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Sacred Texts Islam


by Reynold A. Nicholson
Routledge, eg!n "!ul, London #$%$&'

[Scanned, proofed, and formatted in HTML by Chris Weimer, December 2 !" #racio$sly donated to sacred%texts&com for p$blication& This text is in the p$blic domain in the 'S& (ri#inal pa#ination has been retained" footnotes ha)e been embedded into the text *ithin braces and in a smaller font+,i.e.-.& Characters *ith diacritics ha)e been mapped to the closest /SCII character +e.g. S0f1 is transliterated S$fi.& 2ree3 letters ha)e also been eliminated, and +the t*o. *ords in 2ree3 in the ori#inal are enclosed in 4rench 5$otes +67.& /ll references to the 89oran8 in the text ha)e been lin3ed to the :ic3thall ;n#lish <ersion of the =$r8an at this site& Many of the )erse references #i)en by >icholson are one or t*o off from :ic3thall and other translations" the hyperlin3s ha)e been ad?$sted b$t the ori#inal citation retained in these instances&@

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TH; title of this boo3 s$fficiently explains *hy it is incl$ded in a Series 8exemplifyin# the ad)ent$res and labo$rs of indi)id$al see3ers or #ro$ps of see3ers in 5$est of reality&8 S$fism, the reli#io$s philosophy of Islam, is described in the oldest extant definition as 8the apprehension of di)ine realities,8 and Mohammedan mystics are fond of callin# themsel)es Ahl al-Haqq, 8the follo*ers of the Aeal&8 ,Al-Haqq is the term #enerally $sed by S$fis *hen they refer to 2od&- In attemptin# to set forth their central doctrines from this point of )ie*, I shall dra* to some extent on materials *hich I ha)e collected d$rin# the last t*enty years for a #eneral history of Islamic mysticism%%a s$b?ect so )ast and many%sided that se)eral lar#e )ol$mes *o$ld be re5$ired to do it anythin# li3e ?$stice& Here I can only s3etch
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in broad o$tline certain principles, methods, and characteristic feat$res of the inner life as it has been li)ed by Moslems of e)ery class and condition from the ei#hth cent$ry of o$r era to the present day& Diffic$lt are the paths *hich they threaded, dar3 and be*ilderin# the pathless hei#hts beyond" b$t e)en if *e may not hope to accompany the tra)ellers to their ?o$rney8s end, any information that *e ha)e #athered concernin# their reli#io$s en)ironment and spirit$al history *ill help $s to $nderstand the stran#e experiences of *hich they *rite& In the first place, therefore, I propose to offer a fe* remar3s on the ori#in and historical de)elopment of S$fism, its relation to Islam, and its #eneral character& >ot only are these matters interestin# to the st$dent of comparati)e reli#ion" some 3no*led#e of them is indispensable to any serio$s st$dent of S$fism itself& It may be said, tr$ly eno$#h, that all mystical experiences $ltimately meet in a sin#le point" b$t that point ass$mes *idely different aspects accordin# to the mystic8s reli#ion, race, and temperament, *hile the con)er#in# lines of approach admit of almost infinite )ariety& Tho$#h all the #reat types of mysticism ha)e somethin# in common, each is mar3ed by pec$liar characteristics res$ltin# from the circ$m%
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stances in *hich it arose and flo$rished& C$st as the Christian type cannot be $nderstood *itho$t reference to Christianity, so the Mohammedan type m$st be )ie*ed in connexion *ith the o$t*ard and in*ard de)elopment of Islam& The *ord 8mystic,8 *hich has passed from 2ree3 reli#ion into ;$ropean literat$re, is represented in /rabic, :ersian, and T$r3ish, the three chief lan#$a#es of Islam, by 8S$fi&8 The terms, ho*e)er, are not precisely synonymo$s, for 8S$fi8 has a specific reli#io$s connotation, and is restricted by $sa#e to those mystics *ho profess the Mohammedan faith& /nd the /rabic *ord, altho$#h in co$rse of time it appropriated the hi#h

si#nificance of the 2ree3%%lips sealed by holy mysteries, eyes closed in )isionary rapt$re%%bore a h$mbler meanin# *hen it first #ained c$rrency +abo$t D /&D&.& 'ntil recently its deri)ation *as in disp$te& Most S$fis, flyin# in the face of etymolo#y, ha)e deri)ed it from an /rabic root *hich con)eys the notion of 8p$rity8" this *o$ld ma3e 8S$fi8 mean 8one *ho is p$re in heart8 or 8one of the elect&8 Some ;$ropean scholars identified it *ith sophs in the sense of 8theosophist&8 E$t >Flde3e, in an article *ritten t*enty years a#o, sho*ed concl$si)ely that the name *as deri)ed from suf +*ool., and *as ori#inally applied to those Moslem
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ascetics *ho, in imitation of Christian hermits, clad themsel)es in coarse *oollen #arb as a si#n of penitence and ren$nciation of *orldly )anities& The earliest S$fis *ere, in fact, ascetics and 5$ietists rather than mystics& /n o)er*helmin# conscio$sness of sin, combined *ith a dread%%*hich it is hard for $s to realise%%of C$d#ment Day and the torments of Hell%fire, so )i)idly painted in the 9oran, dro)e them to see3 sal)ation in fli#ht from the *orld& (n the other hand, the 9oran *arned them that sal)ation depended entirely on the inscr$table *ill of /llah, *ho #$ides ari#ht the #ood and leads astray the *ic3ed& Their fate *as inscribed on the eternal tables of His pro)idence, nothin# co$ld alter it& (nly this *as s$re, that if they *ere destined to be sa)ed by fastin# and prayin# and pio$s *or3s%%then they *o$ld be sa)ed& S$ch a belief ends nat$rally in 5$ietism, complete and $n5$estionin# s$bmission to the di)ine *ill, an attit$de characteristic of S$fism in its oldest form& The mainsprin# of Moslem reli#io$s life d$rin# the ei#hth cent$ry *as fear%%fear of 2od, fear of Hell, fear of death, fear of sin%%b$t the opposite moti)e had already be#$n to ma3e its infl$ence felt, and prod$ced in the saintly *oman AabiHa at least one conspic$o$s example of tr$ly mystical self%abandonment&
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JJJ So far, there *as no #reat difference bet*een the S$fi and the orthodox Mohammedan Kealot, except that the S$fis attached extraordinary importance to certain 9oranic doctrines, and de)eloped them at the expense of others *hich many Moslems mi#ht consider e5$ally essential& It m$st also be allo*ed that the ascetic mo)ement *as inspired by Christian ideals, and contrasted sharply *ith the acti)e and pleas$re%lo)in# spirit of Islam& In a famo$s sentence the :rophet deno$nced mon3ish a$sterities and bade his people de)ote themsel)es to the holy *ar a#ainst $nbelie)ers" and he #a)e, as is *ell 3no*n, the most con)incin# testimony in fa)o$r of marria#e& /ltho$#h his condemnation of celibacy did not remain *itho$t effect, the con5$est of :ersia, Syria, and ;#ypt by his s$ccessors bro$#ht the Moslems into contact *ith ideas *hich profo$ndly modified their o$tloo3 on life and reli#ion& ;$ropean readers of the 9oran cannot fail to be str$c3 by its a$thor8s )acillation and inconsistency in dealin# *ith the #reatest problems& He himself *as not a*are of these contradictions, nor *ere they a st$mblin#%bloc3 to his de)o$t follo*ers, *hose simple faith accepted the 9oran as the Word of 2od& E$t the rift *as there, and soon prod$ced far%reachin# res$lts&

Hence arose the M$r?ites, *ho set faith

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abo)e *or3s and emphasised the di)ine lo)e and #oodness" the =adarites *ho affirmed, and the Cabarites *ho denied, that men are responsible for their actions" the M$HtaKilites, *ho b$ilt a theolo#y on the basis of reason, re?ectin# the 5$alities of /llah as incompatible *ith His $nity, and predestinarianism as contrary to His ?$stice" and finally the /shHarites, the scholastic theolo#ians of Islam, *ho form$lated the ri#id metaphysical and doctrinal system that $nderlies the creed of orthodox Mohammedans at the present time& /ll these spec$lations, infl$enced as they *ere by 2ree3 theolo#y and philosophy, reacted po*erf$lly $pon S$fism& ;arly in the third cent$ry of the He#ira%%the ninth after Christ%%*e find manifest si#ns of the ne* lea)en stirrin# *ithin it& >ot that S$fis ceased to mortify the flesh and ta3e pride in their po)erty, b$t they no* be#an to re#ard asceticism as only the first sta#e of a lon# ?o$rney, the preliminary trainin# for a lar#er spirit$al life than the mere ascetic is able to concei)e& The nat$re of the chan#e may be ill$strated by 5$otin# a fe* sentences *hich ha)e come do*n to $s from the mystics of this period& MLo)e is not to be learned from menN it is one of 2od8s #ifts and comes of His #race&M M>one refrains from the l$sts of this *orld sa)e him in *hose heart there is a
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li#ht that 3eeps him al*ays b$sied *ith the next *orld&M MWhen the #nostic8s spirit$al eye is opened, his bodily eye is sh$tN he sees nothin# b$t 2od&M MIf #nosis *ere to ta3e )isible shape all *ho loo3ed thereon *o$ld die at the si#ht of its bea$ty and lo)eliness and #oodness and #race, and e)ery bri#htness *o$ld become dar3 beside the splendo$r thereof&M ,Compare :lato, :hPdr$s +Co*ett8s translation.N M4or si#ht is the
3eenest of o$r bodily senses" tho$#h not by that is *isdom seen" her lo)eliness *o$ld ha)e been transportin# if there had been a )isible ima#e of her&M-

M2nosis is nearer to silence than to speech&M MWhen the heart *eeps beca$se it has lost, the spirit la$#hs beca$se it has fo$nd&M M>othin# sees 2od and dies, e)en as nothin# sees 2od and li)es, beca$se His life is e)erlastin#N *hoe)er sees it is thereby made e)erlastin#&M M( 2od, I ne)er listen to the cry of animals or to the 5$i)erin# of trees or to the m$rm$rin# of *ater or to the *arblin# of birds or to the r$stlin# *ind or to the crashin# th$nder *itho$t feelin# them to be an e)idence of Thy $nity and a proof that there is nothin# li3e $nto Thee&M
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JJJ M( my 2od, I in)o3e Thee in p$blic as lords are in)o3ed, b$t in pri)ate as lo)ed ones are in)o3ed& :$blicly I say, 8( my 2odQ8 b$t pri)ately I say, 8( my Eelo)edQ8M These ideas%%Li#ht, 9no*led#e, and Lo)e%%form, as it *ere, the 3eynotes of the ne* S$fism, and in the follo*in# chapters I shall endea)o$r to sho* ho* they *ere de)eloped& 'ltimately they rest $pon a pantheistic faith *hich deposed the (ne transcendent 2od of Islam and *orshipped in His stead (ne Aeal Eein# *ho d*ells and

*or3s e)ery*here, and *hose throne is not less, b$t more, in the h$man heart than in the hea)en of hea)ens& Eefore #oin# f$rther, it *ill be con)enient to ans*er a 5$estion *hich the reader may ha)e as3ed himself%%Whence did the Moslems of the ninth cent$ry deri)e this doctrineR Modern research has pro)ed that the ori#in of S$fism cannot be traced bac3 to a sin#le definite ca$se, and has thereby discredited the s*eepin# #eneralisations *hich represent it, for instance, as a reaction of the /ryan mind a#ainst a con5$erin# Semitic reli#ion, and as the prod$ct, essentially, of Indian or :ersian tho$#ht& Statements of this 3ind, e)en *hen they are partially tr$e, i#nore the principle that in order to establish an historical connexion bet*een / and E, it is not eno$#h to brin#
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for*ard e)idence of their li3eness to one another, *itho$t sho*in# at the same time +!. that the act$al relation of E to / *as s$ch as to render the ass$med filiation possible, and +2. that the possible hypothesis fits in *ith all the ascertained and rele)ant facts& >o*, the theories *hich I ha)e mentioned do not satisfy these conditions& If S$fism *as nothin# b$t a re)olt of the /ryan spirit, ho* are *e to explain the $ndo$bted fact that some of the leadin# pioneers of Mohammedan mysticism *ere nati)es of Syria and ;#ypt, and /rabs by raceR Similarly, the ad)ocates of a E$ddhistic or <edantic ori#in for#et that the main c$rrent of Indian infl$ence $pon Islamic ci)ilisation belon#s to a later epoch, *hereas Moslem theolo#y, philosophy, and science p$t forth their first l$x$riant shoots on a soil that *as sat$rated *ith Hellenistic c$lt$re& The tr$th is that S$fism is a complex thin#, and therefore no simple ans*er can be #i)en to the 5$estion ho* it ori#inated& We shall ha)e #one far, ho*e)er, to*ards ans*erin# that 5$estion *hen *e ha)e distin#$ished the )ario$s mo)ements and forces *hich mo$lded S$fism, and determined *hat direction it sho$ld ta3e in the early sta#es of its #ro*th& Let $s first consider the most important external, i.e. non%Islamic, infl$ences&
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I& CHAISTI/>ITT It is ob)io$s that the ascetic and 5$ietistic tendencies to *hich I ha)e referred *ere in harmony *ith Christian theory and dre* no$rishment therefrom& Many 2ospel texts and apocryphal sayin#s of Ces$s are cited in the oldest S$fi bio#raphies, and the Christian anchorite +rahib. often appears in the rUle of a teacher #i)in# instr$ction and ad)ice to *anderin# Moslem ascetics& We ha)e seen that the *oollen dress, from *hich the name 8S$fi8 is deri)ed, is of Christian ori#inN )o*s of silence, litanies +dhikr., and other ascetic practices may be traced to the same so$rce& /s re#ards the doctrine of di)ine lo)e, the follo*in# extracts spea3 for themsel)esN MCes$s passed by three men& Their bodies *ere lean and their faces pale& He as3ed them, sayin#, 8What hath bro$#ht yo$ to this pli#htR8 They ans*ered, 84ear of the 4ire&8 Ces$s said, 8Te fear a thin# created, and it beho)es 2od that He sho$ld sa)e those *ho fear&8 Then he left them and passed by three others, *hose faces *ere paler and their bodies

leaner, and as3ed them, sayin#, 8What hath bro$#ht yo$ to this pli#htR8 They ans*ered, 8Lon#in# for :aradise&8 He said, 8Te
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desire a thin# created, and it beho)es 2od that He sho$ld #i)e yo$ that *hich ye hope for&8 Then he *ent on and passed by three others of exceedin# paleness and leanness, so that their faces *ere as mirrors of li#ht, and he said, 8What hath bro$#ht yo$ to thisR8 They ans*ered, 8($r lo)e of 2od&8 Ces$s said, 8Te are the nearest to Him, ye are the nearest to Him&8M The Syrian mystic, /hmad ibn al%Ha*ari, once as3ed a Christian hermitN M8What is the stron#est command that ye find in yo$r Script$resR8 The hermit repliedN 8We find none stron#er than thisN MLo)e thy Creator *ith all thy po*er and mi#ht&M8M /nother hermit *as as3ed by some Moslem asceticsN M8When is a man most perse)erin# in de)otionR8 8When lo)e ta3es possession of his heart,8 *as the reply" 8for then he hath no ?oy or pleas$re b$t in contin$al de)otion&8M The infl$ence of Christianity thro$#h its hermits, mon3s, and heretical sects +e.g. the Messalians or ;$chitP. *as t*ofoldN ascetic and mystical& (riental Christian mysticism, ho*e)er, contained a :a#an elementN it had lon# a#o absorbed the ideas and adopted the lan#$a#e of :lotin$s and the >eo%platonic school&
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II& >;(:L/T(>ISM /ristotle, not :lato, is the dominant fi#$re in Moslem philosophy, and fe* Mohammedans are familiar *ith the name of :lotin$s, *ho *as more commonly called 8the 2ree3 Master8 +al-Sheykh al-Yaunani.& E$t since the /rabs #ained their first 3no*led#e of /ristotle from his >eoplatonist commentators, the system *ith *hich they became imb$ed *as that of :orphyry and :rocl$s& Th$s the so%called Theology of Aristotle, of *hich an /rabic )ersion appeared in the ninth cent$ry, is act$ally a man$al of >eoplatonism& /nother *or3 of this school deser)es partic$lar noticeN I mean the *ritin#s falsely attrib$ted to Dionysi$s the /reopa#ite, the con)ert of St& :a$l& The pse$do%Dionysi$s%%he may ha)e been a Syrian mon3%%names as his teacher a certain Hierothe$s, *hom 4rothin#ham has identified *ith Stephen Ear S$daili, a prominent Syrian #nostic and a contemporary of Cacob of Sar$? +GI!%I2! /&D&.& Dionysi$s 5$otes some fra#ments of erotic hymns by this Stephen, and a complete *or3, the Book of Hierotheus on the Hidden ysteries of the !i"inity, has come do*n to $s in a $ni5$e man$script *hich is no* in the Eritish M$se$m& The Dionysian *ritin#s, t$rned into Latin by Cohn Scot$s ;ri#ena,
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fo$nded medie)al Christian mysticism in Western ;$rope& Their infl$ence in the ;ast *as hardly less )ital& They *ere translated from 2ree3 into Syriac almost immediately on their appearance, and their doctrine *as )i#oro$sly propa#ated by commentaries in the same ton#$e& M/bo$t DI /&D& Dionysi$s *as 3no*n from the Ti#ris to the /tlantic&M Eesides literary tradition there *ere other channels by *hich the doctrines of emanation, ill$mination, #nosis, and ecstasy *ere transmitted, b$t eno$#h has been said to con)ince the reader that 2ree3 mystical ideas *ere in the air and easily accessible to the Moslem inhabitants of Western /sia and ;#ypt, *here the S$fi theosophy first too3 shape& (ne of those *ho bore the chief part in its de)elopment, Dh$ Vl%>$n the ;#yptian, is described as a philosopher and alchemist%%in other *ords, a st$dent of Hellenistic science& When it is added that m$ch of his spec$lation a#rees *ith *hat *e find, for example, in the *ritin#s of Dionysi$s, *e are dra*n irresistibly to the concl$sion +*hich, as I ha)e pointed o$t, is hi#hly probable on #eneral #ro$nds. that >eoplatonism po$red into Islam a lar#e tinct$re of the same mystical element in *hich Christianity *as already steeped&
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,Cf& 2oldKiher, M>e$platonische $nd #nostische ;lemente im Hadit,M in #eits$hrift f%r Assyriologie, xxii& B!O ff&-

Tho$#h little direct e)idence is a)ailable, the conspic$o$s place occ$pied by the theory of #nosis in early S$fi spec$lation s$##ests contact *ith Christian 2nosticism, and it is *orth notin# that the parents of MaHr$f al%9ar3hi, *hose definition of S$fism as 8the apprehension of di)ine realities8 *as 5$oted on the first pa#e of this Introd$ction, are said to ha)e been Sabians, i.e. MandPans, d*ellin# in the Eabylonian fenland bet*een Easra and Wasit& (ther Moslem saints had learned 8the mystery of the 2reat >ame&8 It *as comm$nicated to Ibrahim ibn /dham by a man *hom he met *hile tra)ellin# in the desert, and as soon as he prono$nced it he sa* the prophet 9hadir +;lias.& The ancient S$fis borro*ed from the ManichPans the term siddiq, *hich they apply to their o*n spirit$al adepts, and a later school, ret$rnin# to the d$alism of Mani, held the )ie* that the di)ersity of phenomena arises from the admixt$re of li#ht and dar3ness& MThe ideal of h$man action is freedom from the taint of dar3ness" and the freedom of li#ht from dar3ness
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means the self%conscio$sness of li#ht as li#ht&M ,Shai3h M$hammad I5bal, The !e"elop&ent of
etaphysi$s in 'ersia +!S D., p& !I &-

The follo*in# )ersion of the doctrine of the se)enty tho$sand )eils as explained by a modern AifaHi der)ish sho*s clear traces of 2nosticism and is so interestin# that I cannot refrain from 5$otin# it hereN MSe)enty Tho$sand <eils separate /llah, the (ne Aeality, from the *orld of matter and of sense& /nd e)ery so$l passes before his birth thro$#h these se)enty tho$sand& The inner half of these are )eils of li#htN the o$ter half, )eils of dar3ness& 4or e)ery one of the )eils of li#ht passed thro$#h, in this ?o$rney to*ards birth, the so$l p$ts off a di)ine

5$alityN and for e)ery one of the dar3 )eils, it p$ts on an earthly 5$ality& Th$s the child is born (eeping, for the so$l 3no*s its separation from /llah, the (ne Aeality& /nd *hen the child cries in its sleep, it is beca$se the so$l remembers somethin# of *hat it has lost& (ther*ise, the passa#e thro$#h the )eils has bro$#ht *ith it for#etf$lness +nisyan.N and for this reason man is called insan& He is no*, as it *ere, in prison in his body, separated by these thic3 c$rtains from /llah&
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JJJ ME$t the *hole p$rpose of S$fism, the Way of the der)ish, is to #i)e him an escape from this prison, an apocalypse of the Se)enty Tho$sand <eils, a reco)ery of the ori#inal $nity *ith The (ne, (hile still in this body& The body is not to be p$t off" it is to be refined and made spirit$al%%a help and not a hindrance to the spirit& It is li3e a metal that has to be refined by fire and transm$ted& /nd the shei3h tells the aspirant that he has the secret of this transm$tation& 8We shall thro* yo$ into the fire of Spirit$al :assion,8 he says, 8and yo$ *ill emer#e refined&8M ,)The *ay) of a oha&&edan ysti$, by W& H& T& 2airdner +LeipKi#,
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I<& E'DDHISM Eefore the Mohammedan con5$est of India in the ele)enth cent$ry, the teachin# of E$ddha exerted considerable infl$ence in ;astern :ersia and Transoxania& We hear of flo$rishin# E$ddhist monasteries in Eal3h, the metropolis of ancient Eactria, a city famo$s for the n$mber of S$fis *ho resided in it& :rofessor 2oldKiher has called attention to the si#nificant circ$mstance that the S$fi ascetic, Ibrahim ibn /dham, appears in Moslem le#end as a prince of Eal3h *ho abandoned his throne and
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became a *anderin# der)ish%%the story of E$ddha o)er a#ain& The S$fis learned the $se of rosaries from E$ddhist mon3s, and, *itho$t enterin# into details, it may be safely asserted that the method of S$fism, so far as it is one of ethical self%c$lt$re, ascetic meditation, and intellect$al abstraction, o*es a #ood deal to E$ddhism& E$t the feat$res *hich the t*o systems ha)e in common only accent$ate the f$ndamental difference bet*een them& In spirit they are poles apart& The E$ddhist moralises himself, the S$fi becomes moral only thro$#h 3no*in# and lo)in# 2od& The S$fi conception of the passin#%a*ay +fana. of indi)id$al self in 'ni)ersal Eein# is certainly, I thin3, of Indian ori#in& Its first #reat exponent *as the :ersian mystic, EayaKid of Eistam, *ho may ha)e recei)ed it from his teacher, /b$ H/li of Sind +Scinde.& Here are some of his sayin#sN MCreat$res are s$b?ect to chan#in# 8states,8 b$t the #nostic has no 8state,8 beca$se his )esti#es are effaced and his essence annihilated by the essence of another, and his traces are lost in another8s traces&M MThirty years the hi#h 2od *as my mirror, no* I am my o*n mirror,M i.e. accordin# to the explanation #i)en by his bio#rapher, Mthat *hich I *as I am no more, for 8I8 and 82od8 is a denial
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of the $nity of 2od& Since I am no more, the hi#h 2od is His o*n mirror&M MI *ent from 2od to 2od, $ntil they cried from me in me, 8( Tho$ IQ8M This, it *ill be obser)ed, is not E$ddhism, b$t the pantheism of the <edanta& We cannot identify fana *ith >ir)ana $nconditionally& Eoth terms imply the passin#%a*ay of indi)id$ality, b$t *hile >ir)ana is p$rely ne#ati)e, fana is accompanied by baqa, e)erlastin# life in 2od& The rapt$re of the S$fi *ho has lost himself in ecstatic contemplation of the di)ine bea$ty is entirely opposed to the passionless intellect$al serenity of the /rahat& I emphasise this contrast beca$se, in my opinion, the infl$ence of E$ddhism on Mohammedan tho$#ht has been exa##erated& M$ch is attrib$ted to E$ddhism that is Indian rather than specifically E$ddhisticN the fana theory of the S$fis is a case in point& (rdinary Moslems held the follo*ers of E$ddha in abhorrence, re#ardin# them as idolaters, and *ere not li3ely to see3 personal interco$rse *ith them& (n the other hand, for nearly a tho$sand years before the Mohammedan con5$est, E$ddhism had been po*erf$l in Eactria and ;astern :ersia #enerallyN it m$st, therefore, ha)e affected the de)elopment of S$fism in these re#ions& While fana in its pantheistic form is
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radically different from >ir)ana, the terms coincide so closely in other *ays that *e cannot re#ard them as bein# alto#ether $nconnected& +ana has an ethical aspectN it in)ol)es the extinction of all passions and desires& The passin#%a*ay of e)il 5$alities and of the e)il actions *hich they prod$ce is said to be bro$#ht abo$t by the contin$ance of the correspondin# #ood 5$alities and actions& Compare this *ith the definition of >ir)ana #i)en by :rofessor Ahys Da)idsN MThe extinction of that sinf$l, #raspin# condition of mind and heart, *hich *o$ld other*ise, accordin# to the #reat mystery of 9arma, be the ca$se of rene*ed indi)id$al existence& That extinction is to be bro$#ht abo$t by, and r$ns parallel *ith, the #ro*th of the opposite condition of mind and heart" and it is complete *hen that opposite condition is reached&M /part from the doctrine of 9arma, *hich is alien to S$fism, these definitions of fana +)ie*ed as a moral state. and >ir)ana, a#ree almost *ord for *ord& It *o$ld be o$t of place to p$rs$e the comparison f$rther, b$t I thin3 *e may concl$de that the S$fi theory of fana *as infl$enced to some extent by E$ddhism as *ell as by :erso%Indian pantheism& The recepti)ity of Islam to forei#n ideas has been reco#nised by e)ery $nbiassed
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in5$irer, and the history of S$fism is only a sin#le instance of the #eneral r$le& E$t this fact sho$ld not lead $s to see3 in s$ch ideas an explanation of the *hole 5$estion *hich I am no* disc$ssin#, or to identify S$fism itself *ith the extraneo$s in#redients *hich it

absorbed and assimilated in the co$rse of its de)elopment& ;)en if Islam had been mirac$lo$sly sh$t off from contact *ith forei#n reli#ions and philosophies, some form of mysticism *o$ld ha)e arisen *ithin it, for the seeds *ere already there& (f co$rse, *e cannot isolate the internal forces *or3in# in this direction, since they *ere s$b?ect to the la* of spirit$al #ra)itation& The po*erf$l c$rrents of tho$#ht dischar#ed thro$#h the Mohammedan *orld by the #reat non%lslamic systems abo)e mentioned #a)e a stim$l$s to )ario$s tendencies *ithin Islam *hich affected S$fism either positi)ely or ne#ati)ely& /s *e ha)e seen, its oldest type is an ascetic re)olt a#ainst l$x$ry and *orldliness" later on, the pre)ailin# rationalism and scepticism pro)o3ed co$nter%mo)ements to*ards int$iti)e 3no*led#e and emotional faith, and also an orthodox reaction *hich in its t$rn dro)e many earnest Moslems into the ran3s of the mystics& Ho*, it may be as3ed, co$ld a reli#ion fo$nded on the simple and a$stere monotheism of Mohammed tolerate these ne*
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doctrines, m$ch less ma3e terms *ith themR It *o$ld seem impossible to reconcile the transcendent personality of /llah *ith an immanent Aeality *hich is the )ery life and so$l of the $ni)erse& Tet Islam has accepted S$fism& The S$fis, instead of bein# excomm$nicated, are sec$rely established in the Mohammedan ch$rch, and the ,egend of the osle& Saints records the *ildest excesses of (riental pantheism& Let $s ret$rn for a moment to the 9oran, that infallible to$chstone by *hich e)ery Mohammedan theory and practice m$st be pro)ed& /re any #erms of mysticism to be fo$nd thereR The 9oran, as I ha)e said, starts *ith the notion of /llah, the (ne, ;ternal, and /lmi#hty 2od, far abo)e h$man feelin#s and aspirations%%the Lord of His sla)es, not the 4ather of His children" a ?$d#e metin# o$t stern ?$stice to sinners, and extendin# His mercy only to those *ho a)ert His *rath by repentance, h$mility, and $nceasin# *or3s of de)otion" a 2od of fear rather than of lo)e& This is one side, and certainly the most prominent side, of Mohammed8s teachin#" b$t *hile he set an impassable #$lf bet*een the *orld and /llah, his deeper instinct cra)ed a direct re)elation from 2od to the so$l& There are no contradictions in the lo#ic of feelin#& Mohammed, *ho had in him somethin# of the mystic, felt 2od both as far and
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near, both as transcendent and immanent& In the latter aspect, /llah is the li#ht of the hea)ens and the earth, a Eein# *ho *or3s in the *orld and in the so$l of man& MIf My ser)ants as3 thee abo$t Me, lo, I am nearM +9or& 2&!D2." MWe +2od. are nearer to him than his o*n nec3%)einM +I &!I." M/nd in the earth are si#ns to those of real faith, and in yo$rsel)es& WhatQ do ye not seeRM +I!&2 %2!.& It *as a lon# time ere they sa*& The Moslem conscio$sness, ha$nted by terrible )isions of the *rath to come, slo*ly and painf$lly a*o3e to the si#nificance of those liberatin# ideas&

The )erses *hich I ha)e 5$oted do not stand alone, and ho*e)er $nfa)o$rable to mysticism the 9oran as a *hole may be, I cannot assent to the )ie* that it s$pplies no basis for a mystical interpretation of Islam& This *as *or3ed o$t in detail by the S$fis, *ho dealt *ith the 9oran in )ery m$ch the same *ay as :hilo treated the :entate$ch& E$t they *o$ld not ha)e s$cceeded so thoro$#hly in brin#in# o)er the mass of reli#io$s Moslems to their side, $nless the champions of orthodoxy had set abo$t constr$ctin# a system of scholastic philosophy that red$ced the di)ine nat$re to a p$rely formal, chan#eless, and absol$te $nity, a bare *ill de)oid of all affections
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and emotions, a tremendo$s and incalc$lable po*er *ith *hich no h$man creat$re co$ld ha)e any comm$nion or personal interco$rse *hatsoe)er& That is the 2od of Mohammedan theolo#y& That *as the alternati)e to S$fism& Therefore, Mall thin3in#, reli#io$s Moslems are mystics,M as :rofessor D& E& Macdonald, one of o$r best a$thorities on the s$b?ect, has remar3ed& /nd he addsN M/ll, too, are pantheists, b$t some do not 3no* it&M The relation of indi)id$al S$fis to Islam )aries from more or less entire conformity to a merely nominal profession of belief in /llah and His :rophet& While the 9oran and the Traditions are #enerally ac3no*led#ed to be the $nalterable standard of reli#io$s tr$th, this ac3no*led#ment does not incl$de the reco#nition of any external a$thority *hich shall decide *hat is orthodox and *hat is heretical& Creeds and catechisms co$nt for nothin# in the S$fi8s estimation& Why sho$ld he concern himself *ith these *hen he possesses a doctrine deri)ed immediately from 2odR /s he reads the 9oran *ith st$dio$s meditation and rapt attention, lo, the hidden meanin#s%%infinite, inexha$stible%%of the Holy Word flash $pon his in*ard eye& This is *hat the S$fis call istinbat, a sort of int$iti)e ded$ction" the mysterio$s inflo* of di)inely re)ealed 3no*led#e into hearts made p$re
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by repentance and filled *ith the tho$#ht of 2od, and the o$tflo* of that 3no*led#e $pon the interpretin# ton#$e& >at$rally, the doctrines elicited by means of istinbat do not a#ree )ery *ell either *ith Mohammedan theolo#y or *ith each other, b$t the discord is easily explained& Theolo#ians, *ho interpret the letter, cannot be expected to reach the same concl$sions as mystics, *ho interpret the spirit" and if both classes differ amon#st themsel)es, that is a mercif$l dispensation of di)ine *isdom, since theolo#ical contro)ersy ser)es to extin#$ish reli#io$s error, *hile the )ariety of mystical tr$th corresponds to the manifold de#rees and modes of mystical experience& In the chapter on the #nosis I shall enter more f$lly into the attit$de of the S$fis to*ards positi)e reli#ion& It is only a ro$#h%and%ready acco$nt of the matter to say that many of them ha)e been #ood Moslems, many scarcely Moslems at all, and a third party, perhaps the lar#est, Moslems after a fashion& D$rin# the early Middle /#es Islam *as a #ro*in# or#anism, and #rad$ally became transformed $nder the infl$ence of di)erse mo)ements,

of *hich S$fism itself *as one& Mohammedan orthodoxy in its present shape o*es m$ch to 2haKali, and 2haKali *as a S$fi& Thro$#h his *or3 and example the S$fistic inter%
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pretation of Islam has in no small meas$re been harmonised *ith the ri)al claims of reason and tradition, b$t ?$st beca$se of this he is less )al$able than mystics of a p$rer type to the st$dent *ho *ishes to 3no* *hat S$fism essentially is& /ltho$#h the n$mero$s definitions of S$fism *hich occ$r in /rabic and :ersian boo3s on the s$b?ect are historically interestin#, their chief importance lies in sho*in# that S$fism is $ndefinable& Calal$ddin A$mi in his asna"i tells a story abo$t an elephant *hich some Hindoos *ere exhibitin# in a dar3 room& Many people #athered to see it, b$t, as the place *as too dar3 to permit them to see the elephant, they all felt it *ith their hands, to #ain an idea of *hat it *as li3e& (ne felt its tr$n3, and said that the animal resembled a *ater%pipe" another felt its ear, and said it m$st be a lar#e fan" another its le#, and tho$#ht it m$st be a pillar" another felt its bac3, and declared that the beast m$st be li3e an immense throne& So it is *ith those *ho define S$fismN they can only attempt to express *hat they themsel)es ha)e felt, and there is no concei)able form$la that *ill comprise e)ery shade of personal and intimate reli#io$s feelin#& Since, ho*e)er, these definitions ill$strate *ith con)enient bre)ity certain aspects and characteristics of S$fism, a fe* specimens may be #i)en&
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JJJ MS$fism is thisN that actions sho$ld be passin# o)er the S$fi +i.e. bein# done $pon him. *hich are 3no*n to 2od only, and that he sho$ld al*ays be *ith 2od in a *ay that is 3no*n to 2od only&M MS$fism is *holly self%discipline&M MS$fism is, to possess nothin# and to be possessed by nothin#&M MS$fism is not a system composed of r$les or sciences b$t a moral disposition" i.e. if it *ere a r$le, it co$ld be made one8s o*n by stren$o$s exertion, and if it *ere a science, it co$ld be ac5$ired by instr$ction" b$t on the contrary it is a disposition, accordin# to the sayin#, 84orm yo$rsel)es on the moral nat$re of 2od8" and the moral nat$re of 2od cannot be attained either by means of r$les or by means of sciences&M MS$fism is freedom and #enerosity and absence of self%constraint&M MIt is thisN that 2od sho$ld ma3e thee die to thyself and sho$ld ma3e thee li)e in Him&M MTo behold the imperfection of the phenomenal *orld, nay, to close the eye to e)erythin# imperfect in contemplation of Him *ho is remote from all imperfection%%that is S$fism&M MS$fism is control of the fac$lties and obser)ance of the breaths&M
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JJJ MIt is S$fism to p$t a*ay *hat tho$ hast in thy head, to #i)e *hat tho$ hast in thy hand, and not to recoil from *hatsoe)er befalls thee&M The reader *ill percei)e that S$fism is a *ord $nitin# many di)er#ent meanin#s, and that in s3etchin# its main feat$res one is obli#ed to ma3e a sort of composite portrait, *hich

does not represent any partic$lar type excl$si)ely& The S$fis are not a sect, they ha)e no do#matic system, the tariqas or paths by *hich they see3 2od Mare in n$mber as the so$ls of menM and )ary infinitely, tho$#h a family li3eness may be traced in them all& Descriptions of s$ch a :rotean phenomenon m$st differ *idely from one another, and the impression prod$ced in each case *ill depend on the choice of materials and the prominence #i)en to this or that aspect of the many%sided *hole& >o*, the essence of S$fism is best displayed in its extreme type, *hich is pantheistic and spec$lati)e rather than ascetic or de)otional& This type, therefore, I ha)e p$rposely placed in the fore#ro$nd& The ad)anta#e of limitin# the field is ob)io$s eno$#h, b$t entails some loss of proportion& In order to form a fair ?$d#ment of Mohammedan mysticism, the follo*in# chapters sho$ld be s$pplemented by a companion pict$re dra*n especially from those moderate types *hich, for *ant of space, I ha)e $nd$ly ne#lected&
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MTSTICS of e)ery race and creed ha)e described the pro#ress of the spirit$al life as a Co$rney or a pil#rima#e& (ther symbols ha)e been $sed for the same p$rpose, b$t this one appears to be almost $ni)ersal in its ran#e& The S$fi *ho sets o$t to see3 2od calls himself a 8tra)eller8 +salik." he ad)ances by slo* 8sta#es8 +&aqa&at. alon# a 8path8 +tariqat. to the #oal of $nion *ith Aeality +fana fi -l-Haqq.& Sho$ld he )ent$re to ma3e a map of this interior ascent, it *ill not correspond exactly *ith any of those made by pre)io$s explorers& S$ch maps or scales of perfection *ere elaborated by S$fi teachers at an early period, and the $nl$c3y Moslem habit of systematisin# has prod$ced an enormo$s aftercrop& The 8path8 expo$nded by the a$thor of the .itab al-,u&a/, perhaps the oldest comprehensi)e treatise on S$fism that *e no* possess, consists of the follo*in# se)en 8sta#es8, each of *hich +except the first member of the series. is the res$lt of the 8sta#es8 immediately
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precedin# it%%+l. Aepentance, +2. abstinence, +B. ren$nciation, +G. po)erty, +I. patience, +L. tr$st in 2od, +O. satisfaction& The 8sta#es8 constit$te the as$eti$ and ethi$al discipline of the S$fi, and m$st be caref$lly distin#$ished from the so%called 8states8 +ah(al, pl$ral of hal., *hich form a similar psy$hologi$al chain& The *riter *hom I ha)e ?$st 5$oted en$merates ten 8states8%%Meditation, nearness to 2od, lo)e, fear, hope, lon#in#, intimacy, tran5$illity, contemplation, and certainty& While the 8sta#es8 can be ac5$ired and mastered by one8s o*n efforts, the 8states8 are spirit$al feelin#s and dispositions o)er *hich a man has no controlN MThey descend from 2od into his heart, *itho$t his bein# able to repel them *hen they come or to retain them *hen they #o&M

The S$fi8s 8path8 is not finished $ntil he has tra)ersed all the 8sta#es,8 ma3in# himself perfect in e)ery one of them before ad)ancin# to the next, and has also experienced *hate)er 8states8 it pleases 2od to besto* $pon him& Then, and only then, is he permanently raised to the hi#her planes of conscio$sness *hich S$fis call 8the 2nosis8 +&a/rifat. and 8the Tr$th8 +haqiqat., *here the 8see3er8 +talib. becomes the 83no*er8 or 8#nostic8 +/arif., and realises that 3no*led#e, 3no*er, and 3no*n are (ne&
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JJJ Ha)in# s3etched, as briefly as possible, the external frame*or3 of the method by *hich the S$fi approaches his #oal, I shall no* try to #i)e some acco$nt of its inner *or3in#s& The present chapter deals *ith the first portion of the threefold ?o$rney%%the :ath, the 2nosis, and the Tr$th%%by *hich the 5$est of Aeality is often symbolised& The first place in e)ery list of 8sta#es8 is occ$pied by repentance +ta(bat.& This is the Moslem term for 8con)ersion,8 and mar3s the be#innin# of a ne* life& In the bio#raphies of eminent S$fis the dreams, )isions, a$ditions, and other experiences *hich ca$sed them to enter on the :ath are $s$ally related& Tri)ial as they may seem, these records ha)e a psycholo#ical basis, and, if a$thentic, *o$ld be *orth st$dyin# in detail& Aepentance is described as the a*a3enin# of the so$l from the sl$mber of heedlessness, so that the sinner becomes a*are of his e)il *ays and feels contrition for past disobedience& He is not tr$ly penitent, ho*e)er, $nless +!. he at once abandons the sin or sins of *hich he is conscio$s, and +2. firmly resol)es that he *ill ne)er ret$rn to these sins in the f$t$re& It he sho$ld fail to 3eep his )o*, he m$st a#ain t$rn to 2od, *hose mercy is infinite& / certain *ell%3no*n S$fi repented se)enty times and fell bac3 into sin se)enty times before he made a
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lastin# repentance& The con)ert m$st also, as far as lies in his po*er, satisfy all those *hom he has in?$red& Many examples of s$ch restit$tion mi#ht be c$lled from the ,egend of the osle& Saints& /ccordin# to the hi#h mystical theory, repentance is p$rely an act of di)ine #race, comin# from 2od to man, not from man to 2od& Some one said to AabiHaN MI ha)e committed many sins" if I t$rn in penitence to*ards 2od, *ill He t$rn in mercy to*ards meRM M>ay,M she replied,M b$t if He shall t$rn to*ards thee, tho$ *ilt t$rn to*ards Him&M The 5$estion *hether sins o$#ht to be remembered after repentance or for#otten ill$strates a f$ndamental point in S$fi ethicsN I mean the difference bet*een *hat is ta$#ht to no)ices and disciples and *hat is held as an esoteric doctrine by adepts& /ny Mohammedan director of so$ls *o$ld tell his p$pils that to thin3 h$mbly and remorsef$lly of one8s sins is a so)erei#n remedy a#ainst spirit$al pride, b$t he himself mi#ht )ery *ell belie)e that real repentance consists in for#ettin# e)erythin# except 2od&

MThe penitent,M says H$?*iri, Mis a lo)er of 2od, and the lo)er of 2od is in contemplation of 2odN in contemplation it is *ron# to remember
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sin, for recollection of sin is a )eil bet*een 2od and the contemplati)e&M Sin appertains to self%existence, *hich itself is the #reatest of all sins& To for#et sin is to for#et self& This is only one application of a principle *hich, as I ha)e said, r$ns thro$#h the *hole ethical system of S$fism and *ill be more f$lly explained in a s$bse5$ent chapter& Its dan#ers are e)ident, b$t *e m$st in fairness allo* that the same theory of cond$ct may not be e5$ally s$itable to those *ho ha)e made themsel)es perfect in moral discipline and to those *ho are still stri)in# after perfection& ()er the #ate of repentance it is *rittenN M/ll self abandon ye *ho enter hereQM The con)ert no* be#ins *hat is called by Christian mystics the :$r#ati)e Way& If he follo*s the #eneral r$le, he *ill ta3e a director +Shey3h, :ir, M$rshid., i.e. a holy man of ripe experience and profo$nd 3no*led#e, *hose least *ord is absol$te la* to his disciples& / 8see3er8 *ho attempts to tra)erse the 8:ath8 *itho$t assistance recei)es little sympathy& (f s$ch a one it is said that 8his #$ide is Satan,8 and he is li3ened to a tree that for *ant of the #ardener8s care brin#s forth 8none or bitter fr$it&8 Spea3in# of the S$fi Shey3hs, H$?*iri saysN
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JJJ MWhen a no)ice ?oins them, *ith the p$rpose of reno$ncin# the *orld, they s$b?ect him to spirit$al discipline for the space of three years& If he f$lfil the re5$irements of this discipline, *ell and #ood" other*ise, they declare that he cannot be admitted to the 8:ath&8 The first year is de)oted to ser)ice of the people, the second year to ser)ice of 2od, and the third year to *atchin# o)er his o*n heart& He can ser)e the people, only *hen he places himself in the ran3 of ser)ants and all others in the ran3 of masters, i.e. he m$st re#ard all, *itho$t exception, as bein# better than himself, and m$st deem it his d$ty to ser)e all ali3e& /nd he can ser)e 2od, only *hen he c$ts off all his selfish interests relatin# either to the present or to the f$t$re life, and *orships 2od for 2od8s sa3e alone, inasm$ch as *hoe)er *orships 2od for any thin#8s sa3e *orships himself, not 2od& /nd he can *atch o)er his heart, only *hen his tho$#hts are collected and e)ery care is dismissed, so that in comm$nion *ith 2od he #$ards his heart from the assa$lts of heedlessness& When these 5$alifications are possessed by the no)ice, he may *ear the &uraqqa/at +the patched froc3 *orn by der)ishes. as a tr$e
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mystic, not merely as an imitator of others&M Shibli *as a p$pil of the famo$s theosophist C$nayd of Ea#hdad& (n his con)ersion, he came to C$nayd, sayin#N

MThey tell me that yo$ possess the pearl of di)ine 3no*led#eN either #i)e it me or sell it&M C$nayd ans*eredN MI cannot sell it, for yo$ ha)e not the price thereof" and if I #i)e it yo$, yo$ *ill ha)e #ained it cheaply& To$ do not 3no* its )al$e& Cast yo$rself headlon#, li3e me, into this ocean, in order that yo$ may *in the pearl by *aitin# patiently&M Shibli as3ed *hat he m$st do& M2o,M said C$nayd, Mand sell s$lph$r&M /t the end of a year he said to ShibliN MThis tradin# ma3es yo$ *ell 3no*n& Eecome a der)ish and occ$py yo$rself solely *ith be##in#&M D$rin# a *hole year Shibli *andered thro$#h the streets of Ea#hdad, be##in# of the passers%by, b$t no one heeded him& Then he ret$rned to C$nayd, *ho exclaimedN MSee no*Q To$ are nothin# in people8s eyes& >e)er set yo$r mind on them or ta3e any acco$nt of them at all& 4or some timeM +he contin$ed. Myo$ *ere a chamberlain and acted as
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#o)ernor of a pro)ince& 2o to that co$ntry and as3 pardon of all those *hom yo$ ha)e *ron#ed&M Shibli obeyed and spent fo$r years in #oin# from door to door, $ntil he had obtained an ac5$ittance from e)ery person except one, *hom he failed to trace& (n his ret$rn, C$nayd said to himN MTo$ still ha)e some re#ard to rep$tation& 2o and be a be##ar for one year more&M ;)ery day Shibli $sed to brin# the alms that *ere #i)en him to C$nayd, *ho besto*ed them on the poor and 3ept Shibli *itho$t food $ntil the next mornin#& When a year had passed in this *ay, C$nayd accepted him as one of his disciples on condition that he sho$ld perform the d$ties of a ser)ant to the others& /fter a year8s ser)ice, C$nayd as3ed himN MWhat thin3 yo$ of yo$rself no*RM Shibli repliedN MI deem myself the meanest of 2od8s creat$res&M M >o*,M said the master, Myo$r faith is firm&M I need not d*ell on the details of this trainin#%%the fasts and )i#ils, the )o*s of silence, the lon# days and ni#hts of solitary meditation, all the *eapons and tactics, in short, of that battle a#ainst one8s self *hich the :rophet declared to be more painf$l and meritorio$s than the Holy War& (n the other hand, my readers *ill expect me to
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describe in a #eneral *ay the characteristic theories and practices for *hich the 8:ath8 is a con)enient desi#nation& These may be treated $nder the follo*in# headsN :o)erty, Mortification, Tr$st in 2od, and Aecollection& Whereas po)erty is ne#ati)e in nat$re, in)ol)in# detachment from all that is *orldly and $nreal, the three remainin# terms denote the positi)e co$nterpart of that process, namely, the ethical discipline by *hich the so$l is bro$#ht into harmonio$s relations *ith Aeality& The fatalistic spirit *hich brooded dar3ly o)er the childhood of Islam%%the feelin# that all h$man actions are determined by an $nseen :o*er, and in themsel)es are *orthless and )ain%%ca$sed ren$nciation to become the *atch*ord of early Moslem asceticism& ;)ery tr$e belie)er is bo$nd to abstain from $nla*f$l pleas$res, b$t the ascetic ac5$ires merit by abstainin# from those *hich are la*f$l& /t first, ren$nciation *as $nderstood almost excl$si)ely in a material sense& To ha)e as fe* *orldly #oods as possible seemed the s$rest means of #ainin# sal)ation& Da*$d al%TaVi o*ned nothin# except a mat of r$shes, a bric3 *hich he $sed as a pillo*, and a leathern )essel *hich ser)ed him for drin3in# and *ashin#& / certain man dreamed that he sa* Mali3 ibn Dinar and Mohammed ibn WasiH bein# led into :ara%
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dise, and that Mali3 *as admitted before his companion& He cried o$t in astonishment, for he tho$#ht Mohammed ibn WasiH had a s$perior claim to the hono$r& MTes,M came the ans*er, Mb$t Mohammed ibn WasiH possessed t*o shirts, and Mali3 only one& That is the reason *hy Mali3 is preferred&M The S$fi ideal of po)erty #oes far beyond this& Tr$e po)erty is not merely lac3 of *ealth, b$t lac3 of desire for *ealthN the empty heart as *ell as the empty hand& The 8poor man8 +faqir. and the 8mendicant8 +der"ish. are names by *hich the Mohammedan mystic is pro$d to be 3no*n, beca$se they imply that he is stripped of e)ery tho$#ht or *ish that *o$ld di)ert his mind from 2od& MTo be se)ered entirely from both the present life and the f$t$re life, and to *ant nothin# besides the Lord of the present life and the f$t$re life%%that is to be tr$ly poor&M S$ch a faqir is den$ded of indi)id$al existence, so that he does not attrib$te to himself any action, feelin#, or 5$ality& He may e)en be rich, in the common meanin# of the *ord, tho$#h spirit$ally he is the poorest of the poor" for, sometimes, 2od endo*s His saints *ith an o$t*ard sho* of *ealth and *orldliness in order to hide them from the profane& >o one familiar *ith the mystical *riters *ill need to be informed that their terminolo#y is ambi#$o$s, and that the same *ord
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fre5$ently co)ers a #ro$p, if not a m$ltit$de, of si#nifications di)er#in# more or less *idely accordin# to the aspect from *hich it is )ie*ed& Hence the conf$sion that is apparent in S$fi text%boo3s& When 8po)erty,8 for example, is explained by one interpreter as a transcendental theory and by another as a practical r$le of reli#io$s life, the meanin#s cannot coincide& Ae#arded from the latter standpoint, po)erty is only the

be#innin# of S$fism& +aqirs, Cami says, reno$nce all *orldly thin#s for the sa3e of pleasin# 2od& They are $r#ed to this sacrifice by one of three moti)esN +a. Hope of an easy rec3onin# on the Day of C$d#ment, or fear of bein# p$nished" +b. desire of :aradise" +c. lon#in# for spirit$al peace and in*ard compos$re& Th$s, inasm$ch as they are not disinterested b$t see3 to benefit themsel)es, they ran3 belo* the S$fi, *ho has no *ill of his o*n and depends absol$tely on the *ill of 2od& It is the absence of 8self8 that distin#$ishes the S$fi from the faqir& Here are some maxims for der)ishesN MDo not be# $nless yo$ are star)in#& The Caliph (mar flo##ed a man *ho be##ed after ha)in# satisfied his h$n#er& When compelled to be#, do not accept more than yo$ need&M MEe #ood%nat$red and $ncomplainin# and than3 2od for yo$r po)erty&M
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JJJ MDo not flatter the rich for #i)in#, nor blame them for *ithholdin#&M MDread the loss of po)erty more than the rich man dreads the loss of *ealth&M MTa3e *hat is )ol$ntarily offeredN it is the daily bread *hich 2od sends to yo$N do not ref$se 2od8s #ift&M MLet no tho$#ht of the morro* enter yo$r mind, else yo$ *ill inc$r e)erlastin# perdition&M MDo not ma3e 2od a sprin#e to catch alms&M The S$fi teachers #rad$ally b$ilt $p a system of asceticism and moral c$lt$re *hich is fo$nded on the fact that there is in man an element of e)il%%the lo*er or appetiti)e so$l& This e)il self, the seat of passion and l$st, is called nafs" it may be considered broadly e5$i)alent to 8the flesh,8 and *ith its allies, the *orld and the de)il, it constit$tes the #reat obstacle to the attainment of $nion *ith 2od& The :rophet saidN MThy *orst enemy is thy nafs, *hich is bet*een thy t*o sides&M I do not intend to disc$ss the )ario$s opinions as to its nat$re, b$t the proof of its materiality is too c$rio$s to be omitted& Mohammed ibn H'lyan, an eminent S$fi, relates that one day somethin# li3e a yo$n# fox came forth from his throat, and 2od ca$sed him to 3no* that
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it *as his nafs& He trod on it, b$t it #re* bi##er at e)ery 3ic3 that he #a)e it& He saidN M(ther thin#s are destroyed by pain and blo*sN *hy dost tho$ increaseRM M Eeca$se I *as created per)erse,M it replied" M*hat is pain to other thin#s is pleas$re to me, and their pleas$re is my pain&M The nafs of Halla? *as seen r$nnin# behind him in the shape of a do#" and other cases are recorded in *hich it appeared as a sna3e or a mo$se& Mortification of the nafs is the chief *or3 of de)otion, and leads, directly or indirectly, to the contemplati)e life& /ll the Shey3hs are a#reed that no disciple *ho ne#lects this d$ty *ill e)er learn the r$diments of S$fism& The principle of mortification is that the nafs sho$ld be *eaned from those thin#s to *hich it is acc$stomed, that it sho$ld be

enco$ra#ed to resist its passions, that its pride sho$ld be bro3en, and that it sho$ld be bro$#ht thro$#h s$fferin# and trib$lation to reco#nise the )ileness of its ori#inal nat$re and the imp$rity of its actions& Concernin# the o$t*ard methods of mortification, s$ch as fastin#, silence, and solit$de, a #reat deal mi#ht be *ritten, b$t *e m$st no* pass on to the hi#her ethical discipline *hich completes the :ath& Self%mortification, as ad)anced S$fis
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$nderstand it, is a moral transm$tation of the inner man& When they say, MDie before ye die,M they do not mean to assert that the lo*er self can be essentially destroyed, b$t that it can and sho$ld be p$r#ed of its attrib$tes, *hich are *holly e)il& These attrib$tes%% i#norance, pride, en)y, $ncharitableness, etc&%%are extin#$ished, and replaced by the opposite 5$alities, *hen the *ill is s$rrendered to 2od and *hen the mind is concentrated on Him& Therefore 8dyin# to self8 is really 8li)in# in 2od&8 The mystical aspects of the doctrine th$s stated *ill occ$py a considerable part of the follo*in# chapters" here *e are mainly interested in its ethical import& The S$fi *ho has eradicated self%*ill is said, in technical lan#$a#e, to ha)e reached the 8sta#es8 of 8ac5$iescence8 or 8satisfaction8 +rida. and 8tr$st in 2od8 +ta(akkul.& / der)ish fell into the Ti#ris& Seein# that he co$ld not s*im, a man on the ban3 cried o$t, MShall I tell some one to brin# yo$ ashoreRM M>o,M said the der)ish& MThen do yo$ *ish to be dro*nedRM M>o&M MWhat, then, do yo$ *ishRM The der)ish replied, M2od8s *ill be doneQ What ha)e I to do *ith *ishin#RM 8Tr$st in 2od,8 in its extreme form, in)ol)es the ren$nciation of e)ery personal initiati)e and )olition" total passi)ity li3e
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that of a corpse in the hands of the *asher *ho prepares it for b$rial" perfect indifference to*ards anythin# that is e)en remotely connected *ith one8s self& / special class of the ancient S$fis too3 their name from this 8tr$st,8 *hich they applied, so far as they *ere able, to matters of e)eryday life& 4or instance, they *o$ld not see3 food, *or3 for hire, practise any trade, or allo* medicine to be #i)en them *hen they *ere ill& =$ietly they committed themsel)es to 2od8s care, ne)er do$btin# that He, to *hom belon# the treas$res of earth and hea)en, *o$ld pro)ide for their *ants, and that their allotted portion *o$ld come to them as s$rely as it comes to the birds, *hich neither so* nor reap, and to the fish in the sea, and to the child in the *omb& These principles depend $ltimately on the S$fistic theory of the di)ine $nity, as is sho*n by Sha5i5 of Eal3h in the follo*in# passa#eN

MThere are three thin#s *hich a man is bo$nd to practise& Whosoe)er ne#lects any one of them m$st needs ne#lect them all, and *hosoe)er clea)es to any one of them m$st needs clea)e to them all& Stri)e, therefore, to $nderstand, and consider heedf$lly, MThe first is this, that *ith yo$r mind and yo$r ton#$e and yo$r actions yo$ declare 2od to be (ne" and that,
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ha)in# declared Him to be (ne, and ha)in# declared that none benefits yo$ or harms yo$ except Him, yo$ de)ote all yo$r actions to Him alone& If yo$ act a sin#le ?ot of yo$r actions for the sa3e of another, yo$r tho$#ht and speech are corr$pt, since yo$r moti)e in actin# for another8s sa3e m$st be hope or fear" and *hen yo$ act from hope or fear of other than 2od, *ho is the lord and s$stainer of all thin#s, yo$ ha)e ta3en to yo$rself another #od to hono$r and )enerate& MSe$ondly, that *hile yo$ spea3 and act in the sincere belief that there is no 2od except Him, yo$ sho$ld tr$st Him more than the *orld or money or $ncle or father or mother or any one on the face of the earth& MThirdly, *hen yo$ ha)e established these t*o thin#s, namely, sincere belief in the $nity of 2od and tr$st in Him, it beho)es yo$ to be satisfied *ith Him and not to be an#ry on acco$nt of anythin# that )exes yo$& Ee*are of an#erQ Let yo$r heart be *ith Him al*ays, let it not be *ithdra*n from Him for a sin#le moment&M The 8tr$stin#8 S$fi has no tho$#ht beyond the present ho$r& (n one occasion Sha5i5 as3ed those *ho sat listenin# to his disco$rseN
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JJJ MIf 2od ca$ses yo$ to die to%day, thin3 ye that He *ill demand from yo$ the prayers of to%morro*RM They ans*eredN M>o" ho* sho$ld He demand from $s the prayers of a day on *hich *e are not ali)eRM Sha5i5 saidN M;)en as He *ill not demand from yo$ the prayers of to%morro*, so do ye not see3 from Him the pro)ender of to%morro*& It may be that ye *ill not li)e so lon#&M In )ie* of the practical conse5$ences of attemptin# to li)e 8on tr$st,8 it is not s$rprisin# to read the ad)ice #i)en to those *ho *o$ld perfectly f$lfil the doctrineN MLet them di# a #ra)e and b$ry themsel)es&M Later S$fis hold that acti)e exertion for the p$rpose of obtainin# the means of s$bsistence is 5$ite compatible *ith 8tr$st,8 accordin# to the sayin# of the :rophet, MTr$st in 2od and tie the camel8s le#&M They define ta(akkul as an habit$al state of mind, *hich is impaired only by self%pleasin# tho$#hts" e.g. it *as acco$nted a breach of 8tr$st8 to thin3 :aradise a more desirable place than Hell& What type of character is s$ch a theory li3ely to prod$ceR /t the *orst, a $seless drone and hypocrite preyin# $pon his fello*%creat$res" at the best, a harmless der)ish *ho remains $nmo)ed in the midst of sorro*, meets praise and blame *ith e5$al
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indifference, and accepts ins$lts, blo*s, tort$re, and death as mere incidents in the eternal drama of destiny& This cold morality, ho*e)er, is not the hi#hest of *hich S$fism is

capable& The hi#hest morality sprin#s from nothin# b$t lo)e, *hen self%s$rrender becomes self%de)otion& (f that I shall ha)e somethin# to say in d$e time& /mon# the positi)e elements in the S$fi discipline there is one that Moslem mystics $nanimo$sly re#ard as the 3eystone of practical reli#ion& I refer to the dhikr, an exercise *ell 3no*n to Western readers from the caref$l description #i)en by ;d*ard Lane in his odern 0gyptians, and by :rofessor D& E& Macdonald in his recently p$blished Aspe$ts of 1sla&& The term dhikr%%8recollection8 seems to me the most appropriate e5$i)alent in ;n#lish%%si#nifies 8mentionin#,8 8rememberin#,8 or simply 8thin3in# of8" in the 9oran the 4aithf$l are commanded to Mremember 2od often,M a plain act of *orship *itho$t any mystical sa)o$r& E$t the S$fis made a practice of repeatin# the name of 2od or some reli#io$s form$la, e.g. M2lory to /llahM +subhan Allah., MThere is no #od b$t /llahM +la ilaha illa -llah., accompanyin# the mechanical intonation *ith an intense concentration of e)ery fac$lty $pon the sin#le *ord or phrase" and they attach #reater )al$e to this irre#$lar
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litany, *hich enables them to en?oy $ninterr$pted comm$nion *ith 2od, than to the fi)e ser)ices of prayer performed, at fixed ho$rs of the day and ni#ht, by all Moslems& Aecollection may be either spo3en or silent, b$t it is best, accordin# to the $s$al opinion, that ton#$e and mind sho$ld co%operate& Sahl ibn H/bdallah bade one of his disciples endea)o$r to say M/llahQ /llahQM the *hole day *itho$t intermission& When he had ac5$ired the habit of doin# so, Sahl instr$cted him to repeat the same *ords d$rin# the ni#ht, $ntil they came forth from his lips e)en *hile he *as asleep& M>o*,M said he, Mbe silent and occ$py yo$rself *ith recollectin# them&M /t last the disciple8s *hole bein# *as absorbed by the tho$#ht of /llah& (ne day a lo# fell on his head, and the *ords M/llah, /llahM *ere seen *ritten in the blood that tric3led from the *o$nd& 2haKali describes the method and effects of dhikr in a passa#e *hich Macdonald has s$mmarised as follo*sN MLet him red$ce his heart to a state in *hich the existence of anythin# and its non% existence are the same to him& Then let him sit alone in some corner, limitin# his reli#io$s d$ties to *hat is absol$tely necessary, and not occ$pyin# himself either *ith recitin# the 9oran or considerin# its meanin# or *ith
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boo3s of reli#io$s traditions or *ith anythin# of the sort& /nd let him see to it that nothin# sa)e 2od most Hi#h enters his mind& Then, as he sits in solit$de, let him not cease sayin# contin$o$sly *ith his ton#$e, 8/llah, /llah,8 3eepin# his tho$#ht on it& /t last he *ill reach a state *hen the motion of his ton#$e *ill cease, and it *ill seem as tho$#h the *ord flo*ed from it& Let him perse)ere in this $ntil all trace of motion is remo)ed from his ton#$e, and he finds his heart perse)erin# in the tho$#ht& Let him still perse)ere $ntil the form of the *ord, its letters and shape, is remo)ed from his heart, and there remains the idea alone, as tho$#h clin#in# to his heart, inseparable from it& So far, all is dependent on his *ill and choice" b$t to brin# the mercy of 2od does not stand in his *ill or choice& He has no* laid himself bare to the breathin#s of that mercy, and

nothin# remains b$t to a*ait *hat 2od *ill open to him, as 2od has done after this manner to prophets and saints& If he fo!!o*s the abo)e co$rse, he may be s$re that the li#ht of the Aeal *ill shine o$t in his heart& /t first $nstable, li3e a flash of li#htnin#, it t$rns and ret$rns" tho$#h sometimes it han#s bac3& /nd if it ret$rns, sometimes it
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abides and sometimes it is momentary& /nd if it abides, sometimes its abidin# is lon#, and sometimes short&M /nother S$fi p$ts the #ist of the matter in a sentence, th$sN MThe first sta#e of dhikr is to for#et self, and the last sta#e is the effacement of the *orshipper in the act of *orship, *itho$t conscio$sness of *orship, and s$ch absorption in the ob?ect of *orship as precl$des ret$rn to the s$b?ect thereof&M Aecollection can be aided in )ario$s *ays& When Shibli *as a no)ice, he *ent daily into a cellar, ta3in# *ith him a b$ndle of stic3s& If his attention fla##ed, he *o$ld beat himself $ntil the stic3s bro3e, and sometimes the *hole b$ndle *o$ld be finished before e)enin#" then he *o$ld dash his hands and feet a#ainst the *all& The Indian practice of inhalin# and exhalin# the breath *as 3no*n to the S$fis of the ninth cent$ry and *as m$ch $sed after*ards& /mon# the Der)ish (rders m$sic, sin#in#, and dancin# are fa)o$rite means of ind$cin# the state of trance called 8passin#%a*ay8 +fana., *hich, as appears from the definition 5$oted abo)e, is the climax and raison d23tre of the method& In 8meditation8 +&uraqabat. *e reco#nise a form of self%concentration similar to the E$ddhistic dhyana and sa&adhi& This is
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*hat the :rophet meant *hen he said, MWorship 2od as tho$#h tho$ sa*est Him, for if tho$ seest Him not, yet He sees thee&M /nyone *ho feels s$re that 2od is al*ays *atchin# o)er him *ill de)ote himself to meditatin# on 2od, and no e)il tho$#hts or diabolic s$##estions *ill find their *ay into his heart& >$ri $sed to meditate so intently that not a hair on his body stirred& He declared that he had learned this habit from a cat *hich *as obser)in# a mo$se%hole, and that she *as far more 5$iet than he& /b$ SaHid ibn /bi Vl%9hayr 3ept his eyes fixed on his na)el& It is said that the De)il is smitten *ith epilepsy *hen he approaches a man th$s occ$pied, ?$st as happens to other men *hen the De)il ta3es possession of them& This chapter *ill ha)e ser)ed its p$rpose if it has bro$#ht before my readers a clear )ie* of the main lines on *hich the preparatory trainin# of the S$fi is cond$cted& We m$st no* ima#ine him to ha)e been in)ested by his Shey3h *ith the patched froc3 +&uraqqa/at or khirqat., *hich is an o$t*ard si#n that he has s$ccessf$lly emer#ed from the discipline of the 8:ath,8 and is no* ad)ancin# *ith $ncertain steps to*ards the Li#ht, as *hen toil%*orn tra)ellers, ha)in# #ained the s$mmit of a deep #or#e, s$ddenly catch #limpses of the s$n and co)er their eyes&
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2(D, *ho is described in the 9oran as Mthe Li#ht of the hea)ens and the earth,M cannot be seen by the bodily eye& He is )isible only to the in*ard si#ht of the 8heart&8 In the next chapter *e shall ret$rn to this spirit$al or#an, b$t I am not #oin# to enter into the intricacies of S$fi psycholo#y any f$rther than is necessary& The 8)ision of the heart8 +ru-yat al-qalb. is defined as Mthe heart8s beholdin# by the li#ht of certainty that *hich is hidden in the $nseen *orld&M This is *hat H/li meant *hen he *as as3ed, MDo yo$ see 2odRM and repliedN MHo* sho$ld *e *orship (ne *hom *e do not seeRM The li#ht of int$iti)e certainty +yaqin. by *hich the heart sees 2od is a beam of 2od8s o*n li#ht cast therein by Himself" else no )ision of Him *ere possible& M8Tis the s$n8s self that lets the s$n be seen&M /ccordin# to a mystical interpretation of the famo$s passa#e in the 9oran *here the li#ht of /llah is compared to a candle
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b$rnin# in a lantern of transparent #lass, *hich is placed in a niche in the *all, the niche is the tr$e belie)er8s heart" therefore his speech is li#ht and his *or3s are li#ht and he mo)es in li#ht& MHe *ho disco$rses of eternity,M said EayaKid, Mm$st ha)e *ithin him the lamp of eternity&M The li#ht *hich #leams in the heart of the ill$minated mystic endo*s him *ith a s$pernat$ral po*er of discernment +firasat.& /ltho$#h the S$fis, li3e all other Moslems, ac3no*led#e Mohammed to be the last of the prophets +as, from a different point of )ie*, he is the Lo#os or first of created bein#s., they really claim to possess a minor form of inspiration& When >$ri *as 5$estioned concernin# the ori#in of mystical firasat, he ans*ered by 5$otin# the 9oranic )erse in *hich 2od says that He breathed His spirit into /dam" b$t the more orthodox S$fis, *ho streno$sly combat the doctrine that the h$man spirit is $ncreated and eternal, affirm that firasat is the res$lt of 3no*led#e and insi#ht, metaphorically called 8li#ht8 or 8inspiration,8 *hich 2od creates and besto*s $pon His fa)o$rites& The Tradition, MEe*are of the discernment of the tr$e belie)er, for he sees by the li#ht of /llah,M is exemplified in s$ch anecdotes as theseN /b$ H/bdallah al%AaKi saidN MIbn al%/nbari presented me *ith a
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*oollen froc3, and seein# on the head of Shibli a bonnet that *o$ld ?$st match it, I concei)ed the *ish that they *ere both mine& When Shibli rose to depart, he loo3ed at me, as he *as in the habit of doin# *hen he desired me to follo* him& So I follo*ed him to his ho$se, and *hen *e had #one in, he bade me p$t off the froc3 and too3 it from me

and folded it and thre* his bonnet on the top& Then he called for a fire and b$rnt both froc3 and bonnet&M Sari al%Sa5ati fre5$ently $r#ed C$nayd to spea3 in p$blic, b$t C$nayd *as $n*illin# to consent, for he do$bted *hether he *as *orthy of s$ch an hono$r& (ne 4riday ni#ht he dreamed that the :rophet appeared and commanded him to spea3 to the people& He a*o3e and *ent to Sari8s ho$se before daybrea3, and 3noc3ed at the door& Sari opened the door and saidN MTo$ *o$ld not belie)e me $ntil the :rophet came and told yo$&M Sahl ibn H/bdallah *as sittin# in the con#re#ational mos5$e *hen a pi#eon, o)ercome by the intense heat, dropped on the floor& Sahl exclaimedN M:lease 2od, Shah al%9irmani has ?$st died&M They *rote it do*n, and it *as fo$nd to be tr$e& When the heart is p$r#ed of sin and e)il tho$#hts, the li#ht of certainty stri3es $pon
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it and ma3es it a shinin# mirror, so that the De)il cannot approach it *itho$t bein# obser)ed& Hence the sayin# of some #nosticN MIf I disobey my heart, I disobey 2od&M It *as a man th$s ill$minated to *hom the :rophet saidN MCons$lt thy heart, and tho$ *ilt hear the secret ordinance of 2od proclaimed by the heart8s in*ard 3no*led#e, *hich is real faith and di)inityM%%somethin# m$ch better than the learnin# of di)ines& I need not anticipate here the 5$estion, *hich *ill be disc$ssed in the follo*in# chapter, ho* far the claims of an infallible conscience are reconcilable *ith external reli#ion and morality& The :rophet, too, prayed that 2od *o$ld p$t a li#ht into his ear and into his eye" and after mentionin# the different members of his body, he concl$ded, Mand ma3e the *hole of me one li#ht&M ,The reader sho$ld be reminded that most, if not all, mystical Traditions ascribed to
Mohammed *ere for#ed and fathered $pon him by the S$fis, *ho represent themsel)es as the tr$e interpreters of his esoteric teachin#&- 4rom ill$mination of #rad$ally increasin# splendo$r,

the mystic rises to contemplation of the di)ine attrib$tes, and $ltimately, *hen his conscio$sness is *holly melted a*ay, he becomes trans$bstantiated +ta4a(hara. in the radiance of the di)ine essence& This is the 8station8 of *ell%doin# +ihsan.%%for M2od is *ith the *ell%doersM +9or& 2S&LS., and *e ha)e
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:rophetic a$thority for the statement that M*ell%doin# consists in *orshippin# 2od as tho$#h tho$ *ert seein# Him&M I *ill not *aste the time and ab$se the patience of my readers by endea)o$rin# to classify and describe these )ario$s #rades of ill$mination, *hich may be depicted symbolically b$t cannot be explained in scientific lan#$a#e& We m$st allo* the mystics to spea3 for themsel)es& 2ranted that their teachin# is often hard to $nderstand, it con)eys more of the tr$th than *e can e)er hope to obtain from analysis and dissection& Here are t*o passa#es from the oldest :ersian treatise on S$fism, the .ashf al- ah4ub of H$?*iriN

MIt is related that Sari al%Sa5ati said, 8( 2od, *hate)er p$nishment tho$ mayst inflict $pon me, do not p$nish me *ith the h$miliation of bein# )eiled from Thee,8 beca$se, if I am not )eiled from Thee, my torment and affliction *ill be li#htened by the recollection and contemplation of Thee" b$t if I am )eiled from Thee, e)en Thy bo$nty *ill be deadly to me& There is no p$nishment in Hell more painf$l and hard to bear than that of bein# )eiled& If 2od *ere re)ealed in Hell to the people of Hell, sinf$l, belie)ers *o$ld ne)er thin3 of :aradise, since
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the si#ht of 2od *o$ld so fill them *ith ?oy that they *o$ld not feel bodily pain& /nd in :aradise there is no pleas$re more perfect than $n)eiledness& If the people there en?oyed all the pleas$res of that place and other pleas$res a h$ndredfold, b$t *ere )eiled from 2od, their hearts *o$ld be $tterly bro3en& Therefore it is the *ay of 2od to let the hearts of those *ho lo)e Him ha)e )ision of Him al*ays, in order that the deli#ht thereof may enable them to end$re e)ery trib$lation" and they say in their )isions, 8We deem all torments more desirable than to be )eiled from Thee& When Thy bea$ty is re)ealed to o$r hearts, *e ta3e no tho$#ht of affliction&8M MThere are really t*o 3inds of contemplation& The former is the res$lt of perfect faith, the latter of rapt$ro$s lo)e, for in the rapt$re of lo)e a man attains to s$ch a de#ree that his *hole bein# is absorbed in the tho$#ht of his Eelo)ed and he sees nothin# else& M$hammad ibn WasiH saidN 8I ne)er sa* anythin# *itho$t seein# 2od therein,8 i.e. thro$#h perfect faith& Shibli saidN 8I ne)er sa* anythin# except 2od,8 i.e. in the rapt$re of lo)e and the fer)o$r of contemplation& (ne mystic
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sees the act *ith his bodily eye, and, as he loo3s, beholds the /#ent *ith his spirit$al eye" another is rapt by lo)e of the /#ent from all thin#s else, so that he sees only the /#ent& The one method is demonstrati)e, the other is ecstatic& In the former case, a manifest proof is deri)ed from the e)idences of 2od" in the latter case, the seer is enrapt$red and transported by desireN e)idences are a )eil to him, beca$se he *ho 3no*s a thin# does not care for a$#ht besides, and he *ho lo)es a thin# does not re#ard a$#ht besides, b$t reno$nces contention *ith 2od and interference *ith Him in His decrees and acts& When the lo)er t$rns his eye a*ay from created thin#s, he *ill ine)itably see the Creator *ith his heart& 2od hath said, 8Tell the belie)ers to close their eyes8 +9or& 2G&B ., i.e. to close their bodily eyes to l$sts and their spirit$al eyes to created thin#s& He *ho is most sincere in self%mortification is most firmly #ro$nded in contemplation& Sahl ibn H/bdallah of T$star saidN 8If any one sh$ts his eye to 2od for a sin#le moment, he *ill ne)er be ri#htly #$ided all his life lon#,8 beca$se to re#ard other than 2od is to be handed o)er to other than 2od, and one *ho is
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left at the mercy of other than 2od is lost& Therefore the life of contemplati)es is the time d$rin# *hich they en?oy contemplation" time spent in oc$lar )ision they do not rec3on as life, for that to them is really death& Th$s, *hen EayaKid *as as3ed ho* old he *as, he replied, 84o$r years&8 They said to him, 8Ho* can that beR8 He ans*ered, 8I ha)e been )eiled from 2od by this *orld for se)enty years, b$t I ha)e seen Him d$rin# the last fo$r yearsN the period in *hich one is )eiled does not belon# to one8s life&8M I ta3e the follo*in# 5$otation from the a(aqif of >iffari, an a$thor *ith *hom *e shall become better ac5$ainted as *e proceedN

M2od said to me, 8The least of the sciences of nearness is that yo$ sho$ld see in e)erythin# the effects of beholdin# Me, and that this )ision sho$ld pre)ail o)er yo$ more than yo$r #nosis of Me&8M ;xplanation by the commentatorN MHe means that the least of the sciences of nearness +proximity to 2od. is that *hen yo$ loo3 at anythin#, sensibly or intellect$ally or other*ise, yo$ sho$ld be conscio$s of beholdin# 2od *ith a )ision clearer than yo$r )ision of that thin#& There are di)erse
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de#rees in this matter& Some mystics say that they ne)er see anythin# *itho$t seein# 2od before it& (thers say, 8*itho$t seein# 2od after it,8 or 8*ith it8" or they say that they see nothin# b$t 2od& / certain S$fi said, 8I made the pil#rima#e and sa* the 9aHba, b$t not the Lord of the 9aHba&8 This is the perception of one *ho is )eiled& Then he said, 8I made the pil#rima#e a#ain, and I sa* both the 9aHba and the Lord of the 9aHba&8 This is contemplation of the Self%s$bsistence thro$#h *hich e)erythin# s$bsists, i.e. he sa* the 9aHba s$bsistin# thro$#h the Lord of the 9aHba& Then he said, 8I made the pil#rima#e a third time, and I sa* the Lord of the 9aHba, b$t not the 9aHba&8 This is the 8station8 of (aqfat +passin#%a*ay in the essence.& In the present case the a$thor is referrin# to contemplation of the Self%s$bsistence&M So m$ch concernin# the theory of ill$mination& E$t, as Mephistopheles says, Mgrau ist alle TheorieM" and tho$#h to most of $s the li)in# experience is denied, *e can hear its lo$dest echoes and feel its *armest after#lo* in the poetry *hich it has created& Let me translate part of a :ersian ode by the der)ish%poet, Eaba 9$hi of ShiriK, *ho died in ! I /&D&
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

The *hole of S$fism rests on the belief that *hen the indi)id$al self is lost, the 'ni)ersal Self is fo$nd, or, in reli#io$s lan#$a#e, that ecstasy affords the only means by *hich the so$l can directly comm$nicate and become $nited *ith 2od& /sceticism, p$rification,

lo)e, #nosis, saintship%%all the leadin# ideas of S$fism%%are de)eloped from this cardinal principle& /mon# the metaphorical terms commonly employed by the S$fis as, more or less, e5$i)alent to 8ecstasy8 are fana +passin#%a*ay., (a4d +feelin#., sa&a/ +hearin#., dha(q +taste., shirb +drin3in#., ghaybat +absence from self., 4adhbat +attraction., sukr +intoxication., and hal +emotion.& It *o$ld be tedio$s and not, I thin3, specially in%
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str$cti)e to examine in detail the definitions of those terms and of many others a3in to them *hich occ$r in S$fi text%boo3s& We are not bro$#ht appreciably nearer to $nderstandin# the nat$re of ecstasy *hen it is described as Ma di)ine mystery *hich 2od comm$nicates to tr$e belie)ers *ho behold Him *ith the eye of certainty,M or as Ma flame *hich mo)es in the #ro$nd of the so$l and is prod$ced by lo)e%desire&M The Mohammedan theory of ecstasy, ho*e)er can hardly be disc$ssed *itho$t reference to t*o of the abo)e%mentioned technical expressions, namely, fana and sa&a/& /s I ha)e remar3ed in the Introd$ction +pp& !O%!S., the term fana incl$des different sta#es, aspects, and meanin#s& These may be s$mmarised as follo*sN !& / moral transformation of the so$l thro$#h the extinction of all its passions and desires& 2& / mental abstraction or passin#%a*ay of the mind from all ob?ects of perception, tho$#hts, actions, and feelin#s thro$#h its concentration $pon the tho$#ht of 2od& Here the tho$#ht of 2od si#nifies contemplation of the di)ine attrib$tes& B& The cessation of all conscio$s tho$#ht& The hi#hest sta#e of fana is reached *hen e)en the conscio$sness of ha)in# attained fana disappears& This is *hat the S$fis call 8the passin#%a*ay of passin#%a*ay8
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+fana al-fana.& The mystic is no* rapt in contemplation of the di)ine essence& The final sta#e of fana, the complete passin#%a*ay from self, forms the prel$de to baqa, 8contin$ance8 or 8abidin#8 in 2od, and *ill be treated *ith #reater f$llness in Chapter <I& The first sta#e closely resembles the E$ddhistic >ir)ana& It is a 8passin#%a*ay8 of e)il 5$alities and states of mind, *hich in)ol)es the sim$ltaneo$s 8contin$ance8 of #ood 5$alities and states of mind& This is necessarily an ecstatic process, inasm$ch as all the attrib$tes of 8self8 are e)il in relation to 2od& >o one can ma3e himself perfectly moral, i.e. perfectly 8selfless&8 This m$st be done for him, thro$#h 8a flash of the di)ine bea$ty8 in his heart&

While the first sta#e refers to the moral 8self,8 the second refers to the percipient and intellect$al 8self&8 'sin# the classification #enerally adopted by Christian mystics, *e may re#ard the former as the cons$mmation of the :$r#ati)e Life, and the latter as the #oal of the Ill$minati)e Life& The third and last sta#e constit$tes the hi#hest le)el of the Contemplati)e Life& (ften, tho$#h not in)ariably, fana is accompanied by loss of sensation& Sari al%Sa5ati, a famo$s S$fi of the third cent$ry, expressed the opinion that if a man in this state *ere str$c3 on the face *ith a s*ord, he *o$ld not feel the blo*& /b$ Vl%9hayr
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al%/5taH had a #an#rene in his foot& The physicians declared that his foot m$st be amp$tated, b$t he *o$ld not allo* this to be done& His disciples said, MC$t it off *hile he is prayin#, for he is then $nconscio$s&M The physicians acted on their ad)ice, and *hen /b$ Vl%9hayr finished his prayers he fo$nd that the amp$tation had ta3en place& It is diffic$lt to see ho* any one far ad)anced in fana co$ld be capable of 3eepin# the reli#io$s la*%%a point on *hich the orthodox mystics lay #reat emphasis& Here the doctrine of saintship comes in& 2od ta3es care to preser)e His elect from disobedience to His commands& We are told that EayaKid, Shibli, and other saints *ere contin$ally in a state of rapt$re $ntil the ho$r of prayer arri)ed" then they ret$rned to conscio$sness, and after performin# their prayers became enrapt$red a#ain& In theory, the ecstatic trance is in)ol$ntary, altho$#h certain conditions are reco#nised as bein# specially fa)o$rable to its occ$rrence& MIt comes to a man thro$#h )ision of the ma?esty of 2od and thro$#h re)elation of the di)ine omnipotence to his heart&M S$ch, for instance, *as the case of /b$ HamKa, *ho, *hile *al3in# in the streets of Ea#hdad and meditatin# on the nearness of 2od, s$ddenly fell into an ecstasy and *ent on his *ay, neither seein# nor hearin#, $ntil he reco)ered his senses and fo$nd himself in
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the desert& Trances of this 3ind sometimes lasted many *ee3s& It is recorded of Sahl ibn H/bdallah that he $sed to remain in ecstasy t*enty%fi)e days at a time, eatin# no food" yet he *o$ld ans*er 5$estions p$t to him by the doctors of theolo#y, and e)en in *inter his shirt *o$ld be damp *ith s*eat& E$t the S$fis soon disco)ered that ecstasy mi#ht be ind$ced artificially, not only by concentration of tho$#ht, recollection +dhikr., and other innocent methods of a$tohypnosis, b$t also by m$sic, sin#in#, and dancin#& These are incl$ded in the term sa&a/, *hich properly means nothin# more than a$dition& That Moslems are extraordinarily s$sceptible to the s*eet infl$ences of so$nd *ill not be do$bted by any one *ho remembers ho*, in the Arabian 5ights, heroes and heroines ali3e s*oon $pon the sli#htest pro)ocation afforded by a sin#in#%#irl to$chin# her l$te and trillin# a fe* lines of passionate )erse& The fiction is tr$e to life& When S$fi *riters disc$ss the analo#o$s phenomena of ecstasy, they commonly do so in a chapter entitled 8Concernin# the Sa&a/&8 'nder this headin# H$?*iri, in the final chapter of his .ashf alah4ub, #i)es $s an excellent s$mmary of his o*n and other Mohammedan theories,

to#ether *ith n$mero$s anecdotes of persons *ho *ere thro*n into ecstasy on hearin# a )erse of the 9oran or a hea)enly )oice +hatif. or poetry
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or m$sic& Many are said to ha)e died from the emotion th$s aro$sed& I may add by *ay of explanation that, accordin# to a *ell%3no*n mystical belief, 2od has inspired e)ery created thin# to praise Him in its o*n lan#$a#e, so that all the so$nds in the $ni)erse form, as it *ere, one )ast choral hymn by *hich He #lorifies Himself& Conse5$ently those *hose hearts He has opened and endo*ed *ith spirit$al perception hear His )oice e)ery*here, and ecstasy o)ercomes them as they listen to the rhythmic chant of the m$eKKin, or the street cry of the sa55a sho$lderin# his *aters3in, or, perchance, to the noise of *ind or the bleatin# of a sheep or the pipin# of a bird& :ytha#oras and :lato are responsible for another theory, to *hich the S$fi poets fre5$ently all$de, that m$sic a*a3ens in the so$l a memory of celestial harmonies heard in a state of pre%existence, before the so$l *as separated from 2od& Th$s Calal$ddin A$miN
!T$% /.": .7 #$% /9$%(%/ +" #$%+( (%4.-5#+."/ I/ 3$'# &%" /+": 3+#$ -5#% '"2 4.+,%. A/ 3% '-- '(% &%&6%(/ .7 A2'&* >% $'4% $%'(2 #$%/% &%-.2+%/ +" P'('2+/%. T$.5:$ %'(#$ '"2 3'#%( $'4% ,'/# #$%+( 4%+- 59." 5/* >% (%#'+" 7'+"# (%&+"+/,%",%/ .7 #$%/% $%'4%"-1 /.":/8 B5# 3$+-% 3% '(% #$5/ /$(.52%2 61 :(.// %'(#$-1 4%+-/* H.3 ,'" #$% #."%/ .7 #$% 2'",+": /9$%(%/ (%',$ 5/?!
@E. H. >$+"7+%-2* '6(+2:%2 #('"/-'#+." .7 #$% Masnavi* 9. 182.A

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JJJ The formal practice of sa&a/ 5$ic3ly spread amon#st the S$fis and prod$ced an ac$te clea)a#e of opinion, some holdin# it to be la*f$l and praise*orthy, *hilst others condemned it as an abominable inno)ation and incitement to )ice& H$?*iri adopts the middle )ie* expressed in a sayin# of Dh$ Vl%>$n the ;#yptianN MM$sic is a di)ine infl$ence *hich stirs the heart to see3 2odN those *ho listen to it spirit$ally attain $nto 2od, and those *ho listen to it sens$ally fall into $nbelief&M He declares, in effect, that a$dition is neither #ood nor bad, and m$st be ?$d#ed by its res$lts& MWhen an anchorite #oes into a ta)ern, the ta)ern becomes his cell, b$t *hen a *ine% bibber #oes into a cell, that cell becomes his ta)ern&M (ne *hose heart is absorbed in the tho$#ht of 2od cannot be corr$pted by hearin# m$sical instr$ments& So *ith dancin#&

MWhen the heart throbs and rapt$re #ro*s intense, and the a#itation of ecstasy is manifested& and con)entional forms are #one, this is not dancin# nor bodily ind$l#ence, b$t a dissol$tion of the so$l&M H$?*iri, ho*e)er, lays do*n se)eral preca$tionary r$les for those *ho en#a#e in a$dition, and he confesses that the p$blic
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concerts #i)en by der)ishes are extremely demoralisin#& >o)ices, he thin3s, sho$ld not be permitted to attend them& In modern times these or#iastic scenes ha)e fre5$ently been described by eye%*itnesses& I *ill no* translate from Cami8s ,i"es of the Saints the acco$nt of a similar performance *hich too3 place abo$t se)en h$ndred years a#o& MThere *as a certain der)ish, a ne#ro called Wan#i Eash#irdi, *ho had attained to s$ch a hi#h de#ree of spirit$ality that the mystic dance co$ld not be started $ntil he came o$t and ?oined in it& (ne day, in the co$rse of the sa&a/, he *as seiKed *ith ecstasy, and risin# into the air seated himself on a lofty arch *hich o)erloo3ed the dancers& In descendin# he leaped on to Ma?d$ddin of Ea#hdad, and encircled *ith his le#s the nec3 of the Shey3h, *ho ne)ertheless contin$ed to spin ro$nd in the dance, tho$#h he *as a )ery frail and slender man, *hereas the ne#ro *as tall and hea)y& When the dance *as finished, Ma?d$ddin said, 8I did not 3no* *hether it *as a ne#ro or a sparro* on my nec3&8 (n #ettin# off the Shey3h8s sho$lders, the ne#ro bit his chee3 so se)erely that the scar remained )isible e)er after& Ma?d$ddin often $sed to say that on the Day of C$d#ment he *o$ld not boast of any%
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thin# except that he bore the mar3 of this ne#ro8s teeth on his face&M 2rotes5$e and i#noble feat$res%%not to spea3 of #rosser deformities%%m$st appear in any faithf$l delineation of the ecstatic life of Islam& >othin# is #ained by concealin# their existence or by minimisin# their importance& If, as Calal$ddin A$mi saysN
!M%" +",5( #$% (%9(.',$ .7 3+"% '"2 2(5:/ T$'# #$%1 &'1 %/,'9% 7.( ' 3$+-% 7(.& /%-70,."/,+.5/"%//* S+",% '-- )".3 #$+/ -+7% #. 6% ' /"'(%* V.-+#+."'- &%&.(1 '"2 #$.5:$# #. 6% ' $%--*!

let $s ac3no*led#e that the transports of spirit$al intoxication are not al*ays s$blime, and that h$man nat$re has a tric3 of a)en#in# itself on those *ho *o$ld cast it off&
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TH; S$fis distin#$ish three or#ans of spirit$al comm$nicationN the heart +qalb., *hich 3no*s 2od" the spirit +ruh., *hich lo)es Him" and the inmost #ro$nd of the so$l +sirr., *hich contemplates Him& It *o$ld ta3e $s into deep *aters if *e *ere to embar3 $pon a disc$ssion of these terms and their relation to each other& / fe* *ords concernin# the first of the three *ill s$ffice& The qalb, tho$#h connected in some mysterio$s *ay *ith the physical heart, is not a thin# of flesh and blood& 'nli3e the ;n#lish 8heart,8 its nat$re is rather intellect$al than emotional, b$t *hereas the intellect cannot #ain real 3no*led#e of 2od, the qalb is capable of 3no*in# the essences of all thin#s, and *hen ill$mined by faith and 3no*led#e reflects the *hole content of the di)ine mind" hence the :rophet said, MMy earth and My hea)en contain Me not, b$t the heart of My faithf$l ser)ant containeth Me&M This re)elation, ho*e)er, is a comparati)ely rare experience&
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>ormally, the heart is 8)eiled,8 blac3ened by sin, tarnished by sens$al impressions and ima#es, p$lled to and fro bet*een reason and passionN a battlefield on *hich the armies of 2od and the De)il contend for )ictory& Thro$#h one #ate, the heart recei)es immediate 3no*led#e of 2od" thro$#h another, it lets in the ill$sions of sense& MHere a *orld and there a *orld,M says Calal$ddin A$mi& MI am seated on the threshold&M Therefore man is potentially lo*er than the br$tes and hi#her than the an#els&
!A":%- '"2 6(5#% &'"=/ 3."2(.5/ -%'4%" ,.&9./%8 T. #$%/% +",-+"+":* -%// #$'" #$%/% $% :(.3/* B5# +7 $% &%'"/ #$% '":%-* &.(% #$'" #$./%.!

Less than the br$tes, beca$se they lac3 the 3no*led#e that *o$ld enable them to rise" more than the an#els, beca$se they are not s$b?ect to passion and so cannot fall& Ho* shall a man 3no* 2odR >ot by the senses, for He is immaterial" nor by the intecllect, for He is $nthin3able& Lo#ic ne)er #ets beyond the finite" philosophy sees do$ble" boo3%learnin# fosters self%conceit and obsc$res the idea of the Tr$th *ith clo$ds of empty *ords& Calal$ddin A$mi, addressin# the scholastic theolo#ian, as3s scornf$llyN
!D. 1.5 )".3 ' "'&% 3+#$.5# ' #$+": '"/3%(+": #. +#? H'4% 1.5 %4%( 9-5,)%2 ' (./% 7(.& R* O* S* E? Y.5 "'&% H+/ "'&%8 :.* /%%) #$% (%'-+#1 "'&%2 61 +#B ,p& O L..) 7.( #$% &.." +" #$% /)1* ".# +" #$% 3'#%(B I7 1.5 2%/+(% #. (+/% '6.4% &%(% "'&%/ '"2 -%##%(/* M')% 1.5(/%-7 7(%% 7(.& /%-7 '# ."% /#(.)%. B%,.&% 95(% 7(.& '-- '##(+65#%/ .7 /%-7* T$'# 1.5 &'1 /%% 1.5( .3" 6(+:$# %//%",%* Y%'* /%% +" 1.5( .3" $%'(# #$% )".3-%2:% .7 #$% P(.9$%#* >+#$.5# 6..)* 3+#$.5# #5#.(* 3+#$.5# 9(%,%9#.(.!

This 3no*led#e comes by ill$mination, re)elation, inspiration&

MLoo3 in yo$r o*n heart,M says the S$fi, Mfor the 3in#dom of 2od is *ithin yo$&M He *ho tr$ly 3no*s himself 3no*s 2od, for the heart is a mirror in *hich e)ery di)ine 5$ality is reflected& E$t ?$st as a steel mirror *hen coated *ith r$st loses its po*er of reflexion, so the in*ard spirit$al sense, *hich S$fis call the eye of the heart, is blind to the celestial #lory $ntil the dar3 obstr$ction of the phenomenal self, *ith all its sens$al contaminations, has been *holly cleared a*ay& The clearance, if it is to be done effecti)ely, m$st be the *or3 of 2od, tho$#h it demands a certain in*ard co%operation on the part of man& MWhosoe)er shall stri)e for ($r sa3e, We *ill #$ide him into ($r *aysM +9or& 2S&LS.& /ction is false and )ain, if it is tho$#ht to proceed from one8s self, b$t the enli#htened mystic re#ards 2od as the real a#ent in e)ery act, and therefore ta3es no credit for his #ood *or3s nor desires to be recompensed for them&
,p& O!-

JJJ While ordinary 3no*led#e is denoted by the term /il&, the mystic 3no*led#e pec$liar to the S$fis is called &a/rifat or /irfan& /s I ha)e indicated in the fore#oin# para#raphs, &a/rifat is f$ndamentally different from /irfan, and a different *ord m$st be $sed to translate it& We need not loo3 far for a s$itable e5$i)alent& The &a/rifat of the S$fis is the 8#nosis8 of Hellenistic theosophy, i.e. direct 3no*led#e of 2od based on re)elation or apocalyptic )ision& It is not the res$lt of any mental process, b$t depends entirely on the *ill and fa)o$r of 2od, *ho besto*s it as a #ift from Himself $pon those *hom He has created *ith the capacity for recei)in# it& It is a li#ht of di)ine #race that flashes into the heart and o)er*helms e)ery h$man fac$lty in its daKKlin# beams& MHe *ho 3no*s 2od is d$mb&M The relation of #nosis to positi)e reli#ion is disc$ssed in a )ery remar3able treatise on spec$lati)e mysticism by >iffari, an $n3no*n *anderin# der)ish *ho died in ;#ypt in the latter half of the tenth cent$ry& His *or3, consistin# of a series of re)elations in *hich 2od addresses the *riter and instr$cts him concernin# the theory of #nosis, is co$ched in abstr$se lan#$a#e and *o$ld scarcely be intelli#ible *itho$t the commentary *hich accompanies it" b$t its )al$e as an ori#inal exposition of ad)anced
,p& O2-

S$fism *ill s$fficiently appear from the excerpts #i)en in this chapter& ,I am no* en#a#ed in
preparin# an edition of the /rabic text, to#ether *ith an ;n#lish translation and commentary&-

Those *ho see3 2od, says >iffari, are of three 3indsN firstly, the *orshippers to *hom 2od ma3es Himself 3no*n by means of bo$nty, i.e. they *orship Him in the hope of *innin# :aradise or some spirit$al recompense s$ch as dreams and miracles" se$ondly, the philosophers and scholastic theolo#ians, to *hom 2od ma3es Himself 3no*n by means of #lory, i.e. they can ne)er find the #lorio$s 2od *hom they see3, *herefore they assert that His essence is $n3no*able, sayin#, MWe 3no* that *e 3no* Him not, and that is o$r 3no*led#eM" thirdly, the #nostics, to *hom 2od ma3es Himself 3no*n by means of ecstasy, i.e. they are possessed and controlled by a rapt$re that depri)es them of the conscio$sness of indi)id$al existence&

>iffari bids the #nostic perform only s$ch acts of *orship as are in accordance *ith his )ision of 2od, tho$#h in so doin# he *ill necessarily disobey the reli#io$s la* *hich *as made for the )$l#ar& His in*ard feelin# m$st decide ho* far the external forms of reli#ion are #ood for him& M2od said to me, /s3 Me and say, 8( Lord, ho* shall I clea)e to Thee, so that *hen my day +of ?$d#ment.
,p& OB-

comes, Tho$ *ilt not p$nish me nor a)ert Thy face from meR8 Then I *ill ans*er thee and say, 8Clea)e in thy o$t*ard theory and practice to the S$nna +the r$le of the :rophet., and clea)e in thy in*ard feelin# to the #nosis *hich I ha)e #i)en thee" and 3no* that *hen I ma3e Myself 3no*n to thee, I *ill not accept from thee anythin# of the S$nna b$t *hat My #nosis brin#s to thee, beca$se tho$ art one of those to *hom I spea3N tho$ hearest Me and 3no*est that tho$ hearest Me, and tho$ seest that I am the so$rce of all thin#s&8M The commentator obser)es that the S$nna, bein# #eneral in scope, ma3es no distinction bet*een indi)id$als, e.g. see3ers of :aradise and see3ers of 2od, b$t that in reality it contains exactly *hat each person re5$ires& The portion specially appropriate in e)ery case is discerned either by means of #nosis, *hich 2od comm$nicates to the heart, or by means of #$idance imparted by a spirit$al director& M/nd He said to me, 8My exoteric re)elation does not s$pport My esoteric re)elation&8M This means that the #nostic need not be dismayed if his inner experience conflicts *ith the reli#io$s la*& The contradiction is only apparent& Aeli#ion addresses itself
,p& OG-

to the common herd of men *ho are )eiled by their minds, by lo#ic, tradition, and so on" *hereas #nosis belon#s to the elect, *hose bodies and spirits are bathed in the eternal Li#ht& Aeli#ion sees thin#s from the aspect of pl$rality, b$t #nosis re#ards the all% embracin# 'nity& Hence the same act is #ood in reli#ion, b$t e)il in #nosis%%a tr$th *hich is briefly stated th$sN MThe #ood deeds of the pio$s are the ill deeds of the fa)o$rites of 2od&M /ltho$#h *or3s of de)otion are not incompatible *ith #nosis, no one *ho connects them in the sli#htest de#ree *ith himself is a #nostic& This is the theme of the follo*in# alle#ory& >iffari seldom *rites so l$cidly as he does here, yet I fancy that fe* of my readers *ill find the explanations printed *ithin s5$are brac3ets alto#ether s$perfl$o$s& TH; A;<;L/TI(> (4 TH; S;/ M2od bade me behold the Sea, and I sa* the ships sin3in# and the plan3s floatin#" then the plan3s too *ere s$bmer#ed&M [The Sea denotes the spirit$al experiences thro$#h *hich the mystic passes in his ?o$rney to 2od& The point at iss$e is thisN *hether he sho$ld prefer the reli#io$s la* or dis%

,p& OI-

interested lo)e& Here he is *arned not to rely on his #ood *or3s, *hich are no better than sin3in# ships and *ill ne)er brin# him safely to port& >o" if he *o$ld attain to 2od, he m$st rely on 2od alone& If he does not rely entirely on 2od, b$t lets himself tr$st e)er so little in anythin# else, he is still clin#in# to a plan3& Tho$#h his tr$st in 2od is #reater than before, it is not yet complete&@ M/nd He said to me, 8Those *ho )oya#e are not sa)ed&8M [The )oya#er $ses the ship as a means of crossin# the seaN therefore he relies, not on the 4irst Ca$se, b$t on secondary ca$ses&@ M/nd He said to me, 8Those *ho instead of )oya#in# cast themsel)es into the Sea ta3e a ris3&8M [To abandon all secondary ca$ses is li3e pl$n#in# in the sea& The mystic *ho ma3es this )ent$re is in ?eopardy, for t*o reasonsN he may re#ard himself, not 2od, as initiatin# and carryin# o$t the action of abandonment,%%and one *ho reno$nces a thin# thro$#h 8self8 is in *orse case than if he had not reno$nced it,%%or he may abandon secondary ca$ses +#ood *or3s, hope of :aradise, etc&., not for 2od8s sa3e, b$t from sheer indifference and lac3 of spirit$al feelin#&@
,p& OL-

JJJ M/nd He said to me, 8Those *ho )oya#e and ta3e no ris3 shall perish&8M [>ot*ithstandin# the dan#ers referred to, he m$st ma3e 2od his sole ob?ect or fail&@ M/nd He said to me, 8In ta3in# the ris3 there is a part of sal)ation&8M [(nly a part of sal)ation, beca$se perfect selflessness has not yet been attained& The *hole of sal)ation consists in the effacement of all secondary ca$ses, all phenomena, thro$#h the rapt$re *hich res$lts from )ision of 2od& E$t this is #nosis, and the present re)elation is addressed to mystics of a lo*er #rade& The #nostic ta3es no ris3, for he has nothin# to lose&@ M/nd the *a)e came and lifted those beneath it and o)erran the shore&M [Those beneath the *a)e are they *ho )oya#e in ships and conse5$ently s$ffer ship*rec3& Their reliance on secondary ca$ses casts them ashore, i.e. brin#s them bac3 to the *orld of phenomena *hereby they are )eiled from 2od&@ M/nd He said to me, 8The s$rface of the Sea is a #leam that cannot be reached&8M [/nyone *ho depends on external rites of *orship to lead him to 2od is follo*in# a *ill% o8%the%*isp&@
,p& OO-

JJJ M/nd its bottom is a dar3ness impenetrable&M [To discard positi)e reli#ion, root and branch, is to *ander in a pathless maKe&@ M/nd bet*een the t*o are fishes *hich are to be feared&M [He refers to the middle *ay bet*een p$re exotericism and p$re esotericism& The 8fishes8 are its perils and obstacles&@ MDo not )oya#e on the Sea, lest I ca$se thee to be )eiled by the )ehicle&M [The 8)ehicle8 si#nifies the 8ship,8 i.e. reliance on somethin# other than 2od&@ M/nd do not cast thyself into the Sea, lest I ca$se thee to be )eiled by thy castin# thyself&M [Whoe)er re#ards any act as his o*n act and attrib$tes it to himself is far from 2od&@ M/nd He said to me, 8In the Sea are bo$ndariesN *hich of them *ill bear thee onR8M

[The 8bo$ndaries8 are the )ario$s de#rees of spirit$al experience& The mystic o$#ht not to rely on any of these, for they are all imperfect&@ M/nd He said to me, 8If tho$ #i)est thyself to the Sea and sin3est therein, tho$ *ilt fall a prey to one of its beasts&8M
,p& OD-

JJJ [If the mystic either relies on secondary ca$ses or abandons them by his o*n act, he *ill #o astray&@ M/nd He said to me, 8I decei)e thee if I direct thee to a$#ht sa)e Myself&8M [If the mystic8s in*ard )oice bids him t$rn to anythin# except 2od, it decei)es him&@ M/nd He said to me, 8If tho$ perishest for the sa3e of other than Me, tho$ *ilt belon# to that for *hich tho$ hast perished&8 M/nd He said to me, 8This *orld belon#s to him *hom I ha)e t$rned a*ay from it and from *hom I ha)e t$rned it a*ay" and the next *orld belon#s to him to*ards *hom ha)e bro$#ht it and *hom I ha)e bro$#ht to*ards Myself&8M [He means to say that e)erlastin# ?oy is the portion of those *hose hearts are t$rned a*ay from this *orld and *ho ha)e no *orldly possessions& They really en?oy this *orld, beca$se it cannot separate them from 2od& Similarly, the tr$e o*ners of the next *orld are those *ho do not see3 it, inasm$ch as it is not the real ob?ect of their desire, b$t contemplate 2od alone&@ The #nostic descries the element of reality in positi)e reli#ion, b$t his #nosis is not
,p& OS-

deri)ed from reli#ion or from any sort of h$man 3no*led#eN it is properly concerned *ith the di)ine attrib$tes, and 2od Himself re)eals the 3no*led#e of these to His saints *ho contemplate Him& Dh$ Vl%>$n of ;#ypt, *hose mystical spec$lations mar3 him o$t as the father of Moslem theosophy, said that #nostics are not themsel)es, and do not s$bsist thro$#h themsel)es, b$t so far as they s$bsist, they s$bsist thro$#h 2od& MThey mo)e as 2od ca$ses them to mo)e, and their *ords are the *ords of 2od *hich roll $pon their ton#$es, and their si#ht is the si#ht of 2od *hich has entered their eyes&M The #nostic contemplates the attrib$tes of 2od, not His essence, for e)en in #nosis a small trace of d$ality remainsN this disappears only in fana al-fana, the total passin#%a*ay in the $ndifferentiated 2odhead& The cardinal attrib$te of 2od is $nity, and the di)ine $nity is the first and last principle of #nosis& ,/ccordin# to some mystics, the #nosis of $nity
constit$tes a hi#her sta#e *hich is called 8the Tr$th8 +haqiqat.& See abo)e, p& 2S&-

Eoth Moslem and S$fi declare that 2od is (ne, b$t the statement bears a different meanin# in each instance& The Moslem means that 2od is $ni5$e in His essence, 5$alities, and acts" that He is absol$tely $nli3e all other bein#s& The S$fi means
,p& D -

that 2od is the (ne Aeal Eein# *hich $nderlies all phenomena& This principle is carried to its extreme conse5$ences, as *e shall see& If nothin# except 2od exists, then the *hole $ni)erse, incl$din# man, is essentially one *ith 2od, *hether it is re#arded as an emanation *hich proceeds from Him, *itho$t impairin# His $nity, li3e s$nbeams from the s$n, or *hether it is concei)ed as a mirror in *hich the di)ine attrib$tes are reflected& E$t s$rely a 2od *ho is all in all can ha)e no reason for th$s re)ealin# HimselfN *hy sho$ld the (ne pass o)er into the ManyR The S$fis ans*er%%a philosopher *o$ld say that they e)ade the diffic$lty%%by 5$otin# the famo$s TraditionN MI *as a hidden treas$re and I desired to be 3no*n" therefore I created the creation in order that I mi#ht be 3no*n&M In other *ords, 2od is the eternal Eea$ty, and it lies in the nat$re of bea$ty to desire lo)e& The mystic poets ha)e described the self%manifestation of the (ne *ith a prof$sion of splendid ima#ery& Cami says, for exampleN
!C(.& '-- %#%("+#1 #$% B%-.4%2 5"4%+-%2 H+/ 6%'5#1 +" #$% /.-+#52% .7 #$% 5"/%%"8 H% $%-2 59 #$% &+((.( #. H+/ .3" 7',%* H% 2+/9-'1%2 H+/ -.4%-+"%// #. H+&/%-7. H% 3'/ 6.#$ #$% /9%,#'#.( '"2 #$% /9%,#',-%8 ". %1% 65# H+/ $'2 /5(4%1%2 #$% U"+4%(/%. A-- 3'/ O"%* #$%(% 3'/ ". 25'-+#1* ". 9(%#%",% .7 =&+"%= .( =#$+"%.= ,p& D!T$% 4'/# .(6 .7 H%'4%"* 3+#$ +#/ &1(+'2 +",.&+":/ '"2 .5#:.+":/* 3'/ ,.",%'-%2 +" ' /+":-% 9.+"#. T$% C(%'#+." -'1 ,('2-%2 +" #$% /-%%9 .7 "."0%D+/#%",%* -+)% ' ,$+-2 %(% +# $'/ 6(%'#$%2. T$% %1% .7 #$% B%-.4%2* /%%+": 3$'# 3'/ ".#* (%:'(2%2 "."%"#+#1 '/ %D+/#%"#. A-#$.5:$ H% 6%$%-2 H+/ '##(+65#%/ '"2 E5'-+#+%/ '/ ' 9%(7%,# 3$.-% +" H+/ .3" %//%",%* Y%# H% 2%/+(%2 #$'# #$%1 /$.5-2 6% 2+/9-'1%2 #. H+& +" '".#$%( &+((.(* A"2 #$'# %',$ ."% .7 H+/ %#%("'- '##(+65#%/ /$.5-2 6%,.&% &'"+7%/# ',,.(2+":-1 +" ' 2+4%(/% 7.(&* T$%(%7.(% H% ,(%'#%2 #$% 4%(2'"# 7+%-2/ .7 T+&% '"2 S9',% '"2 #$% -+7%0:+4+": :'(2%" .7 #$% 3.(-2* T$'# %4%(1 6('",$ '"2 -%'7 '"2 7(5+# &+:$# /$.3 7.(#$ H+/ 4'(+.5/ 9%(7%,#+."/* T$% ,19(%// :'4% ' $+"# .7 H+/ ,.&%-1 /#'#5(%* #$% (./% :'4% #+2+":/ .7 H+/ 6%'5#%.5/ ,.5"#%"'",%. >$%(%4%( B%'5#1 9%%9%2 .5#* L.4% '99%'(%2 6%/+2% +#8 3$%(%4%( B%'5#1 /$."% +" ' (./1 ,$%%)* L.4% -+# $+/ #.(,$ 7(.& #$'# 7-'&%. >$%(%4%( B%'5#1 23%-# +" 2'() #(%//%/* L.4% ,'&% '"2 7.5"2 ' $%'(# %"#'":-%2 +" #$%+( ,.+-/. B%'5#1 '"2 L.4% '(% '/ 6.21 '"2 /.5-8 B%'5#1 +/ #$% &+"% '"2 L.4% #$% 9(%,+.5/ /#."%. T$%1 $'4% '-3'1/ 6%%" #.:%#$%( 7(.& #$% 4%(1 7+(/#8 "%4%( $'4% #$%1 #('4%--%2 65# +" %',$ .#$%(=/ ,.&9'"1.!

In another *or3 Cami sets forth the relation of 2od to the *orld more philosophically, as follo*sN

MThe $ni5$e S$bstance, )ie*ed as absol$te and )oid of all phenomena, all limitations and all m$ltiplicity, is the Aeal +al-Haqq.& (n the other hand, )ie*ed in His aspect of m$ltiplicity and
,p& D2-

pl$rality, $nder *hich He displays Himself *hen clothed *ith phenomena, He is the *hole created $ni)erse& Therefore the $ni)erse is the o$t*ard )isible expression of the Aeal, and the Aeal is the inner $nseen reality of the $ni)erse& The $ni)erse before it *as e)ol)ed to o$t*ard )ie* *as identical *ith the Aeal" and the Aeal after this e)ol$tion is identical *ith the $ni)erse&M :henomena, as s$ch, are not%bein# and only deri)e a contin#ent existence from the 5$alities of /bsol$te Eein# by *hich they are irradiated& The sensible *orld resembles the fiery circle made by a sin#le spar3 *hirlin# ro$nd rapidly& Man is the cro*n and final ca$se of the $ni)erse& Tho$#h last in the order of creation he is first in the process of di)ine tho$#ht, for the essential part of him is the primal Intelli#ence or $ni)ersal Aeason *hich emanates immediately from the 2odhead& This corresponds to the Lo#os%%the animatin# principle of all thin#s%%and is identified *ith the :rophet Mohammed& /n interestin# parallel mi#ht be dra*n here bet*een the Christian and S$fi doctrines& The same expressions are applied to the fo$nder of Islam *hich are $sed by St& Cohn, St& :a$l, and later mystical theolo#ians concernin# Christ& Th$s, Mohammed is called the Li#ht of 2od, he is said to ha)e
,p& DB-

existed before the creation of the *orld, he is adored as the so$rce of all life, act$al and possible, he is the :erfect Man in *hom all the di)ine attrib$tes are manifested, and a S$fi tradition ascribes to him the sayin#, MHe that hath seen me hath seen /llah&M In the Moslem scheme, ho*e)er, the Lo#os doctrine occ$pies a s$bordinate place, as it ob)io$sly m$st *hen the *hole d$ty of man is belie)ed to consist in realisin# the $nity of 2od& The most distincti)e feat$re of (riental as opposed to ;$ropean mysticism is its profo$nd conscio$sness of an omnipresent, all%per)adin# $nity in *hich e)ery )esti#e of indi)id$ality is s*allo*ed $p& >ot to become like 2od or personally to participate in the di)ine nat$re is the S$fi8s aim, b$t to escape from the bonda#e of his $nreal selfhood and thereby to be re$nited *ith the (ne infinite Eein#& /ccordin# to Cami, 'nification consists in ma3in# the heart sin#le%%that is, in p$rifyin# and di)estin# it of attachment to a$#ht except 2od, both in respect of desire and *ill and also as re#ards 3no*led#e and #nosis& The mystic8s desire and *ill sho$ld be se)ered from all thin#s *hich are desired and *illed" all ob?ects of 3no*led#e and $nderstandin# sho$ld be remo)ed from his intellect$al )ision& His tho$#hts sho$ld be directed solely to*ards 2od, he sho$ld not be conscio$s of anythin# besides&
,p& DG-


So lon# as he is a capti)e in the snare of passion and l$st, it is hard for him to maintain this relation to 2od, b$t *hen the s$btle infl$ence of that attraction becomes manifest in him, expellin# preocc$pation *ith ob?ects of sense and co#nition from his in*ard bein#, deli#ht in that di)ine comm$nion pre)ails o)er bodily pleas$res and spirit$al ?oys" the painf$l tas3 of self%mortification is ended, and the s*eetness of contemplation enra)ishes his so$l& When the sincere aspirant percei)es in himself the be#innin# of this attraction, *hich is deli#ht in the recollection of 2od, let him fix his *hole mind on fosterin# and stren#thenin# it, let him 3eep himself aloof from *hatsoe)er is incompatible *ith it, and deem that e)en tho$#h he *ere to de)ote an eternity to c$lti)atin# that comm$nion, he *o$ld ha)e done nothin# and *o$ld not ha)e dischar#ed his d$ty as he o$#ht&
!L.4% #$(+--%2 #$% ,$.(2 .7 -.4% +" &1 /.5-=/ -5#%* A"2 ,$'":%2 &% '-- #. -.4% 7(.& $%'2 #. 7..#. =T3'/ 65# ' &.&%"#=/ #.5,$* 1%# /$'-- T+&% %4%( T. &% #$% 2%6# .7 #$'")/:+4+": +&95#%.!

It is an axiom of the S$fis that *hat is not in a man he cannot 3no*& The #nostic%%Man par e6$ellen$e%%co$ld not 3no* 2od and all the mysteries of the $ni)erse, $nless he fo$nd them in himself& He is the micro%
,p& DI-

cosm, 8a copy made in the ima#e of 2od,8 8the eye of the *orld *hereby 2od sees His o*n *or3s&8 In 3no*in# himself as he really is, he 3no*s 2od, and he 3no*s himself thro$#h 2od, *ho is nearer to e)erythin# than its 3no*led#e of itself& 9no*led#e of 2od precedes, and is the ca$se of, self%3no*led#e& 2nosis, then, is $nification, realisation of the fact that the appearance of 8otherness8 beside (neness is a false and del$din# dream& 2nosis lays this spectre, *hich ha$nts $nenli#htened men all their li)es" *hich rises, li3e a *all of $tter dar3ness, bet*een them and 2od& 2nosis proclaims that 8I8 is a fi#$re of speech, and that one cannot tr$ly refer any *ill, feelin#, tho$#ht, or action to one8s self& >iffari heard the di)ine )oice sayin# to himN MWhen tho$ re#ardest thyself as existent and dost not re#ard Me as the Ca$se of thy existence, I )eil My face and thine o*n face appears to thee& Therefore consider *hat is displayed to thee, and *hat is hidden from theeQM [If a man re#ards himself as existin# thro$#h 2od, that *hich is of 2od in him predominates o)er the phenomenal element and ma3es it pass a*ay, so that he sees nothin# b$t 2od& If, on the
,p& DL-

contrary, he re#ards himself as ha)in# an independent existence, his $nreal e#oism is displayed to him and the reality of 2od becomes hidden from him&@

MAe#ard neither My displayin# nor that *hich is displayed, else tho$ *ilt la$#h and *eep" and *hen tho$ la$#hest and *eepest, tho$ art thine, not Mine&M [He *ho re#ards the act of di)ine re)elation is #$ilty of polytheism, since re)elation in)ol)es both a re)ealin# s$b?ect and a re)ealed ob?ect" and he *ho re#ards the re)ealed ob?ect *hich is part of the created $ni)erse, re#ards somethin# other than 2od& La$#hter si#nifies ?oy for *hat yo$ ha)e #ained, and *eepin# denotes #rief for *hat yo$ ha)e lost& Eoth are selfish actions& The #nostic neither la$#hs nor *eeps&@ MIf tho$ dost not p$t behind thee all that I ha)e displayed and am displayin#, tho$ *ilt not prosper" and $nless tho$ prosper, tho$ *ilt not become concentrated $pon Me&M [:rosperity is tr$e belief in 2od, *hich re5$ires complete abstraction from created thin#s&@ Lo#ically, these doctrines ann$l e)ery moral and reli#io$s la*& In the #nostic8s )ision there are no di)ine re*ards and p$nishments, no h$man standards of ri#ht
,p& DO-

and *ron#& 4or him, the *ritten *ord of 2od has been abro#ated by a direct and intimate re)elation& MI do not say,M exclaimed /b$ Vl%Hasan 9h$r5ani, Mthat :aradise and Hell are non% existent, b$t I say that they are nothin# to me, beca$se 2od created them both, and there is no room for any created ob?ect in the place *here I am&M 4rom this standpoint all types of reli#ion are e5$al, and Islam is no better than idolatry& It does not matter *hat creed a man professes or *hat rites he performs&
!T$% #(5% &./E5% +" ' 95(% '"2 $.-1 $%'(# I/ 65+-2%2< #$%(% -%# '-- &%" 3.(/$+9 G.28 C.( #$%(% H% 23%--/* ".# +" ' &./E5% .7 /#."%.!

/midst all the )ariety of creeds and *orshippers the #nostic sees b$t one real ob?ect of *orship& MThose *ho adore 2od in the s$nM +says Ibn al%H/rabi. Mbehold the s$n, and those *ho adore Him in li)in# thin#s see a li)in# thin#, and those *ho adore Him in lifeless thin#s see a lifeless thin#, and those *ho adore Him as a Eein# $ni5$e and $nparalleled see that *hich has no li3e& Do not attach yo$rselfM +he contin$es. Mto any partic$lar creed excl$si)ely, so that yo$ disbelie)e in all the rest" other*ise,
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yo$ *ill lose m$ch #ood, nay, yo$ *ill fail to reco#nise the real tr$th of the matter& 2od, the omnipresent and omnipotent, is not limited by any one creed, for He says +9or& 2&! S., 8Wheresoe)er ye t$rn, there is the face of /llah&8 ;)ery one praises *hat he belie)es" his #od is his o*n creat$re, and in praisin# it he praises himself& Conse5$ently he blames the beliefs of others, *hich he *o$ld not do if he *ere ?$st, b$t his disli3e is based on i#norance& If he 3ne* C$nayd8s sayin#, 8The *ater ta3es its colo$r from the

)essel containin# it,8 he *o$ld not interfere *ith other men8s beliefs, b$t *o$ld percei)e 2od in e)ery form of belief&M /nd HafiK sin#s, more in the spirit of the freethin3er, perhaps, than of the mysticN
!L.4% +/ 3$%(% #$% :1.(1 7'--/ O7 T$1 7',%00." ,."4%"# 3'--/ O( ." #'4%(" 7-..(/* #$% /'&% U"%D#+":5+/$'6-% 7-'&%. >$%(% #$% #5(6'"%2 '",$.(+#% C$'"#%#$ A--'$ 2'1 '"2 "+:$#* C$5(,$ 6%--/ (+": #$% ,'-- #. 9('1%( A"2 #$% C(.// .7 C$(+/# +/ #$%(%.!

S$fism may ?oin hands *ith freetho$#ht%%it has often done so%%b$t hardly e)er *ith sectarianism& This explains *hy the )ast
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ma?ority of S$fis ha)e been, at least nominally, attached to the catholic body of the Moslem comm$nity& H/bdallah /nsari declared that of t*o tho$sand S$fi Shey3hs *ith *hom he *as ac5$ainted only t*o *ere ShiHites& / certain man *ho *as a descendant of the Caliph H/li, and a fanatical ShiHite, tells the follo*in# storyN M4or fi)e years,M he said, Mmy father sent me daily to a spirit$al director& I learned one $sef$l lesson from himN he told me that I sho$ld ne)er 3no* anythin# at all abo$t S$fism $ntil I #ot completely rid of the pride *hich I felt on acco$nt of my linea#e&M S$perficial obser)ers ha)e described Eabism as an offshoot of S$fism, b$t the do#matism of the one is nat$rally opposed to the broad eclecticism of the other& In proportion as the S$fi #ains more 3no*led#e of 2od, his reli#io$s pre?$dices are diminished& Shey3h H/bd al%Aahim ibn al%Sabba#h, *ho at first disli3ed li)in# in 'pper ;#ypt, *ith its lar#e Ce*ish and Christian pop$lation, said in his old a#e that he *o$ld as readily embrace a Ce* or Christian as one of his o*n faith& While the inn$merable forms of creed and rit$al may be re#arded as ha)in# a certain relati)e )al$e in so far as the in*ard feelin# *hich inspires them is e)er one and the same, from another aspect they seem to be )eils of the Tr$th, barriers *hich the Kealo$s
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'nitarian m$st stri)e to abolish and destroy&

!T$+/ 3.(-2 '"2 #$'# 3.(-2 '(% #$% %::* '"2 #$% 6+(2 3+#$+" +# I/ +" 2'()"%// '"2 6(.)%"03+":%2 '"2 /,.("%2 '"2 2%/9+/%2. R%:'(2 5"6%-+%7 '"2 7'+#$ '/ #$% 3$+#% '"2 #$% 1.-) +" #$+/ %::* B%#3%%" #$%&* F.+"+": '"2 2+4+2+":* ' 6'((+%( 3$+,$ #$%1 /$'--

".# 9'//. >$%" H% $'#$ :(',+.5/-1 7./#%(%2 #$% %:: 5"2%( H+/ 3+":* I"7+2%-+#1 '"2 (%-+:+." 2+/'99%'(< #$% 6+(2 .7 U"+#1 /9(%'2/ +#/ 9+"+."/.!

The #reat :ersian mystic, /b$ SaHid ibn /bi Vl%9hayr, spea3in# in the name of the Calendars or *anderin# der)ishes, expresses their iconoclastic principles *ith astonishin# boldnessN
!N.# 5"#+- %4%(1 &./E5% 6%"%'#$ #$% /5" L+%/ (5+"%2* 3+-- .5( $.-1 3.() 6% 2."%8 A"2 "%4%( 3+-- #(5% M5/'-&'" '99%'( T+-- 7'+#$ '"2 +"7+2%-+#1 '(% ."%.!

S$ch open declarations of *ar a#ainst the Mohammedan reli#ion are exceptional& >ot*ithstandin# the breadth and depth of the #$lf bet*een f$ll%blo*n S$fism and orthodox Islam, many, if not most, S$fis ha)e paid homa#e to the :rophet and ha)e obser)ed the o$t*ard forms of de)otion *hich are inc$mbent on all Moslems& They ha)e in)ested these rites and ceremonies *ith a ne* meanin#" they ha)e alle#orised them,
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b$t they ha)e not abandoned them& Ta3e the pil#rima#e, for example& In the eyes of the #en$ine S$fi it is n$ll and )oid $nless each of the s$ccessi)e reli#io$s acts *hich it in)ol)es is accompanied by correspondin# 8mo)ements of the heart&8 / man *ho had ?$st ret$rned from the pil#rima#e came to C$nayd& C$nayd saidN M4rom the ho$r *hen yo$ first ?o$rneyed from yo$r home ha)e yo$ also been ?o$rneyin# a*ay from all sinsRM He said M>o&M MThen,M said C$nayd, Myo$ ha)e made no ?o$rney& /t e)ery sta#e *here yo$ halted for the ni#ht did yo$ tra)erse a station on the *ay to 2odRM M >o,M he replied& MThen,M said C$nayd, Myo$ ha)e not trodden the road, sta#e by sta#e& When yo$ p$t on the pil#rim8s #arb at the proper place, did yo$ discard the 5$alities of h$man nat$re as yo$ cast off yo$r clothesRM M>o&M MThen yo$ ha)e not p$t on the pil#rim8s #arb& When yo$ stood at H/rafat, did yo$ stand one moment in contemplation of 2odRM M>o&M MThen yo$ ha)e not stood at H/rafat& When yo$ *ent to M$Kdalifa and achie)ed yo$r desire, did yo$ reno$nce all sens$al desiresRM M>o&M MThen yo$ ha)e not #one to M$Kdalifa& When yo$ circ$mamb$lated the 9aHba, did yo$ behold the immaterial bea$ty of 2od
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in the abode of p$rificationRM M>o&M MThen yo$ ha)e not circ$mamb$lated the 9aHba& When yo$ ran bet*een Safa and Mar*a, did yo$ attain to p$rity +safa. and )irt$e +&uru((at.RM M>o&M MThen yo$ ha)e not r$n& When yo$ came to Mina, did all yo$r *ishes +&una. ceaseRM M>o&M MThen yo$ ha)e not yet )isited Mina& When yo$ reached the sla$#hter%place and offered sacrifice, did yo$ sacrifice the ob?ects of *orldly desireRM M>o&M MThen yo$ ha)e not sacrificed& When yo$ thre* the pebbles, did yo$ thro* a*ay

*hate)er sens$al tho$#hts *ere accompanyin# yo$RM M>o&M MThen yo$ ha)e not yet thro*n the pebbles, and yo$ ha)e not yet performed the pil#rima#e&M This anecdote contrasts the o$ter reli#io$s la* of theolo#y *ith the inner spirit$al tr$th of mysticism, and sho*s that they sho$ld not be di)orced from each other& MThe La* *itho$t the Tr$th,M says H$?*iri, Mis ostentation, and the Tr$th *itho$t the La* is hypocrisy& Their m$t$al relation may be compared to that of body and spiritN *hen the spirit departs from the body, the li)in# body becomes a corpse, and the spirit )anishes li3e *ind& The Moslem profession of faith incl$des bothN the
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*ords, 8There is no #od b$t /llah,8 are the Tr$th, and the *ords, 8Mohammed is the apostle of /llah,8 are the La*" any one *ho denies the Tr$th is an infidel, and any one *ho re?ects the La* is a heretic&M Middle *ays, tho$#h pro)erbially safe, are diffic$lt to *al3 in" and only by a tour de for$e can the 9oran be bro$#ht into line *ith the esoteric doctrine *hich the S$fis deri)e from it& 'ndo$btedly they ha)e done a #reat *or3 for Islam& They ha)e deepened and enriched the li)es of millions by r$thlessly strippin# off the h$s3 of reli#ion and insistin# that its 3ernel m$st be so$#ht, not in any formal act, b$t in c$lti)ation of spirit$al feelin#s and in p$rification of the in*ard man& This *as a le#itimate and most fr$itf$l de)elopment of the :rophet8s teachin#& E$t the :rophet *as a strict monotheist, *hile the S$fis, *hate)er they may pretend or ima#ine, are theosophists, pantheists, or monists& When they spea3 and *rite as belie)ers in the do#mas of positi)e reli#ion, they $se lan#$a#e *hich cannot be reconciled *ith s$ch a theory of $nity as *e are no* examinin#& H/fif$ddin al%Tilimsani, from *hose commentary on >iffari I ha)e #i)en some extracts in this chapter, said ro$ndly that the *hole 9oran is polytheism%%a perfectly ?$st statement from the monistic point of )ie*, tho$#h fe* S$fis ha)e dared to be so explicit&
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JJJ The mystic 'nitarians admit the appearance of contradiction, b$t deny its reality& MThe La* and the Tr$thM +they mi#ht say. Mare the same thin# in different aspects& The La* is for yo$, the Tr$th for $s& In addressin# yo$ *e spea3 accordin# to the meas$re of yo$r $nderstandin#, since *hat is meat for #nostics is poison to the $ninitiated, and the hi#hest mysteries o$#ht to be ?ealo$sly #$arded from profane ears& It is only h$man reason that sees the sin#le as do$ble, and balances the La* a#ainst the Tr$th& :ass a*ay from the *orld of opposites and become one *ith 2od, *ho has no opposite&M The #nostic reco#nises that the La* is )alid and necessary in the moral sphere& While #ood and e)il remain, the La* stands o)er both, commandin# and forbiddin#, re*ardin# and p$nishin#& He 3no*s, on the other hand, that only 2od really exists and actsN therefore, if e)il really exists, it m$st be di)ine, and if e)il thin#s are really done, 2od m$st be the doer of them& The concl$sion is false beca$se the hypothesis is false& ;)il has no real existence" it is not%bein#, *hich is the pri)ation and absence of bein#, ?$st as

dar3ness is the absence of li#ht& M(nce,M said >$ri, MI beheld the Li#ht, and I fixed my #aKe $pon it $ntil I became the Li#ht&M >o *onder that s$ch ill$minated so$ls, s$premely indifferent to
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the shado*%sho*s of reli#ion and morality in a phantom *orld, are ready to cry *ith Calal$ddinN
!T$% &'" .7 G.2 +/ &'2% 3+/% 61 #$% T(5#$* T$% &'" .7 G.2 +/ ".# -%'("%2 7(.& 6..). T$% &'" .7 G.2 +/ 6%1."2 +"7+2%-+#1 '"2 7'+#$* T. #$% &'" .7 G.2 (+:$# '"2 3(.": '(% '-+)%.!

It m$st be borne in mind that this is a theory of perfection, and that those *hom it exalts abo)e the La* are saints, spirit$al #$ides, and profo$nd theosophists *ho en?oy the special fa)o$r of 2od and pres$mably do not need to be restrained, coerced, or p$nished& In practice, of co$rse, it leads in many instances to antinomianism and libertinism, as amon# the Ee3tashis and other orders of the so%called 8la*less8 der)ishes& The same theories prod$ced the same res$lts in ;$rope d$rin# the Middle /#es, and the impartial historian cannot i#nore the corr$ptions to *hich a p$rely s$b?ecti)e mysticism is liable" b$t on the present occasion *e are concerned *ith the rose itself, not *ith its can3ers& >ot all S$fis are #nostics" and, as I ha)e mentioned before, those *ho are not yet ripe for the #nosis recei)e from their #nostic teachers the ethical instr$ction s$itable to their needs& Calal$ddin A$mi, in his collection of lyrical poems entitled The !i"an
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of Sha&si Tabri7, #i)es free rein to a pantheistic enth$siasm *hich sees all thin#s $nder the form of eternity&
!I $'4% 95# 25'-+#1 '3'1* I $'4% /%%" #$'# #$% #3. 3.(-2/ '(% ."%8 O"% I /%%)* O"% I )".3* O"% I /%%* O"% I ,'--. I '& +"#.D+,'#%2 3+#$ L.4%=/ ,59* #$% #3. 3.(-2/ $'4% 9'//%2 .5# .7 &1 )%"8 I $'4% ". 65/+"%// /'4% ,'(.5/% '"2 (%4%-(1.!

E$t in his asna"i%%a *or3 so famo$s and )enerated that it has been styled 8The 9oran of :ersia8%%*e find him in a more sober mood expo$ndin# the S$fi doctrines and ?$stifyin# the *ays of 2od to man& Here, tho$#h he is a con)inced optimist and a#rees *ith 2haKali that this is the best of all possible *orlds, he does not airily dismiss the problem of e)il as somethin# o$tside reality, b$t endea)o$rs to sho* that e)il, or *hat seems e)il to $s, is part of the di)ine order and harmony, I *ill 5$ote some passa#es of his ar#$ment and lea)e my readers to ?$d#e ho* far it is s$ccessf$l or, at any rate, s$##esti)e&

The S$fis, it *ill be remembered, concei)e the $ni)erse as a pro?ected and reflected ima#e of 2od& The di)ine li#ht, streamin# forth in a series of emanations, falls at last $pon the dar3ness of not%bein#, e)ery atom of *hich reflects some attrib$te of Deity& 4or instance, the bea$tif$l attrib$tes of lo)e and mercy are reflected in the form of hea)en and the
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an#els, *hile the terrible attrib$tes of *rath and )en#eance are reflected in the form of hell and the de)ils& Man reflects all the attrib$tes, the terrible as *ell as the bea$tif$lN he is an epitome of hea)en and hell& (mar 9hayyam all$des to this theory *hen he saysN
!H%-- +/ ' /9'() 7(.& .5( 7(5+#-%// 9'+"* H%'4%" ' 6(%'#$ 7(.& .5( #+&% .7 F.1!

%%a co$plet *hich 4itK 2erald mo$lded into the ma#nificent stanKaN
!H%'4=" 65# #$% V+/+." .7 75-7+--%2 D%/+(%* A"2 H%-- #$% S$'2.3 7(.& ' S.5- ." 7+(%* C'/# ." #$% D'()"%// +"#. 3$+,$ O5(/%-4%/ S. -'#% %&%(:%2 7(.&* /$'-- /. /.." %D9+(%.!

Calal$ddin, therefore, does in a sense ma3e 2od the a$thor of e)il, b$t at the same time he ma3es e)il intrinsically #ood in relation to 2od%%for it is the reflexion of certain di)ine attrib$tes *hich in themsel)es are absol$tely #ood& So far as e)il is really e)il, it sprin#s from not%bein#& The poet assi#ns a different )al$e to this term in its relation to 2od and in its relation to man& In respect of 2od not%bein# is nothin#, for 2od is real Eein#, b$t in man it is the principle of e)il *hich constit$tes half of h$man nat$re& In the one case it is a p$re ne#ation, in the other it is positi)ely and acti)ely pernicio$s& We need not 5$arrel *ith the poet for
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comin# to #rief in his lo#ic& There are some occasions *hen intense moral feelin# is *orth any amo$nt of acc$rate thin3in#& It is e)ident that the doctrine of di)ine $nity implies predestination& Where 2od is and na$#ht beside Him, there can be no other a#ent than He, no act b$t His& MTho$ didst not thro*, *hen tho$ thre*est, b$t 2od thre*M +9or& D&!O.& Comp$lsion is felt only by those *ho do not lo)e& To 3no* 2od is to lo)e Him" and the #nostic may ans*er, li3e the der)ish *ho *as as3ed ho* he faredN
!I 7'(% '/ ."% 61 3$./% &'F%/#+, 3+-T$% 3.(-2 (%4.-4%/* 7-..2/ (+/% '"2 (+4%(/ 7-.3* S#'(/ +" #$%+( ,.5(/%/ &.4%8 1%'* 2%'#$ '"2 -+7% H'": ." $+/ ".2 '"2 7-1 #. #$% %"2/ .7 %'(#$* H+/ &+"+/#%(/ .7 &.5("+": .( .7 F.1.!

This is the Tr$th" b$t for the benefit of s$ch as cannot bear it, Calal$ddin )indicates the ?$stice of 2od by assertin# that men ha)e the po*er to choose ho* they *ill act, altho$#h their freedom is s$bordinate to the di)ine *ill& /pproachin# the 5$estion, MWhy does 2od ordain and create e)ilRM he points o$t that thin#s are 3no*n thro$#h their opposites, and that the existence of e)il is necessary for the manifestation of #ood&
!N.#06%+": '"2 2%7%,#* 3$%(%4%( /%%"* A(% &+((.(/ .7 #$% 6%'5#1 .7 '-- #$'# +/. T$% 6."%0/%##%(* 3$%(% /$.5-2 $% #(1 $+/ /)+-,p& SSB5# ." #$% 9'#+%"# -1+": 3+#$ 6(.)%" -%:? >%(% ". 6'/% ,.99%( +" #$% ,(5,+6-%* H.3 ,.5-2 #$% '-,$%&+/# $+/ ,('7# 2+/9-'1?!

Moreo)er, the di)ine omnipotence *o$ld not be completely realised if e)il had remained $ncreated&
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

In reply to the ob?ection that a 2od *ho creates e)il m$st Himself be e)il, Calal$ddin, p$rs$in# the analo#y dra*n from /rt, remar3s that $#liness in the pict$re is no e)idence of $#liness in the painter& /#ain, *itho$t e)il it *o$ld be impossible to *in the pro)ed )irt$e *hich is the re*ard of self%con5$est& Eread m$st be bro3en before it can ser)e as food, and #rapes *ill not yield *ine till they are cr$shed& Many men are led thro$#h trib$lation to happiness&
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/s e)il ebbs, #ood flo*s& 4inally, m$ch e)il is only apparent& What seems a c$rse to one may be a blessin# to another" nay, e)il itself is t$rned to #ood for the ri#hteo$s& Calal$ddin *ill not admit that anythin# is absol$tely bad&
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

S$rely this is a note*orthy doctrine& Calal$ddin died only a fe* years after the birth of Dante, b$t the Christian poet falls far belo* the le)el of charity and tolerance reached by his Moslem contemporary& Ho* is it possible to discern the so$l of #oodness in thin#s e)ilR Ey means of lo)e, says Calal$ddin, and the 3no*led#e *hich lo)e alone can #i)e, accordin# to the *ord of 2od in the holy TraditionN MMy ser)ant dra*s ni#h $nto Me, and I lo)e him" and *hen I lo)e him, I am his ear, so that he hears by Me, and his eye, so that he sees by Me, and his
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ton#$e, so that he spea3s by Me, and his hand, so that he ta3es by Me&M /ltho$#h it *ill be con)enient to treat of mystical lo)e in a separate chapter, the reader m$st not fancy that a ne* s$b?ect is openin# before him& 2nosis and lo)e are spirit$ally identical" they teach the same tr$ths in different lan#$a#e&
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/>T one ac5$ainted, ho*e)er sli#htly, *ith the mystical poetry of Islam m$st ha)e remar3ed that the aspiration of the so$l to*ards 2od is expressed, as a r$le, in almost the same terms *hich mi#ht be $sed by an (riental /nacreon or Herric3& The resemblance, indeed, is often so close that, $nless *e ha)e some cl$e to the poet8s intention, *e are left in do$bt as to his meanin#& In some cases, perhaps, the ambi#$ity ser)es an artistic p$rpose, as in the odes of HafiK, b$t e)en *hen the poet is not deliberately 3eepin# his

readers s$spended bet*een earth and hea)en, it is 5$ite easy to mista3e a mystical hymn for a drin3in#%son# or a serenade& Ibn al%H/rabi, the #reatest theosophist *hom the /rabs ha)e prod$ced, fo$nd himself obli#ed to *rite a commentary on some of his poems in order to ref$te the scandalo$s char#e that they *ere desi#ned to celebrate the charms of his mistress& Here are a fe* linesN
!O$* $%( 6%'5#100#$% #%"2%( &'+2B I#/ 6(+--+'",% :+4%/ -+:$# -+)% -'&9/ #. ."% #('4%--+": +" #$% 2'(). ,p& ! BS$% +/ ' 9%'(- $+22%" +" ' /$%-- .7 $'+( '/ 6-',) '/ F%#* A 9%'(- 7.( 3$+,$ T$.5:$# 2+4%/ '"2 (%&'+"/ 5",%'/+":-1 +" #$% 2%%9/ .7 #$'# .,%'". H% 3$. -..)/ 59." $%( 2%%&/ $%( #. 6% ' :'G%--% .7 #$% /'"20$+--/* 6%,'5/% .7 $%( /$'9%-1 "%,) '"2 #$% -.4%-+"%// .7 $%( :%/#5(%/.!

It has been said that the S$fis in)ented this fi#$rati)e style as a mas3 for mysteries *hich they desired to 3eep secret& That desire *as nat$ral in those *ho pro$dly claimed to possess an esoteric doctrine 3no*n only to themsel)es" moreo)er, a plain statement of *hat they belie)ed mi#ht ha)e endan#ered their liberties, if not their li)es& E$t, apart from any s$ch moti)es, the S$fis adopt the symbolic style beca$se there is no other possible *ay of interpretin# mystical experience& So little does 3no*led#e of the infinite re)ealed in ecstatic )ision need an artificial dis#$ise that it cannot be comm$nicated at all except thro$#h types and emblems dra*n from the sensible *orld, *hich, imperfect as they are, may s$##est and shado* forth a deeper meanin# than appears on the s$rface& M2nostics,M says Ibn al%H/rabi, Mcannot impart their feelin#s to other men" they can only indicate them symbolically to those *ho ha)e be#$n to experience the li3e&M What 3ind of symbolism each mystic *ill prefer depends on his temperament and character& If he be a
,p& ! G-

reli#io$s artist, a spirit$al poet, his ideas of reality are li3ely to clothe themsel)es instincti)ely in forms of bea$ty and #lo*in# ima#es of h$man lo)e& To him the rosy chee3 of the belo)ed represents the di)ine essence manifested thro$#h its attrib$tes" her dar3 c$rls si#nify the (ne )eiled by the Many" *hen he says, MDrin3 *ine that it may set yo$ free from yo$rself,M he means, MLose yo$r phenomenal self in the rapt$re of di)ine contemplation&M I mi#ht fill pa#es *ith f$rther examples& This erotic and bacchanalian symbolism is not, of co$rse, pec$liar to the mystical poetry of Islam, b$t no*here else is it displayed so op$lently and in s$ch perfection& It has often been mis$nderstood by ;$ropean critics, one of *hom e)en no* can describe the ecstasies of the S$fis as Minspired partly by *ine and stron#ly tin#ed *ith sens$ality&M /s re#ards the *hole body of S$fis, the char#e is alto#ether false& >o intelli#ent and $npre?$diced st$dent of their *ritin#s co$ld ha)e made it, and *e o$#ht to ha)e been informed on *hat sort of e)idence it is based& There are blac3 sheep in e)ery floc3, and amon#st the S$fis *e find many hypocrites, deba$chees, and dr$n3ards *ho brin#

discredit on the p$re brethren& E$t it is ?$st as $nfair to ?$d#e S$fism in #eneral by the excesses of these impostors as it *o$ld be to condemn all
,p& ! I-

Christian mysticism on the #ro$nd that certain sects and indi)id$als are immoral&
!G.2 +/ #$% S'E+ @C596%'(%(A '"2 #$% >+"%< H% )".3/ 3$'# &'""%( .7 -.4% +/ &+"%*!

said Calal$ddin& Ibn al%H/rabi declares that no reli#ion is more s$blime than a reli#ion of lo)e and lon#in# for 2od& Lo)e is the essence of all creedsN the tr$e mystic *elcomes it *hate)er #$ise it may ass$me&
!M1 $%'(# $'/ 6%,.&% ,'9'6-% .7 %4%(1 7.(&< +# +/ ' 9'/#5(% 7.( :'G%--%/ '"2 ' ,."4%"# 7.( C$(+/#+'" &.")/* A"2 ' #%&9-% 7.( +2.-/* '"2 #$% 9+-:(+&=/ I'J6'* '"2 #$% #'6-%/ .7 #$% T.(' '"2 #$% 6..) .7 #$% I.('". I 7.--.3 #$% (%-+:+." .7 L.4%* 3$+,$%4%( 3'1 $+/ ,'&%-/ #')%. M1 (%-+:+." '"2 &1 7'+#$ +/ #$% #(5% (%-+:+.". >% $'4% ' 9'##%(" +" B+/$(* #$% -.4%( .7 H+"2 '"2 $%( /+/#%(* '"2 +" ;'1/ '"2 L56"'* '"2 +" M'11' '"2 G$'1-'".!

Commentin# on the last )erse, the poet *ritesN MLo)e, qu8 lo)e, is one and the same reality to those /rab lo)ers and to me" b$t the ob?ects of o$r lo)e are different, for they lo)ed a phenomenon, *hereas I lo)e the Aeal& They are a pattern to $s, beca$se 2od only afflicted them *ith lo)e for h$man bein#s in order that He mi#ht sho*, by means of them, the
,p& ! L-

falseness of those *ho pretend to lo)e Him, and yet feel no s$ch transport and rapt$re in lo)in# Him as depri)ed those enamo$red men of their reason, and made them $nconscio$s of themsel)es&M Most of the #reat medie)al S$fis li)ed saintly li)es, dreamin# of 2od, intoxicated *ith 2od& When they tried to tell their dreams, bein# men, they $sed the lan#$a#e of men& If they *ere also literary artists, they nat$rally *rote in the style of their o*n day and #eneration& In mystical poetry the /rabs yield the palm to the :ersians& /ny one *ho *o$ld read the secret of S$fism, no lon#er enc$mbered *ith theolo#ical articles nor obsc$red by metaphysical s$btleties%%let him t$rn to H/ttar, Calal$ddin A$mi, and Cami, *hose *or3s are partially accessible in ;n#lish and other ;$ropean lan#$a#es& To translate these *onderf$l hymns is to brea3 their melody and brin# their soarin# passion do*n to earth, b$t not e)en a prose translation can 5$ite conceal the lo)e of Tr$th and the )ision of Eea$ty *hich inspired them& Listen a#ain to Calal$ddinN
!H% ,.&%/* ' &.." 3$./% -+)% #$% /)1 "%=%( /'3* '3')% .( 2(%'&+":* C(.3"%2 3+#$ %#%("'- 7-'&% ". 7-..2 ,'" -'1.

L.* 7(.& #$% 7-':." .7 T$1 -.4%* O L.(2* &1 /.5- +/ /3+&&+":* A"2 (5+"%2 '-- &1 6.21=/ $.5/% .7 ,-'1. ,p& ! O>$%" 7+(/# #$% G+4%( .7 #$% :('9% &1 -."%-1 $%'(# 6%7(+%"2%2* >+"% 7+(%2 &1 6./.& '"2 &1 4%+"/ 7+--%2 59* B5# 3$%" H+/ +&':% '-- &+"% %1% 9.//%//%2* ' 4.+,% 2%/,%"2%2* =>%-- 2."%* O /.4%(%+:" >+"% '"2 9%%(-%// C59B=!

The lo)e th$s symbolised is the emotional element in reli#ion, the rapt$re of the seer, the co$ra#e of the martyr, the faith of the saint, the only basis of moral perfection and spirit$al 3no*led#e& :ractically, it is self%ren$nciation and self%sacrifice, the #i)in# $p of all possessions%%*ealth, hono$r, *ill, life, and *hate)er else men )al$e%%for the Eelo)ed8s sa3e *itho$t any tho$#ht of re*ard& I ha)e already referred to lo)e as the s$preme principle in S$fi ethics, and no* let me #i)e some ill$strations& MLo)e,M says Calal$ddin, Mis the remedy of o$r pride and self%conceit, the physician of all o$r infirmities& (nly he *hose #arment is rent by lo)e becomes entirely $nselfish&M >$ri, Aa55am, and other S$fis *ere acc$sed of heresy and sentenced to death& MWhen the exec$tioner approached Aa55am, >$ri rose and offered himself in his friend8s place *ith the $tmost cheerf$lness and s$bmission& /ll the spectators *ere asto$nded& The exec$tioner said, 8To$n# man, the s*ord is not a thin# that people are so ea#er to
,p& ! D-

meet" and yo$r t$rn has not yet arri)ed&8 >$ri ans*ered, 8My reli#ion is fo$nded on $nselfishness& Life is the most precio$s thin# in the *orldN I *ish to sacrifice for my brethren8s sa3e the fe* moments *hich remain&8M (n another occasion >$ri *as o)erheard prayin# as follo*sN M( Lord, in Thy eternal 3no*led#e and po*er and *ill Tho$ dost p$nish the people of Hell *hom Tho$ hast created" and if it be Thy inexorable *ill to ma3e Hell f$ll of man3ind, Tho$ art able to fill it *ith me alone, and to send them to :aradise&M In proportion as the S$fi lo)es 2od, he sees 2od in all His creat$res, and #oes forth to them in acts of charity& :io$s *or3s are na$#ht *itho$t lo)e&
!C$%%( ."% /'2 $%'(#< #$1 -.4+": 2%%2 3+-- 6% M.(% #$'" ' #$.5/'"2 #%&9-%/ ('+/%2 61 #$%%. O"% 7(%%&'" 3$.& #$1 )+"2"%// $'#$ %"/-'4%2 O5#3%+:$/ 61 7'( ' #$.5/'"2 /-'4%/ /%# 7(%%.!

The Moslem ,egend of the Saints abo$nds in tales of pity sho*n to animals +incl$din# the despised do#., birds, and e)en insects& It is related that EayaKid p$rchased some cardamom seed at Hamadhan, and before departin# p$t into his #aberdine a small

5$antity *hich *as left o)er& (n reachin# Eistam and recollectin# *hat he had done, he too3 o$t the
,p& ! S-

seed and fo$nd that it contained a n$mber of ants& Sayin#, MI ha)e carried the poor creat$res a*ay from their home,M he immediately set off and ?o$rneyed bac3 to Hamadhan%%a distance of se)eral h$ndred miles& This $ni)ersal charity is one of the fr$its of pantheism& The ascetic )ie* of the *orld *hich pre)ailed amon#st the early S$fis, and their )i)id conscio$sness of 2od as a transcendent :ersonality rather than as an immanent Spirit, ca$sed them to cr$sh their h$man affections relentlessly& Here is a short story from the life of 4$dayl ibn HIyad& It *o$ld be to$chin# if it *ere not so edifyin#& M(ne day he had in his lap a child fo$r years old, and chanced to #i)e it a 3iss, as is the *ay of fathers& The child said, 84ather, do yo$ lo)e meR8 8Tes,8 said 4$dayl& 8Do yo$ lo)e 2odR8 8Tes&8 8Ho* many hearts ha)e yo$R8 8(ne&8 8Then,8 as3ed the child, 8ho* can yo$ lo)e t*o *ith one heartR8 4$dayl percei)ed that the child8s *ords *ere a di)ine admonition& In his Keal for 2od he be#an to beat his head and repented of his lo)e for the child, and #a)e his heart *holly to 2od&M The hi#her S$fi mysticism, as represented by Calal$ddin A$mi, teaches that the phenomenal is a brid#e to the Aeal&
!>$%#$%( +# 6% .7 #$+/ 3.(-2 .( .7 #$'#* T$1 -.4% 3+-- -%'2 #$%% 1."2%( '# #$% -'/#.! ,p& !! -

JJJ /nd Cami says, in a passa#e *hich has been translated by :rofessor Ero*neN
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

;merson s$ms $p the meanin# of this *here he saysN

MEeholdin# in many so$ls the traits of the di)ine bea$ty, and separatin# in each so$l that *hich is di)ine from the taint *hich it has contracted in the *orld, the lo)er ascends to the hi#hest bea$ty, to the lo)e and 3no*led#e of the Di)inity, by steps on this ladder of created so$ls&M MMan8s lo)e of 2od,M says H$?*iri, Mis a 5$ality *hich manifests itself, in the heart of the pio$s belie)er, in the form of )eneration and ma#nification, so that he see3s to satisfy his Eelo)ed and becomes impatient and restless in his desire for )ision of Him, and cannot
,p& !!!-

rest *ith any one except Him, and #ro*s familiar *ith the recollection of Him, and ab?$res the recollection of e)erythin# besides& Aepose becomes $nla*f$l to him, and rest flees from him& He is c$t off from all habits and associations, and reno$nces sens$al passion, and t$rns to*ards the co$rt of lo)e, and s$bmits to the la* of lo)e, and 3no*s 2od by His attrib$tes of perfection&M Ine)itably s$ch a man *ill lo)e his fello*%men& Whate)er cr$elty they inflict $pon him, he *ill percei)e only the chastenin# hand of 2od, M*hose bitters are )ery s*eets to the so$l&M EayaKid said that *hen 2od lo)es a man, He endo*s him *ith three 5$alities in to3en thereofN a bo$nty li3e that of the sea, a sympathy li3e that of the s$n, and a h$mility li3e that of the earth& >o s$fferin# can be too #reat, no de)otion too hi#h, for the piercin# insi#ht and b$rnin# faith of a tr$e lo)er& Ibn al%H/rabi claims that Islam is pec$liarly the reli#ion of lo)e, inasm$ch as the :rophet Mohammed is called 2od8s belo)ed +Habib., b$t tho$#h some traces of this doctrine occ$r in the 9oran, its main imp$lse *as $n5$estionably deri)ed from Christianity& While the oldest S$fi literat$re, *hich is *ritten in /rabic and $nfort$nately has come do*n to $s in a fra#mentary state, is still dominated by the 9oranic insistence
,p& !!2-

on fear of /llah, it also bears conspic$o$s mar3s of the opposin# Christian tradition& /s in Christianity, thro$#h Dionysi$s and other *riters of the >eoplatonic school, so in Islam, and probably $nder the same infl$ence, the de)otional and mystical lo)e of 2od soon de)eloped into ecstasy and enth$siasm *hich finds in the sens$o$s ima#ery of h$man lo)e the most s$##esti)e medi$m for its expression& Dr& In#e obser)es that the S$fis Mappear, li3e tr$e /siatics, to ha)e attempted to #i)e a sacramental and symbolic character to the ind$l#ence of their passions&M I need not a#ain point o$t that s$ch a )ie* of #en$ine S$fism is both s$perficial and incorrect& Lo)e, li3e #nosis, is in its essence a di)ine #ift, not anythin# that can be ac5$ired& MIf the *hole *orld *ished to attract lo)e, they co$ld not" and if they made the $tmost efforts to repel it, they co$ld not&M Those *ho lo)e 2od are those *hom 2od lo)es& MI fancied that I lo)ed Him,M said EayaKid, Mb$t on consideration I sa* that His lo)e preceded mine&M C$nayd defined lo)e as the s$bstit$tion of the 5$alities of the Eelo)ed for the 5$alities of the lo)er& In other *ords, lo)e si#nifies the passin#%a*ay of the indi)id$al self" it is an $ncontrollable rapt$re, a 2od%sent #race *hich m$st be so$#ht by ardent prayer and aspiration&

,p& !!B!O T$.5 +" 3$./% 6'# 3%--0,5(4%2 &1 $%'(# -+)% ' 6'-- +/ -'+2* N.( %4%( ' $'+(6(%'2#$ /3%(4%2 7(.& T$1 6+22+": ".( 2+/.6%1%2* I $'4% 3'/$%2 &+"% .5#3'(2 ,-%'"* #$% 3'#%( I 2(%3 '"2 9.5(%28 M+"% +"3'(2 +/ T$1 2%&%/"%002. T$.5 )%%9 +# /#'+"-%//* L.(2B!


Calal$ddin teaches that man8s lo)e is really the effect of 2od8s lo)e by means of an apolo#$e& (ne ni#ht a certain de)otee *as prayin# alo$d, *hen Satan appeared to him and saidN MHo* lon# *ilt tho$ cry, 8( /llah8R Ee 5$iet, for tho$ *ilt #et no ans*er&M The de)otee h$n# his head in silence& /fter a little *hile he had a )ision of the prophet 9hadir, *ho said to him, M/h, *hy hast tho$ ceased to call on 2odRM MEeca$se the ans*er 8Here am I8 came not,M he replied& 9hadir said, M2od hath ordered me to #o to thee and say thisN
!=>'/ +# ".# I #$'# /5&&."%2 #$%% #. /%(4+,%? D+2 ".# I &')% #$%% 65/1 3+#$ M1 "'&%? T$1 ,'--+": !A--'$B! was M1 !H%(% '& I*! T$1 1%'("+": 9'+" M1 &%//%":%( #. #$%%. O7 '-- #$./% #%'(/ '"2 ,(+%/ '"2 /599-+,'#+."/ I 3'/ #$% &':"%#* '"2 I :'4% #$%& 3+":/.=!

Di)ine lo)e is beyond description, yet its si#ns are manifest& Sari al%Sa5ati 5$estioned C$nayd concernin# the nat$re of lo)e&
,p& !!G-

JJJ MSome say,M he ans*ered, Mthat it is a state of concord, and some say that it is altr$ism, and some say that it is so%and%so&M Sari too3 hold of the s3in on his forearm and p$lled it, b$t it *o$ld not stretch" then he said, MI s*ear by the #lory of 2od, *ere I to say that this s3in hath shri)elled on this bone for lo)e of Him, I sho$ld be tellin# the tr$th&M There$pon he fainted a*ay, and his face became li3e a shinin# moon& Lo)e,8the astrolabe of hea)enly mysteries,8 inspires all reli#ion *orthy of the name, and brin#s *ith it, not reasoned belief, b$t the intense con)iction arisin# from immediate int$ition& This inner li#ht is its o*n e)idence" he *ho sees it has real 3no*led#e, and nothin# can increase or diminish his certainty& Hence the S$fis ne)er *eary of exposin# the f$tility of a faith *hich s$pports itself on intellect$al proofs, external a$thority, self% interest, or self%re#ard of any 3ind& The barren dialectic of the theolo#ian" the cantin# ri#hteo$sness of the :harisee rooted in forms and ceremonies" the less cr$de b$t e5$ally $ndisinterested *orship of *hich the moti)e is desire to #ain e)erlastin# happiness in the life hereafter" the relati)ely p$re de)otion of the mystic *ho, altho$#h he lo)es 2od, yet thin3s of himself as lo)in#, and *hose heart is not
,p& !!I-

*holly emptied of 8otherness8%%all these are 8)eils8 to be remo)ed&

/ fe* sayin#s by those *ho 3no* *ill be more instr$cti)e than f$rther explanation& M( 2odQ *hate)er share of this *orld Tho$ hast allotted to me, besto* it on Thine enemies" and *hate)er share of the next *orld Tho$ hast allotted to me, besto* it on Thy friends& Tho$ art eno$#h for me&M +A/EIH/&. M( 2odQ if I *orship Thee in fear of Hell, b$rn me in Hell" and if I *orship Thee in hope of :aradise, excl$de me from :aradise" b$t if I *orship Thee for Thine o*n sa3e, *ithhold not Thine e)erlastin# bea$tyQM +A/EIH/&. M>ot*ithstandin# that the lo)ers of 2od are separated from Him by their lo)e, they ha)e the essential thin#, for *hether they sleep or *a3e, they see3 and are so$#ht, and are not occ$pied *ith their o*n see3in# and lo)in#, b$t are enrapt$red in contemplation of the Eelo)ed& It is a crime in the lo)er to re#ard his lo)e, and an o$tra#e in lo)e to loo3 at one8s o*n see3in# *hile one is face to face *ith the So$#ht&M +E/T/WID&. MHis lo)e entered and remo)ed all besides Him and left no trace of anythin# else, so that it remained sin#le e)en as He is sin#le&M +E/T/WID&.
,p& !!L-

JJJ MTo feel at one *ith 2od for a moment is better than all men8s acts of *orship from the be#innin# to the end of the *orld&M +SHIELI&. M4ear of the 4ire, in comparison *ith fear of bein# parted from the Eelo)ed, is li3e a drop of *ater cast into the mi#htiest ocean&M +DH' VL%>'>&.
!U"-%// I $'4% #$% 7',% .7 &1 $%'(# #.3'(2/ T$%%* I 2%%& 9('1%( 5"3.(#$1 #. 6% (%,)."%2 '/ 9('1%(. I7 I #5(" &1 7',% #. #$% I'J6'* =#+/ 7.( -.4% .7 T$+"%8 O#$%(3+/% I '& E5+# 6.#$ .7 9('1%( '"2 I'J6'.! KHALALUDDIN RUMI.L

Lo)e, a#ain, is the di)ine instinct of the so$l impellin# it to realise its nat$re and destiny& The so$l is the first%born of 2odN before the creation of the $ni)erse it li)ed and mo)ed and had its bein# in Him, and d$rin# its earthly manifestation it is a stran#er in exile, e)er pinin# to ret$rn to its home&
!T$+/ +/ L.4%< #. 7-1 $%'4%"3'(2* T. (%"2* %4%(1 +"/#'"#* ' $5"2(%2 4%+-/8 T$% 7+(/# &.&%"#* #. (%".5",% -+7%8 T$% -'/# /#%9* #. 7'(% 3+#$.5# 7%%#8 T. (%:'(2 #$+/ 3.(-2 '/ +"4+/+6-%* N.# #. /%% 3$'# '99%'(/ #. ."%=/ /%-7.!

/ll the lo)e%romances and alle#ories of S$fi poetry%%the tales of Layla and Ma?n$n, T$s$f +Coseph. and W$lay3ha, Salaman and /bsal, the Moth and the Candle, the >i#ht%
,p& !!O-

in#ale and the Aose%%are shado*%pict$res of the so$l8s passionate lon#in# to be re$nited *ith 2od& It is impossible, in the brief space at my command, to #i)e the reader more than a passin# #limpse of the treas$res *hich the ex$berant fancy of the ;ast has heaped

to#ether in e)ery room of this enchanted palace& The so$l is li3ened to a moanin# do)e that has lost her mate" to a reed torn from its bed and made into a fl$te *hose plainti)e m$sic fills the eye *ith tears" to a falcon s$mmoned by the fo*ler8s *histle to perch a#ain $pon his *rist" to sno* meltin# in the s$n and mo$ntin# as )apo$r to the s3y" to a frenKied camel s*iftly pl$n#in# thro$#h the desert by ni#ht" to a ca#ed parrot, a fish on dry land, a pa*n that see3s to become a 3in#& These fi#$res imply that 2od is concei)ed as transcendent, and that the so$l cannot reach Him *itho$t ta3in# *hat :lotin$s in a splendid phrase calls Mthe fli#ht of the /lone to the /lone&M Calal$ddin saysN
!T$% &.#+." .7 %4%(1 '#.& +/ #.3'(2/ +#/ .(+:+"8 A &'" ,.&%/ #. 6% #$% #$+": ." 3$+,$ $% +/ 6%"#. B1 #$% '##(',#+." .7 7."2"%// '"2 1%'("+":* #$% /.5- '"2 #$% $%'(# A//5&% #$% E5'-+#+%/ .7 #$% B%-.4%2* 3$. +/ #$% S.5- .7 /.5-/.!

8/ man comes to be the thin# on *hich he is bent8N *hat, then does the S$fi
,p& !!D-

becomeR ;c3hart in one of his sermons 5$otes the sayin# of St& /$#$stine that Man is *hat he lo)es, and adds this commentN MIf he lo)es a stone, he is a stone" if he lo)es a man, he is a man" if he lo)es 2od%%I dare not say more, for if I said that he *o$ld then be 2od, ye mi#ht stone me&M The Moslem mystics en?oyed #reater freedom of speech than their Christian brethren *ho o*ed alle#iance to the medie)al Catholic Ch$rch, and if they *ent too far the plea of ecstasy *as #enerally accepted as a s$fficient exc$se& Whether they emphasise the o$t*ard or the in*ard aspect of $nification, the transcendence or the immanence of 2od, their expressions are bold and $ncompromisin#& Th$s /b$ SaHidN
!I" &1 $%'(# T$.5 23%--%/#00%-/% 3+#$ 6-..2 I=-- 2(%",$ +#8 I" &+"% %1% T$.5 :-.3%/#00%-/% 3+#$ #%'(/ I=-- E5%",$ +#. O"-1 #. 6% ."% 3+#$ T$%% &1 /.5- 2%/+(%#$00 E-/% 7(.& .5# &1 6.21* 61 $..) .( ,(..)* I=-- 3(%",$ +#B!

Calal$ddin A$mi proclaims that the so$l8s lo)e of 2od is 2od8s lo)e of the so$l, and that in lo)in# the so$l 2od lo)es Himself, for He dra*s home to Himself that *hich in its essence is di)ine& M($r copper,M says the poet, Mhas been transm$ted by this rare alchemy,M
,p& !!S-

meanin# that the base alloy of self has been p$rified and spirit$alised& In another ode he saysN
!O &1 /.5-* I /%'(,$%2 7(.& %"2 #. %"2< I /'3 +" #$%% "'5:$# /'4% #$% B%-.4%28 C'-- &% ".# +"7+2%-* O &1 /.5-* +7 I /'1 #$'# #$.5 #$1/%-7 '(# H%.!

/nd yet more plainlyN

!Y% 3$. +" /%'(,$ .7 G.2* .7 G.2* 95(/5%* Y% "%%2 ".# /%'(,$ 7.( G.2 +/ 1.5* +/ 1.5B >$1 /%%) 1% /.&%#$+": #$'# 3'/ &+//+": "%=%(? S'4% 1.5 "."% +/* 65# 1.5 '(%003$%(%* .$* 3$%(%?!

Where is the lo)er *hen the Eelo)ed has displayed HimselfR >o*here and e)ery*hereN his indi)id$ality has passed a*ay from him& In the bridal chamber of 'nity 2od celebrates the mystical marria#e of the so$l&
,p& !2 -

L;T $s s$ppose that the a)era#e Moslem co$ld read ;n#lish, and that *e placed in his hands one of those admirable )ol$mes p$blished by the Society for :sychical Aesearch& In order to sympathise *ith his feelin#s on s$ch an occasion, *e ha)e only to ima#ine *hat o$r o*n *o$ld be if a scientific friend in)ited $s to st$dy a treatise settin# forth the e)idence in fa)o$r of tele#raphy and recordin# *ell%attested instances of tele#raphic comm$nication& The Moslem *o$ld probably see in the tele#raph some 3ind of spirit%%an afreet or 4inni& Telepathy and similar occ$lt phenomena he ta3es for #ranted as self% e)ident facts& It *o$ld ne)er occ$r to him to in)esti#ate them& There is somethin# in the constit$tion of his mind that ma3es it imper)io$s to the idea that the s$pernat$ral may be s$b?ect to la*& He belie)es, beca$se he cannot help belie)in#, in the reality of an $nseen *orld *hich 8lies abo$t $s,8 not in o$r infancy alone, b$t al*ays and e)ery%
,p& !2!-

*here" a *orld from *hich *e are in no *ise excl$ded, accessible and in some meas$re re)ealed to all, tho$#h free and open interco$rse *ith it is a pri)ile#e en?oyed by fe*& Many are called b$t fe* chosen&
!S9+(+#/ %4%(1 "+:$# 7(.& #$% 6.21=/ /"'(% T$.5 7(%%/#* '"2 &')%/# #$% #'6-%#/ ,-%'". @B1 %('/+": '-- #$% /%"/5.5/ +&9(%//+."/ 3$+,$ 7.(& ' 4%+- 6%#3%%" #$% /.5- '"2 #$% 3.(-2 .7 (%'-+#1.A

S9+(+#/ '(% /%# 7(%% %4%(1 "+:$# 7(.& #$+/ ,':%* I"2%9%"2%"#* "%+#$%( (5-%2 ".( (5-+":. A# "+:$# 9(+/."%(/ 7.(:%# #$%+( 9(+/."* A# "+:$# )+":/ 7.(:%# #$%+( 9.3%(< N. /.((.3* ". 6(..2+": .4%( :'+" '"2 -.//* N. #$.5:$# .7 #$+/ 9%(/." .( #$'# 9%(/.". T$+/ +/ #$% /#'#% .7 #$% :"./#+,* %4%" 3$%" $% +/ '3')%8 G.2 $'#$ /'+2* =T$.5 3.5-2/# 2%%& #$%& '3')% 3$+-% #$%1 /-%9#.=
@I.(. 18.17A

H% +/ '/-%%9* 2'1 '"2 "+:$#* #. #$% '77'+(/ .7 #$% 3.(-2* L+)% ' 9%" +" #$% ,."#(.--+": $'"2 .7 #$% L.(2.!

The S$fis ha)e al*ays declared and belie)ed themsel)es to be 2od8s chosen people& The 9oran refers in se)eral places to His elect& /ccordin# to the a$thor of the .itab al-,u&a/, this title belon#s, firstly, to the prophets, elect in )irt$e of their sinlessness, their inspiration, and their apostolic mission" and secondly, to certain Moslems, elect in )irt$e of their sincere de)otion and self%mortification and firm attachment to the
,p& !22-

eternal realitiesN in a *ord, the saints& While the S$fis are the elect of the Moslem comm$nity, the saints are the elect of the S$fis& The Mohammedan saint is commonly 3no*n as a (ali +pl$ral, a(liya.& This *ord is $sed in )ario$s senses deri)ed from its root%meanin# of 8nearness8" e.g. next of 3in, patron, protector, friend& It is applied in the 9oran to 2od as the protector of the 4aithf$l, to an#els or idols *ho are s$pposed to protect their *orshippers, and to men *ho are re#arded as bein# specially $nder di)ine protection& Mohammed t*its the Ce*s *ith professin# to be prot9g9s of 2od +a(liya lillah.& >ot*ithstandin# its some*hat e5$i)ocal associations, the term *as ta3en o)er by the S$fis and became the ordinary desi#nation of persons *hose holiness brin#s them near to 2od, and *ho recei)e from Him, as to3ens of His pec$liar fa)o$r, mirac$lo$s #ifts +kara&at, $har:s&ata." they are His friends, on *hom Mno fear shall come and they shall not #rie)eM ,9or& ! &LB-" any in?$ry done to them is an act of hostility a#ainst Him& The inspiration of the Islamic saints, tho$#h )erbally distin#$ished from that of the prophets and inferior in de#ree, is of the same 3ind& In conse5$ence of their intimate relation to 2od, the )eil shro$din# the
,p& !2B-

s$pernat$ral, or, as a Moslem *o$ld say, the $nseen *orld, from their perceptions is *ithdra*n at inter)als, and in their fits of ecstasy they rise to the prophetic le)el& >either deep learnin# in di)inity, nor de)otion to #ood *or3s, nor asceticism, nor moral p$rity ma3es the Mohammedan a saint" he may ha)e all or none of these thin#s, b$t the only indispensable 5$alification is that ecstasy and rapt$re *hich is the o$t*ard si#n of 8passin#%a*ay8 from the phenomenal self& /nyone th$s enrapt$red +&a4dhub. is a (ali ,*aliyyat, if the saint is a *oman&-, and *hen s$ch persons are reco#nised thro$#h their po*er

of *or3in# miracles, they are )enerated as saints not only after death b$t also d$rin# their li)es& (ften, ho*e)er, they li)e and die in obsc$rity& H$?*iri tells $s that amon#st the saints Mthere are fo$r tho$sand *ho are concealed and do not 3no* one another and are not a*are of the excellence of their state, bein# in all circ$mstances hidden from themsel)es and from man3ind&M The saints form an in)isible hierarchy, on *hich the order of the *orld is tho$#ht to depend& Its s$preme head is entitled the ;utb +/xis.& He is the most eminent S$fi of his a#e, and presides o)er the meetin#s re#$larly held by this a$#$st parliament, *hose members are not hampered in their attendance by the incon)enient fictions of
,p& !2G-

time and space, b$t come to#ether from all parts of the earth in the t*in3lin# of an eye, tra)ersin# seas and mo$ntains and deserts as easily as common mortals step across a road& Eelo* the ;utb stand )ario$s classes and #rades of sanctity& H$?*iri en$merates them, in ascendin# series, as follo*sN three h$ndred Akhyar +2ood., forty Abdal +S$bstit$tes., se)en Abrar +:io$s., fo$r A(tad +S$pports., and three 5uqaba +()erseers.& M/ll these 3no* one another and cannot act sa)e by m$t$al consent& It is the tas3 of the A(tad to #o ro$nd the *hole *orld e)ery ni#ht, and if there sho$ld be any place on *hich their eyes ha)e not fallen, next day some fla* *ill appear in that place, and they m$st then inform the ;utb in order that he may direct his attention to the *ea3 spot and that by his blessin# the imperfection may be remedied&M We are st$dyin# in this boo3 the mystical life of the indi)id$al Moslem, and it is necessary to 3eep the s$b?ect *ithin the narro*est bo$nds& (ther*ise, I sho$ld ha)e li3ed to d*ell on the external and historical or#anisation of S$fism as a school for saints, and to describe the process of e)ol$tion thro$#h *hich the (ali pri)ately con)ersin# *ith a small circle of friends became, first, a teacher and spirit$al #$ide #atherin#
,p& !2I-

disciples aro$nd him d$rin# his lifetime, and finally the head of a perpet$al reli#io$s order *hich bore his name& The earliest of these #reat fraternities date from the t*elfth cent$ry& In addition to their o*n members%%the so%called 8der)ishes8%%each order has a lar#e n$mber of lay brethren attached to it, so that their infl$ence per)ades all ran3s of Moslem society& They are Mindependent and self%de)elopin#& There is ri)alry bet*een them" b$t no one r$les o)er the other& In faith and practice each #oes its o*n *ay, limited only by the $ni)ersal conscience of Islam& Th$s stran#e doctrines and #ra)e moral defects easily de)elop $nheeded, b$t freedom is sa)ed&M ,D& E& Macdonald, The <eligious ,ife and Attitude in 1sla&, p& !LG&- (f co$rse, the typical (ali is incapable of fo$ndin# an order, b$t Islam has prod$ced no less fre5$ently than Christendom men *ho combine intense spirit$al ill$mination *ith creati)e ener#y and aptit$de for affairs on a #rand scale& The Mohammedan notion of the saint as a person possessed by 2od allo*s a )ery *ide application of the termN in pop$lar $sa#e it extends from the #reatest S$fi theosophists,

li3e Calal$ddin A$mi and Ibn al%H/rabi, do*n to those *ho ha)e #ained sanctity only by losin# sanity%%)ictims of epilepsy and hysteria, half%*itted idiots and harmless l$natics&
,p& !2L-

JJJ Eoth =$shayri ,/$thor of a famo$s *or3 desi#ned to close the breach bet*een S$fism and Islam& He died in ! OG /&D&- and H$?*iri disc$ss the 5$estion *hether a saint can be conscio$s of his saintship, and ans*er it in the affirmati)e& Their opponents ar#$e that conscio$sness of saintship in)ol)es ass$rance of sal)ation, *hich is impossible, since no one can 3no* *ith certainty that he shall be amon# the sa)ed on the Day of C$d#ment& In reply it *as $r#ed that 2od may mirac$lo$sly ass$re the saint of his predestined sal)ation, *hile maintainin# him in a state of spirit$al so$ndness and preser)in# him from disobedience& The saint is not immac$late, as the prophets are, b$t the di)ine protection *hich he en?oys is a #$arantee that he *ill not perse)ere in e)il co$rses, tho$#h he may temporarily be led astray& /ccordin# to the )ie* #enerally held, saintship depends on faith, not on cond$ct, so that no sin except infidelity can ca$se it to be forfeited& This perilo$s theory, *hich opens the door to antinomianism, *as miti#ated by the emphasis laid on f$lfilment of the reli#io$s la*& The follo*in# anecdote of EayaKid al%Eistami sho*s the official attit$de of all the leadin# S$fis *ho are cited as a$thorities in the Moslem text%boo3s& MI *as told +he said. that a saint of 2od *as li)in# in s$ch%and%s$ch a to*n,
,p& !2O-

and I set o$t to )isit him& When I entered the mos5$e, he came forth from his chamber and spat on the floor& I t$rned bac3 *itho$t sal$tin# him, sayin# to myself, 8/ saint m$st 3eep the reli#io$s la* in order that 2od may 3eep him in his spirit$al state& Had this man been a saint, his respect for the la* *o$ld ha)e pre)ented him from spittin# on the floor, or 2od *o$ld ha)e sa)ed him from marrin# the #race )o$chsafed to him&M Many (alis, ho*e)er, re#ard the la* as a c$rb that is indeed necessary so lon# as one remains in the disciplinary sta#e, b$t may be discarded by the saint& S$ch a person, they declare, stands on a hi#her plane than ordinary men, and is not to be condemned for actions *hich o$t*ardly seem irreli#io$s& While the older S$fis insist that a (ali *ho brea3s the la* is thereby sho*n to be an impostor, the pop$lar belief in the saints and the rapid #ro*th of saint%*orship tended to a##randise the (ali at the expense of the la*, and to foster the con)iction that a di)inely #ifted man can do no *ron#, or at least that his actions m$st not be ?$d#ed by appearances& The classical instance of this 4us di"inu& )ested in the friends of 2od is the story of Moses and 9hadir, *hich is related in the 9oran +!D&LG%D .& 9hadir or 9hiKr%%the 9oran does not mention him by name
,p& !2D-

%%is a mysterio$s sa#e endo*ed *ith immortality, *ho is said to enter into con)ersation *ith *anderin# S$fis and impart to them his 2od%#i)en 3no*led#e& Moses desired to accompany him on a ?o$rney that he mi#ht profit by his teachin#, and 9hadir consented, only stip$latin# that Moses sho$ld as3 no 5$estions of him&

MSo they both *ent on, till they embar3ed in a boat and he +9hadir. sta)ed it in& 8WhatQ8 cried Moses, 8hast tho$ sta)ed it in that tho$ mayst dro*n its cre*R <erily, a stran#e thin# hast tho$ done&8 MHe said, 8Did not I tell thee that tho$ co$ldst no *ay ha)e patience *ith meR8 MThen they *ent on $ntil they met a yo$th, and he sle* him& Said Moses, 8Hast tho$ slain him *ho is free from #$ilt of bloodR S$rely no* tho$ hast *ro$#ht an $nheard%of thin#Q8M /fter Moses had bro3en his promise of silence for the third time, 9hadir resol)ed to lea)e him& ME$t first,M he said, MI *ill tell thee the meanin# of that *ith *hich tho$ co$ldst not ha)e patience& /s to the boat, it belon#ed to poor men, toilers on the sea, and I *as minded to dama#e it, for in their rear *as a 3in# *ho seiKed on e)ery boat by force& /nd
,p& !2S-

as to the yo$th, his parents *ere belie)ers, and I feared lest he sho$ld tro$ble them by error and $nbelief&M The S$fis are fond of 5$otin# this $nimpeachable testimony that the (ali is abo)e h$man criticism, and that his hand, as Calal$ddin asserts, is e)en as the hand of 2od& Most Moslems admit the claim to be )alid in so far as they shrin3 from applyin# con)entional standards of morality to holy men& I ha)e explained its metaphysical ?$stification in an earlier chapter& / miracle performed by a saint is termed kara&at, i.e. a 8fa)o$r8 *hich 2od besto*s $pon him, *hereas a miracle performed by a prophet is called &u/4i7at, i.e. an act *hich cannot be imitated by any one& The distinction ori#inated in contro)ersy, and *as $sed to ans*er those *ho held the mirac$lo$s po*ers of the saints to be a #ra)e encroachment on the prero#ati)e of the :rophet& S$fi apolo#ists, *hile confessin# that both 3inds of miracle are s$bstantially the same, ta3e pains to differentiate the characteristics of each" they declare, moreo)er, that the saints are the :rophet8s *itnesses, and that all their miracles +li3e 8a drop tric3lin# from a f$ll s3in of honey8. are in reality deri)ed from him& This is the orthodox )ie* and is s$pported by those Mohammedan mystics *ho ac3no*led#e the La* as *ell
,p& !B -

as the Tr$th, tho$#h in some cases it may ha)e amo$nted to little more than a pio$s opinion& We ha)e often noticed the diffic$lty in *hich the S$fis find themsel)es *hen they try to ma3e a lo#ical compromise *ith Islam& E$t the *ord 8lo#ic8 is )ery misleadin# in this connexion& The be#innin# of *isdom, for ;$ropean st$dents of (riental reli#ion, lies in the disco)ery that incon#r$o$s beliefs%%I mean, of co$rse, beliefs *hich o$r minds cannot harmonise%%d*ell peacef$lly to#ether in the (riental brain" that their o*ner is 5$ite $nconscio$s of their incon#r$ity" and that, as a r$le, he is absol$tely sincere& Contradictions *hich seem #larin# to $s do not tro$ble him at all& The tha$mat$r#ic element in ancient S$fism *as not so important as it after*ards became in the f$lly de)eloped saint%*orship associated *ith the Der)ish (rders& M/ saint

*o$ld be none the less a saint,M says =$shayri, Mif no miracles *ere *ro$#ht by him in this *orld&M In early Mohammedan =it> San$toru& it is not $ncommon to meet *ith sayin#s to the effect that mirac$lo$s po*ers are comparati)ely of small acco$nt& It *as finely said by Sahl ibn H/bdallah that the #reatest miracle is the s$bstit$tion of a #ood 5$ality for a bad one" and the .itab al-,u&a/ #i)es many examples of holy men *ho disli3ed miracles and re#arded them as a temptation&
,p& !B!-

MD$rin# my no)itiate,M said EayaKid, M2od $sed to brin# before me *onders and miracles, b$t I paid no heed to them" and *hen He sa* that I did so, He #a)e me the means of attainin# to 3no*led#e of Himself&M C$nayd obser)ed that reliance on miracles is one of the 8)eils8 *hich hinder the elect from penetratin# to the inmost shrine of the Tr$th& This *as too hi#h doctrine for the #reat mass of Moslems, and in the end the )$l#ar idea of saintship tri$mphed o)er the mystical and theosophical conception& /ll s$ch *arnin#s and scr$ples *ere s*ept aside by the same irresistible instinct *hich rendered )ain the solemn asse)erations of Mohammed that there *as nothin# s$pernat$ral abo$t him, and *hich transformed the h$man :rophet of history into an omnipotent hierophant and ma#ician& The pop$lar demand for miracles far exceeded the s$pply, b$t *here the (alis failed, a )i)id and cred$lo$s ima#ination came to their resc$e and represented them, not as they *ere, b$t as they o$#ht to be& Tear by year the ,egend of the Saints #re* more #lorio$s and *onderf$l as it contin$ed to dra* fresh trib$te from the $nfathomable ocean of (riental romance& The pretensions made by the (alis, or on their behalf, steadily increased, and the stories told of them *ere e)er becomin# more fantastic and extra)a#ant& I *ill de)ote
,p& !B2-

the remainder of this chapter to a s3etch of the (ali as he appears in the )ast medie)al literat$re on the s$b?ect& The Moslem saint does not say that he has *ro$#ht a miracle" he says, Ma miracle *as #ranted or manifested to me&M /ccordin# to one )ie*, he may be f$lly conscio$s at the time, b$t many S$fis hold that s$ch 8manifestation8 cannot ta3e place except in ecstasy, *hen the saint is entirely $nder di)ine control& His o*n personality is then in abeyance, and those *ho interfere *ith him oppose the /lmi#hty :o*er *hich spea3s *ith his lips and smites *ith his hand& Calal$ddin +*ho $ses incidentally the rather do$ble%ed#ed analo#y of a man possessed by a peri ,(ne of the spirits called collecti)ely Cinn&-. relates the follo*in# anecdote concernin# EayaKid of Eistam, a celebrated :ersian saint *ho se)eral times declared in ecstatic frenKy that he *as no other than 2od& /fter comin# to himself on one of these occasions and learnin# *hat blasphemo$s lan#$a#e he had $ttered, EayaKid ordered his disciples to stab him *ith their 3ni)es if he sho$ld offend a#ain& Let me 5$ote the se5$el, from Mr& Whinfield8s abrid#ed translation of the asna"i +p& !SL.N
!T$% #.((%"# .7 &'2"%// 6.(% '3'1 $+/ (%'/."

A"2 $% /9.)% &.(% +&9+.5/-1 #$'" 6%7.(%< =>+#$+" &1 4%/#5(% +/ "'5:$# 65# G.2* ,p& !BB>$%#$%( 1.5 /%%) H+& ." %'(#$ .( +" $%'4%".= H+/ 2+/,+9-%/ '-- 6%,'&% &'2 3+#$ $.((.(* A"2 /#(5,) 3+#$ #$%+( )"+4%/ '# $+/ $.-1 6.21. E',$ ."% 3$. '+&%2 '# #$% 6.21 .7 #$% S$%1)$00 H+/ /#(.)% 3'/ (%4%(/%2 '"2 3.5"2%2 #$% /#(+)%(. N. /#(.)% #..) %77%,# ." #$'# &'" .7 /9+(+#5'- :+7#/* B5# #$% 2+/,+9-%/ 3%(% 3.5"2%2 '"2 2(.3"%2 +" 6-..2.!

Here is the poet8s concl$sionN

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

The life of /b$ Vl%Hasan 9h$r5ani, another :ersian S$fi *ho died in ! BB /&D&, #i)es $s a complete pict$re of the (riental pantheist, and exhibits the min#led arro#ance and s$blimity of the character as clearly as co$ld be desired& Since the ori#inal text co)ers fifty pa#es, I can translate only a small portion of it here& M(nce the Shey3h said, 8This ni#ht a #reat many persons +he mentioned the exact n$mber. ha)e been *o$nded by bri#ands in s$ch%and%s$ch a desert&8
,p& !BG-

(n ma3in# in5$iry, they fo$nd that his statement *as perfectly tr$e& Stran#e to relate, on the same ni#ht his son8s head *as c$t off and laid $pon the threshold of his ho$se, yet he 3ne* nothin# of it& His *ife, *ho disbelie)ed in him, cried, 8What thin3 yo$ of a man *ho can tell thin#s *hich happen many lea#$es a*ay, b$t does not 3no* that his o*n son8s head has been c$t off and is lyin# at his )ery doorR8 8Tes,8 the Shey3h ans*ered, 8*hen I sa* that, the )eil had been lifted, b$t *hen my son *as 3illed, it had been let do*n a#ain&8M M(ne day /b$ Vl%Hasan 9h$r5ani clenched his fist and extended the little fin#er and said, 8Here is the qibla ,The qibla is the point to *hich Moslems t$rn their faces *hen prayin#, i.e. the 9aHba&-, if any one desires to become a S$fi&8 These *ords *ere reported to the 2rand Shey3h, *ho, deemin# the co%existence of t*o qiblas an ins$lt to the di)ine 'nity, exclaimed, 8Since a second qibla has appeared, I *ill cancel the former one&8 /fter that, no pil#rims *ere able to reach Mecca& Some perished on the *ay, others fell into the

hands of robbers, or *ere pre)ented by )ario$s ca$ses from accomplishin# their ?o$rney& >ext year a certain der)ish said to the 2rand
,p& !BI-

Shey3h, 8What sense is there in 3eepin# the fol3 a*ay from the Ho$se of 2odR8 There$pon the 2rand Shey3h made a si#n, and the road became open once more& The der)ish as3ed, 8Whose fa$lt is it that all these people ha)e perishedR8 The 2rand Shey3h replied, 8When elephants ?ostle each other, *ho cares if a fe* *retched birds are cr$shed to deathR8M MSome persons *ho *ere settin# forth on a ?o$rney be##ed 9h$r5ani to teach them a prayer that *o$ld 3eep them safe from the perils of the road& He said, 8If any misfort$ne sho$ld befall yo$, mention my name&8 This ans*er *as not a#reeable to them" they set off, ho*e)er, and *hile tra)ellin# *ere attac3ed by bri#ands& (ne of the party mentioned the saint8s name and immediately became in)isible, to the #reat astonishment of the bri#ands, *ho co$ld not find either his camel or his bales of merchandise" the others lost all their clothes and #oods& (n ret$rnin# home, they as3ed the Shey3h to explain the mystery& 8We all in)o3ed 2od,8 they said, 8and *itho$t s$ccess" b$t the one man *ho in)o3ed yo$ )anished from before the eyes of the robbers&8 8To$ in)o3e 2od formally,8 said the Shey3h, 8*hereas
,p& !BL-

I in)o3e Him really& Hence, if yo$ in)o3e me and I then in)o3e 2od on yo$r behalf, yo$r prayers are #ranted" b$t it is $seless for yo$ to in)o3e 2od formally and by rote&8M M(ne ni#ht, *hile he *as prayin#, he heard a )oice cry, 8HaQ /b$ Vl%HasanQ Dost tho$ *ish Me to tell the people *hat I 3no* of thee, that they may stone thee to deathR8 8( Lord 2od,8 he replied, 8dost Tho$ *ish me to tell the people *hat I 3no* of Thy mercy and *hat I percei)e of Thy #race, that none of them may e)er a#ain bo* to Thee in prayerR8 The )oice ans*ered, 89eep thy secret, and I *ill 3eep Mine&8M MHe said, 8( 2od, do not send to me the /n#el of Death, for I *ill not #i)e $p my so$l to him& Ho* sho$ld I restore it to him, from *hom I did not recei)e itR I recei)ed my so$l from Thee, and I *ill not #i)e it $p to any one b$t Thee&8M MHe said, 8/fter I shall ha)e passed a*ay, the /n#el of Death *ill come to one of my descendants and set abo$t ta3in# his so$l, and *ill deal hardly *ith him& Then *ill I raise my hands from the tomb and shed the #race of 2od $pon his lips&8M MHe said, 8If I bade the empyrean
,p& !BO-

mo)e, it *o$ld obey, and if I told the s$n to stop, it *o$ld cease from rollin# on its co$rse&8M MHe said, 8I am not a de)otee nor an ascetic nor a theolo#ian nor a S$fi& ( 2od, Tho$ art (ne, and thro$#h Thy (neness I am (ne&8M MHe said, 8The s3$ll of my head is the empyrean, and my feet are $nder the earth, and my t*o hands are ;ast and West&8M MHe said, 8If any one does not belie)e that I shall stand $p at the Aes$rrection and that he shall not enter :aradise $ntil I lead him for*ard, let him not come here to sal$te me&8M MHe said, 8Since 2od bro$#ht me forth from myself, :aradise is in 5$est of me and Hell is in fear of me" and if :aradise and Hell *ere to pass by this place *here I am, both *o$ld become annihilated in me, to#ether *ith all the people *hom they contain&8M MHe said, 8I *as lyin# on my bac3, asleep& 4rom a corner of the Throne of 2od somethin# tric3led into my mo$th, and I felt a s*eetness in my in*ard bein#&8M

MHe said, 8If a fe* drops of that *hich is $nder the s3in of a saint sho$ld come forth bet*een his lips,
,p& !BD-

all the creat$res of hea)en and earth *o$ld fall into panic&8M MHe said, 8Thro$#h prayer the saints are able to stop the fish from s*immin# in the sea and to ma3e the earth tremble, so that people thin3 it is an earth5$a3e&8M MHe said, 8If the lo)e of 2od in the hearts of His friends *ere made manifest, it *o$ld fill the *orld *ith flood and fire&8M MHe said, 8He that li)es *ith 2od hath seen all thin#s )isible, and heard all thin#s a$dible, and done all that is to be done, and 3no*n all that is to be 3no*n&8M MHe said, 8/ll thin#s are contained in me, b$t there is no room for myself in me&8M MHe said, 8Miracles are only the first of the tho$sand sta#es of the Way to 2od&8M MHe said, 8Do not see3 $ntil tho$ art so$#ht, for *hen tho$ findest that *hich tho$ see3est, it *ill resemble thee&8M MHe said, 8Tho$ m$st daily die a tho$sand deaths and come to life a#ain, that tho$ mayst *in the life immortal&8M MHe said, 8When tho$ #i)est to 2od thy nothin#ness, He #i)es to thee His /ll&8M
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JJJ It *o$ld be an almost endless tas3 to en$merate and exemplify the different classes of miracles *hich are related in the li)es of the Mohammedan saints%%for instance, *al3in# on *ater, flyin# in the air +*ith or *itho$t a passen#er., rain%ma3in#, appearin# in )ario$s places at the same time, healin# by the breath, brin#in# the dead to life, 3no*led#e and prediction of f$t$re e)ents, tho$#ht%readin#, tele3inesis, paralysin# or beheadin# an obnoxio$s person by a *ord or #est$re, con)ersin# *ith animals or plants, t$rnin# earth into #old or precio$s stones, prod$cin# food and drin3, etc& To the Moslem, *ho has no sense of nat$ral la*, all these 8)iolations of c$stom,8 as he calls them, seem e5$ally credible& We, on the other hand, feel o$rsel)es obli#ed to distin#$ish phenomena *hich *e re#ard as irrational and impossible from those for *hich *e can find some sort of 8nat$ral8 explanation& Modern theories of psychical infl$ence, faith%healin#, telepathy, )eridical hall$cination, hypnotic s$##estion and the li3e, ha)e thro*n open to $s a *ide a)en$e of approach to this dar3 continent in the ;astern mind& I *ill not, ho*e)er, p$rs$e the s$b?ect far at present, f$ll of interest as it is& In the hi#her S$fi teachin# the mirac$lo$s po*ers of the saints play a more or less insi#nificant part, and the excessi)e importance *hich they ass$me in the or#an%
,p& !G -

ised mysticism of the Der)ish (rders is one of the clearest mar3s of its de#eneracy& The follo*in# passa#e, *hich I ha)e sli#htly modified, #i)es a fair s$mmary of the hypnotic process thro$#h *hich a der)ish attains to $nion *ith 2odN MThe disciple m$st, mystically, al*ays bear his M$rshid +spirit$al director. in mind, and become mentally absorbed in him thro$#h a constant meditation and contemplation of him& The teacher m$st be his shield a#ainst all e)il tho$#hts& The spirit of the teacher

follo*s him in all his efforts, and accompanies him *here)er he may be, 5$ite as a #$ardian spirit& To s$ch a de#ree is this carried that he sees the master in all men and in all thin#s, ?$st as a *illin# s$b?ect is $nder the infl$ence of the ma#netiser& This condition is called 8self%annihilation8 in the M$rshid or Shey3h& The latter finds, in his o*n )isionary dreams, the de#ree *hich the disciple has reached, and *hether or not his spirit has become bo$nd to his o*n& M/t this sta#e the Shey3h passes him o)er to the spirit$al infl$ence of the lon#%deceased :ir or ori#inal fo$nder of the (rder, and he sees the latter only by the spirit$al aid of the Shey3h& This is called 8self%annihilation8 in the :ir& He
,p& !G!-

no* becomes so m$ch a part of the :ir as to possess all his spirit$al po*ers& MThe third #rade leads him, also thro$#h the spirit$al aid of the Shey3h, $p to the :rophet himself, *hom he no* sees in all thin#s& This state is called 8self%annihilation8 in the :rophet& MThe fo$rth de#ree leads him e)en to 2od& He becomes $nited *ith the Deity and sees Him in all thin#s&M ,C& :& Ero*n, The !er"ishes? or @riental Spiritualis& +!DLD., p& 2SD&/n excellent concrete ill$stration of the process here described *ill be fo$nd in the *ell% 3no*n case of Ta*a33$l Ee#, *ho passed thro$#h all these experiences $nder the control of Molla%Shah& His acco$nt is too lon# to 5$ote in f$ll" moreo)er, it has recently been translated by :rofessor D& E& Macdonald in his <eligious ,ife and Attitude in 1sla& +pp& !SO ff&.& I copy from this )ersion one para#raph describin# the first of the fo$r sta#es mentioned abo)e& MThere$pon he made me sit before him, my senses bein# as tho$#h intoxicated, and ordered me to reprod$ce my o*n ima#e *ithin myself" and, after ha)in# banda#ed my eyes, he as3ed me to concentrate all my mental fac$lties on my heart& I obeyed, and in an instant, by the di)ine fa)o$r and by the spirit$al assistance of the Shey3h, my
,p& !G2-

heart opened& I sa*, then, that there *as somethin# li3e an o)ert$rned c$p *ithin me& This ha)in# been set $pri#ht, a sensation of $nbo$nded happiness filled my bein#& I said to the master, 8This cell *here I am seated before yo$%%I see a faithf$l reprod$ction of it *ithin me, and it appears to me as tho$#h another Ta*a33$l Ee# *ere seated before another Molla%Shah&8 He replied, 8<ery #oodQ the first apparition *hich appears to thee is the ima#e of the master&8 He then ordered me to $nco)er my eyes" and I sa* him, *ith the physical or#an of )ision, seated before me& He then made me bind my eyes a#ain, and I percei)ed him *ith my spirit$al si#ht, seated similarly before me& 4$ll of astonishment, I cried o$t, 8( MasterQ *hether I loo3 *ith my physical or#ans or *ith my spirit$al si#ht, al*ays it is yo$ that I seeQ8M Here is a case of a$tohypnotism, *itnessed and recorded by the poet CamiN MMa*lana SaHd$ddin of 9ash#har, after a little concentration of tho$#ht +ta(a44uh., $sed to exhibit si#ns of $nconscio$sness& /nyone i#norant of this circ$mstance *o$ld ha)e fancied that he *as fallin# asleep& When I first entered into companionship *ith him,
,p& !GB-

I happened one day to be seated before him in the con#re#ational mos5$e& /ccordin# to his c$stom, he fell into a trance& I s$pposed that he *as #oin# to sleep, and I said to him, 8If yo$ desire to rest for a short time, yo$ *ill not seem to me to be far off&8 He smiled and said, 8/pparently yo$ do not belie)e that this is somethin# different from sleep&8M The follo*in# anecdote presents #reater diffic$ltiesN MMa*lana >iKam$ddin 9ham$sh relates that one day his master, H/laV$ddin H/ttar, started to )isit the tomb of the celebrated saint Mohammed ibn H/li Ha3im, at Tirmidh& 8I did not accompany him,8 said >iKam$ddin, 8b$t stayed at home, and by concentratin# my mind +ta(a44uh. I s$cceeded in brin#in# the spirit$ality of the saint before me, so that *hen the master arri)ed at the tomb he fo$nd it empty& He m$st ha)e 3no*n the ca$se, for on his ret$rn he set to *or3 in order to brin# me $nder his control& I, too, concentrated my mind, b$t I fo$nd myself li3e a do)e and the master li3e a ha*3 flyin# in chase of me& Where)er I t$rned, he *as al*ays close behind& /t last, despairin# of escape, I too3 ref$#e *ith the spirit$ality of the
,p& !GG-

:rophet +on *hom be peace. and became effaced in its infinite radiance& The master co$ld not exercise any f$rther control& He fell ill in conse5$ence of his cha#rin, and no one except myself 3ne* the reason&8M H/laV$ddin8s son, 9h*a?a Hasan H/ttar, possessed s$ch po*ers of 8control8 that he co$ld at *ill thro* any one into the state of trance and ca$se them to experience the 8passin#% a*ay8 +fana. to *hich some mystics attain only on rare occasions and after prolon#ed self%mortification& It is related that the disciples and )isitors *ho *ere admitted to the hono$r of 3issin# his hand al*ays fell $nconscio$s to the #ro$nd& Certain saints are belie)ed to ha)e the po*er of ass$min# *hate)er shape they please& (ne of the most famo$s *as /bd H/bdallah of Mos$l, better 3no*n by the name of =adib al%Ean& (ne day the Cadi of Mos$l, *ho re#arded him as a detestable heretic, sa* him in a street of the to*n, approachin# from the opposite direction& He resol)ed to seiKe him and lay a char#e a#ainst him before the #o)ernor, in order that he mi#ht be p$nished& /ll at once he percei)ed that =adib al%Ean had ta3en the form of a 9$rd" and as the saint ad)anced to*ards him, his appearance chan#ed a#ain, this time into an /rab of the desert& 4inally, on comin# still nearer, he ass$med the #$ise
,p& !GI-

and dress of a doctor of theolo#y, and cried, M( CadiQ *hich =adib al%Ean *ill yo$ hale before the #o)ernor and p$nishRM The Cadi repented of his hostility and became one of the saint8s disciples& In concl$sion, let me #i)e t*o alle#ed instances of 8the obedience of inanimate ob?ects,8 i.e. tele3inesisN MWhilst Dh$ Vl%>$n *as con)ersin# on this topic *ith some friends, he said, 8Here is a sofa& It *ill mo)e ro$nd the room, if I tell it to do so&8 >o sooner had he $ttered the *ord

8mo)e8 than the sofa made a circ$it of the room and ret$rned to its place& (ne of the spectators, a yo$n# man, b$rst into tears and #a)e $p the #host& They laid him on that sofa and *ashed him for b$rial&M M/)icenna paid a )isit to /b$ Vl%Hasan 9h$r5ani and immediately pl$n#ed into a lon# and abstr$se disc$ssion& /fter a time the saint, *ho *as an illiterate person, felt tired, so he #ot $p and said, 8;xc$se me" I m$st #o and mend the #arden *all8" and off he *ent, ta3in# a hatchet *ith him& /s soon as he had climbed on to the top of the *all, the hatchet dropped from his hand& /)icenna ran to pic3 it $p, b$t before he reached it the hatchet rose of itself and came bac3
,p& !GL-

into the saint8s hand& /)icenna lost all his self%command, and the enth$siastic belief in S$fism *hich then too3 possession of him contin$ed $ntil, at a later period of his life, he abandoned mysticism for philosophy&M I am *ell a*are that in this chapter scanty ?$stice has been done to a #reat s$b?ect& The historian of S$fism m$st ac3no*led#e, ho*e)er deeply he may deplore, the f$ndamental position occ$pied by the doctrine of saintship and the tremendo$s infl$ence *hich it has exerted in its practical res$lts%%#ro)ellin# s$bmission to the a$thority of an ecstatic class of men, dependence on their fa)o$r, pil#rima#e to their shrines, adoration of their relics, de)otion of e)ery mental and spirit$al fac$lty to their ser)ice& It may be dan#ero$s to *orship 2od by one8s o*n inner li#ht, b$t it is far more deadly to see3 Him by the inner li#ht of another& <icario$s holiness has no compensations& This tr$th is expressed by the mystical *riters in many an elo5$ent passa#e, b$t I *ill content myself *ith 5$otin# a fe* lines from the life of H/laV$ddin H/ttar, the same saint *ho, as *e ha)e seen, )ainly tried to hypnotise his p$pil in re)en#e for a disrespectf$l tric3 *hich the latter had played on him& His bio#rapher relates that he said, MIt is more ri#ht and *orthy to
,p& !GO-

d*ell beside 2od than to d*ell beside 2od8s creat$res,M and that the follo*in# )erse *as often on his blessed ton#$eN
!H.3 -.": 3+-- 1.5 3.(/$+9 '# #$% #.&6/ .7 $.-1 &%"? B5/1 1.5(/%-7 3+#$ #$% works .7 $.-1 &%"* '"2 1.5 '(% /'4%2B! K!tu ta kay gur-i mardan-ra parasti bi-gird-i kar-i mardan gard u rasti.!L ,p& !GD-

!T$% /#.(1 '2&+#/ .7 6%+": #.-2 59 #. #$+/ 9.+"#* B5# 3$'# 7.--.3/ +/ $+22%"* '"2 +"%D9(%//+6-% +" 3.(2/. I7 1.5 /$.5-2 /9%') '"2 #(1 ' $5"2(%2 3'1/ #. %D9(%// +#* =T+/ 5/%-%//8 #$% &1/#%(1 6%,.&%/ ". ,-%'(%(*

Y.5 ,'" (+2% ." /'22-% '"2 $.(/% #. #$% /%'0,.'/#* B5# #$%" 1.5 &5/# 5/% ' $.(/% .7 3..2 Ki.e. ' 6.'#L. A $.(/% .7 3..2 +/ 5/%-%// ." 2(1 -'"2* I# +/ #$% /9%,+'- 4%$+,-% .7 4.1':%(/ 61 /%'. S+-%",% +/ #$+/ $.(/% .7 3..2* S+-%",% +/ #$% :5+2% '"2 /599.(# .7 &%" '# /%'.! @T$% Masnavi .7 H'-'-522+" R5&+. A6(+2:%2 #('"/-'#+." 61 E. H. >$+"7+%-2* 9. 26.A

>o one can approach the s$b?ect of this chapter%%the state of the mystic *ho has reached his ?o$rney8s end%%*itho$t feelin# that all symbolical descriptions of $nion *ith 2od and theories concernin# its nat$re are little better than leaps in the dar3& Ho* shall *e form any conception of that *hich is declared to be ineffable by those *ho ha)e act$ally experienced itR I can only reply that the same diffic$lty confronts $s in dealin# *ith all mystical phenomena,
,p& !GS-

tho$#h it appears less formidable at lo*er le)els, and that the poet8s co$nsel of silence has not pre)ented him from interpretin# the deepest mysteries of S$fism *ith $nri)alled insi#ht and po*er& Whate)er terms may be $sed to describe it, the $niti)e state is the c$lmination of the simplifyin# process by *hich the so$l is #rad$ally isolated from all that is forei#n to itself, from all that is not 2od& 'nli3e >ir)ana, *hich is merely the cessation of indi)id$ality, fana, the passin#%a*ay of the S$fi from his phenomenal existence, in)ol)es baqa, the contin$ance of his real existence& He *ho dies to self li)es in 2od, and fana, the cons$mmation of this death, mar3s the attainment of baqa, or $nion *ith the di)ine life& Deification, in short, is the Moslem mystic8s ulti&a Thule& In the early part of the tenth cent$ry H$sayn ibn Mans$r, 3no*n to fame as al%Halla? +the *ool%carder., *as barbaro$sly done to death at Ea#hdad& His exec$tion seems to ha)e been dictated by political moti)es, b$t *ith these *e are not concerned& /mon#st the cro*d assembled ro$nd the scaffold, a fe*, perhaps, belie)ed him to be *hat he said he *as" the rest *itnessed *ith ex$ltation or stern appro)al the p$nishment of a blasphemo$s heretic& He had $ttered in t*o *ords a sentence *hich Islam has, on the *hole, for#i)en b$t has
,p& !I -

ne)er for#ottenN MAna -l-HaqqM%%MI am 2od&M The recently p$blished researches of M& Lo$is Massi#non ,.itab al-Ta(asin +:aris, !S!B.& See especially pp& !2S%!G!&- ma3e it possible, for the first time, to indicate the meanin# *hich Halla? himself attached to this celebrated form$la, and to assert definitely that it does not a#ree *ith the more orthodox interpretations offered at a later epoch by S$fis belon#in# to )ario$s schools& /ccordin# to Halla?, man is essentially di)ine& 2od created /dam in

His o*n ima#e& He pro?ected from Himself that ima#e of His eternal lo)e, that He mi#ht behold Himself as in a mirror& Hence He bade the an#els *orship /dam +9or& 2&B2., in *hom, as in Ces$s, He became incarnate&
!G-.(1 #. H+& 3$. (%4%'-%2 +" H+/ $5&'"+#1 Ki.e. +" A2'&L #$% /%,(%# .7 H+/ ('2+'"# 2+4+"+#1* A"2 #$%" '99%'(%2 #. H+/ ,(%'#5(%/ 4+/+6-1 +" #$% /$'9% .7 ."% 3$. '#% '"2 2('") KH%/5/L.!

Since the 8h$manity8 +nasut. of 2od comprises the *hole bodily and spirit$al nat$re of man, the 8di)inity8 +lahut. of 2od cannot $nite *ith that nat$re except by means of an incarnation or, to adopt the term employed by Massi#non, an inf$sion +hulul. of the di)ine Spirit, s$ch as ta3es place *hen the h$man spirit enters the
,p& !I!-

body& ,Massi#non appears to be ri#ht in identifyin# the Di)ine Spirit *ith the /cti)e Aeason +intelle$tus
agens., *hich, accordin# to /lexander of /phrodisias, is not a part or fac$lty of o$r so$l, b$t comes to $s from *itho$t& See In#e, Ahristian ysti$is&, pp& BL , BL!& The doctrine of Halla? may be compared *ith that of Ta$ler, A$ysbroec3, and others concernin# the birth of 2od in the so$l&- Th$s Halla? says in

one of his poemsN

!T$1 S9+(+# +/ &+":-%2 +" &1 /9+(+# %4%" '/ 3+"% +/ &+":-%2 3+#$ 95(% 3'#%(. >$%" '"1#$+": #.5,$%/ T$%%* +# #.5,$%/ &%. L.* +" %4%(1 ,'/% T$.5 '(# IB!

/nd a#ainN
!I '& H% 3$.& I -.4%* '"2 H% 3$.& I -.4% +/ I< >% '(% #3. /9+(+#/ 23%--+": +" ."% 6.21. I7 #$.5 /%%/# &%* #$.5 /%%/# H+&* A"2 +7 #$.5 /%%/# H+&* #$.5 /%%/# 5/ 6.#$.!

This doctrine of personal deification, in the pec$liar form *hich *as impressed $pon it by Halla?, is ob)io$sly a3in to the central doctrine of Christianity, and therefore, from the Moslem standpoint, a heresy of the *orst 3ind& It s$r)i)ed $nad$lterated only amon#st his immediate follo*ers& The H$l$lis, i.e. those *ho belie)e in incarnation, are rep$diated by S$fis in #eneral 5$ite as )ehemently as by orthodox Moslems& E$t *hile the former ha)e $nhesitatin#ly condemned the doctrine of hulul, they ha)e also done their best to clear Halla? from the s$spicion of ha)in# ta$#ht it& Three main lines of defence are follo*edN +!.
,p& !I2-

Halla? did not sin a#ainst the Tr$th, b$t he *as ?$stly p$nished in so far as he committed a #ra)e offence a#ainst the La*& He Mbetrayed the secret of his LordM by proclaimin# to

all and s$ndry the s$preme mystery *hich o$#ht to be reser)ed for the elect& +2. Halla? spo3e $nder the intoxicatin# infl$ence of ecstasy& He ima#ined himself to be $nited *ith the di)ine essence, *hen in fact he *as only $nited *ith one of the di)ine attrib$tes& +B. Halla? meant to declare that there is no essential difference or separation bet*een 2od and His creat$res, inasm$ch as the di)ine $nity incl$des all bein#& / man *ho has entirely passed a*ay from his phenomenal self exists qu8 his real self, *hich is 2od&
!I" #$'# :-.(1 +/ ". =I= .( =>%= .( =T$.5.= =I*= =>%*= =T$.5*= '"2 =H%= '(% '-- ."% #$+":.!

It *as not Halla? *ho cried MAna -l-Haqq,M b$t 2od Himself, spea3in#, as it *ere, by the mo$th of the selfless Halla?, ?$st as He spo3e to Moses thro$#h the medi$m of the b$rnin# b$sh +9or& 2 &D%!G.& The last explanation, *hich con)erts Ana -l-Haqq into an impersonal monistic axiom, is accepted by most S$fis as representin# the tr$e Halla?ian teachin#& In a ma#nificent ode Calal$ddin A$mi describes ho* the (ne Li#ht shines in myriad forms thro$#h the *hole $ni)erse, and ho*
,p& !IB-

the (ne ;ssence, remainin# e)er the same, clothes itself from a#e to a#e in the prophets and saints *ho are its *itnesses to man3ind&
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na l-Haqq.= T$'# ."% 3$. &.5"#%2 #$% /,'77.-2 3'/ ".# M'"/5( @H'--'F +/ .7#%" ,'--%2 M'"/5(* 3$+,$ +/ 9(.9%(-1 #$% "'&% .7 $+/ 7'#$%(.A* #$.5:$

#$% 7..-+/$ +&':+"%2 +#. R5&+ $'#$ ".# /9.)%" '"2 3+-- ".# /9%') 3.(2/ .7 +"7+2%-+#1< 2. ".# 2+/6%-+%4% $+&B >$./.%4%( /$.3/ 2+/6%-+%7 +/ '" +"7+2%- '"2 ."% .7 #$./% 3$. $'4% 6%%" 2..&%2 #. H%--.! ,p& !IG-

JJJ /ltho$#h in Western and Central /sia%%*here the :ersian 3in#s *ere re#arded by their s$b?ects as #ods, and *here the doctrines of incarnation, anthropomorphism, and metempsychosis are indi#eno$s%%the idea of the 2od%man *as neither so $nfamiliar nor $nnat$ral as to shoc3 the p$blic conscience )ery profo$ndly, Halla? had form$lated that idea in s$ch a *ay that no mysticism callin# itself Mohammedan co$ld tolerate, m$ch less adopt it& To assert that the di)ine and h$man nat$res may be interf$sed and commin#led ,Hulul *as not $nderstood in this sense by Halla? +Massi#non, op. $it., p& !SS., tho$#h the
)erses 5$oted on p& !I! readily s$##est s$ch an interpretation& Halla?, I thin3, *o$ld ha)e a#reed *ith ;c3hart +*ho said, MThe *ord 1 a& none can tr$ly spea3 b$t 2od aloneM. that the personality in *hich the ;ternal is immanent has itself a part in eternity +In#e, Ahristian ysti$is&, p& !GS, note.&-, *o$ld ha)e

been to deny the principle of $nity on *hich Islam is based& The s$bse5$ent history of S$fism sho*s ho* deification *as identified *ith $nification& The antithesis%%2od, Man%%melted a*ay in the pantheistic theory *hich has been explained abo)e ,see pp& OS ff&-& There is no real existence apart from 2od& Man is an emanation or a reflexion or a mode of /bsol$te Eein#& What he thin3s of as indi)id$ality is in tr$th not%bein#" it cannot be separated or $nited, for it does not exist& Man is 2od, yet *ith
,p& !II-

a difference& /ccordin# to Ibn al%H/rabi ,Massi#non, op. $it., p& !DB&- the eternal and the phenomenal are t*o complementary aspects of the (ne, each of *hich is necessary to the other& The creat$res are the external manifestation of the Creator, and Man is 2od8s conscio$sness +sirr. as re)ealed in creation& E$t since Man, o*in# to the limitations of his mind, cannot thin3 all ob?ects of tho$#ht sim$ltaneo$sly, and therefore expresses only a part of the di)ine conscio$sness, he is not entitled to say Ana -l-Haqq, MI am 2od&M He is a reality, b$t not the Aeality& We shall see that other S$fis%%Calal$ddin A$mi, for example%%in their ecstatic moments, at any rate, i#nore this rather s$btle distinction& The statement that in realisin# the non%entity of his indi)id$al self the S$fi realises his essential oneness *ith 2od, s$ms $p the Mohammedan theory of deification in terms *ith *hich my readers are no* familiar& I *ill endea)o$r to sho* *hat more precise meanin# may be assi#ned to it, partly in my o*n *ords and partly by means of ill$strati)e extracts from )ario$s a$thors& Se)eral aspects of fana ha)e already been distin#$ished ,See pp& L , L!&-& The hi#hest of these%%the passin#%a*ay in the di)ine essence%%is f$lly described by >iffari, *ho employs instead of fana and fani +self%na$#hted. the terms
,p& !IL-

(aqfat, si#nifyin# cessation from search, and (aqif, i.e. one *ho desists from see3in# and passes a*ay in the (b?ect So$#ht& Here are some of the chief points that occ$r in the text and commentary& *aqfat is l$mino$sN it expels the dar3 tho$#hts of 8otherness,8 ?$st as li#ht banishes dar3ness" it chan#es the phenomenal )al$es of all existent thin#s into their real and eternal )al$es& Hence the (aqif transcends time and place& MHe enters e)ery ho$se and it contains him not" he drin3s from e)ery *ell b$t is not satisfied" then he reaches Me, and I am his home, and his abode is *ith MeM%%that is to say, he comprehends all the di)ine attrib$tes and embraces all mystical experiences& He is not satisfied *ith the names +attrib$tes., b$t see3s the >amed& He contemplates the essence of 2od and finds it identical *ith his o*n& He does not pray& :rayer is from man to 2od, b$t in (aqfat there is nothin# b$t 2od& The (aqif lea)es not a rac3 behind him, nor any heir except 2od& When e)en the phenomenon of (aqfat has disappeared from his conscio$sness, he becomes the )ery Li#ht& Then his praise of 2od proceeds from 2od, and his 3no*led#e is 2od8s 3no*led#e, *ho beholds Himself alone as He *as in the be#innin#& We need not expect to disco)er ho* this
,p& !IO-

essentialisation, s$bstit$tion, or transm$tation is effected& It is the #rand paradox of S$fism%%the agnu& @pus *ro$#ht someho* in created man by a Eein# *hose nat$re is eternally de)oid of the least taint of creat$reliness& /s I ha)e remar3ed abo)e, the chan#e, ho*e)er it may be concei)ed, does not in)ol)e inf$sion of the di)ine essence +hulul. or identification of the di)ine and h$man nat$res +ittihad.& Eoth these doctrines are #enerally condemned& /b$ >asr al%Sarra? criticises them in t*o passa#es of his .itab al-,u&a/, as follo*sN MSome mystics of Ea#hdad ha)e erred in their doctrine that *hen they pass a*ay from their 5$alities they enter into the 5$alities of 2od& This leads to incarnation +hulul. or to the Christian belief concernin# Ces$s& The doctrine in 5$estion has been attrib$ted to some of the ancients, b$t its tr$e meanin# is this, that *hen a man #oes forth from his o*n 5$alities and enters into the 5$alities of 2od, he #oes forth from his o*n *ill and enters into the *ill of 2od, 3no*in# that his *ill is #i)en to him by 2od and that by )irt$e of this #ift he is se)ered from re#ardin# himself, so that he becomes entirely de)oted to 2od" and this is one of the sta#es of 'nitarians& Those *ho ha)e erred in this doctrine ha)e failed to
,p& !ID-

obser)e that the 5$alities of 2od are not 2od& To ma3e 2od identical *ith His 5$alities is to be #$ilty of infidelity, beca$se 2od does not descend into the heart, b$t that *hich descends into the heart is faith in 2od and belief in His $nity and re)erence for the tho$#ht of Him&M

In the second passa#e he ma3es $se of a similar ar#$ment in order to ref$te the doctrine of ittihad& MSome ha)e abstained from food and drin3, fancyin# that *hen a man8s body is *ea3ened it is possible that he may lose his h$manity and be in)ested *ith the attrib$tes of di)inity& The i#norant persons *ho hold this erroneo$s doctrine cannot distin#$ish bet*een h$manity and the inborn 5$alities of h$manity& H$manity does not depart from man any more than blac3ness departs from that *hich is blac3 or *hiteness from that *hich is *hite, b$t the inborn 5$alities of h$manity are chan#ed and transm$ted by the all% po*erf$l radiance that is shed $pon them from the di)ine Aealities& The attrib$tes of h$manity are not the essence of h$manity& Those *ho inc$lcate the doctrine of fana mean the passin#%a*ay of re#ardin# one8s o*n actions and *or3s of de)otion thro$#h
,p& !IS-

the contin$ance of re#ardin# 2od as the doer of these actions on behalf of His ser)ant&M H$?*iri characterises as abs$rd the belief that passin#%a*ay +fana. si#nifies loss of essence and destr$ction of corporeal s$bstance, and that 8abidin#8 +baqa. indicates the ind*ellin# of 2od in man& Aeal passin#%a*ay from anythin#, he says, implies conscio$sness of its imperfection and absence of desire for it& Whoe)er passes a*ay from his o*n perishable *ill abides in the e)erlastin# *ill of 2od, b$t h$man attrib$tes cannot become di)ine attrib$tes or )ice )ersa& MThe po*er of fire transforms to its o*n 5$ality anythin# that falls into it, and s$rely the po*er of 2od8s *ill is #reater than that of fire" yet fire affects only the 5$ality of iron *itho$t chan#in# its s$bstance, for iron can ne)er become fire&M In another part of his *or3 H$?*iri defines 8$nion8 +4a&/. as concentration of tho$#ht $pon the desired ob?ect& Th$s Ma?n$n, the (rlando 4$rioso of Islam, concentrated his tho$#hts on Layla, so that he sa* only her in the *hole *orld, and all created thin#s ass$med the form of Layla in his eyes& Some one came to the cell of EayaKid and as3ed, MIs EayaKid hereRM He ans*ered, MIs any one here b$t 2odRM
,p& !L -

The principle in all s$ch cases, H$?*iri adds, is the same, namelyN MThat 2od di)ides the one s$bstance of His lo)e and besto*s a particle thereof, as a pec$liar #ift, $pon e)ery one of His friends in proportion to their enra)ishment *ith Him" then he lets do*n $pon that particle the shro$ds of fleshliness and h$man nat$re and temperament and spirit, in order that by its po*erf$l *or3in# it may transm$te to its o*n 5$ality all the particles that are attached to it, $ntil the lo)er8s clay is *holly con)erted into lo)e and all his acts and loo3s become so many properties of lo)e& This state is named 8$nion8 ali3e by those *ho re#ard the in*ard sense and the o$t*ard expression&M Then he 5$otes these )erses of Halla?N

MThy *ill be done& ( my Lord and MasterQ Thy *ill be done, ( my p$rpose and meanin#Q ( essence of my bein#, ( #oal of my desire, ( my speech and my hints and my #est$resQ ( all of my all, ( my hearin# and my si#ht, ( my *hole and my element and my particlesQM The enrapt$red S$fi *ho has passed beyond the ill$sion of s$b?ect and ob?ect and bro3en thro$#h to the (neness can either deny that he is anythin# or affirm that he is all thin#s& /s an example of 8the ne#ati)e *ay,8 ta3e the openin# lines of an ode by
,p& !L!-

Calal$ddin *hich I ha)e rendered into )erse, imitatin# the metrical form of the :ersian as closely as the #eni$s of o$r lan#$a#e *ill permitN
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

The follo*in# poem, also by Calal$ddin, expresses the positi)e aspect of the cosmic conscio$snessN
!I7 #$%(% 6% '"1 -.4%( +" #$% 3.(-2* O M./-%&/* =#+/ I. I7 #$%(% 6% '"1 6%-+%4%(* +"7+2%-* .( C$(+/#+'" $%(&+#* =#+/ I. T$% 3+"%02(%:/* #$% ,596%'(%(* #$% &+"/#(%-* #$% $'(9* '"2 #$% &5/+,* T$% 6%-.4%2* #$% ,'"2-%* #$% 2(+") '"2 #$% F.1 .7 #$% 2(5")%"00=#+/ I. T$% #3.0'"20/%4%"#1 ,(%%2/ '"2 /%,#/ +" #$% 3.(-2 ,p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

What Calal$ddin $tters in a moment of ecstatic )ision Henry More describes as a past experienceN MHo* lo)elyM +he says., Mho* ma#nificent a state is the so$l of man in, *hen the life of 2od inact$atin# her shoots her alon# *ith Himself thro$#h hea)en and earth" ma3es her $nite *ith, and after a sort feel herself animate, the *hole *orld& He that is here loo3s $pon all thin#s as (ne, and on himself, if he can then mind himself, as a part of the Whole&M 4or some S$fis, absorption in the ecstasy of fana is the end of their pil#rima#e& Thenceforth no relation exists bet*een them and the *orld& >othin# of themsel)es is left in them" as indi)id$als, they are dead& Immersed in 'nity, they 3no* neither la* nor reli#ion nor any form of phenomenal
,p& !LB-

bein#& E$t those 2od%intoxicated de)otees *ho ne)er ret$rn to sobriety ha)e fallen short of the hi#hest perfection& The f$ll circle of deification m$st comprehend both the in*ard and o$t*ard aspects of Deity%%the (ne and the Many, the Tr$th and the La*& It is not eno$#h to escape from all that is creat$rely, *itho$t enterin# into the eternal life of 2od the Creator as manifested in His *or3s& To abide in 2od +baqa. after ha)in# passed%a*ay from selfhood +fana. is the mar3 of the :erfect Man, *ho not only ?o$rneys to 2od, i.e. passes from pl$rality to $nity, b$t in and (ith 2od, i.e. contin$in# in the $niti)e state, he ret$rns *ith 2od to the phenomenal *orld from *hich he set o$t, and manifests $nity in pl$rality& In this descent
!H% &')%/ #$% L'3 $+/ 599%( :'(&%"# A"2 #$% &1/#+, P'#$ $+/ +""%( :'(&%"#*!

for he brin#s do*n and displays the Tr$th to man3ind *hile f$lfillin# the d$ties of the reli#io$s la*& (f him it may be said, in the *ords of a #reat Christian mysticN MHe #oes to(ards 2od by in*ard lo)e, in eternal *or3, and he #oes in 2od by his fr$iti)e inclination, in eternal rest& /nd he d*ells in 2od" and yet he #oes o$t to*ards created thin#s in a spirit of lo)e to*ards all thin#s, in the )irt$es and in *or3s of
,p& !LG-

ri#hteo$sness& /nd this is the most exalted s$mmit of the inner life&M ,A$ysbroec3, 5$oted in
;& 'nderhill8s 1ntrodu$tion to ysti$is&, p& I22&-

H/fif$ddin Tilimsani, in his commentary on >iffari, describes fo$r mystical ?o$rneysN The first be#ins *ith #nosis and ends *ith complete passin#%a*ay +fana.& The se$ond be#ins at the moment *hen passin#%a*ay is s$cceeded by 8abidin#8 +baqa.&

He *ho has attained to this station ?o$rneys in the Aeal, by the Aeal, to the Aeal, and he then is a reality +haqq. ,See p& !II abo)e&-& Th$s tra)ellin# on*ard, he arri)es at the station of the ;utb ,See p& !2B&-, *hich is the station of :erfect Manhood& He becomes the centre of the spirit$al $ni)erse, so that e)ery point and limit reached by indi)id$al h$man bein#s is e5$ally distant from his station, *hether they be near or far" since all stations re)ol)e ro$nd his, and in relation to the ;utb there is no difference bet*een nearness and farness& To one *ho has #ained this s$preme position, 3no*led#e and #nosis and passin#%a*ay are as ri)ers of his ocean, *hereby he replenishes *homsoe)er he *ill& He has the ri#ht to #$ide others to 2od, and see3s permission to do so from none b$t himself& Eefore the #ate of /postleship *as closed ,1.e. before the time of Mohammed, *ho is the Seal of the :rophets&-, he *o$ld
,p& !LI-

ha)e deser)ed the title of /postle, b$t in o$r day his d$e title is Director of So$ls, and he is a blessin# to those *ho in)o3e his aid, beca$se he comprehends the innate capacities of all man3ind and, li3e a camel%dri)er, speeds e)eryone to his home& In the third ?o$rney this :erfect Man t$rns his attention to 2od8s creat$res, either as an /postle or as a Spirit$al Director +Shey3h., and re)eals himself to those *ho *o$ld fain be released from their fac$lties, to each accordin# to his de#reeN to the adherent of positi)e reli#ion as a theolo#ian" to the contemplati)e, *ho has not yet en?oyed f$ll contemplation, as a #nostic" to the #nostic as one *ho has entirely passed%a*ay from indi)id$ality +(aqif." to the (aqif as a ;utb& He is the horiKon of e)ery mystical station and transcends the f$rthest ran#e of experience 3no*n to each #rade of see3ers& The fourth ?o$rney is $s$ally associated *ith physical death& The :rophet *as referrin# to it *hen he cried on his deathbed, MI choose the hi#hest companions&M In this ?o$rney, to ?$d#e from the obsc$re )erses in *hich H/fif$ddin describes it, the :erfect Man, ha)in# been in)ested *ith all the di)ine attrib$tes, becomes, so to spea3, the mirror *hich displays 2od to Himself&
!>$%" &1 B%-.4%2 '99%'(/* >+#$ 3$'# %1% 2. I /%% H+&? ,p& !LL!>+#$ H+/ %1%* ".# 3+#$ &+"%* C.( "."% /%%/ H+& %D,%9# H+&/%-7.! KIBN AL0JARABI.L

The li#ht in the so$l, the eye by *hich it sees, and the ob?ect of its )ision, all are (ne& JJJ We ha)e follo*ed the S$fi in his 5$est of Aeality to a point *here lan#$a#e fails& His pro#ress *ill seldom be so smooth and $nbro3en as it appears in these pa#es& The pro)erbial headache after intoxication s$pplies a parallel to the periods of intense aridity

and ac$te s$fferin# that sometimes fill the inter)al bet*een lo*er and hi#her states of ecstasy& Descriptions of this experience%%the Dar3 >i#ht of the So$l, as it is called by Christian a$thors%%may be fo$nd in almost any bio#raphy of Mohammedan saints& Th$s Cami relates in his 5afahat al-Bns that a certain der)ish, a disciple of the famo$s Shihab$ddin S$hra*ardi, MWas endo*ed *ith a #reat ecstasy in the contemplation of 'nity and in the station of passin#%a*ay +fana.& (ne day he be#an to *eep and lament& (n bein# as3ed by the Shey3h Shihab$ddin *hat ailed him, he ans*ered, 8Lo, I am debarred by pl$rality from the )ision of 'nity& I am re?ected, and my former state%%I cannot find itQ8 The Shey3h remar3ed that this *as the prel$de to the station of 8abidin#8
,p& !LO-

+baqa., and that his present state *as hi#her and more s$blime than the one *hich he *as in before&M Does personality s$r)i)e in the $ltimate $nion *ith 2odR If personality means a conscio$s existence distinct, tho$#h not separate, from 2od, the ma?ority of ad)anced Moslem mystics say M>oQM /s the rain%drop absorbed in the ocean is not annihilated b$t ceases to exist indi)id$ally, so the disembodied so$l becomes indistin#$ishable from the $ni)ersal Deity& It is tr$e that *hen S$fi *riters translate mystical $nion into terms of lo)e and marria#e, they do not, indeed they cannot, exp$n#e the notion of personality, b$t s$ch metaphorical phrases are not necessarily inconsistent *ith a pantheism *hich excl$des all difference& To be $nited, here and no*, *ith the World%So$l is the $tmost ima#inable bliss for so$ls that lo)e each other on earth&
!H'991 #$% &.&%"# 3$%" 3% '(% /%'#%2 +" #$% P'-',%* #$.5 '"2 I* >+#$ #3. 7.(&/ '"2 3+#$ #3. 7+:5(%/ 65# 3+#$ ."% /.5-* #$.5 '"2 I. T$% ,.-.5(/ .7 #$% :(.4% '"2 #$% 4.+,% .7 #$% 6+(2/ 3+-- 6%/#.3 +&&.(#'-+#1 A# #$% #+&% 3$%" 3% ,.&% +"#. #$% :'(2%"* #$.5 '"2 I. T$% /#'(/ .7 $%'4%" 3+-- ,.&% #. :'G% 59." 5/8 >% /$'-- /$.3 #$%& #$% M.." +#/%-7* #$.5 '"2 I. T$.5 '"2 I* +"2+4+25'-/ ". &.(%* /$'-- 6% &+":-%2 +" %,/#'/1* H.175- '"2 /%,5(% 7(.& 7..-+/$ 6'66-%* #$.5 '"2 I. ,p& !LDA-- #$% 6(+:$#09-5&%2 6+(2/ .7 $%'4%" 3+-- 2%4.5( #$%+( $%'(#/ 3+#$ %"41 I" #$% 9-',% 3$%(% 3% /$'-- -'5:$ +" /5,$ ' 7'/$+."* #$.5 '"2 I. T$+/ +/ #$% :(%'#%/# 3."2%(* #$'# #$.5 '"2 I* /+##+": $%(% +" #$% /'&% "..)* A(% '# #$+/ &.&%"# 6.#$ +" JI('E '"2 I$.('/'"* #$.5 '"2 I.! KHALALUDDIN RUMI.L

Stran#e as it may seem to o$r Western e#oism, the prospect of sharin# in the #eneral, impersonal immortality of the h$man so$l 3indles in the S$fi an enth$siasm as deep and tri$mphant as that of the most ardent belie)er in a personal life contin$in# beyond the #ra)e& Calal$ddin, after describin# the e)ol$tion of man in the material *orld and

anticipatin# his f$rther #ro*th in the spirit$al $ni)erse, $tters a heartfelt prayer%%for *hatR%%for self%annihilation in the ocean of the 2odhead&
!I 2+%2 '/ &+"%('- '"2 6%,'&% ' 9-'"#* I 2+%2 '/ 9-'"# '"2 (./% #. '"+&'-* I 2+%2 '/ '"+&'- '"2 I 3'/ &'". >$1 /$.5-2 I 7%'(? >$%" 3'/ I -%// 61 21+":? Y%# .",% &.(% I /$'-- 2+% '/ &'"* #. /.'( >+#$ '":%-/ 6-%/#8 65# %4%" 7(.& '":%-$..2 I &5/# 9'// ."< '-- %D,%9# G.2 2.#$ 9%(+/$. >$%" I $'4% /',(+7+,%2 &1 '":%- /.5-* I /$'-- 6%,.&% 3$'# ". &+"2 %=%( ,.",%+4%2. O$* -%# &% ".# %D+/#B 7.( N."0%D+/#%",% P(.,-'+&/ +" .(:'" #."%/* =T. H+& 3% /$'-- (%#5(".=! ,p& !LS-

/& 2;>;A/L
THOLUCI* C. A. G.* Ssufismus sive Theosophia ersarum pantheisti!a KB%(-+"* 1821L. I" L'#+". O5# .7 2'#% +" /.&% (%/9%,#/* 65# /#+-- 3.(#$ (%'2+":. PALMER* E. H.* "riental Mysti!ism KC'&6(+2:%* 1867L. A #(%'#+/% ." P%(/+'" #$%./.9$1* 6'/%2 ." ' 3.() 61 N'/'7+. VON IREMER* A.* #es!hi!hte der herrs!henden $deen des $slams KL%+9G+:* 1868L* 99. 520121. A 6(+--+'"# /)%#,$ .7 #$% .(+:+" '"2 2%4%-.9&%"# .7 S57+/&. GOLDMIHER* I.* %orlesungen &ber den $slam KH%+2%-6%(:* 1910L* 99. 1 90200. A" ',,.5"# .7 S57+ '/,%#+,+/& '"2 &1/#+,+/& 61 #$% :(%'#%/# -+4+": '5#$.(+#1 ." I/-'&. GOLDMIHER* I.* Muhammedanis!he Studien KH'--%* 1888090L* P'(# ++.* 99. 2770 78. G+4%/ 75-- 2%#'+-/ ,.",%("+": #$% 3.(/$+9 .7 M./-%& /'+"#/. MACDONALD* D. B.* The 'eligious (ife and Attitude in $slam KC$+,':.* 1909L. A 4'-5'6-% +"#(.25,#+." #. #$% /#521 .7 #$% &.2%('#% #19% .7 S57+/& (%9(%/%"#%2 61 ,p& !O G$'G'-+. T$% ,$'9#%(/ ." 9/1,$.-.:1 '(% 9'(#+,5-'(-1 $%-975-. I;BAL* SHAIIH MUHAMMAD* The )evelopment of Metaphysi!s in KL."2."* 1908L* 99. 96. ersia

GIBB* E. H. >.* History of Turkish oetry KL."2."* 190001909L* 4.-. +. 99. 15069. O5#-+"%/ .7 P%(/+'" 9$+-./.9$+, &1/#+,+/&.

BRO>NE* E. G.* (iterary History of 99. 4160444.

ersia KL."2."* 1902L* 4.-. +.

BRO>N* H. P .* The )ervishes* or "riental Spiritualism KL."2."* 1868L. U"/,+%"#+7+,* 65# ,."#'+"/ &5,$ +"#%(%/#+": &'#%(+'-. DEPONT* O.* '"2 COPPOLANI* X.* (es +onfr,ries religieuses musulmanes KA-:+%(/* 1897L. A /#'"2'(2 3.() ." #$% D%(4+/$ O(2%(/. HUH>IRI* -ashf al-Mah.ub* #('"/-'#%2 61 R. A. N+,$.-/." KL."2."* 1911L. T$% .-2%/# P%(/+'" #(%'#+/% ." S57+/&. JATTAR* (e Manti!u ttair ou le (angage des "isea/* #('"/-'#%2* 3+#$ '" %//'1 ." #$% 9$+-./.9$+,'- '"2 (%-+:+.5/ 9.%#(1 .7 P%(/+'* 61 G'(,+" 2% T'//1 KP'(+/* 1864L. HALALUDDIN RUMI* Masnavi* '6(+2:%2 #('"/-'#+." 61 E. H. >$+"7+%-2* 2"2 %2. KL."2."* 1898L. Masnavi* B..) +.* #('"/-'#%2 61 S+( H'&%/ R%2$.5/% KL."2."* 1881L. Masnavi* B..) ++.* #('"/-'#%2 3+#$ ,.&&%"#'(1 61 C. E. >+-/." KL."2."* 1910L. ,p& !O!Sele!ted "des from the )ivani Shamsi Tabri0* P%(/+'" #%D# 3+#$ E":-+/$ #('"/-'#+."* +"#(.25,#+."* '"2 ".#%/ 61 R. A. N+,$.-/." KC'&6(+2:%* 1898L. MAHMUD SHABISTARI* #ulshani 'a0* P%(/+'" #%D# 3+#$ E":-+/$ #('"/-'#+."* +"#(.25,#+."* '"2 ".#%/ 61 E. H. >$+"7+%-2 KL."2."* 1880L. A 4%(/+7+%2 %D9./+#+." .7 #$% ,$+%7 S57+ 2.,#(+"%/. I# /$.5-2 6% (%'2 61 %4%(1."% 3$. +/ /%(+.5/-1 +"#%(%/#%2 +" #$% /56F%,#. HAMI* (awaih* P%(/+'" #%D# 3+#$ #('"/-'#+." 61 E. H. >$+"7+%-2 '"2 M+(G' M5$'&&'2 I'G4+"+ KL."2."* 1906L. A 9(./% #(%'#+/% ." S57+ #$%./.9$1. 1usuf and 2ulaikha* #('"/-'#%2 +"#. 4%(/% 61 R.. T. H. G(+77+#$ KL."2."* 1882L. O"% .7 #$% &./# 7'&.5/ &1/#+,'- -.4%0(.&'",%/ +" P%(/+'" -+#%('#5(%. IBN AL0JARABI* Tar.uman al-Ashwaq* ' ,.--%,#+." .7 &1/#+,'- .2%/. A('6+, #%D# 3+#$ #('"/-'#+." '"2 ,.&&%"#'(1 61 R. A. N+,$.-/." KL."2."* 1911L. ,p& !OB-


IN(E+Titles of boo3s, as *ell as /rabic and :ersian technical terms, are printed in italics&.
Abdal* 124.

JA62'--'$ A"/'(+* 89. JA62 '-0R'$+& +6" '-0S'66':$* 89. A6('$'&* 15 . Abrar* 124. A6/'-* 116. A65 JA62'--'$ .7 M./5-* 144. A65 JA62'--'$ '-0R'G+* 51. A65 JA-+ .7 S+"2* 17. A65 H'&G'* 62. A65 N-0H'/'" I$5(E'"+* 87* 1 77.* 145. A65 N-0I$'1( '-0AE#'* 61. A65 N'/( '-0S'(('F* 157. A65 S'J+2 +6" A6+ N-0I$'1(* 49* 90* 118. A2'&* 64* 150* 161. JA7+7522+" '-0T+-+&/'"+* 9 * 164* 165* See N+77'(+. Ahl al-Haqq* 1. A$&'2 +6" '-0H'3'(+* 11. ahwal* 29. Akhyar* 124. A-'N522+" A##'(* 14 * 144* 146. A-%D'"2%( .7 A9$(.2+/+'/* 151. Al-Haqq* S%% Haqq. JA-+* #$% C'-+9$* 50* 89* 15 . Ana l-Haqq* 150 77. Arabian 3ights* #$%* 6 . JA('7'#* 91. 4arif* 29. A(+/#.#-%* 12. A/,%#+,+/&* 4* 5* 6* 10* 28 77.* 109. A/$J'(+#%/* #$%* 6. JA##'(* C'(+2522+"* 106. A52+#+."* 6 77. S%% sama4. A5:5/#+"%* S#.* 118. A4+,%""'* 145* 146. awliya* 122. Awtad* 124. B'6' I5$+* 58. B'6+/&* 89. B',#(+'* 16* 18. B':$2'2* 149* 157. B'-)$* 16. baqa* 18* 61* 149* 159* 16 * 164* 167. B'/('* 14. B'1'G+2 .7 B+/#'&* 17* 51* 57* 62* 108* 111* 112* 115* 126* 1 1* 1 2* 159. B%)#'/$+/* #$%* 95. B+/$(* 105. B(%'#$* 9(',#+,% .7 +"$'-+": '"2 %D$'-+": #$%* 48. B(.3"* H. P.* 141. B(.3"%* P(.7%//.( E. G.* 110. B522$'* 16* 17. B522$+/&* 16 77.* 48. See N+(4'"'. B5-:$'(* 161. C'-%"2'(/* #$%* 90. C%-+6',1* ,."2%&"%2 61 M.$'&&%2* 5.

C$+"'* 161. C$(+/#* 82* 88. See H%/5/. ,p& !OGC$(+/#+'"+#1* 4* 5* 10 77.* 82* 111* 112* 151* 157. C."#%&9-'#+."* 18* 1* 2* 5 * 54 77.* 68. D'",+":* 6 * 65* 66. D'"#%* 100. D'() N+:$# .7 #$% S.5-* #$%* 166. D'4+2/* P(.7%//.( T. >. R$1/* 19. D'352 '-0T'N+* 6. D%+7+,'#+."* 149 77.* 16 . dervish* 7. D%(4+/$ O(2%(/* #$%* 48* 95* 125* 1 0* 140 77. D%(4+/$%/* &'D+&/ 7.(* 8* 9. D%4+-. #$%* 49* 5 * 69. See I6-+/ and S'#'". dhawq* 59. dhikr* 10* 45 77.* 6 . D$5 N-0N5" #$% E:19#+'"* 1 * 65* 79* 116* 145. D+."1/+5/ #$% A(%.9':+#%* 12 7.* 112. D+(%,#.(/* /9+(+#5'-* 1* 2 77.* 89* 140 77.* 165. )ivan of Shamsi Tabri0* 95. E,)$'(#* 118* 154. E,/#'/1* 59 77.* 118* 1 2* 1 * 166. S%% fana. E2%"* 161. E-+'/* 14. E&'"'#+."* #$% #$%.(1 .7* 80* 96. E&%(/."* 110. E5,$+#O* #$%* 11. E4+-* #$% 5"(%'-+#1 .7* 94. E4+-* 9'(# .7 #$% 2+4+"% .(2%(* 96 77. E4.-5#+."* .7 M'"* 168. fana* 17 77.* 28* 48* 59* 60 77.* 144* 149* 155 77.* 164* 165* 166. fana al-fana* 61* 79. fani* 155. faqir* 7* 8. firasat* 51. C+#GG%('-2* E23'(2* 97. C(.#$+":$'&. A. L.* 12. C52'1- +6" JI1'2* 109. G'+(2"%(* >. H. T.* 16. ghaybat* 59. G$'1-'"* 105. G$'G'-+* 24* 46* 96. G"./+/* #$%* 7* 14* 29* 0* 68 77.* 121* 164. G"./#+,+/&* 14 77. G.-2G+$%(* P(.7%//.( I.* 14* 16. G./9%-* #$%* 10. H'7+G* 88* 102. hal* 29* 59. H'--'F* 40* 149 77.* 160. H'&'2$'"* 108* 109. haqiqat* 29* 79. See T(5#$* #$%.

HaqqPG.2* 1* 81. S%% Ana l-Haqq. haqq* 164. H'/'" JA##'(* I$3'F'* 144. hatif* 6 . H%'(#* #$%* ' /9+(+#5'- .(:'"* 50* 68 77. H%'4%" '"2 H%--* /56F%,#+4%* 97* 162. H+%(.#$%5/* 12. H+"2* 105. H5F3+(+* 1* 2* 54* 6 * 65* 92* 110* 12 * 124* 126* 159* 160. hulul* 150* 151* 154* 157. H5-5-+/* #$%* 151. H5/'1" +6" M'"/++(* 149. See H'--'F. H19".#+/&* 1 9 77. I6-+/* 99. See D%4+-* #$%. I6" '-0A"6'(+* 51. I6" '-0JA('6+* 87* 102* 10 * 105* 111* 125* 155* 166. I6('$+& +6" A2$'&* 14* 16. ishan* 5 . I--5&+"'#+."* 7* 50 77.* 70. 4ilm* 71. I&&.(#'-+#1* +&9%(/."'-* 167* 168. ,p& !OII",'("'#+."* 150* 151* 157. S%% hulul. I"2+'* 16* 161. I":%* D(. >. R.. 112* 151* 154. IE6'-* S$'+)$ M5$'&&'2* 15. JI('E* 161* 168. I/-'&* (%-'#+." .7 S57+/& #.* 19 77.* 71 77.* 86 77.. 159* 160. istinbat* 2 * 24. ittihad* 157* 158. H'6'(+#%/* #$%* 6. H',.6 .7 S'(5F* 12. .adhbat* 59. H'-'-522+" R5&+* 25* 64* 67* 69* 95 77.* 105* 106* 107* 109* 11 * 116* 117* 118* 119* 125* 129* 1 2* 148* 152* 155* 161* 162* 168. .am4* 159. H'&+* 8* 66* 80* 81* 8 * 106* 110* 142* 166. H%/5/* 10* 1 * 150* 15 * 157. See C$(+/#. H%3/* #$%* 122. H+""* #$%* 1 2. H.$"* S#.* 82. H.$" S,.#5/ E(+:%"'* 12. H./%9$* 99* 116. H.5("%1/. &1/#+,'-* 16 * 164. See P'#$* #$%. H5"'12 .7 B':$2'2* 4* 5* 52* 88* 91* 112* 11 * 1 1. I'J6'. #$%* 58* 91* 92* 105* 116* 1 4. karamat* 122* 129. I'(&'* #$% 2.,#(+"% .7* 19. -ashf al-Mah.ub* 54* 6 . See H5F3+(+. I$'2+(* 14* 11 * 127 77. khirqat* 49. I$+G(* 127. See I$'2+(. I$.('/'"* 161* 168. I$5(E'"+* See A65 N-0H'/'" I$5(E'"+.

-itab al-(uma4* 28* 121* 1 0. -itab al-Tawasin* 150. I".3-%2:% .7 G.2. See G"./+/* #$%. I".3-%2:%* (%-+:+.5/ .99./%2 #. &1/#+,'-* 71. -oran* #$%* 4* 5* 21* 22* 2 * 46* 50* 6 * 9 * 105* 111* 121* 122* 127. -oran* #$%* E5.#'#+."/ 7(.&* 22* 45* 50* 51* 5 * 56* 70* 88* 98* 121* 122* 128* 129* 150* 152. -oran* :%(&/ .7 &1/#+,+/& +" #$%* 21 7. lahut* 150. L'"%* E23'(2* 45. L'3* #$% (%-+:+.5/* 62* 86* 92 77.* 126* 127* 152* 16 . L'1-'* 116* 159. (egend of the Moslem Saints* #$%* 21* 1* 108* 1 1. (ives of the Saints* 61 H'&+* 66. See 3afahat al-5ns. L.:./* #$%* 51* 82* 8 . L.4%* 2+4+"%* 6* 8* 10* 45* 55* 80* 81* 84* 88* 101* 102 77.* 151* 160. L56"'* 105. M',2."'-2* P(.7%//.( D. B.* 2 * 45* 46* 125* 141. ma.dhub* 12 . M'F2522+" .7 B':$2'2* 66. M'F"5"* 116* 159. M'-+) +6" D+"'(* 6* 7. M'"* #$% 7+"'- ,'5/% .7 #$% 5"+4%(/%* 82. M'"* $+:$%( #$'" #$% '":%-/* 69. M'"* #$% &+,(.,./&* 84* 85* 97. M'"* #$% P%(7%,#* 8 * 16 * 164* 165. M'"2O'"/* #$%* 14. M'"+* 14. M'"+,$O'"/* #$%* 14. M'"/5(* 15 . See H'--'F. maqamat* 28. ,p& !OLma4rifat* 29* 71. See G"./+/* #$%. M'(57 '-0I'()$+* 14. M'(3'* 92. M'(1* 1 . Masnavi* #$%* 25* 64* 96* 1 2* 148. See H'-'-522+" R5&+. M'//+:"."* L.* 150* 151* 154* 155. Mawaqif* #$%* 57. See N+77'(+. M'11'* 105. M%,,'* 1 4. M%2+#'#+."* 48 7. M%9$+/#.9$%-%/* 58. M%//'-+'"/* #$%* 11. M+"'* 92. M+(',-%/* 122* 12 * 129 77.* 1 8* 1 9 77. M.$'&&%2* #$% P(.9$%#* 5* 20* 21* 5* 9* 44* 49* 51* 52* 5 * 68* 70* 7 * 82* 90* 9 * 111* 129* 1 1* 141* 144* 164* 165. See T('2+#+."/ .7 #$% P(.9$%#. M.$'&&%2 +6" JA-+ H')+&* 14 . M.$'&&%2 +6" JU-1'"* 9. M.$'&&%2 +6" >'/+J* 6* 7* 55. M.--'0S$'$* 141* 142. M.(%* H%"(1* 162.

M.(#+7+,'#+."* 6* 40 7. M./%/* 127 77.* 152. mu.i0at* 129. muraqabat* 48. muraqqa4at* * 49. M5(F+#%/* #$%* 5. murshid* 2* 140. M5/+,* 48* 6 77. M5J#'G+-+#%/* #$%* 6. M5G2'-+7'* 91. 3afahat al-5ns* 166. S%% (ives of the Saints. nafs* 9* 40. N'&%* #$% G(%'#* 14. nasut* 150. N%.9-'#."+/&* 12 7.* 112. N+77'(+* 57* 71* 72* 74* 85* 9 * 155* 164. N+(4'"'* 18 77.* 61* 149. N+G'&522+" I$'&5/$* M'3-'"'* 14 . N.'$* 15 . NQ-2%)%* T$.* . N.#06%+":* #$% 9(+",+9-% .7 %4+-* 94* 97. 3uqaba* 124. N5(+* 49* 51* 94* 107* 108. O&'(* #$% C'-+9$* O&'( I$'11'&* 97. 8.

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,p& !OO;5/$'1(+* 126* 1 0. 6utb* 12 * 124* 164* 165. R'6+J'* 4* 1* 115. rahib* 10. R'EE'&* 107. R%'/."* #$% A,#+4%* 151. R%,.--%,#+."* 6* 45. S%% dhikr R%-+:+."* '-- #19%/ .7* '(% %E5'-* 87. R%-+:+."* 9./+#+4%. +#/ (%-'#+." #. &1/#+,+/&* 24* 71 77. See I/-'&* (%-'#+." .7 S57+/& #.. R%9%"#'",%* 0 77. rida* 41. R+G3'"* 161. R./'(+%/* 5/%2 61 S57+/* 17. ruh* 68. R5&+* 15 . See H'-'-522+" R5&+. R51/6(.%,)* 151* 164. S'6+'"/* #$%* 14. S'J2522+" .7 I'/$:$'(. M'3-'"'* 142. S'7'* 92. S'$- +6" JA62'--'$ .7 T5/#'(* 46* 52* 56* 6 * 1 0. S'+"#/* #$% M./-%&* 120 77. S'+"#/$+9* #$% 2.,#(+"% .7* 62* 120 77. S'-'&'"* 116. salik* 28. sama4* 59* 60* 6 77. S'E/+"* 161. S'(+ '-0S'E'#+* 52* 54* 61* 11 . S'#'"* 2* 11 . See D%4+-* #$%. Sea* the 'evelation of the* 61 N+77'(+* 74. S%-70'""+$+-'#+."* 140* 141* 168. S%% fana. S$'$ '-0I+(&'"+* 52. S$'E+E .7 B'-)$* 42* 4 * 44. S$%1)$* #$%* 2 77.* 49* 140* 141. See D+(%,#.(/* /9+(+#5'-. S$+6-+* 4* 5* 48* 52* 55* 62* 116. S$+$'6522+" S5$('3'(2+* 166. S$+J+#%/* #$%* 89. shirb* 59. siddiq* 14. S+"* 0 77. S+":+":* 6 77. sirr* 68* 155. S.5-* #$% -.3%( .( '99%#+#+4%* S%% nafs. S9+(+#* #$% 2+4+"%* 150* 151. S9+(+#* #$% $5&'"* 51* 68. S#':%/* &1/#+,'-* 28 7.* 41. S#'#%/* &1/#+,'-* 29. S#%9$%" B'( S52'+-+* 12. S57+* &%'"+": '"2 2%(+4'#+." .7* . S57+/&* 2%7+"+#+."/ .7* 1* 14* 25 77. S57+/&* #$% .-2%/# 7.(& .7* 4 7. S57+/&* #$% .(+:+" .7* 8 77. S57+/&* +#/ (%-'#+." #. I/-'&* 19 77.* 71 77.* 86 77.* 159* 160. sukr* 59.

S5""'* #$%* 7 . S1&6.-+/&* &1/#+,'-* 28* 102 77.* 116* 117. talib* 29. tariqat* 27* 28. T'5-%(* 151. tawa..uh* 142* 14 . tawakkul* 41. T'3'))5- B%:* 141* 142* T%-%)+"%/+/* 145. T%-%9'#$1* 120. S%% firasat. Theology of Aristotle* #$% /.0,'--%2* 12. T+(&+2$* 14 . T.('* #$%* 105. T('2+#+."/ .7 #$% P(.9$%#* 2 * 9* 44* 49* 51* 5 * 54* 68* 80* 8 * 100. T('"/.D'"+'* 16. T(5/# +" G.2* 6* 41 77. T(5#$* #$%* 29* 0* 79* 92 77.* 152* 16 . U"2%($+-1* E.* 164. U"+." 3+#$ G.2* 9* 159* 160. See U"+#+4% S#'#%* #$%* '"2 fana. U"+#+4% S#'#%* #$%* 148 77. ,p& !ODU"+#1* #$% 2+4+"%* S57+/#+, #$%.(1 .7* 42* 79 77.* 98* 152* 154* 155. V%2'"#'* #$%* 18. V%+-/* #$% /%4%"#1 #$.5/'"2* 2.,#(+"% .7* 15 7. V+/+."* /9+(+#5'-* 50. wa.d* 59. wali* 122* 12 . See S'+"#/* #$% M./-%&. waliyyat* 12 . waqfat* 58* 156. waqif* 156* 165. >'/+#* 14. >$+"7+%-2* E. H.* 64* 1 2* 148. yaqin* 50. Y5/57* 116. See H./%9$. M'":+ B'/$:+(2+* 66. M5-'1)$'* 116.