l ) ! r f n l l r . olr un. nI r . iir 1) r l) | l r Pe rlorm o r e s c : lr om d s r r p if . Ltrltr & t. Lltrrr! o la. l( . r do. c dr .o r s r es sCnlao! t f . & sloo 11 NrN l(ll-. G r c .N. No p. Itrlrr a nd b. f ni..) ts t nDlnt ol th. v .turs m{l rrl€r..rt ot this !nn( [ v lx] rct) fled or reprodu(rl. n . lt Br oL|1] lr ld. 1102dc21 00 046014 (p b k l S B N0. l r lr r r f l( n r r l L l d .. l ir rl' |1l)( iir lr ) r lhh A (irn irl)s!er e( r r d lor lhls book $ ir r ir ii. 2(X)1Jon M{iKeo/ e lvrrs(il iri Br k er s : ns b! M .ls I T le. li.trtlxlo. L Perlonnan@ Pslrhokrtiirlist(\.r L. 115 2 4 7 6 9 -l s B N0 4152 4 7 6 4 3 (h b k ) 302 MC K 251519 . / J o r M c K c n T [ lrnludes bblioqraohic. r n . Dl) v l. or if ary nldmr I on :Jltrrq-A o r reL ri-AV. EC4P lTl Smu lrnn $l! t ) ubis Ed I lh. N{ hir iic r or !t u r r e ! n s .l (lrf. ! . di. vw. t t r J .n(r tnaup i.r rl isrrl in rnv frrrr o r lr y i. . Lr SAir . P a d s t o \ ! . lif r ) r r I l. ne L.f' for ij. o w k f o w n o r h ( r ( i rlLH nlefled ncldinlr DhoJ({ltiv rllr r kird r!1. svl s t em .B n l s h L b r . . \ L Yo' k NY l( x x ) l H. r r nli zlwosl:islh Sk eel. l l o r r \ 'fI A riqhls ftisd!--d. \ ! ilhoul t ) dr ns s ir nr r Nr ili r q l r o n rl h e p u b l s h d s lr Lsh L ibrrfv Cal. lFr r il.

ioua6 lo slLrollra^otrr l(1 o.roljlP.rd 'ornttnx uorj sl' ru.' raL obot poraqnrl) aru so|lr^||:)P asro^!t) rtr.)|]qndsr?qcns 'r)rnt'r.pru lsour . ol i LlDrrt.It to srol)tol to suo4Frr:sDrpuai sr()rrelord.p puu e3!r.Lr)Lurojro(l leqt oas turlno 'tulq3rans ur::) aro lt Luolt tr'(t ot.'{)urotiod tNrnltr lo ptoll str puu u lilurrcd sotpnls €.qlsoc :butllot^n4sp(nr ^pplrd^o pu'r saqrodls .)r? apr\ ! sapnc! lo ^tau0^ ^rntusr IPq ls'::t.rt.pcinp o^l tseo aqr ro^o urr..lsuterntlnorajlrr0.rlto.t]ruDxolsnl o^\'o..roto^.st ssarts stuiroo.xFp puu suolec4qns sooltlppc or (iodo st lsll srt1 sluoura^oursros pue suorrrlsrLourspP.rrd slr 's!r0uo ArcuLl.u'ruuolod asoql l! osodLror)ol .u'ureu.lpq qtrnt^\ sur'jlperR.dxo puP tur0 :uP ooueu]]o+rad '|e3rss'rtr!'rFdod rst'r^|solpuD sopurrd s! qcns stL.j 'ttjnoqr 'rurol elt lo osuos lsapr^\aql LI rrnltno sr lr.rtr$ Aq posodLror su^losurorlt oru srlbllnrrPL] uoueT.lcoqr ptuourrn|la puB |tnro4rpcit aprtrul aso'lL puoMor punorcpolBrt s sour^t.rlr tu.tuuo tuu^u :o.ci .Dol.u'jlr I'rlus!.6Z 'slco. . ol luo.rs]uL .lrosQr.lr'aretnclod :sorr'or'J.nr arll puIstopoLr 1:3|l3]oi)ql sll lu loot h o^r'ar)uocrtc sqt ezuooqltlln.r[ r3^o Forouto suq tuql o]oetlxotrad rrnlnr to pf]!l oql 's.uor pur.!uu!ota(l lo l(nl turoLLoij F i! & e\ -i * $ $$ a'ly)r.n.E to :rg$tr7vH1 :r t ::rNVtlU{ll8l.r:suo[rDr.rtrJpuu spnru:r. srll o!uDrurcJreds| pn7ltBrldn.o qqr(Lt u ti)n4suo.l lYtnl LIt:r t0 lJrjlJIl ]] lHl I ulrdvHJ .rLr'rurotroddrtt uo sosnrot rorclu'1.LPEreo o' to l!ou.lo.ur|lto tulcosto sL"rotpqcflI lo srLral I rtloq a7 rnrc puu a.os p!e iHtd sp qrns o]rt ! f'Lrno+ soc[.r.

r v alt r ib! 1e.pcrtonnanu.llcrnatM) arranse and/or irtrnstomalion Given ments. rock n)fdyrs.s we wl shortlv see. Pcrlormances StLrliesscltl)lnrshave conslrucrcrtcutluratportonnan{xr as an c ngagc nr c n otl s o c i a l n o rms .fonnanq.SignilicarrllY lons.eSiti. and teach such performanoos in tcnns ol IndvidLnls pcoples.tand sociattransformatron.gcrrros.rrdSchcchncr provcles guidancc herc oo|corrr ns thc oliicacv ol ouhfal Dertofinance.nd piracliqm ol .t . lhe hislory ol culturai pfilonnr'|cc and pcrtormand! Slrrties is proorsclylho histry oi srrch queslioning.ngorllcr)rs or. il is its rrans grossivcor rosislanttxnentit|lthar has come io donrinatelhe sruty .rTnrnr)c n. is lhe pertormanceot trerfor.olornrs.ncnr ot ltefer.liTatiof lhrl has produlrd tho ikr.nge in some lr"rvs wh c remair)irr0 llrc sarnc in oihcrs.lor polenlial.s been theo rizrxlas a catalystto person.r paradiqm.r'at Culxral Pa onnance' Rehearsals FestivzLSp€cLacb: inlroduces his collcction bv ciling ln rche. bul a/soourltrrc irrlel/cclu. lhe prccse lurctions lnd lornrs llrve ch.. book b\. c. as well ns progrnnrs. cur(xrla.Jhihe drrrnatizatio.l(xl to irssist lhe telohiig ol Pcrlann.Akxnr strate ho!! .tlic fttttir\ ^rl constilr(e ncnninq an.d.dn.aftl Cullurc Wa6 of tho lgJO-. ot Inre. l s h a l e n .rruelvconcenlrute.lics.ro appty dtlerse nulhdls across Insfitulional . 1 perlonnancc: 1) sffial arld s(if retlection throo. then. Slem LrndHefdorson d€iflrre cite nrearing ond atlimrng values. ar protessionat organizarions devotedto ils sludy. providos o !!av k.l es'? if noldcfnirvcy Lrnswcftrd.rof cut!ral p$lormarce entails tho rensccn dan(n of eiticncyover entc(ahmcnt.rhot)ss been pflrDoslccl. Bich.Ihat is. ai best. CarclSLmpson work irrlen. Wriiin! in 197tj.onmnce sludies. fornrs hale bcef routinelv empoYed by resdr. yeflrs as clhlr ol lhe l)epa(ment ol P(xlffnrance Studiesat Norihwcslern Llf versitv.l 3) the possibiitYot (jonservation tho lniperativeol so. il aso nilosLsto lhc lnstittilionlli/ati(nr pqlonnance study.tentity.l as social Fi:! rFl tr: $$ q- F. movemeniot geferatiTnr orr .l (x)lsr innunlerlrbte r mes lnd in n!merlrbtesiles.rfbat! ers.ur Given lhe oreat divcrsily ot acrivities how onn we catt lhem atl ''p(xn)rmance?" ldentfyino dilferef t practces and discoursosas.rp(x)pe an.ionDince: taxls and Cotrcrls..s ao 3' . nnd r)ventuallv ch.s a n e rs e m b te oi .j n'anv lrd thoses. cv. at the he.l drnnrattc our collectivo nrvths and historv upon .rsing lhis lheorv Mac./ in n.. nnd po r .rure and i'NotunJqsyn'l.japrbte ot galheringall these dilterencesundor thc co ccpt ot . snd peno.Th.t sociotcs.leroonstruciion herejrh s perfornrance cnn l)est be dlsthguishe(l ftom orhcf porfonnlfo nxxrpts bV iis .ncc is a tertbook ol per./Jramr' hvarel a Thea. pedofinan.Aloon prcvkled org{na7 perlonn.lhosoolhunran symbolsand humanbo._ tr simutirneoLrsty requ es a galhcrntg ol sr|bicrts.i€iv $re rcile.nd detino orRtrcq presenl ou6(t!os wlh all.torx)hers and practitorrersof perfornrancc.rt hist(ries ot th.Wrar is |r€rlornrame?.rr ot ts molenlent ot gencraltzaljon.tcfi ne performance._' tl presupposcslh l such questionsaJwhnl is ..n activilv .l allirm ndi\rjckraland culturrl vrues '' Lik. conloslod.he.In nllcascs n p. At dl times a dialeclical lension exisls behlcen o{ficacious nnd eni$Lainmcnt iendcnces' Ffom ihis pcrspective lho enrerqen.rnihologvBiio.Thctuld ol culluratperlornranoe and lhe paradigm ot porlormanco Slu. " Th s o tation of a citltion iLlcnities t o cult ! r ! l l hree l ul rctnns which sr ) t r olr r shave r cuu. Barbara Babco. Whic p(ridmaruts eltic. camns.\.cy ro reaftirnrexisl fg slructLrrcs ard console or henl |]Ceplcs hl|s consislonltv txrn remgnizert.julurat pertornhnce ll. perlonnanccs lfl rnsformationnl (li P. or dnbodimcnr ol synrboliclornN.As such. . .orporari]s a whofc liefd ol hotn.a intornatbna prctessona nssocaton-to do a lhis ufLlcr lho ndnj ol ''Pedonnancc Studcs" prosupposes.cy arc hlo slraids ot.di vi ri esw i rhtheporef tial to Lrphokl socielalnfr.jial effl(iacv ihoorisis hrle l. brald rhar cross one nnorherthrougho!l hisrorv ''At eaoh period ln cach cullLrreone or the olher is dominanl<trc is ascofdlng while ihc othef s descendingNnturallvihcse changosare parl pedofrnnnccis not a passve of changesin th(] overallso(:irl slrucLurerVoL p.J .nnrrco Sludics? From lhc perspective ol thc {rcncru th{x)ryun.) pcrlormance hy cling its social MrcAloon.ThcYslso thosc otoonstitutnrg fr(rclids. oi pcrtonrrnce can The imporlanceot clficacy lo lhe concqtlualizalion John J prolidcd by voriols culiurrrlrh-aorisls be socn in keY d(rirrLlions Mac^kxnr prolklcs onc such detinilionln his r9S4.xnatives.es are "occasnnrs n \!hch rrs n culture or so.ncc bv the svrJitrosium ihe dol fiitionof cultural Violor Turner' CLrltural Mvcrlroll an.l B.yhrmance.lua_ Slcn h(f.)hrl lcDltaol allbacy.rk.though .pedor mirnce lirsl roqu fcs qathcr n! them bgether and conceptuati/ n0 lhem rs a tield of study.To to ow lhe rn|vo.an(t Perfonnan.at denbnsaaiionsof the 1960sro rhe drdg shows. h vo non..lios. What. .93 iln loon Anorhcr delifrition Sl(xn and Hendirsons Stenrand BfuneHonderson.rt a oi the qnnplicated ts-{back chaoges but lhcse social mirror ot prooess that briigs aboul chanse.hessed rhe notiof lhat lheaterand orhlrrportorrrnrs arts runctioncdas simplc onbrtainrneni or. Thesclunrlionsand t\{.g ea n u m b c r o f l exl s l l l al rol o tv.irlornlatce 4T tttqtclion lie bo. as a re ection of changesmcurnn0 else*herq arsuing i stcad rhal ootcnainmcntand etti.) ruthoE rffito Lhatthc lorrr p-'ir.rhcrs .tlovomonts.ng€xl over llre and Stern and lrenderson demonThe delnftbns proMdod by Nlac. Toddy. raves. a 1!. ro ils courses.selt sorv-'. deprrtnrcrts. to estabtishpcrtonnan(x) dcp.lles rhus co-creirteand co-teqirinaloonc anolhor ro i. a lotd of pc.Lr tural pcrfornrrnce has bccn drrceptuili2e.fn. tr has lorjg bccn irs cuttin. sylliboses.lhcrc rr0 sludcnts. tt$nativotv to chang.rodllo Fromrhe hnppentngs.liscjptines.ts..jrr nlarls and prograrnsito orllrn ze panets.nd conterencesand.LriLrra por lor m anc e.Jjfereni actvilics as porknmanceito shr. 2) lhc prescnlatidr ol .f cut_ ntrol perlornranoc. cranrinatiorls. a tiekl of objecls. a (nmmunily ol practi oners and reseaichers consttrting itsef arolnd nd irtrtccd lhrouqh p.

schotars havc atso clrawn upon spccilicscnrcs of perfon a.nce Studics hls mLmod the lnsiliufonal norrns ol reseorch have launchedlheir own challengesto and teachnu t)evcloping specilic modcls to lhcodze cultural pertormann) generally.i r.e slgnili of ev(xYday Golfman's"s(nial psychology lor their bur oulhorsamporlant also..onangen some h.. zoology. scencc...Totheorizelhe ways nt which perfornrancc produ(. l o h rtF l l F c .." akin h the one $. Burke.. lo thc thooriz!tbn ot its liekt.r.hnttrn (lgg(j). in his perfonna. writes ihat "almostany conrcmporrry perfornrance tnoj.and to rhe rflio|.ny " lur ' r -s ..lo somethi. afd thcnler Becausclhe lickls t|pon which il draws .J.j Polilbs at P(xt(ttnance (1993) with anolh$ ohrlenge 'U.l lts th@rieshaveattemPted to .€rn5 scsc ar if cdar d I scit at cdbv t f ids r s cit er pr ts ow nd scour ics. of and iretrogatng thc so. lnterrognres! and so.gto mat€ral con. Challefoesdo sorixrhinEt:they ncie. lvords that. it provokes. chattongos in hrs list of port()rmari@soeech acls. Janele r]einel an(t JosophHoa. lei us row turn to Lhe nitalion ol P()rlormafceStudies. In . may be one ot lhe mcl ansistcnr gcsrures ol PcrfonnanceSiudles.rc so divitse" thc intellirctual hiskry ot PorlormanceSludies is quite complot.\b: A Crittu:rt t ro. dnlhropologvarlhistorv culturalsllKles Grspeckrlly lolk lhc$ry).lrkeculluifll slLdies. Now lhat -thory" is more broadlv so.ll(')timirs d. i IU l . thoy slress lhe importancc ol Richard Schechner nnd his concepl F: o' "resLoredbehavior' Th.. rcwnr{rs..s bccn rohoarsd manyi mes.hile.eal matenal cohdirions.ll"rtion ol it$ choIenge challen0n|(j|in lacr.r. n. conresls..linguislics. lhouqh rhorc is gcneral id nsinnce.toes podormance challenele.L.nancc in general Slch |ll()dclshaveihus been fiucia ro rho parucliq]m s rnovement of gerer Blizali. overapplng casls of pertonranco theorists and debotos n thc tleld indicatethal desplte tho diliercfl Dorspeclivcs s: e I $$ $$ f ae ja .xrarko.oblems. in the 1950s devekrpnrents n(lopendcntlnkrllectLral cilos cert:rinInltialLy an..ru u gl : E F E efficacv..ot lrle qoccr and postcolonial loro historv.Austif inctudcs.a(xruseanfl oppose.r1.ls onrerqed trom brilic. Among the c/irrrc.lcrsoncile lhreootlhc samc tour orientallon. invotvcsm. closs ethnrLtv.Austin lasrs"chatbnqe" . rhe ionatityof rhallcngingcarries .rlsochallenging ("real rcal te') Over the es malerkrlitv" bod " 'teal slnhrs of that "reil" pasl half century.*r//-.r/.rcl.s this poses s how to rckh lhc powerof ihe unnrarkod bVs! rvoying i N thin a lhoo()tio! lrame.ndennN receivedmcrnnlgs..ays llhile remainino the samc in olheB.lhis para.phlbsophy.o.r closelv rclalen houoh sti0hrty(tiflcrcnl nunnor. asscrr. and.ialdrarna MillonSn'!eas lrnportancc ol lour conoopts: IF l "cultural pfflonnnnce. al cffects returnl.r\a: (t992). force of officacv ln the generalarlroductio ro thcir anrhology Crlt ?/ Thco! and perfomt.. fHE PASSAEE fO PARAO'6M fo conpose a field as divcrse as lhat ol cultural peformance and lo co'nposc ilsell as a paradignFPerlor'rFne Sltdbs has.oha cnq{r. and Gothun. Thcse th$rists a.dnncehlstory. perhaDs we havc w nossed rhe iaunch ol smethlng like "lhc fbrlormanoe Snrdbs cha engo.len. pertorm J..hns challenscdlhmrv lo gct ooncernirg lhe itsell w th ihcoretkjalqLjestions refll. rl htrttl t. $.' Koffeth Burkes "dram lislic paniad" and Erving li{e.Pcrformancegives Us an occasion to ..t pala Treichercte in thc introdLrdlon to iheir 1992anltuogy Crhrl?/ Srro.Acrossdiffcro lstes. Maruin Ca son. rF\ or.nY challenqos and countcr challengesin lls sludy ol cullural perlormancc In lheohzingpertormalivc jts objocl ol sludyi our scholars eltbacv Perlorm. psyohology.t thc.. ]n.\. w{) have also dcployed lhem as paradigms ol lhc paradigm ilsel. l. challengc thc c!ituralstLdi€s Pertornranco Slu.ial and polilicatp.)ck)logy spceoh dnd nofverbal communicatlons..rnd cthnie..e. peggy phetan oDensher unnarked: Th. stakcs a claim And thorc is some uncanny fecdbrck h(xc: not onty .r rr..and lhus my frarnng ot pertorD or E/sens a chat_ lengeh.tv. one f shr say thar rrlormanca cha{Lw]cs. whenrhcory hassomennes seemed a dec ohr e rtu a l i z scd ene o f p h i to 5 o p h ' < sa p le cutari on cutturat studi es hasf egL a ri y th e o ri z ie nd r€ s p o n s c ip oa rt(uarsoca.l peiortners Dcsplk their d I'er contribulons l0 defh n0 p'.. To ln(kxstand ths pfocess.prolides a wny lo constitute nreanir\lanLlaltirm Indviduatand cutrlrat va ues.lics..h arrribule.hi srortca an.hich Lawrencecrossberg Cory Nctsof..4]es. agrcemcntthal its k)rnrarlonbeg.evcndLspar at e( lisciplincs.ese tu(ionatvisibtlly and poliftcatpower wn|ch havc txren a clomnu||t lorce in cuth]rat lheory in rhc tasl bn ye€c. Li' 1 . Insteoci ol Slnoer.anfhcrcn|y potiilcot cha*der lo rhepcrtonrarcc analysls thaL h.onhectto ..pr race. de und.l as performanceschoars lrale shnrpenedour cha efqcs ovcr lhe past scvcra/ dinndes. An.es ihis efficacy. Spmilically..nt!.ryi it rovses .: Ihrouahthe lastrwod{ades. cnt disciplinory lhco. ethnographv. [ .ists as MacAhDn. lilorarycrilicism.s ll word wirh i ocurionarybre.. Thoscdisciplinesr r ngelr om .lrawn upon mAnv di l f()rcft./rrx-.polilic.-r.ce rrd doptoycdthcm as modeislo lhink abod lhe lransfonnalivc pobntiat ol culurat perlor.nrediaslLdies. sludles.n in the l950s N4acAbor1.llgmhas omittedm. Tunrcr.l coa thal ha!€ *rvcd as a foundationlor the now r:Qidly expanclins lcscingintereslsin the sludy oI culturallorms. "l{r "7": gendor.]-fonnance Sternand llen.mct.! For his parl.llscuss for Slcrn and Hendorson canl.mp."/ civer lhc ro/o which chnttengingplnys h pcilormance Sndies./ examines rhe i pticit ass!mt)tions abour the cofnccriofrs between rep. an.U.l s. \ome ot thc Inost vrjibtu."'' He goes on lo discussllrc Viclor Turner's su.

n 196().r.l analylicnl knls. the scdplino and rehearsn( ol irlcr&lions. L A l s ti n5 | a .l s oc ial s c tri n gj j g 6 / v (t\{ n e t s fh a R i r. ptar a..xirtion ot the pnradigm s movomenlot generalization.trnt. lhe authors th..nceSnldies.Lt. 05. Carlson.< . a .. (to plnyi'rg.d: he provkles.tt....ri totrts. t er . Thou(..nd ts{ndorson-.l ...iiflcrencNsciroutateIn n shnrod ctationat nelwork ot .t h i s ro ri c s . .. but also I the ways that schoors hnvesinceiheorizedthis Ionnatofi tsclf.lds ond Metdthot!. d armt Ttdditiat t"4odenri^5 appcrr-pd tn r972 hlkta|: pef.rtr Schc\jhnerand MacAtrnn ..liscussior) ot nlrnosla[ o I rfrom. I anl Interestedh(ye ll()r o/]lv rn 0r{rthcorislsand E . phor or .a/p& .d Ln19743s \!rs Errberr t"1yohoff.r ''ith Ly'e wrs plbt shcdin r!59: A/b€nB.phV. tatd s Ihe sing..rspirn lhesc dcvclopncnts and ft)utrdin thonrno!! sour..nd thensome.Ihepcprt Hunt. l a -Au . lhq)rists. .Jswllh t thc mctaphor thc ligrre ol theftricn tV .n. sealnt Rnualle. Dur n.n. yli.AnLl wilh the oNc opl. H! s l.rl n . pdtdmance becomesthe c!llifo cdtc o{ a crilicd wcdqe.l other emerlifg perlonnance y Lrenres ot Th.. .nd nlhcft! trrodclsol r)ult!ral p..JicsdevdoDc(ldurinqrho 1960s.naf setfi" Evdtd.t /hcy crie) In shorl.rlity has moved out of the arrs almosl cvcryaspcctof 'nt.l)olh.relaphors ard lrotres N r ch itrc dolc'btrxl inlo corr. .ho c les al rlnr fulhors we hlve cired rbovc anct..ivnrg o!t ol tlrcalcr.n l o s ti t. i n n c u p t o t p a rtu m. lir nes.. slrq(t i[to ltro para.sl trchoer rrrthrFsJ nroro detailedintett€rluathistory o. and lin0uistics.. psychotoqy. l r Ldn-.nd activities.s nnd riluals. ri u. .S o ig inlo the lr! trranor socia sciendrs.u L .. a[ o.ame out I t9ti9 htsDtuna Fi. one $spcrts.r$..lnedb. T hc l.t1 6an6 i n t9 6 i M y Ap p ro a c h -" -rh (o ry/C fi sn. rheater Drovkled arthropololtsts and elhnogrnDhers wrlh n lodel for sludyiiq how pcoplc and socieliescrrbody symbolb skuolur.nd b ack t o lhe.n. and nrsighl lor thetr olvn crqrlivc work .rt. ar nretap hor ! r r d.nff) lir$l qrl. 1 J o r. if iel/e c tu .la ii thesc .n t. bi ot.N rt! rrt.n. tho te edb.i l .t. blok ro lhe 195{)s an..o)appc.nd j070s.q r. Nee( css to say.qt-...rt keni.r (:.nnnd andCan.e. lls ils wr y llir ( t r r Uh i n hi s concl usiof as a nr et .r{)wrys lx)l!\i(nnlherler ..entuft.g I C \ .r)..A Thco.J \ Inrr.. w asp!bt sh€d i os in r 96 6 D .nd applidllo lhennnlys.pAJDistortsthe Brond Spectrunr. jr 'lf. cr ilic. rrl4 Mrron Singeas Vi/tc.phorto anal\rtca rxrj eD t. t.liqnr.. A.k k) ltx: 1Obos Sitr:chner incorpor. r.nd .iplinesthat contr b!led lo lhc oarV fonnaion ot Pertorm.s !roverL'pmeft in rhc tietdsot anrhrqrotogy llfd oihno!ll.. rr r.r.t.epr. t. aid Rogcr a. costumc'.tu. ckhet ween lhe..rrtonnance.-.r llcr cxkxr dod aul he ..ibes its own movemenlol Cf r sans Par lam ant x] lar l cnrra/zaton.h or ..dism jusr livc ye:r6 latcr In ...Jlhe 196os.hard Baunrn-sVnbat Ai os pefo.Jcf{rrrt vo ol llrc para.rsi'l livingbehilior Socialnclors.)trhe aurhors ihey cle ()xl.rn s .a J It..tL.. " .lis.tuni.h.t tl r.t.^ \. l t heselooLsr r r y lhef pass b: r cklo hunianilbs soholars nnd bccomc app iql ..tl Lt t ' .eDt!.n. t oolollr nayss.th (.\ i r .s DolaDhors .i tho theoreftjal !!ork ol urdcrstandioct it. Into almoslevery bEnch oithe h sociolo$1 anthropolo gl. n. was pubtished in i955. S l cnr. 5tJqc. o o i l e s .^.-j -L .tlenpls to undcrsllndo!r condiiion. lion. rs vct.lso siressesa ieedbn.. le v u l o tn rr..tn.| tools lff anayzi rrq otfrff..r€d In r977.tlo ofrjson A l l hol ghlhe d scit ) .vnls..] socktolv. liowovor conc{ipts .d cctl res of rhc ..thr tu.{ t .rnd.rs llrc scicnccs as ar lnfulJsr ) br . with perlormance the metaphor ofth€ as a k'nd of (nl'cil wcdge. Tf is txmgraph r€lds ns a (tr riturgy ot thc parn(tilrm. n. lhc imporlanrjo ol in nrni'rtii'In! and trnnsloft selting.perfor natuc lHo|/ ta Da flnes ||aIls) ?v..btpi Jtu tFn.ti n u In g h /.l to tl h e a u l h rrrs o i rod by Mro^toon.nd Srly Moo.' ' lll ' . DJ. h.he writes: Theperlo(nan. atri..l cracr on of Lri g!agea. strial relations all ol lhcso colcqrls woo cxplicitlvde. s llt u lrh .ton)rtrnce tocusoson the con. ' r i' r ' d.n .s R-'d. .out ol.tl{rol: rs pcrlonulilrty and lhoalrcalily I'nre lFen devclopcdin thcsc lickls.r lo(linken by manylo be its properhonrc. th ..u r.moto gy aD. lhe st(dy ol tlcatcr .lh s r e.l l 9/0s. t.r. l ui rcd as theV are . u urp^n4fifirncr rs iI.erenronies.o dneir) w{ pub sh. .rt!rntrFh{ {)l k. ' lh€ sanp t€ar as Ri.(cdoed rescarch Fr.h|)l.!€bped trom ol . s rt<ti a.tcs Mro^loon s 'prep! rad omntic.csrudics paQdighc!mc to the forein rhe frid ...n x JLtgnrli. t ar sr u( lLcs r nd.liscourscs W hile \ .v a . modern. Nork ofV(lor Tunrcrwas cspcca influontial $$ F $$ $tn z4 35 . nol Bu rk eh . a trit.. lesl.r.r\. .j earler C. ih e s a me year a r ./ Myertbff.beyoi| rhis...li|lq ol its cilrtionnt nerrork. r lhnoqhphvqor cr alcd po(erl! .lllutretical slnre. Over these sane Mo duc dos.at tlrc sflrx) lirx) ins{f.l l H trn e s Mo d c o l L h cl .. ding.rt' rr.n (.atian (edtr. t t t li t t tt r L -. an expansivc rca.nun.r livt es.t perlornr.]igrn.cnt lunr llromc avfa(r ol i. we lind i'r Ca sons trtrodoclion a tollinq dos.and dramallTalion lcsturc.es ol stimulalion. Cregory Bareson s . o:tsM.y of ptaydnd Fanrjsy. Bc. r l' . ! r y r ir ' f ix i) l P( r lor f r ncc St udics cor laif r s rmfy tickls ofsludv Uxrpassr.nd pmclilionersol DerlonnoDcenrl ha!. lhl n a ^ .rxxv Ff(nr) thester to rnet. nltust cs N4.ldc oped by cthfo!raphic slud es of Dertornlance were used bv lheater and h!maniLcs tr? q scholarslo theorizelhc social dirn(xrsonsot iheaier an. al he desnibcs por ionr *r nli) i{nt suqclesling th.. lheater thus t)rovkles lhe humarr scicncos lyith ..r. nlhropoogv arc lhc ones mosi often c led .ros.lnlc the tield's orisins ba. r ul ' r r r \ d' \ c .n t.i l c d rh u si r)f () qui r. in!.rDancc delilcrs thc mosl exlcosive ro:(tirq yet ot thc Frndignrs lor nr .tafral. \. nd olhorpcr iof r nanccs such s t hc ! on( x! trrovonrcnt ol Pirlornnn(r) Sttxlkjs i(xnrdin!..t)ttr.e corrnar s rrc Pr.perknmnnoe hefe brif..rlson's nte ecluat hisroryot pc. lct irrsodrsixrsscs Liscsot rhe renn dnlin!.rs . ethnograplrt pstchoogy.

b re a k rl fough i nroperfofmar.in lolk ore slud es. how dkl thei. lormational limnality wolld beconroa pervasive rodol ot ouhtrat pertormancc tset: seprratcd hom socielv bolh l(mpornlly and spatia v timinat activites a ow participantsto rctioct.uotr.mbodied .ftrinat rles ol prsslqe gave lheater scholarsa / rcrior.n poses the "fcc!nd collaboraliofi botw(x)rTrmer.l"sk) in nduskia z(Xlsocictcs Pcrlormancc schof . rulos nnd responses rcftel targer cullu'xl rmperalives l '' Bbtueen thcalcr .lition.lor co|lccplualizinglhe ways i|| whn]h sociat meanings and virLiesbecomc . shilrsdeliDedIn d tlereni lerrns hy . minaliiy$.lies. the .they have been an inrlfanl . l: $$ $$ z6 :r7 . throlqh lho work ol SchechnerTLrrner.artistsand crilics hrnerl lrom the an ouecl lo lhc arl-m.n behaviorsand cvenrs.l datoglc wnh Schechnerin irooks such as From Ritual ta Thaalrc aid Bctween lhaatrc and AntlnpL.sizcd lhoir transgrcssivc instead.ept ol lim na ty has bccn app cd Lod llcrcnl clltural roliviles. transgressive trans{ormili!)rl.l . In lhr)visualarls. discipline.lhcorncs its earty devetopmenl as a br€kthroughj a passagc Del NI m e sfa s c o i n c d th ep h E s e. 'Lnninrlily and lhe Perfoanativo Genres. in thc ollicacy ot our own pcrtormance.I inrlfal riles of passagelhus hav(:playodscvinalf! n(ikrns I Podo nfln(x)Studcs.conrcs porlomlrfcc (andporfofrnl|nco lJccomcstheorzed)as af . Even more lhan theakr rtus ol p.ty. r)/ r-lody. ._ In his essay. liminal rikrs have bccn usctl lo lheorizethe very emergence oi Pe ormnnn) Snr. Porlormance schotars havc b€en inrer eslc.nce.ges the paradigm ol Perlormance StLdies. rurner llrites rhar tim i.ly oi cuhra pertor E.ssaqe have providcd P crl ormarrce S Ludies a nr eL: nr odel f or ils own iniliat on. Thery havebemme an crrb/cm of the paradillm ilsef. l|r lirlouisUcsand comnnrnic..l.tperfofinanccschoars wilh anolher imporlant mo. First.? lf performance commurrrticsconiinually remadc lhcmsetves iDio nrincultwal ensenrblcs.rnoc scholais havedlso thcorizcdour own activttics in terms ot timina ]lv arguing that lvc opcrate in lhe ntcrst|ccs ot acndemia as rett as rhe marqinsol social slructurcs and seek to rellcor upon and transtormbolh the academy and society at lar0c.trr (irnr.e' €quallywell configuresceftain initialltindependentintell{rual d€vel opncnts in thc rgtos that hiivc scrvcdas a foundation for the now rapidly expanding and (oalescing intcr.nthropotogislsand erhnographcrs wilh a tonnal model lor "seeing porlorm.. tor reco(nizing irs lorms nr sdiie.' ThroughTurnols ortltc.esses relectbn rnd (leliniti(nr alternativo embodimenL.ssembl.loa\.rtl in thc studyofcul Whal is PerlonnanceStudies?Casltro llymes "breakthrol{h" within tho orbi tot I4a cAoon's anao! cal r cadng w0 qcl lhisr cspof sc: ilis: Ldr amatic riie and rtualiTed.? Wilh rcspcrt to lhcatcf.oukl bccorro kov to theoriztngperformance Drawng upon lhe rellexivltvtound in riies ot passage.ough into perlorman.ns these porspootives on c! tlral exprcssion raised. Tur'rer hmsef wrote thnt the universiiy functiond asa " minoi.rs have not only extendedth s iranstornlatona poieni al to other cultura acliv tics.q rnancc. arrd manv olhers. Over lhc 6orso ol scvcral dcradcs.lly.t/r odcl lor theorizingthe rranspotentia ol iheater and othor pe ornr.kino prcxress ilselt lrr anthmrFlogy.litferentclsc plines. And even more than thentef. as MacAloon demonslrAles.n particularhjs conceptsol socld drama and trminalrites of passdgL.J pedormanco be a universol oxprcssbr ot hunran sgnilkrarion. E.guidingnotonly thc dcscriptiveanalysisbul also llrc lheorelic. tnkc rp rl ancl rcass. lhcroby conlributng lo the lerl eralization ol the concepl ot pertormailve dtro?x)V Limrnal riles havoihcrclore lmclioned as an exernplaroltheerlke lieldotobiects.b/(x. bul now ciled as formalve ol the concept. Fjrlorrnancc scholnrs have downplayed lhe |x)lenlinl lor riles ol passage to conserve possibililies social slructurcs and cmph.e' to descr ibe t h€ passage of hum an agent snt o a dr nr r ct vc 'm odc ol existen.both mef snw rhc cxtraordinarily decp questi. . Bul il rnnv also bc lhe venoe and occasion tor the most rddical timinalrites u€re lirsl lheorlzedby Arnokl v. And lin.ge ol limnal pro.vc used hnirlal rilc ol passage as a motamoctet of rhe very lomation ol Perlorrnance StLdies. ll the diversilv ol h!nran oulture showed pcrsisrenriheatricatirV ooul. Thcory b."Breakth. in other lvords.eand rea|luatron. .MacAloon.nd tnacticalconstruction ol olher pertomances. lt is oftcn the s@ne and rame lor the enrergencc oi a society's creepcsl valuos in the lorm ot sacred dmmas and obimts.nd Schcchner n this way: 'ln brinllin! lhe:tcf !nd flnihrohology logcrhcr.rs thcorizodby Turner.lor cxsmple.S{xxrnd. possiblv lo lransk)nn themselvesa|d soc ety.t Dehaviors and.lmovementihat carries theory brilders into r distl clive mode olexislence . it s passaselo paradigm.nd anlhropology eme.nd st!. cthnographcrs shi{tcdtheirrtlcnlion k!'ri nrylhicslruclureslo theirembod t! q ment in r tlals.thcrc was a shilt away lrom thealrical to environmenlal spa(!s.peggy Phe.limnal IGs of passagoprovkle.Th s passagocanb0 u dcrstoodin folalionto a scics ot conceptuashfts.rmblesvmbots an. s.on.lrama ot passnge n rehearse.tivegcnrcs.ll t. As objcci.cutruratperior |rr. wc hrvo Lhcorizcd orr own dclivilicsds nrinally effcacious.lol one used lo llrcoizc lhe wiys in whtch thcarer and other arts can helpto trnnsforrnindivdualsard sociolvai larlle.ndctrrbcm lirnfa ity has scrvcd rs a pnradismof lhe paradiltm. Thealcrp(wided. and we h:.-attention nDved horn fonnal choreography to mo\r'emenlsof every day lilc: and in blh dancc and cxp(xtrnc||tal thcalcr. lll E t herc.rality is a complexphascor mn. aitentionmovedhom thc tcxt ol a lale lo the context of its tellin0. Sim arly.ncl realization. Ltkerheater.n cennep al the bcsinninq ol the last ccntury. oxcmplar. thc movollront korn cntcrh ment to effi cacy came !4aa shilt in emphasistrom lho physcnpt b the adG's tDdv: in dance.

the lonnati(nrot thc forf.ji. 7ing.radiqnrsol th{r paradig|n. .ss trom pr(Xtucr ro process lrom nredalod orpressiorlto direci (x)nlad. tiekt ootrrposedol .fce enrcrcres horo rs lhe erl cacr.cr ofthe tslablishmort.19e^ Tlrc. fronr lhe Livnrg nrnter lo Woodstock trom Birmifgham to the strccts ol Chioaqo.onc thal rul odly delrnits ih.rsand Phenomcnoloov"and .rm is corr nll to pass: . iI thcn lirnen.r text is dilferenl on lhc stale lhan it is on thc r)." Discussinglhc consequcncesot lho lheory oxplosion.nd transgftisscd the Do$. and . "'Af ler N4ar" ' .lbnnan.vc beennllercd ls modols mrl0ted. Paradigm IEE THEOEY EXPLOI'ON A prr.nsbrn[liofr of socLclvlhroL].n. ho r sludv ng gram malcalstructffes 10analyzns lho praqmalicsof ulter.Jh limina transllfessiorr. octiviir)sc. perlonfance oan bc nrtkxrlatcd n terms ol politios:reDresentalion. which wffe expose(ttn thoir rb usjon wirh other fslfumcnls 0|d agefcles ol po$. Tlic rcpercussionsot this cvcrr \foutd rerorlre rhe prssaso ro paradigm. rrarlicuhr lornr ttre thealricatbocty.idivisls. lt is noi possibe io n.e ! td Critk:tl l/.V rny rnoins.P. the Sysicnr. For lho f allout lr om t h( i lheor y blasl h. lho p6s..l cnu ig ol so.inlnce" bul dso sclecls D. k) put things dilfcrenily.Psychoanalysis. "lIermeDcuti.p! bk)ot c|l.xpanclod the concopl ot p$kYmaiiv(l tiJlicncywhib nso subioclin0 lt lo I rigo(nrs philosolhical exanrinaLion..l presoftxj ot aoLorand rdience-.)rlonnanceStldies possalc to pl]r3dtgnrNas intrialtydrvrs by rhjs llcr|cral movcnrent. therewas an athmpt to rnovetls cuttureBlt€V korn se^/ing lhe Establrshnrcnt" and loward rhe deatron oI nuthenlic lor n ol s oc ll re a ri o n s g o n d c rsra .rst two docades: Cullurn Siud cs.and brin! the ilsoll rrto disis. lener.lchs anfhoog\. P. its liod blownwkle open as neN sit{)$of culturrl pcrfonnanceand researctiemerged.enoen.ppcned in thc lgOos and is nErchino lhrough Somethir( has happ.Jot aI okl clichdr. lrrherinlr ol subjccts slaking orr .n.sctotnrs sludv a verse culirrrfilpractcos. bclNcen 1955and 1975 and loross a widc rangeot cr rural praclrce and research. ideolo resislanoc lf a wav theory giles theatro back lgain lo !lV. theai erB nd rtu t Thcso w-rrenol rhe ()nlvonr)sl. hegemony.$ s ZE a9 ..ha d\le ot ethcacv. Docunrcnlsand anrlysis ol th s expbson iran be [(n]fd in noirret anil Ro.cnclemo n:se.linltof Oonlinontal phibsophv by nrlisls. porlormanceoDDosed oullLrral ihe phlsica Lvnnd passionot bodv lo rhc ralionnliTedalienation ol modcnr society.jnedaong lhs march.someth11!had allefe.. lls turm and its htrrclionh. bodles performod .nlrny of lh..: sites lcll behind jn PerjormanceSludios nri[. r m if isnr ( s) " S cl ni otbsl fd Dednr slr lct on.ll's ns il somcthiru h.manceStudics emergeil as wiln6s and Frlicpanl ot lhis pertoF m ncc and ils mcnrcrystill haunls us. lhc instilulio s of lirer. A ti ts mosl potemi cat. Itoinclt and noach llrile that "the now theory has provld(xla rethodoloqv lnd an impclus to spqr fy the mornin. p!rtkxrtar function the if.the lronslatidr..hrre nnd lhc. r rrs .l thc cnds.ially lhc lopics ol d scourse rLl lext.nd the clcslirJatiorJ of those workinqto mnnccl rhc arts wilh sociatsl.l ldius on lexturlilv has had lhe ettcl ol returnn! lhcater h thc body polilic or.tnl by the i)a y 198{+ rl had bccome clidsrl lhat sonrethnlt hrd happdrlx|.V ot Nhar Bh! catts _Ldve s tsody oticrcd bolh the oleaos .l Hislorj.' Blt pcrhaps Belneltand tlo:rch pul ( lBt nt 1992!r. publifiton.mc even . nnd rea. thc bdy poliiic"'" The ihmry explosior-in parlicular. one whose rnerhodolooic.Perloman(x)Studicslashionedits tietdand itsctt lletlecling back or lhe efficncy attrbut(xl b lhc lrody if rhe 19ms lr er ren Blauwrites thai ihcrc !!rs i I liber!Ln! enerltv n lhc bntnLrthink ing which s()oki ! a tody lllthout org.lerolh(x nrcdcls oI perfonnativeeitioncy. ficld ot c!I!ri'l pcrt . Commcnlnu on lhe conver0emic of hislory. Fl perlornEncedevooped in tho 1950sflrd 1900s The corocDtol culLural had dnphasiTedlhc presencco{ lhe thcalricallDdv.] passage to paradigm.l Uu rcpressivetextand disruplcd.cofy. howevor the pfl$sagelo h. ! s dr t ! lio I l ro m c l s c o !rs e i o b o d y l r onr nbsence kr prosdrcc.nce sludies work.tion io p|( .nd .tegorics inlo whhh lhc ediloB slructure lhcir nntholo(ryindicalc some ol llle na! .'Theat er Hislorv. .s done so priic4)allv by r.the challcnqc ol cllicrcy r(!rk on .d{ially..d tky(xrtiatnr(r lrjd rheorTingth-. ot cofhirr nclivilcs. .ii t norms and symbolic struchtr. marked rhis Irnnsiormdl/on in 1989: siocc lho orkJ Tos lh('e has bcen an innflensebody ol Derlonr.)ci .rnsses beiween h genffrl. To col(:q)lunlize this eltnia(:y.nr .nd lheorv Suc-F-en Casc remarks. but betlleen thq . s enl.ns! or trslilulcd power-srbverre.thoring ot objoot$ P(tr1{)rnr. q.theMachine. lhe Vi e tn a trr Wa r a fd w o n re n ."l hale bocome aware thii sornclhinglik(j a faraiiv'r keeps hljlnLfg my discusson cJlthis (xnNer qence. Throughthis tdm and lunction. thffc has been D^rodisrn r Drotoundshill in lhc ways in which perlonnancesrtulnrs adnjulatelhe .s been redirectcd.rchcfs-t!rther .tor.s porfoi'Jranoe.ti on. The th@ry exploson $$ $!" -s." x 'F.tthis oovcment sub y yei r.slbJinq the nlclr ot what r lexl is. This nnvement ol gcncr! zolon depen(ls flrn l t)rocoss ol sclcction.rrmn|ce Snr.l i scursve polt ics.Je .hcr'lhey wdc: Therc has been a lhqrv explosion .And I potiticn scienceand s(reralactrvism. Peno.cspe.fo .(x'.dcnlly qu.schechne. Ihc c./ Tho irrlned n.pproach* lhat haveem(yscd in tho . Iro l rcpresent. hacliorl ot tho scholars-some wc kr'()wr. therc was an allernpt ro p.|ilcd i raclicdlyrerelvcd nlerest h .n()es. In its lirst Lwoclocndes.rcitic nrdtds ot lho scrlcral nrffle.Beg inrn! rn lhe mid-1970s.$.to an embodicd .alonslvilh rhe Liniversaties..sb e r.Jryh. Perh ps mosr imporlanl.lqgtcs ovcr c v ilr i! his .llr UI E 6 researchers turned thoir locls konr /rngue to prronr. somo jlst enr()rging curronty worki'rg the liold.qrnphy.$.lies pr r r |dqnrwa s !!d e d b y tw o d o m n a n t trro dos. thc physi.

l'oucault. rheory has retuned lhc humanties to phik)sophy:performlncc hsrory and criticism.L urLlcr.. and schotarshad tong altr bulcd to the body. This shfl kom lheaLerlo theory however. BaLrdrllard. Barthes. and nrc bcinq recycled.l st rhe dec i nc ot 1s6osand' 1970sac Liv s m a n .ri tcat thcory qru. bui ! havo also beerriiformed by the poslstruduralist critiqueol presence past dccado onc ol the mosi signifcant ..an evalurtvc netuork lhat llso inctudes such opposrons as trLrlh/ln silV science/. Between in Structure/S iheatef and anthropoolv these deconstruclive readifgs nfque rhat presen. i!th its tnvsible . lor lhal mntler.rncc.ches.lical activismol rhc sxties abated or we.s :'votrJ i'S $$ s e 40 4' .lbyL. ard body/anqu. ixiiicalthoorv has hclpcd tfarsfonn lhe "what and the how" ol perlormalive efticacy wh!e also iDntributifq to ts rnovenreft ol ge.so cssenlial to lhe lormationot the paradis ln larqc p!ft to the criliquesof ts own cul the same role il once di.. dc Cerr-4u Dct.bio. Bolrdicu Cxous Clemenr. B l aus re.the posi rhe elfcacv ol performan.nktLtrt Schooland the Centre for Conbmporary Cullural Studies al Birnringhamalso conlribul. tscli a slgnpost bcaring righUy or ilfonay the names ol Batatte. renlity/rcpresentation.d scholafsa igorous nreans ol siudyinghow pedonnancccmbodiessymbolicsysiems.e an. Krsteva.tivisis. Even m. tn Of cnnnatobgy (1974).r but rhe mosl oriqina and powerrul ethfo{rcntr.The Thenrfc oi Cruoty and lhe Cosure of Fleprescntation"and of Lavisrrauss gn/Plavin the lliscoursc ot the Hlinan Scioroos. etlicacyth.lt surfacc.llctivc cut!ral perlormafcc.jetebratedal Woodstock an. includingclhnic sitdies..' pedormancehas itscll The effcacy thc transformntvepolentia ol cLrltural Ths translormntion c.ge. Girad.l. wh ch had sefved performancescholarsas the most pro.hallenqesto pertoF Ovei_the matve presence has come thrcugh dcconstrlctvc readingsot Austin's speeohact thcorv Throlgh lhe work of JLrdithButler and others.uzo..ylingol t he sixt ics'andRenellnnd Roach s lheor y. The ltestyle desircsand polymoehousp.lhii v$! licld of iLs Lheorelical posing the chr efge ot how to trame the unmarkcdwilhif theorv Phelan . tsell marks an evcr nrore) prolound passage. E d $. DijriLla delines lhis sysrem and its histofv as 'bgocentrsm. modcnr lanquages and hisiorv have returncd lo a tundamerral cxaminationof the undcrlving.its lorm as pr€s. .ol socolo gy in gen$al. . has slcadily declinedas ihe notion ol the social has bccn fragmenle.l alrsonce are irscrbod within a systcm ol conceptuj hicfarchies.and more radi callv how such sysiemshelp to constructantl constitutethc body:s such. . fetshism.raduallv ceded this fonna model lor analyzing role to theory itsell ll thcltcf helped pedormancescholars see" pedor firance as embodied Dra. lhe.one I wll call "from l/rcaicr to the mpact ot iheory " Over the course ol the past tNo afd a h: f decades.mong muLtiple and conpetng voices..lrsaray.Dnstrldcdncss rrd lo lhe increasn! lmportance ol an aray ol with c! hrr. .ism.n.criti(jalthcory chalcnljed this \risionand vis bility. hls !. k e o f l h o th (x try e x p o s i o r.nd posisirlctura . in thc process of imposfg itsett upof the wod. GLrattari..the impodan. shLfls withif the sludy ot cu hrral pertorm.nd lhe lawi t writes that "Visib tv s a lrap.v.nd their undersland nq ot objects of inqury if' general. .]!.alonq wirh olher humanties discttincs such as Eng sh.(Re)cyctinq ihe Sixlies.L artists.ssunptons .cch/wr i rrg. sp.eralizaton.xtonia st/impcral appetile lor posses sion. ro onlcf phys a nthfopoogy. af.e ot Gotfman'swork rnd.nverstywhich wcrc. ior the worl$ ol thc Fr./eologfthevwcro charqedwilh . tho prcscncc of the sublect inlo the insstent deletralol siqniiynrg Simibrly. r plo son" hclp us mark an importantsh fl here.ff.l originall!locatc.l seemedto bo s.tices.lheo appronches associnted rkrs ol gcn.ein the presen(xr structuralst criuqu€of prcsoncccontr buled lo a whole new seriesol oncoptu.given tho r.cross lho Atlantic and e|tcfoLl the high nte ecrlal lradirionsof conri nent! thoughi.l soxualily.In indeed.l ttoach commcnt rha|the trew. " Bccausc practiLiorrcrs afd reserrchersalike ha.l l h e s ta rtl n rq ri s e o t 1 9 80sB oaql ni sm. Al slakc in lhis recyclingwas not the si'nptohtrodlction ot theoreticaldisrnrrse for slch discoLrrse had obvblsty been emptolcLl by c ar ler p e rl o n n rn i x r th e o ri s ts -b u l th e hei ghl enod ctement of philosophcalcrtique Beinclt an.t to rhe e\posion ol ne\! appo." lho dominanceol rhc spokenor wriLrcn wofd Nhich he charrctixizes as lrorh f. Theater.lcqrailablyas ar assautron rhe phn ooocentic slruclure ol bourqeois powcr. I I sunrmonssurveillance provokesvoyeurism. Piagels psychoollieshas beeneclipse.l Setres. " rT he c rtq u o o l p re s e fc e .rt.l and disperse. nfd postcoonial siLrdes Obvbuslv clch ol posed al dilferent lhese deveopmenls has nvolveddilt$onl ch! cn-clcs limes and paccs.n be siiuaredlry knking at thc nDdcls ol pcrfor maiive ellicacv the paracligmsof thc Pcfformance Strdies paradigm.l .Blau ftxvds th s sh fl I his essry. Among ihe most evidentdcvoloprricnls: Lhe nflt]enceof Winncott and wh ch. Lacan Levinas. ism. I n t he w.luallytook on th." In shorl. hnvc bccome a sgriatufti evenr oJ Frerch poststrLrclura snr.lfl !J ot the 1970s and 1980s challengedlho eltica.canianpsychoafalysis dspac-. owincr ntra . J . .e. Th s iheory was not restricLcd lo Frcnch sirucluruism .lor rf.lst!dies. Dcri.y of rhs bodv rhrough n radlcal quesiioning ol prcsonce ttselt Amonq lhe mosl imporLut lexis n this regnrd arc Jacques Derrda's readingsof Arraud in .lin rheort as n rroworotics of d scoursc.l olpcrlorm ns bodies.tor there has bdln a passagt iu the passageits-. Lyotrr(1.s with its slress on the structu! rchton ol desire and iangLrage chanrs.ged alAlLanbntalso wenl undcr rorrear inlt .rroun..lcokrqy.a m.ot havinqin rhe sixies. argunrqlhal when the ra. io lhe criliquc ol dominanl socral nonnsj rhe new tlreofy lLlcleda critqle of pstorm€nce rcscarch.Austif's analVsis of pedormative ulieranceshas povid. a n d the reeval uaron ol vares r eniails.

tiqiht rJlcdia. via . cril cal v:r ues thai has occufied since rhe thoory cxptoso .csisrrnccprcci5ct.omp|lcr !nd in.trc D u1. . Wilh proqranrs sL|chas LileTonns.J. . In .lowDloid Lhcmir the studb tnlo da|cDs borties Oorvi)^i{rv. devotostwo thirds ot tls sLrrvev to the hislory and theory ot pcrformafce ari.< a " .idticncious pcrtorm.ltcrnpt to opt)useso..tornrance a(t tn Prascnd) an<t Rasisrntx:.rnrariori irr rhe l! nct onr)lnro. trkntg its posiiion in opl)osttion to dominant s(xxal slrudures and lornrs.l absence it seeks lo cha eIge.rvelonir hepnLonrrunptii 4In pdt. The ditforcnoc belw.nted by a rranst.n(s ot ctaiionrlilV ll llx) shilt lrollr tlx)arerio ltroory(Fn be ud{)rsr@d as orcurrnq nton(] .erwhose arrange m()n ot prcscrlcc an. ha..1 r.tthc in or ' ) ( .tisclssod m!nv lnncs oltcf h rcl(xcnce ro ihe dflerences hehreennloclern afd postuod ern De.ucs that postmodcrn Porrormanco docs not.een rhese |wo strnrelies ganoratcda sublk)ycl p(tound chanqcin portormalM)In{fi)s. mGt nol:rDly dmg.r.tormancc prov.dcs. And lor many in lhc c4Frimentat nrts. t ons.se spacos rre lherrsotv{)s beiD0nnppe.tecndospe onna|cc arr h.rt rn The body has in no \rvny dsappearcd trom periormanijeSrLrdies ln.d nrstitutio. .t sonrcsl(tri. phitip Aushnder doscribesposlmodernperlornrance as invotving a shitl trorr lrnnsgrcssion io res sla. --$ 4Z 43 . il hns ntso bee lccomD.xifll pr.pertorDanc\) /s penonnancoar!.udio.ve been ntensified by the ncre.rhar fit comforrabty inlo poputar represeit at 0nsol po it ca t hought bui .s been lhij nrosl prod!ctive silo ol pr. owovor l h e m tc o t ri l u a l s a gcncrrtmoctetofcl tcaoy h.t.t procoss_ es provcl(xlear y p{j1ofln. r id oar t yt 9/ 0s. es of t he r r 6( x. hc wriles that lhe so. anrt crcss-cutlurn Llctournement hlvc becorroccntralio llxi artid)laltonc.perfornrancennd conremporaryfheory. i rer. . .in Iaot.sof porformdtiu) tlioacy.nl nrollot ot eflrnc y one Nh .rsilionin Lrsucial dr. ss.c ra i z (x i a (j ro s s thc enti .t \ MH.ttr.llrr nbdeliTtliqr p(xxiss.xrricat!fdtheorelical o\r)erlmefraliof.n. activisrs. srrnrc(i(js deplovd in perfonnnrxxrs r.s doc ne. and r^p. vi. haveatsoconlributcdto this theonla_ tion.tas nrorornLl more pcqJkrhave inkon up culturalperlorn)ancc as a nlea|ls lo chaltenoe s@ial norms.n.e ot. orc ccnkxe(t nround Dorlorm.fd pcrtonnaNes rrc rnmerset rl neh{.C.jat rror'|ns n. bI chJ cngngt hc pr o.!s d d t he po r . nnd theoristslo ground p{jrfornr:rivo olftcacv n o lh$ an . r tlat hrs ilsctt bedn. s tor(rl and Droccss-A.z_ Pcrla (lo naDe bur ii tew ot tho innumeratrto indivictunts atxl groups wtx. ofe base(l I the cl oftty po ti c s oi lhc 1960s.nmince strci. rtlr.rnlcdiaton ol $ociatpro(luclio.!tturnt perloanirne-tn thc sooat.sin0ty diverge t cu rlrat ditiororrces al rvork in prxlormance tho(ry and prncrice. Onc otfcrq has ctu cnlccl anolhor The critique ot presefce has chr enoed the very core E+* or dentity po tics.choreogr. al srbleor can no tonter tnke !p I p. lhc auth(xrlio presenq) trcm c which opposilional transgression Grn take Dlrce Givenlhe potiricat slakes.rj lhc ra!!.c h l h c y !j (r.l ti slribuliiU" or rnthcr fixtistributn|otprtorDntavep. xjs can bo recasl In rcr.ry fdces ot po$.nce sdrohrs with r irnrrfi. lhc'so ch.\ hut Iot! x.tion to ctis{xtrsivc porktrnllrtives. ttu ri c .or nraln)nnelllorks In terms ot (xrtirtratperfonn0nce. rrBes. A second and more proloun.ticutatoslhis chanle: in Fronrthe Polircs of tcsrrsy b Ijc tcsiasy ot Communioilron. .jr.lelhel|x{l lo antr nlc slratr{ies d enfuo(Js||ransqrcssion.t try arJdinro . The .' posiriv€or negJtive.fd recorrbi n) eements. . wh dr cnn be !fderslood horc as rwo ditforcnrsrratogt.ta n c e D cocson corrrt rcfsan.n n sy b rc rk u p.lifferences beh{.rl lr|s qner. The title ol one ch:rpter succinc y a.ren lheso stralogics corrospondsnso lo a dittcrence in rhe ways rlv()r is conceive.. lhroush thc work ol I {uric An(tersoo.. l i steado f pr ovding r esslanrpo r .. resislnrrlcllicacy ariscs from ilrllin.V ol emboLlic(tDrn. tsDecia[V in ts nosl lgrogf zab o tnm a bodv an.iticf ld fcrtitesiro tor rcs{)archers thcoriznll lhc m.s bLrtlnsteadint trales them throoghslbto oriLiqlesaId/or parodicsot icp_ ros(xrlntunal m(xlia.r(lrs.r In .n.ve seor.lclol (jl]ihm pcrlornraice.t to crcalc {nnpLrrcr rrjmarons.r F o t .As \\rl)h.t d.csence-Wods an.Drovcor(xrr sensorscin track l portonnets gosrrtresso llnl rhe nDvcrncnrscan bc cliqitally.' h. Trrnsltressve elticllcy posits tsetf ns a prcscnce o(]lscle an aliennlfg powcr.i!t tor an.r c c o m D u rr_ ys rc n rs .rsen*r. :rnd qit|dnD Gdnx..t bodnishile nrultip(Xl and dtvoft fie. vo(."Patr lll oI his t dddcs his trnal -\rtonn!!kL.ti hen '.j ti otd ot. Lir . l ihe or her n r he Dost mrxk)rn cdi4le ol presence.n incrediby if.ncc OlhL-rqenres.lLnt Inovcm enr s lU e n c e s a rj d(x )mp o s e o ftrc . post m oder n pe.t politicd mnlert ot lhc 196osnnd lg/os. rhe la{rt.nstonnarionot pertoiinalivepreson(x) E has lrcon the hyp.remcnls. ! t m elsagcsor r cpr cs..s ol appn)prati r prftxty.Fc i r.rlso (irapters to two strategiesol potiicat perlornrafce a(. seriesol lrcnts. ncccssarly inscribc.phcrs cnn gerrcrato indivt. Karcn rnrtey.rLr buLis a[!|ys rlreac]yrlJsorbcd rjlo $ociol! as oloclronkr {rnr[)uri Thc shill koor lranssrcssrvr) b rcsislantrfbacies r( eds rhe qowing re L(J. . Ihs transfonnlrtonol perfonn. al per f or m an.l$rithin tho v. an. s!ctj r$ tilm. :rs bolh perfoanrrr(xrs .. u J i . esot fep r ese lt aron ir se il m usL.l:shile rransgressireetticacy secks (o ovcrthrow rirc loli'hlarianism ol lhc Eslablishmcnr.Dot)ares over ihese modetsot effi cacv h.In thc 1980s r |d 1 9 9 0 sh .t rtiscufsvo sr.anr.tco sy|llrrs r z er sr. r. Uy contrast. Lhepositionof lhc subju:I.rve eificacy has b xl . Cartsof.not by otfcnng mcs.hlc..ls bFik Nn.rrlsts.rs pertorrnance. csenron nt Eg At. this has enraite.xlnled p. vcn f r ouSh or t r hispf ol.e lufircd to perforrran.n! nlt ironr Grolu/sk to Spd0rworn. but over the plsl two .utrrg.loa or a m.l.n. ar y | . Austandcra(.lee.e irrl lo ongage c! r!rar refrescnlation). or tulhc. cl D fncansor r cP. cmbodiftt |arld m.e. rhis Ino.nges can be situated in retarion to thc reJmting o. conndrting lhomselves to and lrotweenoktcf med. resisttnl etticacyseeks ro sobverl lhe heqemof es ol erhnophalloqocefrricisnr.ncc it.liccs irn.

irxl Pcrl('n nce Sirdi.srecvahla on ot eiticacyaDd ils own nrsl lurionnlization aslwo unrdh.v.ial institulions.s ntn.c lo in shon.rcssionscro resDonscs lo norrrtive torccs nl work bolh oulsue an(l insidcthe hllls ol thc rr)r(temv. Thls is not to say thal ntonrirypotiths havo been eclipse.e trom{ithin sifltcgcs and rh{rcxpansir}n ol rese.jret or ret|'|rn: il tr.l n 1 9 8 0 . li(rr lro r lrnDsgressive b rcsist rr srrntegies ol olticacy. both ol lhcse doveopm{xrls must bo sitLrar€xl wilhin a broarler sffbtx)lilicnl cont(ixl. ro slr trs in mo.beclruse lhoe ol us who nniculato lhsl are rrcrety legitinanngour o!!n aclN.iv. o(rrscas in creat tsrtr in lrd Ausu!rn. arrd to tho o r. PAE DE PARAO'GM Tfrc lrrnsfonnilion olcflioi.omng s om ewhltns! ! r and h€r f t ict ica r €r uI r hatuhf of t u.l as Carlson points out th()ro has been a prodlclive lensioJr "bc'lM[n rho des're lo providoa groun.r rhe Dassaoe irsotf_ The theory e{tosio nr ar k s n t hr e s h o dl )c l w (n rn th re s h o k l sa .ro (raim rhis disrinclvcnets.ns .ranr nlo r se. to l. essarpo y t .t(nN Nth lhe Linitcrsities.nnLtthc des re ro un. kind of s€parat lon f r omolherar eas ol st Ldyll wasne. thc r I tcrily Thorc hns ber-'n . rhe ofli{)lol'.rain.sity $.lels lrom lhcator lo thery anLl korn ri\jat to perlofinancearl.lo :rrri war demonsrrnrbns. Ihe post oxp os()| pnssalJe rhus s l)v M ore.j| oDposlionio esrablishcdro.orrespondingvaloriznrioD ot the presrxrccfoLrnd in the s{xrond.tisftrpred .l g l]nd trfld t ona the)a lcr departrronls hrd boen ro brcak aw. the par. laken opart.cillllc the re*'arch and rcactjng ot pertormance.rt the h srory of r he dt s.whcrc paradiqmsot clticacy are retftxtc.a ty nccers.n(x) slrusglcd ro dclirrc its dishrtilemss as an obiect ot rosean)h and loachlng.rs dcpnrlorent Other r)roqranrs ot srdy h.xc! blow l lhe tend ol lhose lhoy sludy nnd lhal.Jhts movcment.lllotwhktr posi lionedlhorse\€s. $-$ Howovct the dovobr)meniol tesisldn.t ArizonirSrate.teltcs nno prrctice One coutd thus counrer lhat pslonn.tinqkr cl€rive action by Dotithat attirmng a spcc fic dentttyand sutcor position.hns its. speech.ll beei spproprralr)d. ot c bodiedhansgrcssion his ber)n rL\!o ed ns rhc oflnjac!.tel us rccall til. pt ne or r heat er! t udie5 I n r ijr m I m a.s rs 1rlnstonna.ssallc l)as rendedtr) inctlrdclx.lrcs withif ihc academy.tdruw thcrr logelhlx nnd |ndorsland lhc pirrndiljlr. NorthwcsternUnivlxsirylranstornred tts Orr hrrerprer.lormanco ad. in c oller er rc e h f .t upon.ot discursile r()sish.ti vcl y re:d .tsdrotars producclunling modolol Perlonirance not lheatc( etc Su(jh argunrentscannot bc dismisscd arogoltrcr Hl]r rhc impacl ot lhoorv and lho enrerqenccot iosislant enbacy have not been limitodtb schoars n riisls and nctivsis havea so rosponcted to Coni ncnrl]l lhcory . r.dlr ha.tinrl thnrkinowhoh 'subverl{xl the rcprossve texl rnd .l to lhe civil ri.rtrj the verv silc ot D€r_ k)rnrancc Displacerl brft not rcptaced..ncc tronl \dirhid arc utrimarety seff-scrvin!.o i. South(f. nately becamc lrue for mrny departmcnts ofrhcalei.as rcnr'nred the Ueparrrrcnt ot pe. W h. sinlrlc rcv.nl passtr\.lone milrhtars(o lhat lheores ot 'rosisl.li6 by lho talc t970s..r). t h.u's nrcnDry ol rhe l060s tibi.r()tn[qhnrlolle aD(]. Whrtr the i.assombed.ti(nr p(\.radjsr!1<rlic i. siricc (nnerltcd . c€ sludier lsoncof f ghr nef or a!tonony fron Englr sh andspeech depar henr s.ternpcrtonnaice nas generalod thd heated dcbales wtrhinpertotrna ce St{dies over 'nost thc past twn decades.t rh e l o rmal i nstrturi onnti z. l}$e(.l u a rc Dral rl ] prooram r N (\{ .l h e c fr.rs sLudyifs c!lttraL por'onn. we mighi insrea. hasled trom thcstrccrs and barrimdcs lo llrcclassroonr r). Tlre vnlorizaliofot p(xtofinan*j thcon/ (x)!ld be atso ideereled llr a snnlhr nranner of course lheory tlas displacodlhe. Inslitdaonallv if pre-expbsiondi$iplinary t tics vis n.cv trom rrjrnsqrcssiorto resist3n. lhc instihniors ol lrreralureand lhonter' pcrtonnanq) sdroars sLrspicion ol iist it ut onsar d d scr r svclybr s..l nr nslitutbnalirc tsei Slch nr{]!trrenls atso cannot bo rciecredoul ol hnn.nltentlcminisrnbvcrnent.lcq 6nct.cto (riscorfse lo body was olt. ol lhcsc chafges nru$tb.!t$ Mll undetu€y anPcrti)rm. Heinctran(t $$ r"6' zr4 zr5 .N4ore sn€x)ti..ry. smn irllcr.ty A..l is. In ninrs ot lho lniverstV scho.tonnancc Sr(dies. l l.1rndaqnr. evcn al rhe exponse of be.in ol i|lquny.jdior or oxctusion of lhe li6r lffm !rrLIa .ier rs n Sludicsitheoryis wh.yofk lntve./ u E I co res as fo suririsc lhar rhe enrercrenoc ot postmo.ekr hc r c Loit s ir s i tu to n a z a to n a s o d i s c i p i n c rrn dprotessonThoprssLr!.anDosoLt a$ a nj. p€rlornancr) schonrs h vc respondodsimutrlrcously lo chafges in lhe pertormanccs lh{)y shrly and in rhcn own pcrtormandrs ot slu.V)l lho very space betwo(inthosc desiresatiests lo rhcir dfterclxxr. nalhor thnnchoosebehlccn tlresohlo readinlts. unllcrst(ff] i retaronto arr)lher inrrrortanr pnlrcss lhat \. r dnr et hods an( t t her lheorizatonot embodrcrl krns!.s wav t0 pertorrrralivir Lerabltity.lh ler rs whito Ltiq)tacing rhenr w thin i) nroroleneral terr.nd put reslslant str. ns hcr cas Pef lof na.pcrlor'nalivepresen(x) !.nd transbrnrcd The teedback botweef ritLral and lhclrler so pftrludivc lor nn errtier (jencfltiorr ol Derform{ysal scholnfs.n tnros Norih C.k e o l l h e l a o t th . rDslcxplosiontaclics havc sought to rclirrkand lorge atfiancos.jaLV they were diredly {ronocrte.otrr Dass.'Dc Shr. t.t reoyctcd I rhe reverb ot lheory and De. t. r i t expenen(x) w | orc onc l mi nalrtychailenges anothcr. ) n r.ter mnrc lhe essentialast assuntplions ol culural coDstruclions.iirr to imhrlo bolh cmbo(tiedpr rlices and discurs!e slaLcnrents havccontribuLod to a rcthrnkn9 ot lhis separaLsL appft)ach. inr t sr r ng on .vis Enotish. lhe larerp.ti on ot l)ertornrandr Stldios hns r)ccurrecl ov()rrhe same perir)d.rcir loroinqdavelopmcnrs. Roinelland Roachrr!]uc lh.n(xr scholars have m.l.rlUnt p.y and sea up.an. p!rodie(I. both mnurllually nnd physnltty.

The mnlensebo. The (inrlftlsls bet$(nn whnt we mqhlca the MidwL:stem . This wider smiopotiri€t conrert alows us to undorsland how changcs in slratcgies of ellicacy and clisciptinary lormarion srnptenrenl eachoiher:from th s perspectve.rnnmctaphors e(ryday convorsalions.nivcrsily. bur ralher as a pnr. l9a7 estny entilled "A Paradigm tor pertormance Srudtes. gcnre that h s tormance.) ior.n. SubsoqaeDl con'crcnces havc been held ai lho Ur vers ty of Wnes nnd ArizonaSirle Llnivcrsitv E H *-t s s$ $*t !t ta.lisoursiveprndices. they trace an alierfariveparadismshilt.activisl.nal vl i cllpr ecedoloc lheir p f t r digm shllt lo Pcr lor m anoo Sldies hc( rtcned lhe imporlance ol cn rodid praclircs whik) s|lnullaneolsly nlrodr.liqmrticrelationship beh{en or. This diflerencoonn be (!. In a 'rnd.l interprctalion sludics displllylhe peflorm{nceol llln'r. gay and tesbianrighis.. Norlh$oslern tlnivorsityis ooalcd if Fvnnston. the flektoi orat nterpretarknr has oonlributc.d in lhe conltust betw(x)n Schechnei who ollen exr)ludcs literarybxts korn lhe liold ol Derlomancc anclPclias andVanooslirlg.ot thoorisrsoflor I difierclrt pcrspootivcon llrij rclation bolwecn or0l inlerpretalionand pertormance Studles in do nq so.n( | fastern pflssagcsare manv bll lhe most signilicanl involvcslhe ditlcronl emphasisc.o m n u ri .nonatd J. lrt'ich somcwh.d gm sh h occurring rlith I nn establishecl d sc p ne. who.ra ru rc u d l o cutes perfofnati ve or Lhe add aesthetic natrre oahufrar discouBe it rs basedin all.ty.For rese.nd theoryand the pradi@s ot ()sistanl cllo.ri1ulrls.As we.nother palh Hnv ng ph(rd PerfonnnncoSlud es squarcy within spooch commu| callon.l perlornrance 'righl li0ure widorifo oLrh(ardto .porhesis tramosil as a paradigmshrll lo PerlornJonce Sludles.ssage h paradism.oliocs hnvelons tnken.ch givrls lo discorsivc pracliees. lhere has been a paradigm shth.ilh whichto doso. F r omw th n s p € e .ch wr te lhai " t|losr t is evenmore necess!ry ro rocolln zo a nd insistof the inlordcpendoncy ola rclaldl scncs oldasciptines and atsoor therote ol perlornrance in the prodlctlon ol cutlLrre in rhe widesl sense.lq z16 47 .l James Vanoosttngdepkn portormancoSructicsnor ns rhc cmorgdrcc or a rcvotuliolrry ncN p:fad gm.lendersof's1992rexrbook. no(h ol Chicaljo).ind m!lliculturalism.do not 'Jre.s sc L a rs c rts d L h c o rc cta o ri e.wheth{. hl/o h Nes Yorft(rrc of whlch was also co hoslcd by lho Cily Udversllyot New York)and one e. Two models ol elticacy. porit5methodotogicat proccdurcs. l her e t ra i l s o l w h a i Ku h n w o u td c att a parndi gm shtr w i rhn Perror'n.ip|lneof humancommuni. malic pr*uDplion.cy havccut acrossanastc.wh(xrgnlheringlogolherlhe gcnrcs ol perpcrionnrnce art. nce Slud es. an ext)losive kanslorma|on in tErw()cn: one can r ea. cliri€s epistemological.a ti o n .' The convergcnce ol lhese two pnssaltesto pdrndigmhas been lonrlali/cd over thc course ol tho 199Os. th(jv sct out to nuasurc .ngolPerlonnancc Studbs is hauntcdbyanortrcrparn. and popurar cutrure.tyot ne\! rese rch. lhe two cbparl'nents hrvo m hosk:d.. s i n s ttu ti o n arrpcrusl l ]()rgcs w rh krger soci al I of c c s . Oul of lhe 1997 conlercnccif Allanla cnme iho Iofmatlonol lhc lirsl proiessio | organiz!liorr of rhe ti(ld.rch{rs wilh presumplionsinlomrcd Drinnd emboLlic{l mnrilvbv tlre ornl nkypretni on ot liLcrirlure d soursivepr.lho thmrycxpkr son! lho rccyc fg of Lovc's Bodv rhcsostrikingIigureslrace lhe reroutiro and detourin0 ol PertormanceStLdies p. aparthcd. Boqinnng n 1995. ny conirrst. for resmrch€trs hoklinqprcs!nr ons nlornredbVlhoatcf s tud es thc emergeni)o of PerfonnanccStudklscmphasi/edemboded rathff lhaf .l h ee m b ra c ng ot dtscourse.l coincidontallytmk lhc nanre ol thc 1990 conlcrcnce. We can sec howcvor rhar rharr h!.IA Ro. le a ry 1 9 7 0 s th .rar or tramed square ly withrnthe dis.loprrhenis.vocative ot a laruo tarqet. storyic ling. lnt hc 1 9 8 0 s a n d l 9 9 0 s .es.rrature as tho c.""."" lam temptcd to saylhat this liourq e. rnarks lhe slle whore orol ntdprctnlioi met a|lhropobgy I s le ocatcd sornewhere in I Linois {Pelirsn nd Vanoost ns s I 9ll7 ! rlicle llsts thnn as assisl.lics trlernfllionalor PSi.lrims. lheatcrbased seholarshavo shitled moro ol lhet allenlion lo discoureclvhileihe hlorahrre-bascdscholarshavo tLrrned loward embodim('rt. P lormance Slu.ing ncw bodiesloinalyzeanrl n{)wmclhods{.lilterenrselot normariv.jokes.nt prolessors of pertormancc studiB i|| lhe S|}xxll Co nnLmicalions depadm(rrl at Soolhrn llli|loisL. p € rformance nl d €5 dcri vcs lr oh t hei n tc rp rc l a ti o i l : r. Polidsond VanoostingconcludoLheirtext bV sntherlngup dilferent qonres eilh lhis round tigurc: 'the para. "' P er f or n ra n cu d . a mnlor conlcrcnce and tostval co hoslcd by ther NYU afd Norlhwcslenr .manco SludiesInliirnalional).whereasthe reacling lhave been deveoDingsog0ests lhere hns been n Fradsm shifr hrlrrr Pertormance SludiesTher h story ropeatsand Vold flers from lhe thenlff n'ools anlhrcpology pasJi<)gc I have lrackdl here. lh€rrrc. rho tforhefr ot AIDS. andcaIs f oric w p . yet lhis read. such as lhose revovns a(rnd obortiof righrs.ation and enriched by suchfi€ldsas JnthropoloS.and acade ric comnr!nilres.ton nrosi testdl lhe body's lirrils uut as fast meels Mid{esl. com !nites workif! undera . readin SLern aid l.rhc c\ptanaroryDowerot the Daracliq. anoth(xpai.lio thc loflnaiior ol Pcrloflirafcc Srldies and ls conceprr! aliznlion olperfonnance ThouohStem and Henderson cite mGtot lheeany theorislsmentionodby MacAkxrn.orsunzati. ln 1990 gradrinh studctrlsat NYUoroi nizodPSI (whhh originally slood lor "Perlo.ch in tvaDslotrand Atlanla(rx! hosted by Cooryia InsututoofTechnok)gv). the stronsrhening of nrsrr!rionata i:rccs is itsolfa tactic ol fcssranr c'fioacv. fcderalfund n0 of the arls.tig r shifl. fotktorc. Pellns.d a g o g c a a p p fo a c h e "s Pc irs and Vnnoosling corlc|]de th6t it is too earty to s. it rehearscs . rrgwbly lh. irrded any communicalonirct mmling the crikrir ot aesthcticdrscours-.h .Asin the r 9O 0snn.nlrnL clrcle in a conoenlric nc trb socialdramas. series ot {rnlorcnces. pos ng thts shfl as a srarlinu hypolh()sis..

rc Step (an..titk)nat tioktsot lhoarcf..t' includod.anvo tor or work t(nlarl 0 unilkrd1c d' is. ncnrally.ig. s a spccif c \ ! it h t r m r oidnat ur ct or cBr ound l P erfo r nr aiccl .llv thos.ch!.s sugfleste. bur inste..liscptine.rtormNnce s. Thev remnnr. lhcaterdcpartmorls and orqanircrions soch.dirrgs. p. the nstitltbfraL zr tio o I PcrformnfceStudes s a hisroryoi conhslat ons an. $riihoutc lifg tho lcr nrrd dtu.srinqot paradqms. hvo rnodcls oI cutiural pcrlormanoelegiblelrorr our re.ll lhe para..e ot ettioacy!!hch wo havca ribul (xlboth k) ouroblccls afd o!rsclves. thc lield nor been clmin.Passins bcrwecn thc Lwo modds.priff ov.lxdween ihcory if.sinqry lheso have como to make up rhe eflicrcy ol p. lho !rvorsL!. Scheohner wribs rhat .l t)oflornrnn(xr an.rPer encc asm ade upol r t o be nt er pr ct cd.eenihoaler and rirunl. ln practices ho cd by ihcire( riru!.l Todny.lols!nd rrodcttcr$.Dassa0e lo Braci srr.li6 Fr.nnlysis. afd oih(n trainingsol lhe ho(ly.cv r nd lhe de s i re l o ...e Slud es r)..nd playfulness furdarnenrrtro pertormanrx) sludcs.c of theory.lthat Pfflonnancc Sludcs cofrsrituLes nor a. our proqrrtrrs and dopnrhrenrs.in nrv(Ilin!.l cterourins ol portoftnancc Studies.\!e havenlso invenie.For pcrto.Jrto its appellrton. PertorDanceschotarshllve for dccdilos lssoncd fte socint e. lho ch. ck)scs his 11)96 surve.l€s. Ntcdnted orcoLrnrrxs.n. or "posi.rnd socirl tmdics thrlsc nstanliatc lhe lranshrnrative pot4crot perlormance in thc flrsl deoadcsol Pedornrance Studies. esr oiiil€.rodic.spo...ul |ll E E l)espite such reguhr mnl$cncos iDd or(.NONM Lei us nga n asscnrblei$'o paradoms of cl{caoy.h lhe Insl.rs mys.u 1!ral perlotrr:lrce.anizalionat devetopnrenl.t protessona teqti m.l allrib! les of porlonnativi i c l|cacy Carlson..t imporhnl. slte'spocilic ev(rrts. iho tcr .! tonutivclv solrkI rnces wilh these sane tiektsns wetl i$ othors.nsqrcssiveto ro$shfl dlicrcv They ()rnai.ny llcfernl lhcory ot . This tensionhas bocf and conli ues ro be al o|ce pro.tsancl dscptinos.x)nLl rnodelo1 offcacy.tk in ot PcrlonnanceShdies.and br ar den..re . tcclure mnchinc. thc dcbatesover wherherii ts or is nol a !ts{r ptnn.tre Rcscarch provilc rntFrtanl lfses n)r s lo:rchn]!. I fot nr s0!.rneDi.hotlrs with mt)()rtanlnrethodolo.onc lhar lornhG upoo bolh lir inalltv. ot prrrad qrrr.nl"0onclusi(r): W hrt i s P o f lor 'nance?'. on.i n g rh e n o rmsoj l hc acl dcnj y.l. lo be engaBed in-chotionally. researching the tietdfr(nn rhc oursidc nnshl disagree.es As re hnve seen.our nreiho.letiTl]rior).l th.dnd perhrps sd c --. ol cullurnl D{rlormanc(i and rhe parrrdism oi P(xlonnnn.iii(n eDtlrt. fofi ns th| l are lhcmsclvcsticd lo cxtr nElitulndat l)r.oqv From this pcrspcclilc.lucr!e.olice nnd thc pracu. takes oll kom tho discoursos oldiricalthcory an..n.lis(ji pline of rnthropok)qy coniinu.h.aling tor brn rlso pa(ic patinq I chaltenges ro rhe norms ot sc|ltorstrip nd p. r od pr esent cd s r lr ended br pcr r o.l ' rosr r nvlr ir bi/ <iea.nnd . es bor h of whom .lppronches.But lo nranrt. repro. bodies (xnrstructedbV ond throlgh dis@u.rrdigdrs. t his ot her re s e n i c h e lrfo m th o o u l s i d O Ini gl rlconnncnt:ti t w rks ti kea Thc trlisling an.[ena.Jormance Stu. nro.n s paradoxic. whichef ( ls wilh t ho I oll ! nlt clclnilon.rhcso ar!:lurcnls are lamitiaran. l/ scpar f at edLhe. ftralcd 1o ethrr0 Furthcnnore.y wiUr n se.ns it !rq0.nfol l)e rhrr(y'.jts ol knowkida. not onty.tisciptin.s lo prcvidc p.a gathcring nn. and bt.nrnce Slurties schol. t o ber cllect 'nat €r ed !pon. ar historicnlrouchslonestor .riaty. lnd resoarch. ritLraliz! rior ol ihearcr. liminalilV renr ins ono of the rnostkcquenllvcite.sej (thouqhnot exclusivoly) incre.tiotrrs thrl shilt alx)ut in them.thlt ol resstarcc.shed.nd (heatri(. egr r d thc.ltliliu). cspec.rrre in H sher Edu{ratiof and lho AnrercanSocietylor The.occ scholars hnve rnken rwo diifei)r1t srr:rbqics rcgardnlginstihrtionaliTnrion: breakilith ka.an rhe.Thcro is rjo pLfndign fo passagei DaradtgDr. rltur! perlonlanriei tn a.Performancohere is bcls.l stot.ti()rve!n(tinurtorpfoductive-it noi destructtve and decoflstrucrivc Thereis no one Fra. etticacygrormdsirseltin entnrdioclVansqrcssions. as thcy lorm prfl of olr lmage as n lietd ot rndkja rcsoarc|. our genres ot Dqlon|ancc and crnons of lilerarure. t$ro (n the mosl i'npon nr obiocls ot sludy.Simihrlv the .. rhe vory Towor.l r€concilintion. olr Drotession.its limen s the thealncirl Talionof ritual. T''E L'N''NAL.ontrucs ro otkx Lln ntporlani lonnnl rolcrcrrcc t(tr conceniuii znri. vent cd.xlormafce if llrc llrst lwo decn. penonnonceas an ohi(xi ot outiurati ratvsis nd oursovcs t|s subic. ir has 'ln.l Englishand. ir thisl vicw m sundersiardingot the very I ! d rly .l.the nrprcsencinlt ol indtvtdlal .ZF.ch. bur ftrher an int€rdiscil ne .at r)ertor r n! nc oas a l i o k l o f s L d y .ticacyol our own rcsr)arch and rcachingactiviries. m e.lisporson ol mo. Joscptr Boach n.jed.d an expbsk)n ot paradigms.llengc ol elli{lcy lunrs itsolfoulstcto nr:lrom krnsgressins . Thealernnd rilual hnvo rr no w.v o d re . lhcrc rro on y nrffc p. whilc thek rolc ns mdlcls has dnnin. ycl sofijoon.The se.t(xJ. orr courses 3nd (jurrc!. a c.Face'toIlcc encouftcrs. Lhcsorcsu r lrom a tensionbehvd)n lBr) d(jsircs:lhc dcsirc lo crcale cvtlu. Citii!. rrrlor.ssaqes.** $g s t l I 48 49 . lor inslrnco.v bodr tett b(trirxl in lhis Dassage ho l lr.s theAssociarkrrtor Tho.t paraitigm n thal chn engcs lhe Establshment.. o n c w i l h i n s ri n r toni ti n.l organir l|ors aDd inrellectuat histories. and e_ven ou (lnlcsts and ltuntiry.nD ex nrxtsomet mes conrra (l(tory proccssol.Jic. specilr. lhc vcrv nolion ot a pe.fl)ropflalions. more r).l lhc oxperinxrrlsof pertonDnnceart: ils cu hg cdge is the lhcory of nr. blnlitnri n powff from L|lrolts(b sile to rcsisli'r! a hcllcn nio power lroJnu'ithir thal very power arrdf$.l.

pp e. c uat o n rs s € .. a co.lqe pr.nn.lll both ol ils initationan.rcli0nr studios is 'irrt$ h bctrccn.9" is 50 5l .rad 0m is.ept has nolsinply been.h $parate them and we.sc. olrrdisc4ji^nry.l r T t ef ei s th efrs r f!n c to no fL h e !. itsell. ion r l ol crstnq so.ess.liesAnta!a\/1.(i.l Ing iho eftki.r poron" an. I domonslr. et y. wllh n) i|{{t r ccnr ont being t h.rheycanbe e.l symbolic in behleen pl. r r €r r cf cr r ir q io cult Lr r nacli! ilnr s i( nr n( l in ''idvnrrcccl so(retiesnrnrko(lbv llnr shnr! 3etr. nr odc s of behav of so t hJt t lr is r tunlofe x.rm brsoccLycou( l k) r d T. r c o u sp ro c c d u rcth 5€f.lol d{rvitopmcnt. lt is nrtorSoh(xhnir lsiles: 'Pertorman{)e g(nrrr!).llsc plnro.iety. lhll lurncr's xnerest.t s r o f s c v c i tc .uve luncton Lh!t lim nal rites ol p.th a ss p c . active so. all contact betw€n them . dcconloxtur rzed. so lunc tons ns. s.lwork).there is lirl|r rk. r nx) sl lonnnon o!hnme Howevcr as limini iy wns .rlilor.r. it has sh txxl Pe omrincc St!(lies' mlroeof ilso l llx) sell-rcpr€sent.j q tion. As l ./alion ol Innnral lraDsgfesskrior resislanceilsell LPmnres normxliv.6 o fh s i fc w Lhn ths artfi ca so. undergoing ritualsof initiationwhi. m €it o . irl. ht.cqrl i[ld Drn.bte PS cafnol sllclios rcsisls or rLrcds dojnrl on.l .i nrherentlyunsl. lhe s{rleclirnr rralovoluaion And as wc h.iik)es. wher e 1r cy I nlosl rwavs reflorcc cxislirU sooi. ollialos inanysiiuation hminal-norm il tho /inr. lisr ingush lhc lir r r f ll trom rhe i nrnod.. Moregenerally.ps lhc Inosl ootrcisennd irccu lhc rrreislcnl usc l'?rra(k)ti(ialv ralo rostxrrse lo both ol these quesli{)ns. sir ab.risLrru. livc lours had beco nc lhc (:mhod nrrl ol nrui.rxt. he bc.nna|co. Dr enr llslr al sociiii. ai. ly hns hclpodi{) au de Ihe i'-{' selection.T h s p a rt. lr .h h.Fle! vI hal e be ei g vei soc! y d.nd Fssion L'y i tl!) nrrlislrurtural ele ents hc llxx)n/fl in bolh liminnlan.!cl i ccs ol N tl .ved wilh.dr.lizalior Drocoss prcdu{icdthe nonnnl.l:1!fcs.$holnrs sou! t l() th{! orizc the ejli.ts ntegraton.Lrlrtr.l to per lonnan(x)siit has also hclpcd us b dr)s1ft/(. trinq€r !rcuDs ruirralizc. The con. id .vc sccn. the !E ldv s!.s n( lir)ld ol . ety.cy ot both culturai pe ornrnn(n rnd Po ormlncc Slttrlics or resislaft. t heuniver sit is ) nodoubt lit t le jn whi. P(xioftnrrndr bound..o n d fu n .a p e rfo rm a r.o0nizc.]. I nr hk sense. lsion w I na/ yt nleor t heva! e or nclsr onandf e.iled nlrov(i llh('r{th elseNhcrcho does enrDlrnslrc llx) nrtrrtrnce ot limil cxp(r'Lrn)os lo hi.l in ierms ol nrin.. vte haveconreto deline the etlimcy olperlormaDceand otourolm (r tcrrnsol kritulitv tt[t r.t.ssfi l c !ti nr at .h ditrercnt fromthoscaysrcms pimirives@ieiies in so-.ly fotffl the conccpl ol lim n. lho l.l slnr clur cs.l {jrossngs.hr a 1994 essay.Trrrnerre. bordir rrf(l nxr Crft nrfe.Of. . lic c.si doust he wi I have / ccc vcdt he values oat h t t oc et r .rntiorr oi labor. ln olhorwords..llh.l strL.it goes where il l)c nloDped elleclilelv becn!se I trnnsgressos is not oxprlid lo be lt is nh{nrnlly n bolw(xrr nd lhcrclorc crnnol bc p nn(j(]down .E. Flr sl.ro nh o w e v e r s t udc.s re cted.lice prnnanlvas$cinled with Inrnnlt.. slrcssc.nd constructionol obi ls as well ns lhcrr rfa ysis .) l(r. ts subs(xtucnt To urderscore the nornratiledimensiof ol rinalry | haveconrelo c. nrl reconte\l u! i z ed t he r ei.lcfcralized across lhc cnxf.At the end of lhe specified time. perh ps eventrrnstorme.ca soreof .uperated or rcabso$ed.r locrted crrctv"" Lim falilV.ries. Th(i mi na lf on is t r r t x) r t nnl hcr clor so\ qa inler eat edf cr so|ls./obj(xitsol nrquirvby quidnr! rn.) is Derfonnand. strik fg emblemof ihe p. es of schsm .r lrrs qcnitr.nnd rioss' rliows Ior socialfoflns lo bc slspul(kxl.ce and limc ol transgression itnd sul)lcrsion:thus. l\ ] pr y if a$nt dr f .-al whbh point theonzalbn ol su(lr i! norm may tLtomc subvcrsilc. n.xrli'lrn perfoflr.rtivties to be stud ed lho r lonnnl analysis. whclhff lhat etlcacv be conceived. lemt)ornl.the very srrirc rilu s which DerfonMrrccschoBrshavciong c lod nr theorizifolhc ctlioroy ol ped..s lranselresslve poopcs. ones 'absof babe so. rca.t is Polonmnco Sludics? 'Lnninrlily' 6 |rerl|.i v e rsl /:l o P rLs!ude.ltorces. morle ol rctlrv whose sp. Howovor.acy ol cdtrtr.tcs how l(njes ol noflrirliv lV o.ton. lr liisIonnalionquicklycnmc lo lh.e fof the s a t h u ma ns o cctyhas dcveopea c f c .nd evaluLr. Lled Biluals ol txclusiorr.l pcrkrnrttrn* rlurinqthe socinlurcst knnd tn Norlh Amehca arrd Wsleln tur('r)o dtring lhe 196Osa carly 197(Is Liminalilv nhnostcxrjhrsivelv bccltr'ror sp. olrallcrrgctl.! r)wnlhcorctic.l in his critical di{krsuo with SclFchner and other |Frl(trnrirrri schohrs {ele e ls Fou(:nult does nol nrenl0n ir lho t.S!* inevilably rzfq etlects .r lminalpr.u l a r s e i s eo f o ccas on nndfo.l linrinoiddlivitn)s. T!rning to.and ir aild tion.tititlilvito soniethilq ot a Donn rhc field h.es toundt r indusr r irsooiel rl es.In an interviertentioilillon ol rites ot passage. livr lyr a( ) inst nn.lionol lho pirnd0m n rchton b both the acrLl(rfy rn(l . relhcr siihsm or r einkt r . I n de up the tenn "lirninalnonD ool lono atler readinganother this one by MichelI oucault.i n ai t ano crpc4men'aron Solxtars also conlnuc to slross lhc lirntr'rhlvor "rn bclwcenness ol lhc Slu. uperati oi or r €Jbsor pt on..alled theyoungmenare keptollside lhe village duing thenadolescen<€.lhorr. dic. lho limiD rtc ot passrsc .usas l vel ev ehp h y s cai ty of w rh the P hys se o c i a. Foucault ctes b exph I lho !n vorsty s nor'ralivc lun(tkn w llrln 00rlctrutrnry socielyl Turnerhimsct reco! l zed tho o(n's(rv. a|'d il !t?s thesc clsnurls whi{.ome muLrlio|al anrl vioo versa o his clhnographic r']sourc h.n.ul E c a y . translfcssiofs of bolndirrics and rnils these can and hnle been theorze.n be.s fi|llLla ol rlrisoofrccptwithit| lhil is.l their polit of a.n(r) thnt is |s t w.. Foucaulldisclssos how cnpilalist nonns are insoribedpedasooicav: outot.ttely re.lhe where l[e vnlo.u. s.€ s s o f c ! tu ra landpeE onai . wfint b Perlormance Dnr. s d y fa s .Dt roD. llowcwcr.ref€x on g p ro .rrllurnl-ind th.rcnr ns key 1'] articul. il nol c\clusivclv thcr lcrv irrclt|srv(l!.nd real.t th.n l v eo p e c o n bi ne ir r t hc o v c ra r.i ri n ard to m a k € i o n e of th€ mon pow €rful t heat. ons! m c hini l .litv Whrt is ptYl(rmaniD? Wh.l.

tun or 0enera|zrLion nltogether As ln.ny Etven conccptual and dcpoyed to theorizc translression or nrode! ev(xr o o constrLrcted rcsistancc.lrcepts.rnnxlel. one lhal.'1 n'ove||Enls ot aoncruliznlionas does lheoreticil (xnrocpls presuppos.us challengin{t inq on lillr n l i]clivites.lv cdnlcsted concept.ronlcstino ot potor mn.jrernr c. Nor woukl Ne destribc lhcse olher tx)rlonmnces ns primaril! rransllressive or resislant. I a1lro.Thc but ralher lo challenoe.lhcir t.llon!..le. ils t)(lr)ssual cnrichrnent.lo lold gencralizalion to lny one model.rn auromobitc. Philosophkin v spenkn\l ro Brsrj rhe q!.l Strbs rr)d wh ch hrvo snrccgone oloh.l l u rl i on on mi nnlri l .s rho prytorrrj.xitquo lh. as a rrcl.chtn{Fjn shorl Nirh lhe very nslilltons afd forces rgarnsr whch .nccs.tnls dilfercnt inlrrstructures .ck on ltso I i'r oftler lo avoi.l s a rc n o l n re l a p h oronl $pucements d or. nrodo/s. inrporlaroor)l rth.be b.rls rs lvcll as other nnnlos ihlnl.tso. nr shorl lowads ils (rnoblJicalhelercsone ol not onc but sc\cral itv" I h. pnradigrnalic perqxlitivF.i lhis wi be mV assumpron.tnf trom r As wc shal sco. tor lve cannot ellsity g(.or moro genern v Lrtxnr we hrvc ovcrooked rhe socrllv cflirracous pertonrlncr:rs.rent lJ(|ftr(lhms ol pedorman(je. prngmrtic lorrillk)n Lrpon which rlt th s .c! has beconrea nrinfll-form.ra.l c of thepara.directk ol rLductionisl modo|srlons $lhichsimplilvlhc cornpler.c lNidnrq our orlire Droiect.i$.rsri rt n qirnral theory ol D(tltriruroc This t)rcjtxil cnlails p(xtunnnnceStLrdies.the lhnral{r.n LrtV prmeed so lar. bLrlatso ( irely dilldenl scls ol . unilied'for'n white!r(nnisln0 a s ngte corecr n|s!!{)r. noi by !n. Blr rt stlke i'r such usaijcs is nor simplydifloftxrrmclninqs of rlrc rernr .radigrr or . on lhe o.Jilterenr drDcepls.Ioaled eorlier.)r boi(lcrs is crucialto lhc ch.historient sslinre.r)nslrlo liorr.v|mt is Ertonn.s rr st.'rl(l limits ot F\rktrnnrrce Sl(dbs ilsoll.ttouf dalion lhan. ror ontlt' contesl irn.porlornrLrn0o. Howclcr this fiultiFli. ol thcatri cal T hos o ot lro r)e rfo rma n . p a rti . pnra.s a !{ 5Z 5!t .rn(je of .p()supposes .Ry fo. on transgrcssive nfd ()sistarrl prnclices.rshon .. drntv(:rrro. wh(h I hnvc ca ed hcrc rhe chdtoqlc ot cflica cV Dirq)i.rs thc cnrroence ol a rcscarch paradigmsu.l ul lI E socbly rtlarge A(.licalan.llarcd. lhcory nrust thus scck out olhcr sres.Lri.i. thdt is chalkinoing oursclvcs.ls0 ossentirl b our gencmt theorv The dcvcbpmeol ot such l theory is hishtyproblemalic.rlofa theorvThosonrodelshavcallbocn cxkeme y t)(xlu(lvc to the studyot{rul own linrts Ihe 1!ral tredonlrll()c vcl nll havethc r owf pcrspo(illves. so normative tI froritrar ono nrtlht justitia bl\' alignthem !! lh the Estabtishnroft.:itvlnd davcGiry is rrsctttargetv. n doin0 s o .rfat pertornrnce has rlroded nruchol ils ottioacious efions ovcr rhe pasr ha (rntlrv Bur roc ogni Tnrg ones o\ ! n involvdnenl wit h r hese r ur nar v0 t x) r r or nll|r x) es s. This nrode 2 lon prucess I h.erncnt. 'ruther than nnvinq n lh{.ke in olr ltelofirl ih(n:ry is nol rn oleradrnra senrN.}rm also su.l .l 10 them.rns(.l through.tllrr.annlysisot this peFpeclile . Cartsonwrit6 lhal il !r€ "consi.iullurn n(tivtcs.rtation ol lorces rnorour0c.ls.l theory ol perfonn..v. Tltis resinFldr or displa. ques lion becoircs rvhnJ) pcrtonnrn()?.j u s c ds p e c .c)rrlelarnoil(l olthc parndilnr.s ol passno-A s be.tos scholrs hive obvously croded rrllipte nfd diverse concepts an. lhe lirrinrloornr c:n h(ilp us resilrate the bo crs .rs i.lhis willhelp us to utrderstand thc I rty ot scckingsorncovernrching setrranlic iielcl lo mver such seerlrir rgty .dlo ffauk opcn by.l wc haveconshurrrxt ln(l b somc cxtenr Dconcofstrricte.rloicd ot per iornraDe but rlther rI un(tervoddtyslrarum or pcrom.Whrr s?.perloilanoe Slu.j sparareLrsnqcs.t on{ts disposrl wh e . decontext!alizat on.lsooursesaird pra.jilinq ils rmr ml!e and mllalional (l n.lyTeth{i worktrr{ts nrodes (ir'toirlto lhc enrerqenmand dcveoDnront oi Pcrbrdrfnce Snr. lhe quostion .rao. /.l rcLlucin!porlonrtnnce t thc!tcr or ritr|. . rlh tc Ux)qLreslbn "Whch urc?' assumesn rnuttipcily ot torces thar musl trc r.lkrs.ih as Pcrlonnane Studics. l h rv c l o .n ack)r ot a schoolchikl.en)d.nce !s an esscnli. fcm nism.onr)lh l liave lri-.sk is Lhusalso to multiplr thc nrodels. lornraliz. rhe Syst{rmthe t4.ri l . nrap dilterenl brrri|]s ot this stratum llhich is tess a met.trul lo 'csrFpnblc'.l alaoctive inv'rsh xrs i r tet.l i qm t h o yu rc . nn)roconcrole.nd histifies.t conlirnl()to do so. trilurijalnrrro(l dilhrcntialbn. a p.letft lilV n tiekt.-anrents ol g(rn)ftr ?ation. us o ri c hrn d p r.fce. iheir tun(ron s fd the most part highlvnonnalivo.yss.Tlls does not mpl! that one rnust-or ovof cnn avoid nrod c|z.rirciy inrer Ircl(rj 3nd ov.tbn rnd slldy nlso t(x)k off i|l lhe lrn te. n Dersp(jtive oD our Dfisp{x)lve.ietenr rxxt bv ou. especarllv when surveyin!. more clln:acious.lanr! !|rrd rrristaken v can bc reduce..l. perlonn. pcflonnonn)s \\/lros.l lhc consislenlov ol ils lirlunl Inresol lion. wo Inusr |or on y usc ...queerih(x)rv or poslc.l ot a gcner.rnranc p(isuppositk)ns Ljr)dprejudiccs we nj!sr tull| 0tse!!herc Id prejldices uni tdrnd by oontrrst. fi4orcDrotr)!]rrdty whnL. Btrhlr)s .joxically.lhe brnralion .l or p{rfornunce arl or surjh lhmfo lical nrodes as toflnal snr.psycho n?rLyss. lt is . tlioullh they ce.olhcf Fot s sd $. ccilation.l lts tuncliof al rspe(. ossentiallonraki q such eftods more ctiverse.rcorcl.ot . or rather nrtrrnilt.s necessarilv lirrited in terms ol bolh ts fonnal an.rl ! novcnrclrl ol 0efffalizalior.rcc uniol.rcloslsthdL . eltic.nchenrsi g n lofs. inscrilralhis movemcntwillt|l one s sDecili{j silu tion.inti w) Inust.t thc sanrc tinre or)eningut) lhcsc nrodelsto thc r 'own rlllrritv To citc ar)otheryel nnnl): Fa r Guallar destr bcs sch roanslysisrs n pru:r:issol tnetamodclisalion.nr opcn an anotrj! \{mr lnm(nrs lo our p.ronchnx^.i nickfarncd lhe possrgo lo parrdign ln othdwords.n onto. S.ain. othor prenrsos. lh([ is nol lo abandon mnctplui modellzalion.lvill\'t()rklo\$.trvr) trower n|LI krowledlrc. dilf. OUr fttlcars.. j. and recontextualizalon only h{rrclim n. lhc rclb.nco?. lirrnfrl riios provde us with :r (andrDLl/.is perlorm.ve rlliimpkid hcrc lo an..d ils compbxilicrto\r€r.Dlrysio. /i.

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