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Kelvin Li Chapter 10 Agriculture Outline
Agriculture- Chapter 10 Most foods sold at supermarkets are processed Few people in US and Canada are full time farmers Farming involves computers and advanced machinery LDCs consume the food produced while MDCs sell the food Farming varies due to climate, soil, and topography
Case Study- Wheat Farmers in Kansas and Pakistan The farmer in Pakistan use simple machines, hand labor, and animals to work The farmer in Kansas produces more grain, has a larger farm, and sells more grain The food grown in Pakistan is consumed in the local village, while the food grown in Kansas is sold throughout the US Key Issue 1- Where did agriculture originate? Agriculture originated through improvements in cultivating plants and domesticating animals The origins are not certain because it began before recorded history
Origins of Agriculture Agriculture is deliberate modification of Earth‟s surface through cultivation of plants and rearing of animals to obtain sustenance or economic gain A crop is any plant cultivated by people
Hunters and Gathers Before agriculture, humans hunted animals and gathered plants Men hunted and fished, and women collected berries, nuts, and roots The group traveled frequently
Contemporary Hunting and Gathering Today a quarter-million people still hunt and gather for survival Most live in the Arctic and the interior of Africa, Australia, and South America
Invention of Agriculture Gatherers began to plant plants Thousands of years later, plant cultivation evolved from a combination of accident and deliberate experiment People may have began domestication of animals for pets or sacrifices
Two Types of Cultivation Vegetative planting is the reproduction of plants by directly cloning from existing plants, such as cut stems and dividing roots Seed agriculture is the reproduction of plants through the annual planting of plant seeds
Location of Agricultural Hearths Agriculture did not originate in one location, but from many hearths
Chapter 10: Agriculture Location of Vegetative Planting Vegetative planting began in Southeast Asia Plants first cultivated include taro. and tree crops Other hearths may have included West Africa and northwestern South America Figure 10-1 Early centers of vegetative planting were northwestern South America. or private firms. Farm size. agriculture: found in MDCs is the production of food primarily for sale off the farm 5 principal features distinguish between comm. Southern Mexico. West Africa and South East Asia The practice spread from these hearths to other places Location of First Seed Agriculture Seed agriculture hearths were western India.: Purpose of Farming. including domestication of wheat and barley Inhabitants of Southwest Asia also integrated seed agriculture with domestication of herd animals Diffusion of Seed Agriculture Seed agriculture diffused from Southwest Asia across Europe and through North Africa Seed agriculture diffused eastward from Southwest Asia to northwestern India Other seed hearths emerged in southern Mexico and northern Peru From the earliest times. and Ethiopia Early advances were made in Southwest Asia and western India. and subs. and northwestern South America Figure 10-3 High areas of primary sector workers are in Sub-Saharan Africa and China Low areas include U. relationship of farming to other businesses Figure 10-2 Hearths of seed agriculture include western India Northern China. . northern China.S. Percentage of farmers. Ethiopia. Use of machinery. and western Europe Purpose of Farming In LDCs most food is grown for consumption and some is sold to Gov. agriculture: found in LDCs production of food primarily for consumption by the farmer‟s family Comm. yam. people have produced food in distinctive ways in different regions Classifying Agricultural Regions The most fundamental differences in agricultural practices are between LDCs and MDCs LDCs practice subsistence agriculture while MDCs practice commercial agriculture Differences Between Subsistence and Commercial Agriculture Subs.
farmland began to decrease in 1960 because of expansion of urban areas Primary agricultural land: most productive farmland Relationship of Farming to other Businesses Agribusiness: system of commercial farming found in MDCs Comm. he identified 11 main agricultural regions plus area where agriculture is non existent His 11 districts are divided into 5 for LDCs and for MDCs Within the LDCs he sorted agricultural regions primarily by climate Climate influences what crop or animal is grown or raised . and subs agriculture but few show regional distributions Best attempt by Derwent Whittlesey in 1936.S. has fewer farms and farmers than in the 1900s the amount of land has increased primarily through irrigation and reclamation U.S. and expenditures Around 20% of the U. farmers use modern technology and communications to keep track of prices. animal breeds Farm Size The average farm size is relatively large about 171 hectares (444 acres) in MDCs Large farms are partly a consequence of mechanization Although U. herbicide. labor force works in food production related to agribusiness Although most farms are owned by individual families many other aspects of agribusiness are controlled by large corporations Mapping Agricultural Regions Several attempts have been made to map comm.S. yield. Use of Machinery Traditionally the farmer or local craftspeople made wooden tools but by the 18th century factories were producing farm machinery Transportation improvements also helped comm. farmers railroads and highways and vehicles helped transport crops and livestock Scientific advancements such as fertilizer.Chapter 10: Agriculture In MDCs livestock and crops are grown to be sold to food processing plants and farmers may have contracts Percentage of Farmers in the Labor Force In MDCs less then 10% of the workers are engaged in farming in LCDs more than 50% The number of farmers declined in MDCs in the 20th century due to push and pull migration forces People were pushed from farms by lack of opportunity to earn a decent income and pulled by higher paying urban jobs Figure 10-4 Farmers in MDCs possess machinery that helps them to farm extensive areas unlike LDCs where most farming is done by manual labor. hybrid plants.
and plantation Shifting Cultivation. Dairy.Dry climate South-east U.shifting cultivation MDCs.Protecting Farmland Loss of agricultural land is severe on the east coast of Maryland Farmland preservation efforts traditionally identify prime agricultural areas on the basis of soil quality Prime areas are usually flat and well drained which are qualities that attract housing developers Maps generated by GIS using soil quality. central Africa. Plantation) Intensive subsistence.S.. LDCs.Mid Latitude climate Humid Low-Latitude: northern half of South America. pastoral nomadism.The Process of Shifting Cultivation Is practiced in much of the worlds Humid Low-latitude which have relatively high temperatures and abundant rainfall It predominates in the Amazon..Warm-Mid Latitude. environmental and economic factors were used to decide which land should be preserved Key Issue 2. Grain. Commercial gardening).Commercial Agriculture (Mixed crop and livestock..Chapter 10: Agriculture Cultural preferences also affect regions with similar climates in what the grow and raise Contemporary Geographic Tools. and Russia Crops of Shifting Cultivation . places between 30 degrees North or South Latitude mostly have a Warm. intensive subs. Mediterranean. pastoral nomadism.Subsistence Agriculture (Shifting cultivation. northern U. Intensive subsistence.Northern Africa and Central Asia Europe. wet rice dominant/ wet rice not dominant.Where are agricultural regions in less developed countries? Types of agriculture in LCDs: shifting cultivation.Mixed crop and livestock Middle East and Northern and Southern Africa.Most of Asia Pastoral Nomadism.S.Characteristics of Shifting Cultivation . Livestock ranching. and Southeast Asia Shifting cultivation has 2 distinguishing characteristics: farmers use slash and burn agriculture and farmers grow crops on a field for a few years until the nutrients are depleted Each year villagers designate an area for growing crops around the settlement but before planting the must remove the dense vegetation The trees and undergrowth are removed and then carefully burned and there ashes provide nutrients for the soil cleared area is known as a swidden The land is then prepared by hand and crops are planted but it can only support the farming for a couple of years then the villagers change site letting the vegetation grow back in the old site Figure 10-5 (VERY IMPORTANT) Western Africa and Northern South America. and South-East Asia Cold Mid.Latitude: Canada. Central and West Africa.
Saudi Arabia. Plants that need most nutrients are on the outside Plant crops that they need for consumption. less than 5% of people engage in shifting cultivation Shifting cultivation requires more land per person than any other form of agriculture Future of Shifting Cultivation Land devoted to shifting cultivation is declining by .2% every year Being replaced by logging. Egypt. and cash crops Deforestation of Amazon has risen 7 million acres in the 90s to 8 million acres in the 2000s Pastoral Nomadism. and Syria Intensive Subsistence Agriculture 3/4ths of world‟s population live in LDCs .horses Typical nomadic family needs 25 to 60 goats or sheep or 10 to 25 camels Movements of Pastoral Nomads Do not wander randomly.single crop is grown extensively on land Ownership and Use of Land in Shifting Cultivation Land is owned by village. governments can control the nomads with weapons Efforts to resettle nomads has occurred in China. but sparsely occupy about 20% of Earth‟s land area Size of herd is a symbol of power Choice of Animals Animals are chosen based on local cultural and physical characteristics Middle East and North Africa.camel. sheep and goats are desired Central Asia.sheep herding Usually in dry climates where crops are impossible to grow 15 million are Pastoral nomads. Israel.grass or other plants grown for feeding grazing animals The Future of Pastoral Nomadism Recognized as an offshoot of sedentary agriculture Victim of modern technology. not a resident Chief/ ruling council allocates areas of land to each family Shifting cultivation occupies 25% of world‟s land area. not for sale Farm field. have a strong sense of territoriality Amount of land a group controls depends on wealth and power Some practice transhumance Pasture.Chapter 10: Agriculture Kayapo people of Brazil‟s Amazon plant in concentric rings.Characteristics of Pastoral Nomadism Based on herding of domesticated animals Pastoral. cattle ranching. Kazakhstan.
Grain. and Asia. manure is used to improve soil fertility Commercial farms devote almost all land to growing crops but get more than 3/4ths of its income from animal products Crops are usually sold around harvest time. and North Americans Key Issue 3.. Southeast Asia.flooded field Europeans and North Americans call wet rice “paddy” Intensive Subsistence with Wet Rice Not Dominant Wheat is main crop.S. livestock is sold year round Crop Rotation Systems Crops are planned years in advance Every year a different crop is planted in the field . and the U.Where are agricultural regions in more developed countries? 6 types of commercial agriculture in MDCs: Mixed crop and livestock. but owned by Europeans. Asian farmers grow more than 90% of world‟s rice production China and India produce more than half Growing rice is done by manual labor Intensive Subsistence with Wet Rice Dominant Wet rice. Africa. Commercial gardening Depends on climate Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming. Mediterranean. but is the region‟s most important food source Sawah.families must plant more and work harder on smaller land in order to feed their families Abundant labor. South America.large farm that specializes in one or two crops Usually cash crops Situated in Latin America. but not enough funds for equipment Waste no land Figure 10-6 Most rice is produced in China. then barley Crop rotation is utilized Communist governments decided to combine small fields into one in order to promote agricultural efficiency Plantation Farming Plantation.Chapter 10: Agriculture Intensive subsistence agriculture. and in Europe Crops are fed to animals.planting rice on dry land in a nursery and then moving the seedlings to a flooded field to promote growth Occupies small amount of Asia‟s land.Characteristics Most common form of commercial agriculture in western U. Dairy.S. India. Livestock ranching.
The share of the world‟s dairy farming conducted in LDCs has dramatically risen in recent years.. MDCs have one-fourth of the world‟s population but produce more than half of the world‟s mil k.S. China is the second leading producer. dairy region depending on whether the farms are within the milkshed of a large urban area Farms further away from consumers are more likely produce milk for products that keep longer so they can be transported to the consumer Dairy farmers like comm. With the rapid growth of cities in MDCs during the nineteenth century.area extending from Ohio to the Dakotas that is the most important mixed crop and livestock-farming region.oats. The U. while Field B is left fallow that year. . Regional Differences in Dairy Products The choice of product varies within the U. and vice-versa the next year Cereal grain. Corn Belt .Chapter 10: Agriculture In Northern Europe.S. Soybeans have become the second most important crop Dairy Farming Dairy farming is the most important commercial agricultural practice on farms near the large urban areas of the Northeastern United States.S. Improvements in transportation have permitted dairying to be under taken further from the market. Figure 10-8 The map depicts milk production in 2005. accounts for forty percent of the world‟s corn production. Southeast Canada. Most corn is fed to pigs and cattle. Milkshed . India has become the largest milk producer. and Northwest Europe. demand for sale of milk to urban residents increased.the ring surrounding a city from which milk can be supplied without spoiling. rye. Why dairy farms locate near urban areas Dairy farms must be closer to markets than other products because of high perishability. wheat. cereal grains are planted in Field A. mixed crop and livestock farmers select corn because of higher yields per area than other crops. and barley Choice of Crops In the U. Challenges for Dairy Farmers Dairy farmers face economic difficulties because of declining revenues and rising costs. farmers usually do not sell there products directly to the consumers but to wholesalers who distribute it to retailers who then sell the milk to consumers Figure 10-7 The map depicts corn (maize) production in 2005.
while milk production is dispersed.S. cattle thrived and multiplied on the frontiers of North and South America. Argentina. rice. and others.Cattle Ranching in U. Transporting Cattle to Market To reach Chicago. when they may be unable to graze on grass. The largest producer of wheat is the U.S. The U. combine: machine that does reaping threshing and cleaning in one Because planting and harvesting in two regions occur at different times during the year the workload can be distributed throughout the whole year Figure 10-9 The map compares milk production and cheese production in the U. is planted in the autumn and develops a strong root system before growth stops for the winter. Actually did dominate commercial agriculture. Colorado.S. Popular Culture Prominence in Hollywood films and TV have helped draw attention to it. Living in the wild. It played a crucial role in the history and settlement of the US. Cattle Ranching Columbus brought cattle to America on his second voyage. spring wheat is plant in the spring and harvested in the late summer. but only for a short time (1867-1885) Beginning of U. sells the most wheat.a machine that cuts grain standing in the field.S. France.the seed from various grasses. by two-thirds between 1980 and 200 Grain Farming Grain . oats. It is distinguished from mixed crop and livestock farming because crops on grain farms are grown primarily for consumption by people not animals The most important crop grown is wheat.S. Wheat is grown to a considerable for international trade and it is the world‟s leading export crop. Spring Wheat belt: the Dakotas. Livestock Ranching. Montana. used to make bread flour. like wheat.S. Cattle ranching in the US expanded because of the demand for beef in East Coast cities. Cheese production is heavily clustered. and the Southern part of Saskatchewan. cattle were on hoof by cowboys over trails from TX to the nearest railhead. and orientated to consumer preferences. Figure 10-10 The map depicts wheat production in 2005. and the UK Winter-wheat belt . Reaper . Large scale grain production like other commercial farming venture in MDCs. and Oklahoma. is highly mechanized. conducted on large farms. millet.Chapter 10: Agriculture Dairy farmers also face the expense of feeding cows in the winter. other large scale producers include Canada. Immigrants from Spain and Portugal began ranching in America and taught settlers. barley.extends through Kansas. The number of farms with milk cows declined in the U. . invented in the 1830s. and China produces the most wheat. Australia.
Gunfights. parts of Western Europe/Russia are the primary producers of cattle. S. in 1867. first commercially produced in 1873. Abilene became a ghost town but then became a prosperous market center. like the old Hereford. Brazil are heavy producers of cattle. India. The western terminus of the rail line reached Abilene. ranchers tried to drive out farmers by cutting fences and then erecting their own fences on public land. crops had to be grown or purchased to feed them and required more water. were superior meat. shops. Under the code. prostitution. Ranching Outside the United States Ranching is rare in Europe except for Spain and Portugal. Range Wars US government. US. Egypt. The most famous route from TX northward to the trail line was Chisholm Trail. Ironically. Caldwell. Kansas. parts of Western Europe. Fixed Location Ranching Cattle ranching declined in importance during the 1880s after coming into conflict with sedentary agriculture. “Wild Bill” Hickock to clean up the town. Figure 10-12 The Americas. Joseph G. . Dodge City. 60% of cattle grazing today take place on land leased by the government. Instead. leaving ranchers with no legal claim to it. gambling. However. Longhorns were strong animals that survived long-distance travels and were first used by ranchers. For a few years. began to sell it to farmers to grow crops. McCoy launched a massive construction effort to provide Abilene with homes. Changes in Cattle Breeding Changes in the predominant breed of cattle induced a switch from cattle drives to fixed location ranching.Chapter 10: Agriculture o (could take several hundred KM) Then they were put into cattle cars for the rest of the journey. New cattle breeds from Europe. they were susceptible to ticks and they were poor quality meat. and other towns in Kansas took their turns as the main destination. which owned most of the land used for open grazing. Most early US ranchers adhered to “ The Code of the West” although the system had no official legal status. Africa. and alcoholism were rampant until McCoy hired James B. That year. and stockyards. ranchers could graze on any open land and access scarce water sources and grasslands. Ranchers were eventually forced to lease or buy land to accommodate their cattle. but not as strong. Australia. This started the “Range Wars” The farmers‟ best weapon was barbed wire. China and Nigeria produce goats. and parts of Middle East produce sheep. Large ranches were primarily established on land that was too dry to support crops. The terminus of the city moved farther west to Witchita. He later became the mayor.
the two most important cash crops are grapes and olives. Commercial Gardening and Fruit Farming Predominant type of agriculture in the US Southeast. . Labor costs are low due to immigrant labor. Ranching has followed similar stages around the world. and deciduous fruits consumed in the US. Africa. the southwestern part of S. First was the herding of animals over open ranges. They are on the west coasts of continents (except for those surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. and tomatoes. and other eastern US urban areas. cherries. southern Brazil. Spain. and France. Importance of Access to Markets The distance of a farm to the market influences a farmer‟s choice of crop. This is called “truck farming” because “truck” used to mean “barter”. America. especially for wheat for pasta and bread. Truck farms grow many of the fruit and vegetables like apples. Crops that can be shipped longer distances without spoiling are grown farther from the market. but most become processed or canned. and Uruguay are devoted to grazing cattle and sheep. Von Thünen Model Geographers use the Van Thunen Model to help explain the importance of proximity to market in the choice of crops on commercial farms. Most crops in Mediterranean are grown for human consumption rather than for animal feed. Specialty farming has spread to New England. Half of the land is used for growing cereal. Truck farmers are willing to experiment with new varieties. and the southwestern part of Australia. WA. Philadelphia. 2/3 of the world‟s wine is produced in countries that border the Mediterranean Sea like Italy. For the areas bordering the Mediterranean Sea. Farms tend to specialize in crops and dominate national output of some fruits and vegetables. large portions of the pampas of Argentina. nuts. lettuce. Every Mediterranean area borders the sea. Truck farms are efficient large-scale operations that take advantage of machines.Chapter 10: Agriculture In S. central Chile. Some of this is sold fresh. Livestock is hindered by lack of water in the summer and good grazing land. The clearest example of this is diary farming because milks spoils quickly. seeds. and fertilizers. Then it transformed into fixed farming by dividing the open land into ranches. CA supplies most of the citrus fruits. mushrooms. This region has a long growing season and humid climate and is accessible to the larges market like NY. Mediterranean Agriculture Exists primarily on the lands that border the Mediterranean Sea in California.
First. b. The outermost ring was devoted to animal grazing. Figure 10-13 According to Von Thunen model. a farmer identifies a crop that can be sold for more than the land cost. b.25 per kilo. Next ring is wood lots. Gross profit is $250 2. uniform. Found that specific crops were grown in different rings around cities. Net profit from the sale of 1000 kilos of wheat grown on a farm located 1 km from the market is $187.Why do farmers face economic difficulties? . Thunen knew that his model would be modified by site factors such as rivers. b. Key Issue 4.50 c. 1. Net profit from a 4 km away farm is $0. Application of Von Thünen Model Von Thunen bases his model of spatial arrangement of different crops on experience as owner of estate in northern Germany.cost of land vs. specific commodity rotated from year to year. closeness to city is because of weight. a farmer compares 2 costs.50 km. but beyond 4 is not profitable. market-oriented gardens and milk producers were located in first ring out from city. Johann Heinrich von Thunen first proposed this model in 1826 in a book titled The Isolated State. The choice also depends on the distance the land to the central market city. Says that a farmer initially considers which crops to cultivate and which animals to rise based on market location. Distance is critical because of transportation costs. these are expensive and must reach city quickly because they are perishable. Yield per hectare of wheat is 1000 kilos. Gross profit from sale of wheat grown on 1 hectare of land NOT including transportation costsa. site and human factors were not considered. Model shows that a commercial farmer must combine 2 sets of monetary values to determine the most profitable crop: the value of the crop and costs of transportation. Chapter 10: Agriculture In choosing an enterprise. Wheat can be grown for $. requires lot of space. In this model. where timber is cut for construction and fuel. the absence of topographical factors and different types of farming are conducted at different distances from the city (depending on distance and transportation costs). Net profit from sale of wheat grown on 1 hectare of land including transportation costsa. This example shows that a farmer would make profit growing wheat less than 4km away from the market. Cost of transporting 1000 kilos of wheat to the market is $62. cost of transportation. Next rings are used for various crops and for pasture. A farmer will not necessarily plant a crop that sells for the highest price per hectare. assumed that land was equal. Also failed to consider social customs and government policies that influence attractiveness of plants and animals for commercial farmers.
Chapter 10: Agriculture Commercial and subsistence farmers face similar challenges. subsistence farmers produce only enough to survive. commercial farmers produce a surplus of food. . Limited Use of Chemicals In conventional farming. 0. Seeds were planted in 80% of all soybean acreage. use of seeds is causing some weeds to become resistant to herbicide. some rely on nonsustainable practices such as use of fossil fuels to operate tractors. 0. Production costs are lower because it requires less investment in tractors and other machinery than conventional planting. Sustainable Agriculture Some commercial farmers are converting to sustainable agriculture. Increasingly popular form of sustainable agriculture is organic farming. Underlying reasons are different. Sensitive Land Management Sustainable agriculture protects soil through ridge tillage.S.4% of wheat fields. about 10 to 20 centimeters high that are formed during cultivation or after harvest. Conventional would use two to three tractors. 54% of cotton acreage. same rows. seeds are often genetically modified to survive when herbicides and insecticides are sprayed on fields to kill weeds and insects. which is system of planting crops on ridge tops.2% of soybeans. Worldwide.4% in MDCs. farmland was certified organic in 2003. an agricultural practice that preserves and enhances environmental quality. they have difficulty generating enough income to continue farming.S. About 0.23% classified as organic in 2006. they face low prices for their output. Keeping trafficked areas separate from crop-growing areas improves soil properties. tractors tires will be 150 cm (60 in). greater water holding capacity. including 4% of apple orchards and 4% of lettuce fields.0. if 75 cm (30 in) are left between rows.1% of cornfields. Features minimum of soil disturbance from harvest to next planting. and better drainage from decaying roots. 12% of corn in U. ridges use one or two. leads to lower production costs and greater soil conservation. space between rows needs to match distance between wheels of till. Commercial subsidies help prop up farm income for this. but have lower costs. The crop is planted on the same ridges. in both regions.2% of U. Australia is leader with 2. A compaction-free zone is created under each ridge and in some row middles. 0.2% in LDCs. Aside from adverse impacts on soil and water quality. year after year. Many believe the future health of commercial farming rests with embracing more sustainable practices. increased organic matter. 0. combine wheels on 300 cm. Challenges for Commercial Farmers Because commercial farmers figured out how to produce large quantities of food. known as „Roundup -Ready” seeds. These farmers generate lower revenues than conventional farmers. no need for a plow or field cultivator With ridge tillage.7% of farmland. 0. Primary tool is row-crop cultivator that forms ridges.
supports small population living at low density. with intensive subsistence agriculture in high population density. As population density increases. but in late 20th century. LDCs needed to provide enough food for rapidly growing population and growing number of urban residents who can‟t grow food. explains why population growth influences the distribution of types of subsistence farming. more weeding. Forest Fallow: fields are cleared and utilized for up to 2 years and left fallow for more than 20 years. . land is left fallow for shorter periods. subsistence farmers increase supply of food through intensification of production. Multi-cropping: fields used several times a year and never left fallow. Annual Cropping: fields used every year and left fallow for a few months by planting legumes and roots. Short Fallow: cleared and utilized for perhaps 2 years and left fallow for up to 2 years. not entire field. Ploughs replace axes and sticks. The second way subsistence farmers intensify production is through adopting new farming methods. assuming no natural disaster. because of adopting international trade approach to development. five basic stages. For hundreds of years. More crops yielded but same output per person because of larger population.Chapter 10: Agriculture Sustainable agriculture uses limited. herbicides to control weeds. Ridge tilling also promotes fewer chemicals. more irrigation ditches. Subsistence Farming and Population Growth Boserup‟s thesis says population growth compels subsistence farmers to consider new farming approaches that produce enough food to take care of the additional people. second. in two ways. first. Challenges for Subsistence Farmers Influence the choice of crops planted by subsistence farmers. if any. because of rapid population growth in LDCs. must feed an increasing number of people. with extra time and expense. resulting in expansion of land devoted to farming at any given time. but only for ridges. produce higher returns per acre than just one of the two methods. must grow food for export instead of direct consumption. farmers can control weeds without chemicals by combining weed control with some chemical yields. first. Contrast shifting cultivation in low population density. subsistence farming in LDCs yielded enough food for rural villages to survive. Bush Fallow: cleared and utilized for up to 8 years and left fallow for up to 10 years. like central Africa. long enough for wild grasses to grow back. more terraces carved out on hillsides. more food must be grown and fields will be left fallow for less time and eventually farmers achieve very intensive farming. long enough for forest to grow back. Shifting cultivation involves cleared fields for a couple years then left fallow for 20 years or more. According to Boserup. long enough for small trees and bushes to grow back. more manure is applied.
shops. Only 11% is farmed in the world. Consumers in MDCs pay high price for crops that are out of season in their climates. and Peru. 30% from deforestation. Marijuana. but marijuana in U. fertilizers. heroine by 8 million. incomes of 4 million in Latin America dependent on cultivation of opium poppy. In some regions. central Australia. North America. farmers sell crops to MDCs. which is used to make Heroin. or coca leaf. with more urban areas. 10% of irrigated land may be waterlogged. especially in Latin America and Asia. 2. Vietnam. Thailand. 28% from agricultural use. 60% of opium poppy is in Golden Triangle. Marijuana. Identify new food sources. account for 98%. and the southwestern parts of Africa. people would go to uninhabited land and farm more.Chapter 10: Agriculture Subsistence Farming and International Trade To acquire the needed supplies to produce higher production like higher-yield seeds. is made around the world.S.center in Myanmar. but opium poppy and coca leaf are. men do not send the money back for their families. 5. Urbanization reduces agricultural land. . human actions causing land to deteriorate to a desert-like condition. Columbia. the leading drug. Drug Crops Many export crops in LDCs. many women try to provide by making crafts. Coca leaf (cocaine) grown in South America. This plant‟s cultivation is not growing. the women provide subsistence farming to produce for the families. made from Cannabis sativa. mostly in Bolivia. pesticides. 1. Increase exports from other countries. population has grown faster than agriculture. cocaine by 13 million. In most LDCs. Increase the productivity of land now used for agriculture. and the men work for wages. farms in periphery are replaced by homes. and South America. when inadequate drainage causes underground water level to rise and clog the roots. is from Mexico. Recently. either growing crops for export or working in other cities in other countries. Estimated that 5 million acres have been degraded worldwide. Salty water will damage the plants. Asia. However. Figure 10-14 The most severe problems of desertification are found in Northern Africa. 34% from over-grazing. Strategies to Increase Food Supply Expand land area used for agriculture. 4. farmland is abandoned from lack of water and desertification. roads. goes to Laos. Increase Food Supply by Expanding Land Area for Agricultural Use During 18th and 19th century. 6. and machinery. is estimated to be used by 140 million people worldwide. 7. 3. with more people farming for export. are drug crops. little crops for domestic consumption is grown. In 1998. But in many of those countries.
however produces a very low percentage of the food consumed in the world Annual fish catch increased from 22 million tons to 100 million tons. To take full advantage of the new miracle seeds. Cultivate Oceans The ocean covers nearly three-fourths of the worlds surface and is located to most population concentrations. northeastern South America. Green revolution.the invention and rapid diffusion of more productive agricultural techniques during the 1970s and 1980s. irrigation pumps. Massive worldwide famine was estimated to strike. Involves two steps: the introduction of new higher-yield seeds and the expanded use of fertilizers. farmers need tractors. fertilizers and machinery in order to be able to afford fuel and equipment Green revolution did not stop with the miracle seeds Increase Food Supply by Identifying New Food Sources A third alternative for increasing the world‟s food supply is to develop new food sources. and protein-carrying amino acids. and phosphorous are important nutrients in fertilizers. to develop higher-protein cereals. while people in LDCs obtain protein through consuming wheat. which still lack some proteins People can obtain nutrients through food processed with vitamins. and other machinery to make the most of the miracle seeds LDCs must subsidize the costs of seeds. minerals. but this is limited in LDCs where most people grow their own food rather than buy processed foods . People have worked to develop miracle seeds that are less sensitive to variations in day lengths. and rice. and Southern Africa. farmers must use more fertilizer and machinery Nitrogen. Increase Food Supply Through Higher Productivity Population began to rise faster than agricultural land expanded during the 1960s.Chapter 10: Agriculture Other places such as India. potassium. Much higher productivity rate. and to improve palatability of rarely consumed foods. respond better to fertilizers. and Spain are also hazardous Although most of Africa is arid or severely decertified. but many species of fish are being caught faster than they can reproduce Fishing restrictions have been passed by many countries Countries have claimed control of a 200 nautical mile radius around the country for the right to seize foreign fishing vessels that venture into their so-called exclusive economic zone Develop Higher-Protein Cereals People in MDCs obtain protein through consuming wheat. corn. and mature quicker New miracle seeds were developed and distributed around the world. but never did so because began using new agricultural practices which permitted them to achieve much greater yields from the same amount of land. Three strategies being considered are to cultivate the oceans. especially in LDCs. India‟s wheat production more than doubled in five years. central Africa is non arid.
and reduced fallow time. has by far the largest amount of exports compared to imports Western Europeans are among the leading exporters. Trade. accounting for one-third of the three leading grains. it doesn‟t have enough resources to support its population Grain production in Africa has tripled. North America was the only major exporting region in the world U. the Agricultural. exhausting soil nutrients. Food selection is also affected by religion.S. social reasons. passed the Public Law 480. soil. U. and other social customs that are unrelated to nutritional and environmental factors. rice. whereas population has increased by more than sixfold Farmers over planted. and wheat Many continents became major grain importers after World War 2 By 1980. and one-fourth of all wheat exports Japan is by far the number one maize importing country China is the leading wheat importer Middle East is the number one grain importer in the world Africa‟s Food-Supply Crisis Some countries that have previously depended on imported grain have recently become selfsufficient and has reduced the dependency on imports. and Assistance Act of 1954 that provided for the sale of grain at a low interest rates and gave grants to needy groups of people. Asia will be able to distribute its resources evenly among the population Sub-Saharan Africa is unable to balance between resources and its population. but are also among the leading imports. during which unplanted fields can recover. and other physical characteristics. Figure 10-15 Most countries import more food than they export U. people consume types of food adapted to their community. one-half of maize. food taboos. remains the number one exporter of grains. Increase Food Supply by Increasing Exports from Other Countries 3 top export grains are corn (maize).S.Chapter 10: Agriculture Improve Palatability of Rarely Consumed Foods To fulfill basic nutritional needs.s climate. this is due to the green revolution As long as population growth continues to decline and agricultural productivity continues to increase.S. Figure 10-16 Food production grew faster than population until the 1970s when food production fell behind population growth Figure 10-17 1/3 of Africans and one-sixth of all people in the world are malnourished Percentage of people in all parts of the world that are malnourished have gone down except for the Middle East Overall malnourishment has gone down .
on business closes in a small town. Farm communities are suffering because most of the emigrants are young. Farmers move from the farms to cities in MDCs too. however they are missed.Chapter 10: Agriculture Figure 10-18 The Sahel.Uncertain Future for Farming The future is uncertain for subsistence farmers in LDCs and commercial farmers in MDCs. Farmers are not happy with their income because it cannot support the standard of living farm families‟ desire. For every five farmers that leave a community. Small farming communities in the US are dying. in LDCs people move from the farms to the cities in search of higher paying jobs and a better life. faces severe food-supply problems. . as does the Horn of Africa Case Study Revisited. which lies south of the dry lands of the Sahara.
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