Iraq

Geography
•  Size of California

•  Tigris and Euphrates river valley, good farmland •  Mild climate in the north, hot in the south

•  Capitol -- Baghdad, on Tigris River, 6 million

Green zone

Baghdad airport

Oil fires set to obscure views for American planes

Culture
•  Population 26 million •  95% Muslim, slight Shi’ite majority •  Mainly herdsmen and farmers, poor and uneducated •  Kurds -- 19% of population, live in far north, want their own country

Tigris and Euphrates watershed

Economics
•  Among world’s leading oil exporters •  Most productive of Middle East agricultures

History
•  Ancient Mesopatamia, 4000 BC

•  Independence from British in 1932, kingdom established •  Royalty overthrown, followed by a series of one party dictatorships

•  Saddam Hussein took power in 1979 with support of the Bath party, pushing out his uncle who was president

•  addam attacked Iran in attempt to gain S Persian Gulf access

Crossed Sabers Parade Ground

•  Saddam also waged war against rebellious Kurds, using poison gas

•  Saddam built a huge military force, buying weapons with oil money from all over the world and trying to acquire “weapons of mass destruction” (WMD)

•  addam invaded Kuwait in August, 1990 S

•  easons for Iraq’s Invasion of Kuwait R
1.  Persian Gulf access 2.  Could control 20% of world’s oil (adding Saudi Arabia makes 45%) 3.  Owed Kuwait billions in loans from war with Iran 4.  Kuwait had billions in their banks plus overseas investments 5.  Most Arab nations resented the rich Kuwaitis

Reasons argued why US should get involved
1.  Loyalty to allies 2.  Needed to stop Saddam from further conquests (Hitler comparison) 3.  Effort could build new alliances to help solve global problems 4.  U.S. needed Middle East oil to keep pumping 5.  A strong Iraq would be a threat to Israel and Saudi Arabia 6.  Must protect U.S. citizens in the Middle East

Reasons argued why U.S. should not have become involved
1.  We would risk lives to protect oil and prices 2.  The leaders we were planning to help were not elected by their people 3.  It might require a long involvement, which would turn Middle East Arabs against us 4.  We would endanger citizens who could be terrorized 5.  It would be very expensive for our economy

•  .S. Involvement -- “Desert Storm” U
1.  2.  3.  4.  5.  6.  Led UN approved alliance to move military force from many countries to protect Saudi Arabia Led a UN blockade to force Iraq to leave Kuwait (had little impact) Contributed majority of troops, ships, and planes, but not all Many nations contributed to the cost of the effort, especially Saudi Arabia and Japan Followed two stated purposes -- protect Saudi Arabia and force Iraq out of Kuwait After the war, supported a UN resolution requiring Iraq to disarm and submit to regular weapons inspections

•  The 2003 Iraq War
1.  2.  3.  4.  5.  Saddam interfered with UN weapons inspections UN turned down a US proposal for military action, so this time we had to provide almost all the troops, weapons, and costs Invasion was quickly able to capture cities and force Saddam’s government out of power More soldiers have died during the occupation of Iraq than during the war Saddam’s capture allowed the US to begin turning governing power over to Iraq in summer of 2004, but the various factions are not cooperating with each other Contracts for rebuilding have made money for US companies Iraq’s oil industry is slowly being rebuilt

6.  7. 

•  easons given for invasion R
1.  Find and destroy WMD (none found) 2.  Prevent spread of terrorism (al-Queda was not present in Iraq, but is now) 3.  Remove an evil dictator (accomplished) 4.  Bring democracy to Middle East (struggling) 5.  Protect Israel (too early to tell)

•  ost of the war C
•  US deaths - 3957, injured - 28,000 •  $450 billion thus far, expected to exceed $1 trillion (about $10 billion per month) •  $200 billion for health costs for injured soldiers •  Estimates of Iraqi deaths range from over 1 million to around 200,000