics for Null Hypothesis 1 Statements 16


Statement 1: If Organization X is to remain an excellent place of employment, it must recruit and retain minority employees. 2: If Organization X is to remain an excellent place of employment, it must recruit and retain more female employees. 3: If Organization X is to remain an excellent place of employment, it must recruit and retain more handicapped employees. 4: Increasing gender diversity among employees is important in promoting greater understanding and cooperation between men and women. 5: Increasing minority representation among employees is an important way to achieve multiracial understanding and cooperation. 6: The organization should continue to work towards ensuring that employment programs are fully accessible to the handicapped.
*

Organizational type Nonprofit Profit

Number 42 80

Mean rank 61.00 61.76

Sum of ranks 2562.00 4941.00

Z -.138

Sig. .890*

Nonprofit Profit

41 80

69.21 56.79

2837.50 4543.50

-2.001

.045

Nonprofit Profit

42 81

64.80 60.55

2721.50 4904.50

-.664

.507*

Nonprofit Profit

42 80

64.98 59.68

2729.00 4774.00

-.877

.380*

Nonprofit Profit

42 81

62.80 61.59

2637.50 4988.50

-.209

.835*

Nonprofit Profit

42 81

61.88 62.06

2599.00 5027.00

-.031

.975*

Two-tailed > p = .05.

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Table 8 shows the results of the Mann Whitney U test of the differences based on organizational type. Statements 1, 3, 4, 5, and 6 were not significantly different. Thus, the null hypothesis was not rejected. The largest variance was in Statement 2, which queried whether organizations value efforts of diversity as it relates to recruiting and retaining more women. The difference was significant in Statement 2 and the null hypothesis was rejected. Statement 2 addressed recruiting and retaining more female employees in order for the organization to remain an excellent place of employment. Eighty-four percent of the participants were female and 61% identified their organizational type as profit. It seems that women did not propose gender as a factor in their perspective of the organizations efforts to promote diversity. Statements 1 and 6 were germane to recruiting and retaining minority employees and ensuring employment programs are fully accessible to handicapped persons. These two statements enveloped two protected classes covered by the equal opportunity employment acts. African American human resource professionals by their own social identity identified with these two marginalized groups in evaluating an organizations effort to promote diversity based on organizational type.

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Table 8. Test Statistics for Null Hypothesis 1 Statements 16


Statement 4: Increasing gender diversity among employees is important in promoting greater undrstndng and cooperation between men and women. 1534.000 4774.000 -.877 .380 Statement 6: The organization should continue to work towards ensuring that employment programs are fully accessible to the handicapped. 1696.000 2599.000 -.031 .975

Statement 1: If Organization X is to remain an excellent place of emplymt, it must recruit and retain minority employees. Mann-Whitney U Wilcoxon W Z Asymp. sig. (twotailed) 1659.000 2562.000 -.138 .890

Statement 2: If Organization X is to remain an excellent place of emplymt, it must recruit and retain more female employees. 1303.500 4543.500 -2.001 .045

Statement 3: If Organization X is to remain an excellent place of emplymt, it must recruit and retain more handicapped employees. 1583.500 4904.500 -.664 .507

Statement 5: Increasing minority rep. among employees is an important way to achieve multiracial undrstdng and cooperation. 1667.500 4988.500 -.209 .835

Note. Grouping variable: organizational type.

Statements 1113. Statements 1113 of the diversity climate instrument were used to examine the subscale of equality of department support of racioethnic minorities. The descriptive data for those statements was ranked as Better chance, Same chance, and Less chance. Sixty-seven nonprofit and profit human resource professionals responded that, when compared to nonminority employees, minority employees have less chance of having additional staff to assist them. One hundred and seven nonprofit and profit human resource professionals responded that, when compared to nonminority employees, minority employees have same chance of getting time off from work. Seventy-six nonprofit and profit human resource professionals responded that, when compared to nonminority employees, minority employees have less chance of receiving salary 87

increases above the average merit rate. The statements used to test the hypothesis are in Table 9.

Table 9. Survey Statements 1113 Used to Test Null Hypothesis 1


11. Compared to nonminority employees, minority employees have _________of having additional staff to assist them. 12. Compared to nonminority employees, minority employees have _________of getting time off from work. 13. Compared to nonminority employees, minority employees have _________of receiving salary increases above the average merit rate.

Table 10 presents the cross-tabulations of the responses based on the human resource professionals organizational type to Statements 1113. The null hypothesis for Statements 1113 was, There is no statistical difference between African American human resource professionals perception of the work climate that support diversity and their organizational type as measured by a diversity climate instrument. Responses to these statements were different for human resource professionals from nonprofit and profit organizations.

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Table 10. Cross-Tabulation of Equality of Department Support of Racioethnic Minorities and Organizational Type
Number of responses by organizational type Statement 11: Compared to nonminority employees, minority employees have _________of having additional staff to assist them. 12: Compared to nonminority employees, minority employees have _________of getting time off from work. 13: Compared to nonminority employees, minority employees have _________of receiving salary increases above the average merit rate. Response Better chance Same chance Less chance Total Nonprofit 1 16 24 41 Profit 3 37 41 81 None of the above 0 2 2 4 Total no. of responses 4 55 67 126

Better chance Same chance Less chance Total Better chance Same chance Less chance Total

1 33 8 42 1 17 23 41

2 70 9 81 2 28 50 80

0 4 0 4 0 1 3 4

3 107 17 127 3 46 76 125

The Mann-Whitney U statistical test was used to discover if there was a difference in the medians of equality of departmental support of racioethnic minorities (Table 11). The perception of human resource professionals between nonprofit and profit organizations of their organizations equality of departmental support of racioethnic minorities was not significantly different. In this case, the difference was not strong enough to reject the null hypothesis (Table 12).

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Table 11. Mann-Whitney U Test Statistics for Null Hypothesis 1 Statements 1113
Statement 11: Compared to nonminority employees, minority employees have _________of having additional staff to assist them. 12: Compared to nonminority employees, minority employees have _________of getting time off from work. 13: Compared to nonminority employees, minority employees have _________of receiving salary increases above the average merit rate.
*

Organizational type Nonprofit Profit

Number 41 81

Mean rank 64.84 59.81

Sum of ranks 2658.50 4844.50

Z -.848

Sig.* .396

Nonprofit Profit

42 81

65.17 60.36

2737.00 4889.00

-1.108

.268

Nonprofit Profit

41 880

58.51 62.28

2399.00 4982.00

-.654

.513

Two-tailed > p = .05.

Table 12. Test Statistics for Null Hypothesis 1 Statements 1113


Statement 11: Compared to nonminority employees, minority employees have _________of having additional staff to assist them. Mann-Whitney U Wilcoxon W Z Asymp. sig. (two-tailed) Note. Grouping variable: organizational type. 1523.500 4844.500 -.848 .396 Statement 13: Compared to nonminority employees, minority employees have _________of receiving salary increases above the average merit rate. 1538.000 2399.000 -.654 .513

Statement 12: Compared to nonminority employees, minority employees have _________of getting time off from work. 1568.000 4889.000 -1.108 .268

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Hypothesis Results for Null Hypothesis 2 Statements 9-10. The null hypothesis for Statements 9-10 was, There is no statistical difference between African American human resource professionals perception of the work climate that support diversity and their gender as measured by a diversity climate instrument. The statements used to test the hypothesis are in Table 13.

Table 13. Survey Statements 9-10 Used to Test Null Hypothesis 2


9. Work productivity of female e mployees compared to male employees in my place of employment is _______________. 10. The employment qualifications of female employees as compared to male employees in my place of employment are ____________________ .

Statements 9-10 of the diversity climate instrument were used to assess the subscale of attitudes towards womens qualifications. The descriptive data for those statements were ranked as Much higher, Slightly higher, About the same, Slightly lower, and Much lower. Fifty-five female and male human resource professionals responded that the work productivity of female compared to male employees in their place of employment was about the same. Seventy-four female and male human resource professionals responded that the employment qualifications of female employees as compared to male employees in their place of employment were about the same. Table 14 presents the cross-tabulations of the responses based on the human resource professionals gender to Statements 9-10.

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Table 14. Cross-Tabulation of Attitudes Toward Womens Qualifications and Gender


Number of responses by gender Statement 9: Work productivity of female employees compared to male employees in my place of employment is _______________ . 10: The employment qualifications of female employees as compared to male employees in my place of employment are ____________________ . Response Much higher Slightly higher About the same Slightly lower Total Much higher Slightly higher About the same Slightly lower Total Female 17 44 44 0 105 11 31 63 0 105 Male 3 4 11 2 20 3 4 11 2 20 Total no. of responses 20 48 55 2 125 14 35 74 2 125

The Mann-Whitney U test was used to discover if there was a difference in the medians of attitudes toward womens qualifications. It seems that human resource professionals perception of the work climate that support diversity varied based on their gender (Table 15).

Table 15. Mann Whitney U Test Statistics Hypothesis 2 Statements 9-10


Statement 9: Work productivity of female employees compared to male employees in my place of employment is _______________. 10: The employment qualifications of female employees as compared to male employees in my place of employment are ____________________ .
*

Gender Female Male Female Male

Number 105 20 105 20

Mean rank 60.58 75.72 62.13 67.55

Sum of ranks 6360.50

Z -.1.854

Sig.* .064

1514.50 6524.00 1351.00 .699 .485

Two-tailed > p = .05.

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The Mann-Whitney U statistical test was used to discover if there was a difference in the medians of attitudes towards womens qualifications (Table 16). It appears that the difference between male and female human resource professionals perception of attitudes towards womens qualifications was not significant. The null hypothesis was not rejected (Table 16).

Table 16. Test Statistics for Null Hypothesis 2 Statements 9-10


Statement 9: Work Statement 10: The productivity of female employment qualifications of employees compared to male female employees as employees in my place of compared to male employees employment is in my place of employment _______________ . are ____________________ . Mann-Whitney U Wilcoxon W Z Asymp. sig. (two-tailed) Note. Grouping variable: gender. 795.500 6360.500 -1.854 .064 959.000 6524.000 -.699 .485

Hypothesis Results for Null Hypothesis 3 Statements 7-8. The null hypothesis for Statements 7-8 was, There is no difference between African American human resource professionals perception of the work climate that support diversity and their HRCI certification as measured by a diversity climate instrument. The statements used to test the hypothesis are in Table 17.

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Table 17. Survey Statements 7-8 Used to Test Null Hypothesis 3


7. The employment qualifications of minority employees, compared to nonminority employees in my place of employment are______________. 8. The employment productivity of minority employees as compared to nonminority employees in my place of employment are ____________________ .

Statements 7-8 of the diversity climate instrument were used to analyze the attitudes toward qualifications of racioethnic minorities. The descriptive data for those statements were ranked as Much higher, Slightly higher, About the same, Slightly lower, and Much lower. Twenty-eight HRCI-certified human resource professionals responded that the employment qualifications of minority employees compared to nonminority employees in their place of employment were about the same. Thirty-two HRCI-certified human resource professionals responded that the employment productivity employees of minority employees compared to nonminority employees in their place of employment were about the same. Seventy-one of the participants were not certified human resource professionals. Table 18 presents the cross-tabulations of the responses based on the human resource professionals HRCI certification status to Statements 7-8.

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Table 18. Cross-Tabulation of Attitudes Toward Qualifications of Racioethnic Minorities and HRCI
Number of responses by HRCI certification None of the above 2 12 12 2 0 28 4 9 15 1 29 12 21 33 4 1 71 16 12 37 6 71 Total no. of responses 19 36 61 8 2 126 24 26 69 8 127

Statement 7: The employment qualifications of minority employees, compared to nonminority employees in my place of employment are _________________ . 8: The employment productivity of minority employees, compared to nonminority employees in my place of employment is __________________ .

Response Much higher Slightly higher About the same Slightly lower Much lower Total Much higher Slightly higher About the same Slightly lower Total

PHR 5 3 16 2 1 27 4 5 17 1 27

SPHR

The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to discover differences in the perceptions of HRCI-certified human resource professionals and nonHRCI certified human resource professionals of attitudes toward qualifications of racioethnic minorities. It seems that the difference between HRCI-certified and nonHRCI certified human resource professionals perception of the qualifications of racioethnic minorities was not significant (Table 19). Based on the Kruskal-Wallis test, the null hypothesis for Statements 7-8 was not rejected (Table 20).

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Table 19. Kruskal-Wallis Test Statistics for Null Hypothesis 3 Statements 7-8
Statement 7 Response PHR SPHR None of the above PHR SPHR None of the above Number 27 28 27 29 Mean rank 29.96 26.11 29.83 27.26 Chi sq. .942 df 1 Sig.* -.699*

.438

.485*

Two-tailed > p = .05.

Table 20. Test Statistics for Null Hypothesis 3 Statements 7-8


Statement 7: The employment qualifications of minority employees, Statement 8: The employment productivity compared to nonminority employees in of minority employees, compared to my place of employment are nonminority employees in my place of _________________ . employment is __________________ . Chi square Df Asymp. sig. Note. Grouping variable: HRCI. .942 1 .332 .438 1 .508

Statements 1416. The null hypothesis for Statements 1416 was, There is no statistical difference between African American human resource professionals perception of the work climate that support diversity and their HRCI certification as measured by a diversity climate instrument. The statements used to test the hypothesis are in Table 21.

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Table 21. Survey Statements 1416 Used to Test Null Hypothesis 3


14. Compared to male employees, fe male employees have _________of having additional staff to assist them. 15. Compared to male employees, female employees have _________of getting time off from work. 16. Compared to male employees, female employees have _________of receiving salary increases above the average merit rate.

The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to discover differences in the perceptions of HRCI-certified human resource professionals and nonHRCI certified human resource professionals of attitudes toward qualifications of racioethnic minorities. The studys assumption was that HRCI-certified human resource professionals perception of the work climate that supports diversity would not contrast with nonHRCI certified human resource professionals perception. HRCI-certified human resource professionals when comparing male employees to female employees found female employees had the same chance of having additional staff to assist them and getting time off from work. The majority of the HRCI-certified human resource professionals found men had a better chance of receiving salary increases above the average merit rate. Table 22 represents the cross-tabulations of responses based on HRCI certification to Statements 1416. It seems that the difference between HRCI-certified and nonHRCI certified human resource professionals perception of the qualifications of racioethnic minorities was not significant (Table 23). Based on the Kruskal-Wallis test, the null hypothesis for Statements 1416 was not rejected (Table 24).

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Table 22. Cross-Tabulation of Department Support of Women and HRCI


Number of responses by HRCI certification Statement 14: Compared to male employees, female employees have ________ of having additional staff to assist them. 15: Compared to male employees, female employees have ________ of getting time off from work. 16: Compared to male employees, female employees have ________ of receiving salary increases above the average merit rate. Response Less Same Better Total Less Same Better Total Less Same Better Total PHR 5 13 9 27 6 20 1 27 0 11 16 27 SPHR 4 16 9 29 7 19 3 29 4 14 11 29 None of the above 5 44 18 67 15 53 3 71 0 31 40 71 Total no. of responses 14 73 36 123 28 92 7 127 4 56 67 127

Note. Grouping variable: HRCI.

Table 23. Kruskal-Wallis Test Statistics for Null Hypothesis 3 Statements 1416
Statement 14: Compared to male employees, female employees have ________ of having additional staff to assist them. 15: Compared to male employees, female employees have ________ of getting time off from work. 16: Compared to male employees, female employees have ________ of receiving salary increases above the average merit rate.
*

Response PHR SPHR None of the above PHR SPHR None of the above PHR SPHR None of the above

Number 27 28 67 27 29 71 27 29 71

Mean rank 29.96 26.11

Chi sq. .033

df 2

Sig.* .984

29.83 27.26

.079

.961

29.83 27.26 67.15

5.539

.063

Two-tailed > p = .05.

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Table 24. Test Statistics for Null Hypothesis 3 Statements 1416


Statement 14: Compared to male employees, female employees have __________ of having additional staff to assist them. Chi square Df Asymp. sig. Note. Grouping variable: HRCI. .033 2 .984 Statement 15: Compared to male employees, female employees have _________ of getting time off from work. .079 2 .961 Statement 16: Compared to male employees, female employees have __________ of receiving salary increases above the average merit rate. 5.539 2 .063

Summary The human resource participants in this study represented profit and nonprofit organizations across the United States. The demographic profiles illustrated that the majority of them were female (84.4%), certified by HRCI (44.1%), and worked for profit organizations (63.8%). This chapter used the information from the data collected from the online survey and presented an analysis of the results. The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis statistical tests. Chapter 5 includes discussion, implications, and recommendations. The chapter also includes a strategic diversity management paradigm based on the collected data. Also in Chapter 5, a strategic framework for human resource professionals to manage and leverage diversity in the work environment is developed.

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CHAPTER 5. DISCUSSION, IMPLICATIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS To obtain an understanding of diversity management, it has been analyzed through various perceptions (Buttner et al., 2009; Ely & Thomas, 2001, Pitts, 2009) but lacked substantive perceptions from African American human resource (HR) professionals of the diversity climate in their work environment. In order to participate in the study, the criteria included being an African American HR professional and have current experience in a diverse work environment. Upon acknowledgment of meeting the criteria, the participants then completed the questionnaire to measure perceptions of the work climate that support diversity. The introduction of this dissertation referenced that the inauguration of the first African American President of the United States would increase the attention and discourse of diversity and inclusion (Sullivan, 2008). The statement germinated the idea for this inaugural study with its intent to explore diversity management perceptions of African American HR professionals across organizations in the United States. Discussion H10 stated there is no statistical difference between African American HR professionals perception of the work climate that supports diversity and their organizational type as measured by a diversity climate instrument. Survey Statements 1 through Survey Statements 6 measured the diversity climate in the areas of promoting diversity and equality of departmental support of racioethnic minorities. The null 100

hypothesis was developed to determine if HR professionals would have different diversity perceptions as a result of being employed in either a nonprofit or profit industry. The African American HR professionals who participated overall expressed positive feedback toward the diversity climate of their organization regardless of the industry. The organizational type breakdowns for the HR professionals were 33% employed in nonprofit organizations and 64% employed in profit organizations. The responses to Survey Statement 1 and Survey Statement 6 were important to recruiting and retaining minority employees and ensuring employment programs are fully accessible to handicapped persons. These two statements enveloped two protected classes covered by the equal opportunity employment acts. African American HR professionals by their own social identity can readily identify with marginalized groups in evaluating an organizations effort to promote diversity. The responses to Survey Statement 5 reveal HR professionals in both nonprofit and profit organizations either strongly agreed or agreed that increasing minority representation among employees is an important way to achieve multi-racial understanding and cooperation. According to Ely and Thomas (2001), diversity perceptions make it possible for people to recognize what type of progress is being made toward an idyllic multicultural workgroup. An organizational culture that is harmonious encourages the implementation of diversity programs and policies (Pitts et al., 2010). The data supports that both nonprofit and profit organizations have established an organizational culture to augment diversity management. The responses to Survey Statements 11, 12, and 13 illustrated concern based on the scale ratings in receiving additional staff assistance and compensation increases above the average merit rate when compared to nonminority employees. This infraction 101

needs to be brought to the attention of senior management. The diversity climate encompasses the scope to which the input of diversity is valued and the eradication of discrimination and bias occurs (Buttner et al., 2009). The responses to Survey Statements 11, 12, and 13 were relevant to equality of department support of racioethnic minorities. Comparing the responses to Survey Statement 11 and Survey Statement 13, 67 of the participants responded having less chance of having additional staff to assist them and 76 of the participants responded to having less chance of receiving salary increases above their average merit rate. However, in regard to getting time off from work, 107 in combined nonprofit and profit organizations responded that when compared to nonminority employees, minority employees had the same chance of getting time off from work. It is concluded that African American HR professionals voiced discontent when compared to a nonminority group in regard to getting additional staff assistance or additional compensation increases above the average merit rate, but were treated the same as nonminority employees when requesting time off. African American HR professionals responded less favorably to chances of getting additional staff and compensation above the average merit rate when compared to nonminority employees. The inequity in staff assistance and compensation could create a work climate in which minority contributions are repressed and not shared with the organization. The lack of minority contributions could have an effect on the organizations bottom line. According to Morrison et al. (2008), diversity issues will be addressed and carried out in daily operations when senior management perceives that a diverse workforce contributes to the organizations bottom line.

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H20 stated there is no statistical difference between African American HR professionals perception of the work climate that support diversity and their gender as measured by a diversity climate instrument. The null hypothesis was developed to explore if there would be a sharp contrast on how women assess the diversity climate compared to men. The study participants were 84% female and 16% male. The responses to Survey Statements 9 and 10 compared attitudes toward qualifications of women. According to Herring (2009), gender and race in research is imperative to understand human connections. Survey Statements 9 and 10 were essential to assess the work productivity and employment qualifications of female employees compared to male employees. The findings provided insight on the work productivity of women when compared to men were slightly higher and employment qualifications of women when compared to men were about the same. According to Morrison et al. (2008), although gender may not have a direct influence on addressing diversity issues, there is a commonality between men and women which exists in resolving workplace diversity issues. The data revealed women may view that they are working harder and are as qualified as men but inequalities exist regarding compensation, upward mobility, and acknowledgment. H30 stated there is no statistical relationship between African American HR professionals perception of the work climate that support diversity and their Human Resource Certification Institute (HRCI) certification as measured by a diversity climate instrument. The null hypothesis was developed to explore African American HR professionals who were certified and assess their perspectives based on professional certifications. The responses to Survey Statements 7 and 8 were relevant to HRCI103

certified HR professionals and nonHRCI certified HR professionals perspective on qualifications and productivity of racioethnic minorities. Joshi et al. (2006) researched gender and ethnicity of work teams and determined that women and people of color accomplished better when they were not insulated from people who had those same attributes. The majority of the participants in the study were African American women. The data revealed attitudes toward the employment qualifications of racioethnic minorities and equality of department support of women were about the same when compared to nonminorities. The responses to Survey Statements 14, 15, and 16 were relevant to certified HRCI HR professionals and noncertified HRCI HR professionals. The responses to Survey Statements 14, 15, and 16 were significant to equality of department support of women. The HRCI certification credentials of the respondents were 21.3% professional human resources (PHR), 22.8 % senior professional human resources (SPHR), and 55.9% None of the above. It seems that HR professionals perception toward the qualifications and productivity of racioethnic minorities was not significant. According to Buttner et al. (2009), individuals in the United States who belong to underrepresented groups, in particular African Americans, are highly discerning regarding the diversity climate of their work environment. The comparison of the Survey Statements 14, 15, and 16 responses highlighted that men had the same chance as women of having additional staff and getting time off from work, but men had a better chance than women in receiving salary increases above the average merit rate. The responses to Survey Statements 14, 15, and 16 were important to African American HR perception that men had a better chance than women in receiving salary increases above the average 104

merit pay. The majority of the participants were female, so it seems that female African American HR professionals perceive men as having a better chance in receiving salary increases. This conclusion encompasses the issue of gender-based pay inequities and requires that further research is needed (Joshi et al., 2006). Implications The implications from this study for the HR profession include the need for continued research on perceptions of the work environment that support diversity to gain insight to address deficiencies pertinent to diversity issues. The employment productivity and qualifications of the diverse work environment according to African American HR professionals comparing men, women, minorities, and nonminorities were about the same. African Americans are often taught that they have to work harder and be smarter than their nonminority counterparts. It seems that African American HR professionals saw themselves as competitive when comparing themselves to nonminority employees. Based on the demographic information, 44% obtained either PHR or SPHR certification. Professional certification is a qualification, according to the U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics (2009b), that will be required for best job and advancement opportunities. The data also reflected 56% of the HR professionals did not possess either PHR or SPHR certification. This fact reinforced the need for African American HR professionals, in order to remain competitive for job opportunities and career advancement to consider obtaining professional certifications. According to Ely and Thomas (2001), a culturally diverse workforce is a moral imperative to ensure justice and fair treatment of all members of a society. The criteria for participation in the study confirmed HR professional were employed in a diverse 105

work environment. In assessing the diverse work environment the African American HR professional expressed receiving support in getting time off and additional staff but lacked support in receiving additional compensation above the average merit rate. The implication illuminated the concept of fair and equitable treatment of all members of the work environment requires constant evaluation of the diversity climate. An implication from the data was the necessity to further investigate organizational policies correlated to diversity management. The diversity climate instrument explored aspects of the work environment that support diversity. The knowledge gained was restricted to employee perspectives of the diversity climate of the work environment. This information can be used as a trajectory for further analysis of explicit policies that define how organizations promote diversity management. The mission of the organization may be to support diversity initiatives, but are policies and procedures in position to execute the mission? Specific suggestions for organizations to consider include 1. Audit HR documents to make sure they are aligned to the organizations diversity mission. 2. Utilize times of the year to recognize cultural diversity such as National Black History Month (February); Greek-American and Irish American Month (March); Asian Pacific Month (May); National Hispanic Heritage Month (September); German American Heritage Month, Polish American Heritage Month, and National Italian American Heritage (October); and National American Indian Heritage Month (November). 3. Create a suggestion box for employees to share their comments and ideas on how the organization can address diversity management issues. 4. Issue annual diversity climate surveys to employees to document the progress of diversity issues.

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5. Develop best practices for recruiting and retaining a diverse work environment. 6. Strive for industry recognition as an organization that values diversity and inclusion in the work environment. Limitations According to Creswell (2009), when the selection of participants is slim, the researcher cannot generalize to individuals who do not have the same characteristics of the participants (p. 165). This restricts me from making assertions about other racial groups based on the results of this study. This study used a random sampling method comprised of African Americans that limited representation from other racial groups. The limitation restricted me from making assertions about other racial groups based on comparisons between men and women from various minority and nonminority groups. No generalizations or comparisons could be determined. The developers of the adapted instrument stated in their research the need to collect data to include a larger sample of minorities (Kossek & Zonia, 1993). African American HR professionals by participating in this study did provide data that was missing from previous research. Another limitation noted earlier was that Internet use for completion of the survey was actually beneficial in completing the data collection process in a timely manner. Recommendations for Future Research The sample of African American HR professionals was homogenous in order to obtain diversity perspectives from a population that was minimal in previous studies. The intent of this study was not to serve as a champion or kibitzer concerning diversity issues in the workplace but to explore diversity management perceptions of African American 107

HR professionals across organizations in the United States. An encouraging diversity climate creates work teams that are not homogenous and assigns competent women and minorities to executive positions (Prieto et al., 2009). A recommendation for future research would include participation from both nonminority and minority participants to explore additional differences and relationships to assess the diversity climate of an organization. The study should utilize a diversity climate instrument that would permit cross-tabulation and statistical analysis of various independent variables. This objective could be accomplished with the recruitment of organizations that have a diverse membership. In this study, Survey Statements 14, 15, and 16 were used to determine relationships based on HRCI certification. Future research could be focused on those items in relation to gender. In this study Survey Statements 7 and 8 were used to determine the differences based on HRCI certification. Future research could include those items in relation to gender. In this study, Survey Statements 11, 12, and 13 looked at differences based on organizational type. Future research should look at the differences in those items in relation to race. This would allow for a broader range of diversity perspectives. This would also construct further data on the diversity climate of organizations that support diversity. Also recommended is further reliability testing of the diversity climate instrument used in this study with both nonminority and minority participants. This study provided a glimpse of the need for further analysis of the necessary requirements HR professionals must possess in order to remain competitive in the work environment. A prerequisite for staying current in the body of knowledge for HR management is obtaining professional certification from the Human Resource 108

Certification Institute. Forty-four percent of the participants in this study held certifications from this entity of either SPHR or PHR. It is recommended that future research investigate whether the possession of these credentials is beneficial to the HR management discipline. A quantitative study should be conducted to explore if there is a relationship among certified HR professionals and the implementation of organizational employee and labor relations. Employee and labor relations are just one example of a segment of the body of knowledge certified HR professionals must understand. The study should recruit from government, nonprofit and profit sectors. Further analysis of the relationship of certified HR professionals and perspectives of the work environment is defensible as a result of this study. Summary The contents of Chapter 5 included discussion, implications, and recommendations. The diversity management paradigm based on the collected data for HR professionals is to continue to evaluate the work climate and to always keep senior management informed of the diversity climate of the organization. It is for the best interest of the organization for HR professionals to be proactive in communicating diversity-related issues to mitigate future employment concerns. The first step for the organization is to assess the diversity climate. This task can be administered by an HR professional. Then, data should be gathered and communicated to senior management. The strategic conceptual framework for HR professionals to manage and leverage diversity in the work environment is shown in Figure 2.

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Diversity Climate Instrument

Human Resource Professionals

Senior Management

Figure 2. Strategic conceptual framework.

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